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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Achieving predictable timing and fairness through cooperative polling Sinha, Anirban 2007-12-31

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Ace ece mi aiess ugCoo iAaSiacI oEie a MagemeKoaIiaA ESIS SUIEIIAIE OE QUIMES E GE OMasoScieeie cuy oGa Ses(ComScieee Ui OisComamAaSia Aacme-sei acao aa ao C iei ke o gameso ayckeye-cay sk ea iasi commo eseacao ocommo o sysms aa ea-e waa e ey caoassume asuicie C is aways aieIasiese acao a sig  aiWecu muie sucacaoe o sysm musoy o goomess ao (oioyaow co-oi eiaao so aacao cau Iis wowe ese a saoeei ocess sc ao-m aos ece a w y ecuowioue useoseao a assis ai me sei sks wi ace cosis qua ugcoooWe com ae-iacaomocae coo i  wi a is sc Cooi aows s omi oio ioaoacss acaoa e keeus o goomessa e is scos iess a  uoOueemes sw acoo i ges e ieeiciey aaages oa coe swi us ioa e-emio IC sacoiowe sw ae sc -siss ocoo i is  mes eaa we-is sc a oe omag eae seoscuseie maieam keeiibl CttAac ^  iie oCoes  ^  iiisoes  ^  sogus  ^  iAckwmes  ^  icao^  Sme oCo-Auo ^  1 Ico ^ 11 Moo ^ 11 OuAac ^ 31 seaOecs  ^ 1 Coo 1 esis Suc  ^ 5 Aom siga Imemeao ^ 1 Coo i  ^ 1 ^ ac ogmmi  ^ 71 ^ EsE oa Sc cy  ^ 1 ^ IeacaoCooo ^ 9 e Useo  ^ 131 ^ e Useqsco_oyie(u  ^ 1iiie oCoese Usei Aom  ^  13 e KeeAom  ^  ^3 Sc mai a  Sucs   3 e c o o_1 Sysm Ca Ieace  ^  3 e KeeSc Aom  ^  31Sc sEo sks  ^  5 Accommo Ai me Sei Acao ^ CeSumma  ^  3 oae Eao^  3 Eemes wi Muie Ies oC a Maye ^ 3 ai o Use ^  53 Eeme scio ^  533 sic Se ^  533 wa Coiguo ^  533 KeeCoiguo ^  53 EemeaMeogy  ^  553 a me a igy  ^  53 Si ayeayi Muie os  ^  53 Muie Qseam Acao Uee a Kee  ^ 3 iS Sc  ^  3 UseSMemo o Imemea-^o   3 KeeImemeao  ^  3 Coo i  ^  73 UseSMemo o Imemeao73 KeeImemeaoWi ci  ^  773 sus oayi a Si goo iCSaCoio ^  3 a Keeoae  ^  3 oae oOuKeei Aom  ^3Muie CoomaiImemeaosus  ^ 31 CeSumma  ^  91ie oCoesWo  ^  91 Coo i a KeeUsece Ieco 9O Sysm Suo me Sei Acao 953 E ia Mui-aogmmi  ^  95Ai Muimea Acao  ^  975 ce Keees  ^  97CeSumma  ^  95  Wo a Cosio^  995  Wo  ^  995 Eaooe i Sc Aom  ^5 Accomo Ai me Sei Aca-o  ^  15 ImemeaooCoo ee  ^  15 a oa Mo geous Sysm  ^  15 ai CMuiaocesso ^5 Iegoocoo11 wi e  ^  15 Iegowi e  uggae Sc  ^5 Cosio ^  1iogy  ^  1AeicesA i oe EemeaSe ^  11A Ce Coiguo ^  11A KeeCoiguo ^  11Soue Cos  ^  111 e coo11 Sysm Ca Co  ^  11e coo_seCo  ^  113 e owi Co  ^  119e ci Co  ^  15 e MoeKeeac_sk(o ^  1  bl1 O  o oeeaom u a ouimemeekeeo ^  3 Comsooi Sc wi Coo i 1 Comsoocoo wi a SMA  ^  9  r1 sic e A  ^  E  o  ^ 3 E saom (oe e o  ^  1ssuo ieacaocooo ^  15 ooe smemo aa ^  13ooa si ssmemo aa  ^  17 Usecooyie  ^  15e im u e usei mo ^ 19 e o sc aac ^  1Moekeesk_sucsuc  ^  11 e  sucs use coo   1e coo aom ^  3113 e maikeescu  ^  31us ace i mes  e cue sk ^ 3515 e maisc gic  ^  371e sc sscs eoeug/oc sysm ^ 3717 e u acaus a sk mesce  ^  31Moe scwi oukeeo  ^ 3 C a Mayeo aye iueoa ^  513 C a Mayeo aye iooa  ^  53 sic eemeacoiguo ^  53 mics omui o ayck  ^  573 Si Qseamwiouame say ^  3 Si Qseamwi ame say o  ^  3 Si QseamS a C aa os ^  isogus3 Muie iee Qseam acaoage i-ss oe a kee ^  3 S oa aye a e gC usage ueea kee  ^  3Muie ayeUsei wiouame say ^31 Useei aom wi 1aye a 1ms -o S a C aa os wiouame say3Muie ayeKeei wiouame say33 Muie ayeKeei wi ame say o 733Keei wi 1aye a 1ms o S aC aa os wiouame say ^  7535 Muie ayeUsecoo sc wiouame say ^  73Muie ayeUsecoo scoames seco wiouame say ^  7937 Muie ayemouseyies wiouamesay ^  793Muie ayeo okeecoe swis  useyies wiouame say ^  39 Muie ayeKeecoo i wi cia wiouame say ^  3Muie ayeKeecoo i wi cia wi ame say o  ^  31 Keecoo i aom wi 1aye a1ms o S a C aa os wi amesay^  3Si ayewi o goo oa keewi ame say o ^  33 Si ayewi o goo okeeiaom wi ame say o  ^  3Muie ayeKeemui-maicoo sci wi ci a wiouame say ^  9iiAnltI wou ke  a my suiso Ces uckKsic s ss commieguie a aice as a wI ei Ieu   woeuemI am ao eme gAsiGoeom e Ui oo uiciay i my co-suisoa o me wi eee suggeso a  om me meI musao a aoi my seco aa o me wi some  usecommes a commeaoIwou ao ke  ke is oou  a a e amous eweoou a o w ga us ae eack ae SOSssessiowce s uis woI a e Ui a iicu e ComSciee me gi me e oou wo a a  e so yeaA sciaas goes   ci my us  my keee woMa as  Geoy  a Ay Waie eisugges-o a   e coue omy woI am g eaCuys   my aiI ess my a g my o woeuiesMega Aisk i e me a-meaaysI ao a Kas ies suo a  a emeI wou miss s y commes a a ake e aas ao  my oemasAiGaMike Woo MikeaiGikaMayuk CuoCami a amaki ia woeuace  woas  a e CSGSA s wi wm I woeas a oe ga s socie I ao a my ie SaaCki eougi me  a  Uy I a my mi a sciay my g- a g-momeiess  a i e meaayswi ei maewAASIAe Ui oisComam200i e  memo omy g-e  . M maKumaMia  w is amo us  see is y my mi w a aays e me maewStt  CAhSeco3 oCe3 is keom ouco-auoMMC[]Ksic was e aauoie a a e w e was   m as oCe1Cea Seco1 oCea keom ouco-auoEusys   Ces KsicAsiGoea meKsic was e aauoie a a e w was i  Ksic a GoeSome s oe esis aaca Ce1 a e seoouco-auoSOS saac[39]I was e aauoeco-auos we ceaiio oe aacwe wea e Ksic a Goee co-auoesis seco i oy sg mocao ome co-auos A auo  giissio imaaom e co-auoiis esisCe Intrtn1 Mooe ee eeaoame a commo o sys-ms s come iasi ueomeOo e mausi mo a e kis omuimea cae  me sei acao oa commo o sysm s go u Oe oee ei ameseo acao oaoeise caame emeco s iase e imacees a e  o ece mess e me sesi acao ia sysm i oeseo acaoAe same meiis ima  comomise e o uguoe sysm sigcaOe ese me sei acao a aoC ieiSie ey a eeai uee -wa aosey a ao ai iWmuie aime sei acao oa si sysmiis ima  omecsm acaci cooiaao so ae  isse acss a acaoe cssic aac seo sc is e we kwmui-eack queue sc aom [53Iis wowe cus oe keeaao uses e a sc aom scsks[7]e sae as oe aom is as owse aomuses ioes eacskWiieacio  eacsk is scuaccoi  e i ou(iieIeies cssi acao eieas C iei oIO iei seowis esiswe use e wos  me sei  a  aime  ieeay  meao a e same i - so aimeima muimea acao1Ce Ico a w oee sk ss me seIeios eos iis a IO iei oe C iei osis cs-sicaois woae a micay es wi meisseo sagy es eu ece mess as as e -aime acao goes e uscs eak wwoa a IO a C iei iEmes osucwoa imuimea seami acaosesmosweseeee eemi keesc cies ice uce mio esciay ie esee oissues sucas io ieio ckeemio ckaockeAs a suacao aa me-sei may ae simegee siaocao omaymiss ima aisa ese oems a   ue ogeemioiauoesoao iec y wi eaaogic iai muimea acaosui ieioaaoIge sc geose sysms is aissue oaoeesiss a ugu aoy keesig uguosiss ieiaom sig Ouaoacs   a ee eee oAoiis oueauce mi is mo agg e came-seiacao a awa oe mi quimes ooeme-seiacaoIsucacao we awa oe mi quimes ooeacaoey may  ae  accommo e oea ceao s mi ioao ese acao may ae  mo eec a eiow s esei me-ss  ooa aime sysmseous aacs  eoC me seao ame ocesses  eu ome-sswe is aacs sesaaages a geoseo sysm seao su iiaueooe sysm eu omessuse a oeme oaoca C ame sksOaocaocaaee aeceuguoe sysmSecoia commo eiewi amioame a seo acaoe sysm is ooamosCe Icooe meeseaois a asie oiois esis scs a sc aom seoa com-oocoo i a a is scaees me-sei a seo sks  co-esia g ueamewoIi sowe maicaso as   uai seo acaois oeiugu We ao aiusi seao amesksIis ese wowe  cus mo oe ame sks aso mucoe seo sksEaoooukeeimemeoous kis oseo woa is  as a  wo is esis1 OuAacCoo i uses a w sysm ca caecoo ame-sei acao use  s e ioaosucas ais aioes wi e kee Acss acaoi-acaoe s- use is sioao i aia mes  yiea oioy  ace co-oiqua aao yieiiaioeso acao mimi ioa eemiousace mo ece miOukeescuses e ioa-oaie om coo  o esiss  aca-o ause cooe o aiei succooosis wai coooamo me-sei sksoumowccoms is scees o oesigca cooa we use eemi sc  e e ssi ocoo -i ase(eieieioy ooeise gaiuaiaaagea uike es aacs a aeme ieg coeioame sc aoms io geose o sysms wimisuccessouaacaows me-sei a seo sks co-esia g ueamewo3CeI. Ico1 seaOecsIis wowe ese a saoee sc aom ie keeamee e ima quimes suoi a me-sei acao ia geose OSagoomesssks muscei ece a w y ecuoeueCsaocoio iess  uguoa sks (o- oe me-sei skssu  assu ai saoa c uo uecessa ie o su  ai(wocoeaoWe meeese quimes  com ae-iacaomocae coo i  wi a is sc Co-o i aows s oio ioaoacss acaoa e kee Ius os goomess a e is scos iess a  uo1 Coois esis makes e 11owi coo sigoa coo i sc aom aaowsai me sei acao  coesa wi seosks ia commo o sysm eie sasi eoecs a Imemeaooe aom ie  kee Mocaooe es ai mea seami acaoQseam[] ae use om e w  coo  sysmca isuc oae eaooe aom swi aouaomos ma mes eueooacoio aesck  keescCe Ico1 esis Suce soe esis is sucas owsCescs ousc aom a e coo i mecsmIgoes o sc some oe i ooukeeimemeao Ios a iesciooe useo oouscaom om wce keesigowe Ce3 cuses oe oae eaooouimemeaoie keeagaiamuimea woa Iao sws w ouaom os ma meseae sck keeuscsWe ew some oe wo iis sce iCe Ce5 scusses some oe mosima  wos iis aa a esummas e wo ay cos5CeAlrh dIltnIis ce we scuss e aoms a sigiies  ouscimemeao We ao gi some i auouacakeimemeaoas we sc ese aomsIe giiwesc oue iogmmi moae usea wwe mo is mo use ouw  coo  imiis is oyscie aomic sie i acaimemeaowas aa aie  us io si is woo we scou coo  imi a oukeesc aom ii Wesc w coo s eiegio e w sc agomWe ao gi ima i ooukeeimemeaoocoo  a ouo sc aom1 Coo ie coo i moaims  o suo acao aqui mess a aa  ooa is mois e-sea makes ceaiassumio wcwe coec  as acogmmie s ascooumois aiees ieacaocooo s e ioaowi e keeaacss acaoWe scuss ese asc oe mowCe2. Aom siga Imemeao1 ac ogmmie coo sc mois ueoe iies oacogmmi scwwca assume e sigocooa sc ouiie sueque seco1 e mois e-iwi a ae saos iee oe s ioeaogmecuois a sequee oes (oiocaoaa eemi ocoo Es musaiaco acaock ose3Es su ai i comoAugua a ac moe imemeaooeac moie Qseam acaoecus es amicayisck oeemioees e ogmmeom e e use cki asyooimis quiimui-aogmse seco  agaiocki is gey cei  sas iaccewe Qseam uses aasyous I/O suysm aeasesogmmi sigcae i  may seem e moscoueiiOious como may  ie  e sk a(e comessi o we mos como use o ais  simy mea aac ogms mus e io o i o io se ese cus os ockies omos a eie aaows sowa  quick s eeaes wey occua e e me acgu 1 s e key imis iousc mo e aca-ocas sui suiae ecuo  ia s oese acaocas  wcay  e me oeacao e acaomussuiaaso e  cai a icas som wiio oi es  e e soese acaocaao ca cae ke ae ieous suie7Ce2. Aom siga ImemeaosuiEo1E ecaeEo1E eEo1sEo1gu 1sic e AsucE{em {SEOAI } ;Cack cack;meai;i io;//} gu  E  o1 EsE oa Sc cye sc cy com ooumoaims  o ecemi  ci sc ygu sws e  ooaeAacaoscieseace as eiea seo (ao somemes e as a asaeoa ai ee  cack  e scies e oawi  e e a a  aumes   sse e  aie scies aao me eai-sees a egieecuouie  ai  me s sse uguis esiswe use e a ooai es coisis ooai  iouwo is oosi  e commouei oaisw iis use meae me awca wo su s wewe e sck  oueo Oe egieai eske io oa seo ese  io  e is use seo esIis u e a-Ce2. Aom siga Imemeaocao use ioes  coecuooe emeia oacaoiis ima  keesou ueuecause use asei  auo gsee acaowou assiga gioi  es  seici e auo ouuceWseoes  e same ioe ai e is ooaa useas asecoa so key oe seo esgu 3 sws e e e saom (osimy e eo use Qseame ai a seo es a sie  ai_es  a e  seo_es  io queuesa esui a  cae oo a a ieioa moomese queuesese oo a im a   eeciee is aea suieocae ois a  ee ssimy seices  a  es as o e acaoewes ai saey a s is aaccacause e queue    iasea uoueyioais is (e e C is so sw e giacaowe Qseam coses is aaccause imakes e sccy a e ssime a eceAoKsicw sigi Qseam eaeec ooase quis acaoscic aao e QSeam o ce imemes sucaao ci e geooceaies a ioki  cae somees es  skie ss ima s (eoo coascessa  maiaimess []1 IeacaoCoooWe imo keesc oae a ee coooeeme-sei acao wi o w imi coo is -oa yies e ocessoa cis s oe iomaoeee keea me-sei skse iaomicsciooe useo o coo  is scusseiSec-o1 a aoe keeimemeaoiSeco3Iisseco we sc  coo  ie coe oe e s e9Ce2. Aom siga ImemeaoEo1{ {iaeiai_es {e=q_aai_escack_s1cae1}ee i(q_emy(seo_es {e = q_aseo_escack_s1cae1}ee {yie(1}w (s=ue}yie(Eo1 {iq_emy(ai_es {seui_ai;ee{s= ue;}}gu 3E saom (oe e o1Ce2. Aom siga Imemeaoimi  coo  kes o Ia o OUme e I-mescies e mosima ai a seo es iecue a ese es a use wake ue aai aiowi seo e s e gsio amo aa wiia cooogu e coe ocoooguiseiiSeco3 wwe scuss sc maiWe  coo  ca se OUmeis se e mosima ai acss a oea a e mosima seo es wiie cue sk cooogu is ioaois use e cue a yie e ocessoas we as  e kee ci i o sc cygu sws e use oe  coo  ca ia moe yieoaees ieocess coo sce   umai ueom gu 3is  yie  ois sigsoaes a ecuacss a ie same oeas es iesi-asoswigu 3e o aumes ie ca   coo  eo e asowmosima ai a seo es ee swea o o es  e e os cooai_e  acooseo_e aaco ooeacaoeai a io es oese o es a se  coo  ece mosima ai a seo e oa e oeacaoAee  coo  cae o es a suieeisc e queues ie cue a e cack oese es is se  yie  so ae cue ayies a oeacao ie  cack_s u swigu 3e  cae cas ae gii eu ae e queues coaioy es iea e cue ocessis i es yie omsi w a aai yies  ie11Ce2. Aom siga Imemeaoyie(Eo1{cae11cooai_ecae1cooseo_ei(q_emy(ai_es IIq_emy(seo_es {suciam i={eae= q_aai_esese= q_aseo_es};sucouam ou={eae= ese= };// coo se ui aicoo(i &ou;1ooai_eack =1ooseo_eack = yie;sui11ooai_esui1cooseo_eee  s= ue;}gu  ssuo ieacaocooo1Ce2. Aom siga ImemeaosucSemoAa {sucmu m;sucCooS[MAS];//gu 5ooe smemo aae UseoIis seco we sc iey e sigoe o oousci aom ae use e o was aie  us ioimemei ouaom ie kee I maiose was  gius aia auw we (a iaae aom wou wo wwe imeme iie kee We sc e useo cause(aoukeeimemeaoiay was e iaoweom e usesig ( iCe3we sc e suswe goom ai ouuseoWe ecomoukeeimemeaosus wi e o sus a sw ae keeoueos e is oeicieyWe  ouuseaom  a some oese susIoe moe coooeee Qseam acao(wioue suo oe keee o uses a usesmemo seea e Qseam acao ia coooguei e ioao EaciiaQseam aca-owiia coooguow a scic siis smemoaa w iws i owai a seo e ioao g-u 5 sws e suc oe smemo aae muisuse oce aa om coue accesseswe  asieioucoo gimea o acao ao mee mucoeiowi  gie is agu scs e  suc esei a si siesmemo aa seea scic sk iacooomai13Ce2. Aom siga ImemeaosucCoo{imemeouai;oa_asai ^ asaio;measaai;aco_yie_co;oase;// oesscs gae me};gu  ooa si ssmemo aae ocess Ioask is  e ima as ois sucs a e ioaoai  e ai e (e a ie e seo e (io a aia a ag easws weaacaos oui so es (e_asa e O aeima a is e  yie_co aiis is a coioae ais use imeme e acayiei gicIe  seco we sc e  qsco_oyie(-ow we eiw is is sye oa se  -ae is use  wee acaoow asis se(e  a yieiIe  seco we sc e yiei gic as imemeeiiso1 e Use qsco_oyie( ugu sws e gecoo yiei mecsm imemeeiae oauses e keecoo imiIe aeeoe keeimie qsco_oyie(ougy es esame oo aa keecoo imemeaowou eaom use e o qsco_oyie( is swigu 7e  qsco_oyie( u kes o Iaumes my_s isacay a ie e cue sk owsie smemo1Ce2. Aom siga Imemeaoqsco_oyie (Coomy_s Cooe_s {ck_muSemoAaeo_ai_e_io(my_s;eo_seo_e_io(my_s;my_sse = ue;wake_ue_syie_coco_waimy_syie_coSemoAamy_sse = e;im_ai_e_io(im_seo_e_io(gu 7Usecooyieaa e_s is  e si  e eeask  wme cue sk was  yieis cisiois ma seueioaoimeaee cue sk wakes u We scuss is wwe scuss e im use muis cke e smemo aa is moe coo yieie ows i mosima ai aseo e ioaoio i ows is is  so aoeeeasks wiie same cooogumay use i ci emosaia sk  yie Ie uis is   cai eeo _a i_e_i  o a e  eo_seo_e_i  o -oese o a ao sie cai  cae ( caeeeaes as sciSeco1 a ie a oui seo ese cue ss  _asa a -mai  e Simiyie a  ai ese cue ssimeou_ai  a is se a se u se e cue sk ss  se a wakesue eeask  sig ugi coioae(e_syie_co  Suequee u  e cue sk se ioki  co_waioi owcoioaeusae eois smee w eeask is w ac a i a e15Ce2. Aom siga Imemeaoo sk is ic a seWe cue sk wakes uom i coo yieise ise a  e a ims e eeaai a seoe ioaoom e smemo aais is   eim _a i _e _i o(a im _ s_eo _e _i o(oEacoese o o i uga e s iesmemo aaee i ow a s e mosima (eeaies ai e a e mosima seo e (i e {ioeai} akey Iescs e eeaoes as s esciSeco1e u qs_co_oyie mo a  (a ia coosc aom  asoe accucyISeco3we ae oae ois aome Usei Aome eaiesecoscw e coo sc aom wasmoeie use Iis seco we sc w we moei aom ie use imemei iie keeIoe moe aome im o sciSec-o1 e  ce kee e soe qs_co_oyie(u e same as o se im us we acayace si oqs_co_oim wcwe s sc a e  e moao ices a w a caeuameio e Coosuc swigu  is w a keeack oe uames oeacoe coo skseeeo_se o_e_i o (my_s w ws e uameioaoe cue sk io e smemo aae coeouame is scusseie  secoe Coe ouamee use ouame isig muimea-ame sc is ao ia [uame is a cique use ma oese sc 1Ce2. Aom siga Imemeaoey s e C amo a e ae ocessesIouwowe useo icuieoouameiey sakiuamemeasus e C me coume a ocessIiases mocayas e sk ecus oa Ce iase is ieccoeowi ewa cck meWa sk is coe swiou i uame eiasesuse amou ouame ce a ocess isaiicaoow  e ocess  e oy eeio is  iswe sk se a is  eie ueueWe sk wakesuagai we assigi uame equa e mimum uame oae ae sksIis woe   owi  is use  isassige  Iis scic caseowi is oy oeom amoe sks iousc mai(i e sks aa coo wieacoeuge smemo aa e owi mecsmeus asks asecaaccumu C eiemes awou sueque aow em  se oesksis  use ioose iaacis aega meooaccommo e sc quimeso1u sksWe use is  same  coe ouame  ieuseo imemeaoas we as oumaikeescimemeaoe  qsco_oim  ugu sws e sic im aom use e useimo Ikes o si me e e  e  Eo suc-e ose ois u is  i acss a e s ie smemo aa a  e swi e smaesuame  a oui seo esose s wi  ouiseose eis   e swi eaiesaiis is a 0(  aom w is e mosis is ac-ceae o imemeaoas is  smaIoucasewe use mo a1ayeewe use  mo a1se a su gecousewi oee meas oe   wi  useie  (e e oweuame aom [117Ce2. Aom siga Imemeaoqsco_oim(Eo1{i=smaes_s= eaiesas= =  _m_ac_s(A = 1emoAa;w (i MAS cu_s= A[i];i(cu_s== my_s go skii(isEmy(cu_sgo skiicu_s_asa_swi_smaesime(cu_ssmaes_s;ee_swi_eaiesacu_seaiesas;skii= i + 1 ;}is_o ^ = mago/ ( mimescei_ai ^ = w + is_oeeae_ai = eaiesasmeouai;i(eeae_ai i_ai1ooai_eeai = eeae_ai;ee1ooai_eeai = i_ai;suicooai_esuicooseo_ei(my_s_asa UEmy_suame = smaes_suame;gu  e im u e usei mo1Ce2. Aom siga Imemeaoe aom caus e i oaccoi  eEquao1mesce mascg2 , mimesce (1w is e moaye a e sc g is eiea co ois e  e use  mimesce  is a co iouaom ais e smaesmesce a ocess cage is iscessa so as  mie mocoe swis a e  ck-icayis e is w micsecossio o cau e is owas sa  me We ci ce ieaewe comeoukeescimemea-oi ai is cau ai e i owi ecue me gi e ae  w i uwco oe oaise eaieseeaai oe i ai is eaiea o ai e is scyiei ae aia me ass aea escusseiSeco1A o seo e isao scso ae sk may yie  e eeaocess icase icas uwi a i seo es (a e a  eiaiesyas we  scusseiSeco aewaki u 3iesk s ai seo es  iwe  se(caae  eo( u wou keee  _asa a caiesk  seo es  yiei iwou ow sei i owuame as e mimum oa e os ie s isis ace e so s ie a uIe ece seco we  scouuseo ii Uei e i oe useo is useiuei oukeeaom Ie  seco we sc oukeeaom ii3 ae sk cas qsco_oimaeiwakes uom a coo yie(se ocoioae19Ce2. Aom siga Imemeao3 e KeeAomIis seco we sc oumaicoo- e keescaomAs s aea escusseiCe1ougoais  siga saoeeiscacao ece mess ame muimea woa wioucoiy sacci ug  we waea seaoeewo coea mecsm ace oue Iaio sie uoecoe swis iuce oa su ioaaoai mui-mea skswe wae emi e-emi sc amesks uga coo sc scmeseoe oecsmeioawe ma e owi sigcisio ousc1 A is scsu  use aoca e C soueu  a sksis wi eu iess ie sysm aaisao e su  aieace ugwcaime acao cacommuca eimi quimes  e keeso ae keecause is ioaow maki sc cisio3 e keei su io aime sks oe quimesooeaime sks ie sysm so aey may coo wieacoea (oioycooi eiaao Coooao s  emi ioa coe swis ame sks su cei a eiaeae oseosks  sc5 Eougame sks geeiaeaeey sus  ue e is mesce as ci e isc A aime sk aos i mesce quo oi  coooy su   ce  i mo a seo sk ui=I=EW,  E queue (coo5Keeios e skoe  mos  ima eoe oecoosksKeeSceCe2. Aom siga Imemeao0  coo(sysmcaUsesceS1Coo sksio e keeeimosima emeume queue(iies isioaoiiowe queuecoai eioa coosks/=MEIe keessc sk  acIueueeuame Ia coosk is secome uame queuee keesec esk ais ae oe cooe queueIcaus e skmesce seoeasai oQecoosksgu 9e o sc aaciagai-eas i coo aime ss  yiei aeaia me7Ae imemeao ouscsu  ocoae o ome (e ies e sc mecsm su come wi e ia oe ckss kee   wsc me su  eoseuge  /ocsysmgu 9 sws ouo sc mecsm aaims  sasa e oecs meioaEacoe usecoo aicao uses a seo e queue a a ai e queue  soeies accoi  io oe ey io e keeoeimosima e me uge Imeoa w imicoo e keeeies is ioaoio i owCe queuesis is scusseiiisecoese queuesCe2. Aom siga Imemeaocoaie mosima e ioaoa e coo sksIouaomwe use a uame sei sc cosee  sk  ecuWe use a gecy ocosi e sk wismaesuame e  ecuo Ouueue cois oaio queue wi ae sks soe eiuameWe eaacoo aime sks as i  a si maiwi a commouamee sk omaiwi e smaesuame is aeaoe queueee keesimy coses  ecu e skae aois queueIis sk e   a cooomaie keeeic e C e queues  sece mosim aime sk seue e ioaooa aime sksIa casea sk mesce is cauoe sis oo ioa e asai oa e aime sksIa aime skis sececuo e ai ioaoooeaime sks iseas aOUmeo coo( so ae sk cayiecoo  is oeaime skseo sks  iecwi e keeuge coo ieaceey  cei aeiaeae om e sceieIis esiswe  coiSMai aoms ask migoissuesIis  as a  woIe sueque secowe eiousc mecsm igai We ao scuss some oe ima issues associawi e imemeaooouaom ie kee Mosooukeeimemeaois coaiwiie o skeescai c  a  keecoo c ey geecois oau s ocommeekeecois ao is asma iooco aci a ggiI e asa e aimemeao ouei cose is ugy 35 s ocommeekeecoe ca mo ao cooomai See Seco3e  secoiCe2. Aom siga Imemeao3 Sc mai a  SucsIoe ci co-ese oseo a ame acaowe ice sc mai (oguiouaomA seosks ea e scuee same seocies cos asc mai Iouese aomwe  o se maie seo sks (e seo mai a aemaie coo ame sks (e coo maiISeco5wescuss e icoomuie coo mai iouaomioe accommo ai acaoA e sks i a coo mai a cooogu e sks iis gucoo wi eacoea use eiC aocaoia way so aey camaiaiu  ae acao(scusseiiEacmais i owsc mei euame  me  Ou i scea e coomaike a si sk  a commouamewi mesceoio e mosks iamai(mo i oise suc oa sc maia wi e w asiceio a sk  sk_suc suc is swigu 1 Ie suc m_ is a e  e maisuc owcesk is a mem  mesce_s  a  mesce_e  a e sia ei mes oa ocessmescee  scai  e is se ousc i we mesce e cue sk esis is scusseiiiSeco3 wwe  auouscaomAs a memo oimios ese se me couao  ma mem oe C ueue as e is aays eoya si sk i ia giC is_we_ is a oaagae as wea coo aime sk is we (yiei aquimes a sc i aocao  wewi sw awe use is ag  ci  osesIouaomwe use eicie io-queues as e sic iiockWe use em o maiosesCe2. Aom siga Imemeao1  so a e ocesses (ocoo mai as a wiesysm  eiuamee sk  mimum uameis e sk ais  sececuo is  mimum uame  cy eus iC aocao  so seo a ai es om a sks ia coooguso ae keecasece mosima cooocess ecuoCosi e  ocess ecuokes 1meA ieio amoosks om ese queues ca  i O(( meIoukeeimemeao we use  a  ese eseio queuesis aimemeaowas aea aie ae useas a  oe Qseam coseWe eis acose e keewi sg mocao (oae aso e suicose is aie i/ac e a o C ao e seo es a o e ai es eacoe coo maie is o gC uame ae i sc is sees as e ueue ousce keeie s i owC ueue  suc a iouimemeao we make oua a  oaueueuswe e imeme a cki mecsm oouow ocou sucsIe aoms weie sueque secowe ese eguame io queue  W a e coomaios ai_es a seo_esIe  seco we sc iiaima  oousc aom - e coosysm ca ieaceeaewe go o sc oumaikeeaom3 e coo Sysm Ca IeaceIis seco we sc e aom use ouw sysm ca iace coo(esei  coo i iiCe2. Aom siga Imemeaosucsk_suc{//scm_m_me ^ mesce_s;me ^mesce_e;oa ^ is_we_me ^ scai;//sucscm {em ^ {COOMSEO_M} scm;meuame;i ^ m_sks;// oemaiscic me}gu 1 Moekeesk_sucsuce  coo  sysm ca kes o Imea o OUm-eas s aea escusseiSeco1e suc oe Ia OUme a swigu 11 oese sucs aiica Eacoem eaus e ioao e aia e seo esis is1 e ai me oa ai e (e  ai_meou m-e e seo e io (e  seo_io  me3 e seo e ai (e  seo_meou me A ag e asws wee a a seo es aa(e  _asa mee gu ao sws e i oe suc oe coomai As scusseeousis o io queueso eCe2. Aom siga Imemeaosuciam {meai_meoumeseo_meoumeseo_io;oa ^ _asa}sucouam {meai_meoumeseo_meoumeseo_io;oa ^ _asa}sucscm Cooomai{scm = COOM;sucm_m m;sucueue ai_es;a1gcsucueue seo_es;gu 11e  sucs use coo Ce2. Aom siga Imemeaoai es (soe eiaisa o e seo es(soe eiakeysio a aiWe w scuss e coo(sysm ca aom swig-u 1 Ie aome cuesk ae   e sk ais iecuo(e o acaecoo e ae Cooomaiis a e  e suc oe coo maiswig-u 11Eis a e  e e suc swigu Ouiasigokeecoo(was e om eqsco_oyie(u sciSeco1e acayie-iwe usea sk comeoae a e coesi waiqueue ei A coo sk wou wake uaesk  caicome(oe esk i comeoaeSie ouuseo ga us e ki ooae we oke we ouga caooe aom ie keewou  e si we wwe seieg oui scaci mecsm wi coo( we aais aacwasgss ioec is is cause we usea se semaics icoowe coo is a mecsm  yie  aecoo sk a sma oome (sciay we yiei sk oeseo wo   uscoo mo ke e scyie(sysm camo e sk om e ueue  yiei wou eaioecaac Wwe ai we  scouo imemeaoa imeme e sysm cais me we usesc(om coo  cose e  sk  ecu keee yiei sk s ie ueueIe sueque secowe oysc is a moeaom igaie coo sysm ca ca siio a  a a ome  is ecu e ocess acay yies  ekee A e co om e gii ocoo(ui eca  sc(e co keesc cois oe  ocoo( We ocess is scagaiecuo(aeicoo yie iss g aee sc(caA e coom is i uie e ocoo(cois oe om-Ce2. Aom siga ImemeaoWe wi sc e o es iiie sueque secoe  ocoo(Ae  giie u mos s oe cue sk ome coo maia iey a eis is ima causewe sigouaom ia way sucae e  oe cueecu coo sk is  ae oe a is sigcyows om e oeaoawa sk is ecu a s eausi mescee is  e ce e s oe sc sucsWe sk coo yies  cai coo(a ques a w sk   sc iis e ima  uae s ie aa mo s s so aa w sk casecseoe uaioaocoo(oy siges a yieiiis ao a quesseek memwi e cooomai e u eccks see ie cue sk is a memoe coo mai I imase cue sk as i  is maia se i we_ag UEca om ouscussioiSeco1 oac ogm-mi aa coo ocess aoys e ac mocaockeem oseaw oeae u iuses  yieausas  as e ocess is ecu wiicoo( iis coi   we  (cause iis e oy ace w icaeemeIe ocess yies oocks ois eemecause iseeei sciaocaoaa ace oeaisue ocess is coi  misIis esuecci  wcwi  sciSeco3ewe skee cooi is_we_ag is se UEWiase uis ag is se Ee u eccks e iuaumes  see ie sk s ousi seo es oai es oIe sk es oui seo es a e ai me oi eaiesai e is ie icas askCooe is uCe2. Aom siga Imemeaois sie i a sk io  coo se  is seis eom ioa se iae scis awa oe sk ea e camake aems  sc e ocess as cse as ssie i  ai a e me e sk is cooseimai moe ueueis is a asoe acosiee sk s i ee   uie me coesi  i ai eIoe ace gicoe swi ewe sysm was ooa  askCooe ies eai e me ois sk ia se C io queueme coosequeue e sigcae ois acowi  eiia secow we sc ouaom  cau esk mesceIe e sk  coo seuii aimeIoukeeimemeao e aco o askCooe isoe e o coo_se  e co e is swiAeiIe sk s  seo a ai ese u iesese es ie queues a cas  sc(  sece  sk ecuoseue uaioaoie ae om  o coo(Aee sk sumes i ecuo e u ec e  mosima seo e ie sysm (ia oeacue skowe (e cue sk owe s a ae oe queueIese e seo as oe  ou meaccoie ai a oe  oumeis seom e cue skscai  me is meis se ousc ao-m wisec a w coo ame sk ecuo Wescuss is ie  seco ye sk  is_we_ ag isse E (as s escusseeaie so awe sk seuoo oge eeme ci ca imseCe2. Aom siga Imemeaocoo(suciam i sucouam ou {iskIooueues(cuesk {q_mo(Cooomaieseo_escueskq_mo(Cooomaieai_escue sk}iisskCooeaime(cuesk UE{seaskmaicueskOOM}cuesks_we_= UE;ii_asa== UE{q_ie(Cooomaieseo_esiseo_meouiseo_iocue skq_ie(Cooomaieai_esiai_meoucuesk} ee iiai_meouw{q_ie(Cooomaieai_esiai_meoucueskaskCooecueskiai_meou- wgo wakeu} ee {iai_meou= w;q_ie(Cooomaieai_esiai_meoucuesk}sc(wakeuag = E;iskIesoQueue(cuesk== UE{q_mo(Cooomaieseo_es3Ce2. Aom siga Imemeaocueskag = UE;}EE = ;iq_emy(Cooomaieseo_es {E =q_aCooomaieseo_es}i(ag == UE{q_ie(Cooomaieseo_escuesk}i(E  {ouseo_meou= Eeai;ouseo_io = Eo;}ouai_meou= cueskcai;cuesks_we_= E;;}gu 1 e coo aomOukeeimemeaoo coo  ows cy om e ao-m scae come C soue co e acaime-meaois giiAei 1We  sciiou coo  sysm ca ieace iisseco Ie  seco we sc oumaikeesc ao-mWe sw w e  coo  sysm ca comes aieg oousc aom3 e KeeSc AomIis seco we scuss oumaikeesc aomAs we scusseeousousc aom emoys a comooi sc a coo ii sc eus31Ce2. Aom siga Imemeaoo iess a a saoee sysmwe ia caeu u cooiaaomuie ai me seisksis is cause eacese sks s ae C quimes oaoome a acss a e ae sks aa icumeea sime i mocamaeiquimes as wewi sw iCe3eougwe caiase e o messome sei acao  a ceaige  iasi e isc gwe sooa om se messca imoyo is ieousc aom mussas o coc qui-mes ioe eu ece messwe caw awayiess a me isooeesksSecosie i sci a camae quimes ai me sei skswe e aow ese sks  coume C soues accoi  eiquimes so aey  u  ae useIoe meeese o coc quimeswe ci kee owi cies1 e mesce a sks ia sysm wi  me sei sksis cauoe sis oEquao w is e m-oae sks ( i e moaimesks a  scmimesce  s e same mea a eas mimesce iEquao1scg is eie asc co oca aus e use e mescewi miseo a me sei sks is seoa com-ooi mesce as we as e eaies ai oae me sei sksis comaacsu eu eeiaeae oe me sei sksseoeiaisoseo osmesce  i  = mascg,scmimesce(2.2 A e ame sks kegeegea comC aocao3Ce2. Aom siga Imemeaoas a gu(e cooogumaiis aocaois cyoio e moame sks a e is acaosk i Equao we e is eoeme oi eesks wiie same cooomai e ame sks a aowe use eiaocaoseoeiquimesis eway gis em aoou  co-oi eiaao wiie mi imse e isc3We o sicme isooiaa sk ca e-eme e mesce eisuess iseseoe cieswe sc oumaisc aom MaiScugu 13 sws oumaisc u sc( Ikes oeeagmeey a scg ascmimescee mea oese o s aea eeai e   oe u eoes oui cy asscussea - we  coe swiuess e mesce e cu i sk s ei(oiwe  seIouaommesce uaes a eoe o smeeiis meiss ac e cue skwe aow e sk  keeiIe mesce ei (oe eous sk we  seai mewas caeewe ce e cue sk  aamouome oio i i meis is   esa_ce_i_mes u scusseie  secocose__sk(is e co oousc Icoses e sk  ecu seoceaicaWe scuss is u iise ia seco Oe a w sk is sec i mesce sme is assig  e cue meIoukeecowe use e keeokme_ge(ioe gee keemoc mee ikme wiia mesc sucis os e saiemi soo( eae i mesce is caua a me33Ce2. Aom siga Imemeaois scso as  eoe is mescee is oe esc_me uIoukeeimemeao we use o sgsoome a ouaocaoeoeme ooucos  oe y mi gwe we  usecose eegsooa ies uga keecoiguooio is is oso as  use souco ewgsoome a aie oekeeOuuse oo sme a ieee om ies make ouco come wi cksskeee w sk  scai  a is seseoe mesceois skAs scusseiSeco3e coo sks use isioao io e useoe me  wcimusagaiyie  e kee is is e sic essee ocooo yeacacoe swi is   ca  u  coe_swi wcis ac scicGmescg;Gmescmimesce;sc({eask = cuesk;i(mec == E{sa_ce_i_mes(easksk = cose__sk(skimesce_s = w;memesce = cau_mesce(sc_memesceskcai = w + mesce;} ee {sk = eask;}i(sk  easkcoe_swieaskeskgu 13e maikeescu3Ce2. Aom siga ImemeaoCi i mesgu 1sws e us ace e i me  e cueskce aseo skswe ce em eiecimewe aime skswe sca eii mes  emoaime sks ieimai is is cause aime skscei aaocaoas a gui a a eaas a si sk e i sc e sca eus ae guas a w gee iamou oC aocaoi ue mosks iagu om e i oew oe i sc o may aocoie cooguas a si sk wi a weig equa e mocooaime sks e gusua_i_mes(eask{easkimesce_e = w;mei_me = easkimesce_e -easkimesce_s;i(easkom_scm == COOM{i_me = i_me/Cooomaimsks;}easkom_uame =easkom_uame + i_me;}sa_ce_i_mes(eask{mo__om__q(easkua_i_mes(easkie____q(easkgu 1 us ace i mes  e cue sk35Ce2. Aom siga Imemeaoe Sc gicgu 15 sws e maisc gic use oucomi-coo sc We emoy a o-ecaaaciousc Ae  e i scsec e sk wi emimum uameIis sk e   a ame skouocoo gic sec e mosaia coo aimeske u aes is secois cose__coosk(cose__coosk(ccks  see ie a a eiai es ie ai e aoe coomai Ie isiesec e coesi skI eiic e seoqueue a sec e sk coesi  e e ae aoisqueuee  secoscs w we cau e mesce e coe-si  is secskcose__coosk({i(aeiCooomaiai_es{a= q_aCooomaiai_es sk(a;}ee iq_emy(Cooomaiseo_es{E =q_aCooomaiseo_es sk(E} ee { E;}cose__sk({sk = q_aWi(skom_scm == COOM{3Ce2. Aom siga Imemeaosk = cose__coosk} sk;}gu 15e maisc gicaaoc$ camesm919go=  eccue o(c  = 1ecmimum o= 1 usecaaoc$ cacoomesm99c ^ coo ^ yiesc ^ 35753^ 35753gu 1 e sc sscs eoeug/oc sysmCau mescegu 17 sws e maiu acaus e mesce e cseskWe s  cau e i ousi Equaois cauois   e u  _is_o  Ioukeeimemeao we aow e use   e gscoiEquao eoi a sc meie  /ocsysm w aaia e oe o(imicsecosio  /oc/sys/keescouse goca aus is is e oy ause sc meeoseug /oc eougwe  eo some oesc sscsas we (see gu 137Ce2. Aom siga Imemeaocau_mesce(sk{meo= _i_oi(skom_scm == COOM{o= Cooomaimsks o}me mesce = ome eaiesooea = _eaiesai(me cooeo = eaiesooea ^ - w;i(cooeo cooeo= aask = _eaiesai_sk(i(skom_uame + cooeoaaskom_uame{mea = aaskom_uame- (skom_uame+ cooeo;cooeo= cooeo+ mea;}i(mesce cooeo {mesce = cooeo}i(mesce scmimesce{mesce = scmimesce;} mesce;}gu 17e u acaus a sk mesceSie a coo aime sks cei aocaoas a gu eowe cau eous is emuiie e mosksie coo aime maiie  csesk is o oemis e is e o i o (o  as i e3Ce2. Aom siga Imemeaoi scWe  scusseeous ao oousigcisio was  gieiaeae  aime sks  ki io coioeiai ioao e  w s ie u y  ace isoecWe  e me oeew a e  gai wcwe me cooeoie ue  ga is u  e u i_eaiesai is u se geaiesai oa aime sksi ose wse eioaois ie coosequeue (see Seco3 ise ie e se aime sk  e eaiesaieiccks  see we i e  sk  cooeo-sus ie sk  a uame gaae eous uaime skI iaus is oaccoie ouscaucomes e ooe  i sk oiis gaae o i ocaueaieoss aemimum mesceis aaceus awe ai oe  aime skeise cue sk wi  eemeuess e uame oecue i sk is s smaeaaoe aime skIacasee cue sk kee i uii uame comes ga e mig  oeseo sks a smaeuameae aime sk wse ai sei Aeeemi ecue ske scwi ecose  o oose seoskse o wse uame is smaes we iacasesiee ai s aea ei cooeowi  a a ese skswi aamou ome ais seug make eiuamegaais aime skUimaa oem wi cauwie uame oe aime sk wse ai ei ais cy iases e e sy e mesei skwe is ao eus ae iess acss a esks is o e  mimum uame  eus aa sksgea ioou  ecu oe C39Ce2. Aom siga Imemeaou iaom Imemeekeeosae_ce_i_mes  ce _umi_imes ua_i_mes  uae_ua_imes cose__sk( cose__cose__coosk( cose__coocau_imesce  cau_osc_me sc _i c __imee 1O  o oeeaom u a ouim-emeekeeoe 1 sws e oeee us eous -sciouaom a ouimemeekeeoWe okousc aom wi e maikeescosc  usi o oouowo -  ua_e(a  e_coe_swi ua__ey  ces e e-ous sk i owi me ^ e icas e uua_i_imes  as sciSeco3e_coe_swi eos e soe sco - cosi e  sk  ecucau mesce asc e mee w cseskgu 1sws e aom use e   scuwi e o o meioaIaomo e eigic i sc  we simy oi i  cisio e cisiooouaomCe2. Aom siga Imemeaosc({i(iamic_coe(c( = cueueue(sae_eemioi_sae(sck(eask = cuesk;ua_i_me(easki(ae(eask&&eemioee {i(sigi(eask&&se(eask==SEIEUE {sesk_s(easkUAE}eeac_sk(eask}ua_eeaski(c_aac == swia(c_aiask = __sk(c_ae_coe_swieaskskua_se_mes(easkio = ca_sk_io(ski(io  sko{queue_sk(skio}i(easksk{coe_swieasksk}Ce2. Aom siga Imemeaosuock(i_ee(ee_eemio}gu 1 Moe scwi oukeeoowiIouaomwe imeme uame owiA sk awakes uom sege a esuame ais equa e mimumoe uames oa ae sksSie we eacoo sks asi  o si mai a e sks iis mai a commouamee coo maiows as a w we skiamaiwakes u A sueque wakeu ooesks wi causeem  ieeicommomaiscic uame a e eyeowowi makes o sks (o awoke ua eoeawas eous ae oe queue same uame eak e ewe emoy a  cye sk awas eousae oe queue s mai ae  ue oi eaieeio e queueis    cy s  e saoowi eus a1  sk caaccumu uameWa sk seigis ue uame is accumu e coue oi ecuoWiwakes u ige a esuame a gi awises IO iei sks om gei aoccasiog saC ue oi accumuuame Iec sks aseoe wake ua geassiga mimumuame acss a e cue i sks ie ueueus e is a uey eee me e sk wakes ua wige  ecuis y is so e oemosks awe e eaieie queue wi ecy eCe2. Aom siga Imemeaosame uameIaccee mosucsks wi  sma a e iec sks wi  a gsissIe keeimemeao owi ouame is imemee cai ouoowom e keeoac_sk( ac_sk(is caewa sk is ieeio e ueue aewaki u e imemeaoows cyom e aome co coesi  owi is swiai3O i sigca   om e co is awa cooe sk wakes u we ie i ai e ioaock ioe keee queues a mo i s om e coosequeue(see Seco3cici is imseoo scases1 Wa coo sk i  e ais ooesksa oo i mesceIis casee mes a eoesci aia coo sk yies  cai coo( i mesce eiswe caee i meom wiicoo( Ia coo aime sk goes  seoeae coosesciSeco3Iis casewe eoe ci ccki wee is_we_ag ask is ue-ca asks go  coo seom wiicoo(wis ag is ueIe keeimemeao we imeme e uge me Ie me we cck  see ie cue i skis coo aimeIiiswe imse ci  mo e ske ioaoom e queues a cai _ci((sce secowe imeme ci ie kee-oac_sk((caewa sk comes ae ICe2. Aom siga Imemeaoac_sk(  we cck  see ia sk is a coo aime ska iis we  I e coio a UEwe imseci awe  imse ci wa coo aimesk se coo om wii coo(  Ie caseesk is maeas we (as iis ecu wii coo aci is skie  ac_sk( wees o mo iIcae e i mee cue skgass owei -aime o e co  ac_sk( wi oumocao isswiAei5e aco oe ci a as ows1 Imos a aime sk  a seo skci memomai Ices e i me oe sk  e sk ie a e coo mai is eus ae oemem oecoo maimaiuecom e mis sk aey s geeiaeaeeae e oci oo e coo aime skses i aime ss a is ao saway om e aoe ioqueue (cause e i me was ce e skIoukeeimemeao e oe a s is oe e o _ci Iao assig e uame oe coomai e sk so ae sk s coecuame a e e osae acaci oe uame is   e usa_ce_i_mes as s escusseiSeco3e co e  _ci( is swiAeiSc sEo sksom gu 1icaaioucue imemeao we  w away e ei a  keesccoIawe o i sc cisio  ou we imeme a w sysmCe2. Aom siga Imemeaoca caeseugwcocesses caques  scueoui sc aomI sc  we eoe ousc cisiooy ese sksIoe se oaeooui aom as a geose sca seosksiis ima  i a sks ueoui sci gimeWe  caua e iooouco was isee uima goaoi a sks ueoui scgime was y come aesMayukSauaskecome oace asis ooui scwi a seosks mai a  wo (see Ce5Seco5 A  w oe cue sca aci i aom wi ou is uecessauee w  uggae sc(see Ce5Seco5So  we  gia isciooousc aomie kee Ie  seco we sc wwi a sime eeioai acao caao  accommowiiouscamewo5 Accommo Ai meSei AcaoOuogicoo i scme kes io accou o kis oe ioao- e ai e ioaoa e seo eioao e seo es a use e ai acao s e C accoi  eiowquimese ey a ae ace cooiaaoae use we e ooaaois acaocec a is sciea seo eioese aom we  scso es accommoacao aa ai ewi ai acaousi some  oseo ese is  guaee aey usee same o oseo e ioWi a mioai aai acaoe siaocomes emo comeWe wae ee ouaom ioe coue e issues oCe2. Aom siga Imemeaoace ece mes om cooiaao As a swe ma e owi eeio  ouaom1 We moeoumai suc igu 1 i mui-e coo maiEacoe coo mai  a a seo e io queues a e sks i amai We moee  coo ieace  a o w Ime- e  m_i  is is a sime iegeae as wccoo maie sk was   a memo3 e  _eaiesai( u igu 17 is moe e eaiesai acss a e aime sks ia e -maiis is   i uge aoe ioqueues oa e ai es oa e maiis is a 0(aom w is e mocoomaiIoucueimemeao is is a m(15 mai I coo(  wwe  e mosima eeaseo e  e usescewe oy ice seo esom e coomaiowce cue sk is a mem isees mem oe same coomai coo use emesce aocaascic mai Mem oe coomai iecwi eacoe  e is isooaocoeecoomai a wiie mem oesame maias usoumuie coo maiaom is sa sime eiooe si maicaseWa sks seek mem oscic coo mai ices  oueous aom  ocoo mai we we  aies case wa aimesks seeks memie maiWi a aime sks i  e maisc ci-sio a yieis a ma so oe sis oai esSieCe2. Aom siga Imemeaoe is oy o coo aime sk io coomai seoes oecoo aime sks a coi(see ia usaime sks  oy ai es cageemess ewi oy eiai ioao Ao  ae seo e meis sicy cessa iis aomweey a use ci wea sk ca  coo se(sieis  oui wo ioisu   aeck oseo es sig e eO issue wi e a aom is aeacoe (aiaime sks s   a memoa e coomaiiey wa gemess Iouese aom e a mocoo maiA skige es kw wcmai oeaime sks a e mem o Iesseewe eae momai aca ca e aime sks emseesAeawe esome ki omecsm e kee aumacay ci wcmaie sk su  a memo Assi some oese issuesa  as a  woCeSummaIis ce we  scusseousk sc aac  as acome sk scie keeas we as a o ime-meaoie use Iis sc we  ao scussee w sucs a oeme  ouaomWe ewesome oe sic ias oe e iac moa sww is wo  io is mo Ouaac wcis acomooa is sc wi coo i is sigso as  sas e maioecs oouwougi weeu ae is ao   iess ie sysmiao s us  imeme ci aime sksWas e useoi sc aacis we comooiwi cooois a ascoouwoEougouaomwas ogiy sigai muimea woawe sw aCe2. Aom siga Imemeaowi a sime eeio ouaom caaccommo ai mesei acao as weIis ce we  ao scussesome oe maiimemeaoissues oouaom ie kee Ouimemeaouses someoe ce isuccoms ie kee sucas  gieemio gsoome accoui a meeougwe a sic keeimemeaooouaomiis om comeWe  as ye suo muico a eaocessoiouimemeao We  ke a oimios e keecoIe  ce we scuss e eaoouimemeao Wesw aousc aaccao ece mess aaime sks wiousacci   iess ie sysmeiooasiaoCe3rfn EvtnIis ce we o eaoa a sus om a o- oe sc aom imemeeie usea om eacasc aom imemeeie kee Iis esiswecus oe oae oouaom muimea ame a-caoeao ous kis oseo sks a oewoa a comsowi e C sc[] a iogss a oui e sco ois esis3 Eemes wi Muie Ies oCa Maye emasi e e oouwo a ioe sw e scom-is oe  keesc we sc ouemieeees oi muie iee aye oe a  kee We use o oe mososoue o ayeaie y Maye]  a e oCe (  C2].  is wowas  as a  oououeous wo ioi io ogssco [] a e sus we eie  Sie is wowas  aa  eay sgee eemeaseis eemeis e om e soa oeeemesWe  eecae ees ie se eece sue oe suseseeemes we oeoa  I13 owi a 1G ium-M C a 51Mmemo i e Uu sio We cse Mayea C cause ey a  o acao o go quae su o e amsCe oae Eaooea cae osoue  oese aicao aoweus  a ouowiumeaoco coecWe measue oae oMayea C  ayi 3 a os (e same osimuaousEaco is ayeia seaye e C usage mai sw saowi 3 os we C is y sawi ose o is a moe keom aa coee MG-a We measue ame  aeoe osgu 3 sws e ame s oe e os e C aMayeo aye  ueoa  aye maiaicse e  ame  o sa suece os ay wi asmooss a  ceae usesgu 3 sws e oae oC a Maye ooa(C usage is ggea1%we ame- aaomecsmwas ac i e ayee gs oe  sw ae ames oe os es amacay aye ei-moiss wi ma oe os eeei  ow ame s a somea aos ame gu 3( sws aeacs u o seco Cwceeees seusesMayeis aekeeew ms coese aye maiaiacceae oae  uoa ooa Iese e-iMayeis mo cois ae aC ayeeoug ay-e a qua simiy  ooa W we  ais ee ioae ii we e isus maiy as asu oe iecoeee aaomecsm a e keessc mecsm3 ai o Usee soa oueemeswe use e ai mea seamiamewoQseam []  gae a a e susQseam5Ce oae Eao3151^  ^ 1 ^ 1 ^ 1o sio (so 1 o  ^(a Co3    31515   ^  ^ 1 ^ 1 ^ 1o sio (so 1 o  ^( Maye o3    gu 3C a Mayeo aye iueoa510 ^ 0v v 620^ 40^ 60^ 80^ 0d tn (v I ^ v  ^ v 2 ^ v 4(cMaye ( Maye80^ 0 ^ 0 ^ 0d tn(8008 6001400200000d tn ( C20v v 240 60^ 80^ 0d tn (v  00v v 60  v 4  (aCt8  2020008008 6004002002`^0Ce oae Eaogu 3C a Mayeo aye iooa5Ce oae Eaois aai mea seami acaoseoe e io-gmmi s awas e iooucoo mo Isi-io a oio acio a oae agsisGae  usi Qseam was mucmo aumac a seamss aiwe usea oemuimea acaoIe  seco we sc e i oe sewe use oueemesWe oy scuss e sic coiguoioei ooueemeacoiguo ease  AeiA3 Eeme scio3 sic SeQseam s a ce-seeacIa ouaswe e seesi oQseam oa se ysicamac coec ece mac uggigaeee(us e o es comea ck ioueemes is seooce a seeie ysicamacs eus ae seesi sk IO a o-cessi es aecoususWe a ouo as oe ce sigu 3 sws e sic ce seese A iscioooueemeameogy is iSeco3ae aswe use scs  auma e ei ocess oie woa  coecoa ogeo e scs  ee comma  oio ugwcwe caauma i see se oeemesWe ge e o om e sus usiGo[]A e scs aa use ge e sus a -aseosoue a ca ewea woaom e Qseamic si []3 wa Coiguoe wa coiguooe ce is as owsA ium I 3G mac wi 1 Giga M a a IA Gee  sayca wi Mo memoWe sae C ea om53Ce oae EaoQrrv Qrntplnv St v d n dpf d plSv MhG EthnClnt Mhgu 3sic eemeacoiguoe OS a oueemes sie we  suo muiocessosce seesi coisoa 3 G ium Imac wio o way eaC1 Giga oMIawi e  SMkee3 KeeCoiguoa oueemeswe use  as ouse keewoaom  http :  //kee wi gsoomesuoAoues a  oe ois kee Ie soe e-sise wo  a  is use sc e sck keeas cyaie om  //kee o  wioua mocaoos aie e  keeuses e ao 1 scseoe we kwmui-eack queue sc aom [53cea w keesk sc aom (mee Come iSc[]seoi sc aacwas iooioe maieam  kee We   a ai ois keeas iwas aseaee comeoois woWe sae SMa muico oio ioukeea e eeimesWe ao make su aa e ggi a keeoaemeasume oio maisaesie ey oea e oea5Ce oae Eao gieemio(keeeemiowecu iccasecocowas eeioukeea e eemes3 EemeaMeogyugoueemeswe aim  cc e oae oousc aacacss a oascum osysm a om aueasysm  a come ooasysmOumaicus ougis  ea e oae oouaom ie eme ooacoio Ioueemeswe o a seo wi e same coguo We  e a aus e moaye ieaciasi iisuccessi om uaye  ee ayeWe awi siayeiouse e C scomes sa Wiee ayee C mai come saaa mes a ae moaye e gis us a oascum oeeemeacoio om y ueoa come ooaSie ouaom is sig o ece mess  ueoaa ooasiaois secaeec moae se (oweakssesoouaomQseam s a comma  oio sae oee ame saye osWe ae a seoeemes oe wi amesay saeiQseam a oe wi ame say ee saiame say s us  emi e eec oe eeom ou-susis is ima cause e ees a coae gies mecsm (we  oeeaa si ame say oeocake semiisecosas com Qseameiis ima  se e eec oe eeom ousus soawe may eue e eecss oouaac com e sus oe eemes wi ame say eewiose oe ame say saes us  gea eia oe eoeaice e eeaA ouas use a o keom a moe coeeMG-a e moe s a a o k/s75 155Ce oae Eaosooa a ame  o ames secoEacoe ayeays e seco oe moeSie e o is oae a eacsecos a e a ois seis equi ayi e os ie ayeEacseam was aye3secos (5 mis a oususwe sca e w secos oe a  e su om 1  e 3 secoAs e moe s ae  (us ae ocessi qui-mesoe ooe  i muie os eses aiy comewoa- e come asi om e owi issues(a e C quimes oeacoe aye es coiy wime scic maemacamois kw ese eiqui-me  a asoe accucyemegu 3(asws e -mics oseam a ee Qseam aye ayi ee eseamsCaye is coie aoia amo e eeayee C usageas swigu 3( es iso coee wi a( Eacoe aye s scic mi quimes i meuses(c A e aye a  C iei a  IO ieie-sei e ki oa miwoaases a sigca cee e a  keesc( Eacoe aye  ai ca wi sc C ao souesus e is aie e cooi e ao acss e aye u 3 a me a igyIeacooueemeswe use ceaiscic s  sc s-cic me ooususWe o e mea a eo oese s w(aissis caao  eas e syca omSeco1 aoue soy iokes e cack ai50d tn (220"^E ^  2 I     ^  I0  ^44I.44.44A A..4= Al 4  ,^ t4 t..00^ 0^ 200d tn (o8642Ce oae Eaov ^ v  ^ v v 2 ^ v 6  ^ v  v  ^ v  ^ v v 4 ^ v 8  ^v (ao v   ^ v   ^ v v 2   ^ v 6   ^v v   ^ v   ^v IIv 4   ^ v 8   ^v ( o C usagegu 3mics omui o ayckes aee ai s sse e sy is e eeeee me wa ai e is acay seicea e a e scieie e  e acao Aguiea (aw miisecos e wocase ee is caua e esiaieaa eis e is agee ooosecois meic is  useiswi w we e keeis ae sc e acao sucaey a ae  eiais ia me so A goosc aom su eu sma esoisseueooa we iis ima   aiss es a ao mi acaogemeiie wocase a si e ie 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aa aye s  oamesWi ee ayee o S o 1 sWame say is ee we see a simiewee  e e oeaoe ee we see a gaimcoeugu Wi ee ayee uguces  11se iss ss wi ges ie ueoa coies cases as e C acs saoa eiases agaiaoa is ca ae  e so-meeec Ie ueoaQseam aye sew wai  om e socke is IO sei cases e so meg (w isesome ais mayei wce acaomay  awa oAs e aiases59Ce oae Eao17 171 ^ 115 - 151^ 1c 13 - 13 1^ 111 11 1  ^ - 19^ 9 ^ - 7^ 7 ^ 5^  5^ 5^ ^ 7^ ^ 9^ 1 11 1oos530Age S(aS ugu^ 5^ ^ 7^ ^ 9^ 1 I1^ 1oosiss593oI( iss15 15113 131 111 - 111 19 9 7 ^ 7 5 5 3 3 1 1^ 5^ ^ 7^ ^ 9^ 1 I I^ 1oosCoe swis(cCoe Swigu 3Si Qseamwiouame say8Ce oae Eaoe equey ose casesiasi e so megAooaocouemo a mo es ge sckeo o ae(ey  ais ey cse  eacoee e coesiy iseici ese ais sus iiasi issWe  seeweae o iss es s   gwamesay is eeawiis saeIgu 3 we  e comame  oa os wayi ee os aa meWe oee ae os  uame-  e ooayckusis o eeme ae a a C quimes acss em a oeooayck (see gu 3 ouaaocique is ae ace u  acss a e osis is a ie sccee a coeioscas e C quimes oeacoe os a eme ae 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mucmo  giae iiaaocaoeiss (wc^200 ^ ^1 ^ 1^1 ^ 1^1 ^ 1^1^ 1^1 ^ 1^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^0^ 1IOcO111197531111197531Ce oae Eao^ 5^ ^ 7^ ^ 9^ 1 11^ 1oosmesce1 msmesce1msmesce15 ms mesce ms  ^mesce5 ms    (augu Moic (si ayecase3151315,  1 r^ 5^ ^ 7^ ^ 9^ 1 11oos1mesce1 msmesce1msmesce15 msmesce msmesce5 ms( iss^ 5^ ^ 7^ ^ 9^ 111 ^ 1oosmesce1 msmesce1msmesce15 msmesce msmesce5 ms(cCoe swisgu 3 Muie ayeKeemui-maicoo scwi ci a wiouame say ^9Ce oae Eaos ow  gie coe swis a com e sc-i oe e aiswi ao  iee oe o wewi a sma eugo e e g is coaeae is aocaoskWe see om e gu ais is ieeecase wi a 1 ms o Wi a 1 ms o we see mo coe swisougas ma as ie  i aom (gu 3cIs ougu we see ais aom es eeee a -cooo S wi aiase ie moayewei oae is come  aoe coo i ime-meao(see gu 39(aIis ies  oee ae iss iis imemeaois as gooas e coo i imemeao We eaa  ois asocou  e mismaeee sk as e esme wai ie ueue a e o wse aisei ca om Seco3 aiis sceo we ioi e esk as oose e sk  eu iess iC aocao e  me coaiswe we ue  come a a gous asis ooumui-coomaiimemeaoaasceaisome oese osee ugco miswo is cue i ue some oess ssimai a  wo is esisIsummaeougouasis a sig  we iom-e as as e mui-coomaiaom goeswe we eouge see aigi us a mi gu oae - ieea i aom a oucoo i imemeao  is oiss a ugu  e aom ie esuse asaes sceis e ia accommo- ai acao as we31 CeSummaIis ce we  ae oace oe a  scisc muie ame muimea acaoWe 91Ce  oae Eaoswais a keeuscs is iae oo acceaemess e ame sks we  swamuime-a woa aa  C a  iei imse a iesc cee  e e es scwe ga aoiew oe oae oe useeo- oe aoms aie  us io ouu wi e keeWe sw aouuseo gis us e sus we aiciwe ey eie oeaa wi  weak scisooeesks wce keeimemeaois cae oaessiwe ae oace oe ous aoms imemee us ie kee We  swaa sime i aom is ca-e oo acceae mess me sei acaoie sc ois oy cse we a  sma e osc ocaaee eece o uguas e mocoe swis iases  eme ge oeaoee mocoe swis imses a accamioe sssi-e mess o cageouoa sime i sc We sw aa comoocoo i a i aom caomess ma mes eaa sime i scwi mucss oea uga eemio iis ssie  amoi ecosocoe swi a geeugu eiaeaeoaime sks usi e ioaoo em ie  oeais a ioes ca igei eee mi oae ame sksAe same mecoo scwsuise e i sc eus iess oC aocaoamo a esksIao cis ci oe mis/uoo amesks ao e aocaocoaisusis comaaceus ece mess wiousaocoesIoueemeswe sw ae eeiie imses a sig-ca oeaa ices uime oie sysmWe eaiis ssie  aea e oem  a e ee  moie eeso as  use oucoo i mecsmis we9Ce oae  Eaomai a  wo is esisywe ae oace ooumui-coomaiaomWe ose a wi oimemeao e mui-coomaiagom cao equi oae com oucoo-i aomYeis w aacwou gi mo a ae acss ma oeacao as iwi i ai mesei acao ueousc gime as wewe iswo mai iome iis esis93Cel WIis ce we ew some oe wos iis sce a com- ouwo wi emWe ao ci e   a esom w we  eeouge wo ois ia1 Coo i a KeeUseceIecoaoyo sysms o a ocess ieace aisose e ecuocoessimi uamacsweisisooes eu ece mess me sei aca-oe coo i mos me-sei acao geece mess  ci coooeeese acaoa s oeiieaais oioesOucoo i ae useis e i e some [ a e me [1 keesei aac ey useiggess sucas keee is  eicie sc es (eckeamissioCoo i ees e  oese aoacs io e use  coo i a so/ meaim  aiuecessa eemiooieus scaco [3] a oumoaim  aie i-eec oeemio ioi e useaue sc cisio ma e kee we e maiee is aaco a uasaio e acaowa w sc cisiois ma w oumouses acaoi  syo wi e kees sci cisiois ee is  a su oe e acao9Ce 4. Womaiaco a maiy siguguoeeaca-o w e ua mois easie usew coo i ismaiy sigme-sei acao w i is a commoyusemeo meemi quimesAowi acoe useoy ios e keewiyies e ocesso   w wi co-o iacao ao io e keeaueiaisoioesO Sysm Suo meSei Acaoe is a e  owo aaims  o o sysm suomuimea a ame acao [91 171 3 3 ]Wee aouwo is cse  e oweuame (sc aom [1 a e SMA sc[3ke SMAouaom uses a oouey seoacaosuemi uesw uses a oouey seo wa  e ais icu cauweke a uike SMAouaaces qui aacaoesma oseice me a as aissioco e use SMA quis seice mes  o scasisis asis ca coeawSMA ses ooacaoey a oy o  e acao ac ecomsooouwo agaia SMA is sci ec ie 13 E ia Mui-aogmmiAuge  me oe-ia mui-aac-s maigy oa  oome [13 33]gey es a coi oeeoae w a aWi mui-ocessoe usecaao ask mo ocesso95Ce4. WoComso coo  SMAAcaoMoE i gu guEiScicao Wake^ u^ mesa ^ (oioyioeswa (ioesais ^ aseice ^ meesmas ^ a(oioyioesUse oW eu iessyes yes yesoougeywake^ u^ me(wc ^ we^ caai ^ i^ isesiswa e me ^ ocome-oowo (-e as a ie Aooa Acao ^ ieawakeume wie  yieeea ^ amissiocomosc ^ -cao ^ wsysm ^ is^ iooae 1Comsooouwo wi a SMAcoi oeease oogmiIe QSeam amewo wcisuseeei  a is woKsic uses es cause  eey a e smame-sei acao amusquicks  eeaiu emee wocase ecuome(WCE oa oa se is aima meic me-seiacaois meic is qui easy  iume wi esesswe e aiis ssie  use eemi a aessucas [11] as aaea imemei coo-eacaoCueoumosuos acao aa ima sia oce a [] o muiocessosuo e-iogmseiaaccou  cy ae ouwoEouges  euseeeimose sysms cuseoe eiciey a sca aaages oes ea9Ce4. Woece miAs a sumose sysms  suis-eeai a seo ese eAuo [35] sou seeuses es aa cses oumo Iuses se e scoesi  ouai a seo suike oumoacao caocoe oeoseo esAi Muimea AcaoOumocuses ome-sei acao acaa ooa e QSeam o seami acaouses a cique caeio-ogss  a  aie o wi[] a C []is cique was i seoewos oqua-aiseami [1 37]Se [] os a amewo oi oamageme ima uguseacao sucas Ieseices5 ce Keeescee s esome ac ie sce osig e keesc aom e kee Io Moaa oe osea siga w sc aom wcey  mee Come iSc[] oC sc Ceaiio oe C scis ie om e eous wo  CoKosis  Siase ai (Sc[19]e coe oo iaocaooC me  a sks ie sysm is cse ouis sc we e ia ocoo i wcaws coooeeame sks uge keea ayiei e C seoaisis s a ascoouwoAsas oukwe goes o as yes osea simiiaeC scwas ie imemeaoa s ases a ga iooio e maieam keeas oioe Cscs eesa ggea  ma mo useaouco97Ce4. Wosuoi ous me sei acaoceaiw as eimemeeio e kee  gikeeeemo gsookeemea me kee mecsms a cksskeesigwi mic cks [3 a some oem Saomas Gie[15]   wo ie sce okeeme amemecsmsIouwowe comeme a make use osome oese w keeisucs  gimekee a ocessaccouiWe ao aiusi a keeas amake use og-umecksus maki ousigcois usi wi cksskeeCeSummaIis ce we  ewesome oe wo iis scea comem wi ouWas e ei mo ae s oai muimea acao s iaseomee keesc aom s cesigca  suoese wekis owoaMosoe es wos omuimeasc eies oC me seao os comicauscs  ace ece messwesucaacs aimaccacommo eiesce Io Moaa oe osea sigw keesc uscs  ass someoe cees we seek  soewe as as oukwe goesouia ocoo i seoacaoais s maia ia iis sce9Ce5tWd Cnis ceews some oe ima  co ois woa ey cos5  WoW is wo ioea aacsc me sei wo-a a wi aoseo osiwas oy a googiie wo is  comee a seaes o wo iis scesome owcs aea escusseie eaiesecoiis esisIis ce we eme a w oe  imaos5 Eaooe i Sc AomWe  oea ougeaoooui aom asa geose sc A come a ieaooe agom is e Iicu eao wi ous kis oog-icawoa e  massi_i [] e - OS [oc [] -s [] s []e a com e sus wi ose oeC sc[] wou  ogaies Iwou ao  ies quai e ugugus i muie seo woaa com em wi e a keesc99Ce  Wo a Cosio5 Accomo Ai me SeiAcaoISeco5we scuss ouaacwas accommo aiacao wiiousc gimeISeco3 we scuss ouemi eaoois aomwe is wo mai iom-e e  me coaisouge sus gi us some oaia oe iaoe aomwe we ae  ecy asoousome oe oae gus we oaiom ai esig A easis a uei wi ssiy moie imemeaois cessa5 ImemeaooCoo eeOua sus om Ce3 sw ae eeimses sigica oeaa cause omess me sei sksewscas a seo acaoioui sc Sci ees aays ea cee  sysm ogmmeSie eeeis seoae iogmmi mo iwou  aies wo  mo iso aicause oucoo semaicsWi eecoo wi e soe Qseam acaoiis oueawe caace mucesuswe sie iis aai acaoke Qseamoukees  suo aime sei acaois wo was scusseie eous secoUoue  me coais oese o a  as wo5 a oa Mo geous SysmIouoae asiswe use e Qseam acaouguas e oy coo acao Iwi   aies eee  mo ceaioeacao  use oucoo iscmee we caa ousc amewo oa mogeous sysm comisi oe coo sksis wowi come mo ac iese mocao ca oewi1Ce  Wo a CosiomimaeoUoue  me coaiswe ao a is as wo5 ai C - MuiaocessoWe  aea sciCeaouimemeaoes suo mui co a esysmsEougwe  C  sucs asu aumacay sca  mui-ocessosce-oswe  eae  geouco i oSMsysms (s-siy cause osu gs ie co Suo cmuiaocesso a a mecsm  ae e sks acss e ocessowou  aima  woO way  ae is  cke oem ie acaoieE iacao caassige co  eacoeies sucaes oe same coca ecuie Cs wioucouey issuesis ia is mucsimi e ocea  wo [] osuoi e iogms omui-ocessowe is ia is s ie eay sgesa a come woi imemeaomai   5 Iegoo coo  wi  eAies eeiooe wo is  ieg ou coo  sysmca wi e es  e  sysm caEouge  e  sysmca ieace wi ce sigca as a su ois iego  wsysm ca wi  iceio e kee  is wi  us ioo e ss oo sco as o oe me oecoo  yiei gicuse moeyiei gic wi io acoo sk wse ai s eioe sk as e gsio seo e ae ima ee is aweseo es oa sk wou i i a  sco wiio es aac emis wou ci mo  giaaomecsm wi imomess acss a e coosks1Ce  Wo a Cosio5 Iegowi e  uggae ScAs ow is esise w C sc[] s emeewie  keesoue eee scco ois w keeuses eoouggae C sc []Imig  ssie  iegouscio e w keeas a uggae mois wou  usigei mo a mo oe ioewi is wo (sie e scca swi mimaeoa   a gssios oousc aom5 CosioIis esiswe  icea w a aac i mesei a aoseo acao wiia si uesci amewoWe  swae aoeemi scices uce mi a oaaooaimesei woaCoo i aims  ce ucemi  mimi ioa eemio a icis coooeeacao  s e ioaosucas ais aioes acss acaoOueaos swais aacgeewi a sime ai-sesc cy aces o e-ce mia iaows acao  make aaocisio ooaacoo wi eageoe ekees sc cywe coo sc a caeu iess a aisao We com oucoo aom wi a i scuioe ace iessis eemi sc es essi ooucoo mecsm i ase(eieieioyooeise gaiuaiaaage uike es aacsa aeme ieg coeioame sc ao-ms io geose o sysms wi misuccessouaoacaows me-sei a seo sks  co-esia gueamewo1Ce  Wo a CosioWe  imemeeousc aom ie keea oea sees oeemes  ea ouaac Ioueuao we use a qua-ai o ayck acao moaw comeaaocies may  a We  ao oecomso asw e oae a mi  ocooiOueemes sw acoo i ges e iee eiciey aaages oa coe swi us ioaeemio IC sacoiowe sw ae sc -siss ocoo i is  mes eaa we-is sc a oe omag eae seoscuseie maieam keeA ousoue co is OSoue a is ee aie waom e si /gsa/ews  i oeoc cue ssicao a wi e cckouUsoe cose ca seeom ouocmege /gcsa/coosc  My seag ca eweom //csa/  aa/sea  (access sic U ComSciee cuy a ga ss oy Come seosus a ouimemeao (i eemeaos a ose wcwescaeie coue oouwois aie ewi om  /gsa/  aa/ Qseam is come OSoue a ca ee woaom  /wwwseam  a scsuse o a e eemes a aie a wi e Qseamsoue1blh[1] AAa weMeime Wskya  uceu Co-o sk mageme wioumaasck magemeIocees oe USEAuacicaCoee,   [ u Aimaea o   //www o o/[3] omas EAeo ia  Ea  wskaay MScacoEicie keesuo eusemageme oesm ACM aaco oComSysms,  1353-79ua 199[ MoAa usc So meEicie micsecosowa mesuo o ocessi ACM aaco oComSysms,  13197- Augus[5] Mc e sigoUO Sysmeice Iw ey[ Aea  o e weouame muimeascI SS2000: ocees oe IeaoWoso a O Sysm Suo giAuoa o,  ges -7  [7] eee a Mao Cassei Uei e Ke Eo  Oeiy  & AssociasI Ses CAUSA[ Aaowea e - OS  //www eecs a e// /eiem1iogy[9] SaCs a Ime S iegmuime-a sysmii QoS  e sk I ocees oe IEEEame cogy a Acao Symsium (AS  May [1 Kee   a  C oweuame (scsuoi y-sei a ia geosesc I ocees oe seeeACM symsium oOe sysms iies,  ges 1- 1999[11]  SEece G ae a/www/sowa/[1 ck ams ek a a  ksa Oe ieaco eeyequa aaoa coesocoseami oI ocees oe  IeaockeoWos(200,  ges 1-139Ai[13] AaGeoy ea e Mg oc  /wwwayeq [1 omas Giea ugs eusgsoomeskee io  /wwwge/oc/me/[15] omas Giea ugs eusme a yoa-i e me suysmsI Symsium,  me 1ges 333-3OawaCa[1 AsiGoe ca ACes Ksicm Swa aWaoSuoi me-sei acao oa commo osSIGO O Sys ,  3SI1-1[17] waGoya a Guoa ick M A ecaC scmuimea o sysmI ocees oeUSESymsium oO Sysms siga Imemeao(OS  ges 1-1Oc1991iogy[1 M   s sua MCsuC seao a mecoaiseicieece sc oiee acesI ocees oe ACM Symsium oO Sysms iies(SOS,  ges 191Oc1997[19] CoKose  Siase ai Sc    //ckkos o/s/siase - ai/[] Ko^ Kos^ uggae ^ c ^ sc ^ amewo/Aics/19/[] Ces KsicA  amewo Quai Mea Seami.esisOGI ScooSciee a Eie aOUOc[] Ces Ksic ea Qseam  //www qseamo/[] Ces KsicAaSiaa we Ki io-ogssC aaoesc ame acaoI ocees oeMuimea Com a oi Coee (MMC,  a[] Ces KsicaWaoa Wu c Qua-aimea seami  io o I SS ocees oe ieaowosoo a o sysms suogiauo a o,  ges 111w YoUSAACM ess[] gCuea geMeamOe a oosysm sucs SIGO O Sys ,  13(-191979[] CWMee SSagea  kuocessocaci seesO sysm suo muimea acaoI oceesoe IEEE IeaoCoee oMuimea Com aSysms,  ges 999May 199[] Io Moa Come iSc   //oe acom/mio/cs - sc1iogy[] Io Moa ^  s ^ /oeeaom/mio/cs-sco/-sc[] Io Moa ^  s ^ //oe eaom/mio/scs/-s[3 soea Moca Sme sig imemeaoa euaooSMAa scmuimea acaoI oceeis oe sieeACM symsium oO sysms iies,ges 1-197997[31] ia Cooo IA Quao e  /wwwaom/ge/quaoem[3  KOusou W a A A Ia (mososeseseaogiae 199UseAuacicaCoeea 199[33] agm ecAsiAmoSka C Com e oae oweseeac-sI EuSys  ocees oe 200coee oEuSys,ges 1-3w YoUSAACM ess[3 y acyc  Cay  Wiiamso a m ecAeemeaiesgaoosc sagies uI SIGMEICS 4: ocees oe 84 ACM SIGMEICScoee oMeasume a mo ocomsysms,  ges151w YoUSA19ACM ess[35] a eeee Ossma Ss EKieaeAuo Sou See  /Oie/a/oc/eauo/ge[3  ge a  ASocAugmeeC seaowas ece ecuoogeose o sysmsI ocees oe IEEE ame cogy a AcaoSymsium (AS  ges 1-1May 1iogy[37]  ieMa ya Esi Qua aaocoesocoeo ayck oe Iee I oceeis oe ACM SIGCOMM,  ges 1- Oc1999[3 SusSiasia Aa  Geimamum miage ouockssI Symsium,  me  ges1-7OawaCa[39] AaSiaCes Ksica AsiGoe Ace ecemi a iess ugcoo iIssessio ACMSymsium oO Sysms iies (SOSOc[] m Sisam a a Emae QoS cousi aiye amissio I ocees oIEEE IeaoCoe oMuimea Com a Sysms,   199[] CSeAsiGoe sa GeeMcmeeCaoa aWaoA eack-ioioao-caa scI ocees oe USESymsium oO Sysms siga Imemeao(OS  ges1-15 ua 1999[]  S sAmu a eWe a gei a youe A w aac mekee a meISymsium,  me 1ges 9- OawaCa[] Sa keucmassi_i   //oe acom/mio/cs-sco/massi_ic[] e my Coi  ouGeoe CcuaEc ewe Caiccioscae a IeeseicesIocees oe ACM Symsium oO Sysms iies(SOS,  ges 1[] my Weaeooick  //eu/sc1iogy[] Ma We Cue a Ec ewe SEAac we-coio scae ieeseicesI ocees oe ACMSymsium oO Sysms iies (SOS,  ges 3[] omas Wiiams ea Go   //wwwgoio/[] ckoi oc AeYi a k  MoisMaesa a KaasekMuiocessosuo e-iogmsI ocees oe USEAuacicaCoe,  ges 9-  1AeiAn tl thExpt SA Ce CoiguoIa oueemeswe usee oeia iio1-7u- a We  a a  sime ioe makee icome wi we kee is was cessacause ie we99 a a i wi IA Quao e31]suowe oeeae eewas coumi usuay e ceage oC cycsWe  kw e ecasois osie e s esome maces ieeiio 7a 99 7we wwe eck  e o gacy 7iio eeseeme  ayA KeeCoiguoIa oueemesgsoome a ei we ee keecoiguo we a  keees come wi i acao gsoomesuoWe  e keewi gsoos [1 ioe eegsoomesuoese s  eiegio emaieam  kee W ei gsoomewe eca ee e memo a o oio asese a sigca aiooea7i ca seem/wwwaom/oecsay_ia31 9911AeiA. i oe EemeaSea oueemeswe coigu e ies   o1Some aio  is oeoe ois sic seso aoua sus a aec oeeeacWemake su awe  eugmemo oe ce si so aimuie aye oe ce es cause uue memo essuAuecessa emo a a i oe ce a kieso aouce is ee om ieee om oesay acao wwe ouasIe scswe ec  /oc/sys//swaiss soas  eu ae keees swaQseam ges  sk We saw a eugee ysicamemo aa gime es ekeeom swai ges  skiswe eis a sigcice iememo mageme suysm111Appd Sr C1 e coo Sysm Ca Co/ sys_coo e coo sysm ca ieace ai_m: iuai me ao_m: ouuai me is iooe coo es e a ocess  seoa comeoaeaiueue. Ia is cas sc ( yie e ocesso aecoosk. is sysm ca is us,  simi scyie (ca aao yies e ocesso a  sma amou o me. Ia comi & coousc , is is eec su ia mucmo simeco a is coeuay mo cois wi wwe wa i  .asmage sys_coo (succoom___use_m succoom___use_msuccoom_ki_m;succoom_ko_m;i ;uigs yies = uig ags ;i g ;11Aei Soue Cossuc me_w  _ ;suc mesc mo;cooqueue q;suc ueue q;suc sk_suc_asa;suc me_ = ^ _sec = _usec = ;ko_mai = _ ;ko_m _asa ^ = _ ;ko_m asa ^ = ko_m _asa=  co iues  keesce is is w e keeccks  memo access oo is mig e ocess  se^ geusea(Si_m i_m i(  ; ia sk s  asa oais  , we e as iis guy is oy a so guyi( uike (E_ASAki_m uike (mecom(i_mai   ^ {go  yie ;} acqui e cooqueue ck. is saeeemioa ca Is a acquis e ueue sock113Aei Soue Coscq = sk_cq_ck ( cue gs  = c_( sk_c ( cue ; ua e mocoocou icooqueue cqm_coocas++;i (( cuemeac  {mecaeqmecue cmeac = }i (is_cooaime cue   {sek_as_coo( cue }cue ccoois_we_ ^ 1;_geimeoay(Sw  mo my s s om e cooaa e ws seomy uaioaomo_sk_om_cooqueue ( cue cq  Ie my io io e ai(  ke (mecom(ki_m ai S    {= ie_sk_io_meouqueueSi_m ai cq cue i (uike (mo_sk_om_cooqueue ( cue 11Aei Soue Coscq cq_uock (cq gs  ;g =  / wi  = oy we a asa i( ke (GE_ASA( ki_m  {= ie_sk_io_asaqueue (i_m asaki_m asacq cue i(  {mo_sk_om_cooqueue ( cue cq cq_uock (cq gs  ;} ee {  ^  ie a  asa a e ai is ie  , make e ocess seicoo (ui e ai eisi(g mecom(i_m ai Sw { cau e me ee seame ki_m ai _sec_w _sec ki_mai _usec_w _usec 115Aei Soue Coscoo_ges_se(cq gs me_kme (  _ ;go wakeu;}cq_uock (cq gs yie sc ( / is is w we w yie wakeuyies++;cq^ sk_cq_ck (cue gs  ua e cue i sk  cqm_yies += yies ;w_asa= ;g =  mo, oaimosimasaa eie i ( cue ccoocooasaa{mo_sk_om_cooqueue (cue cq  ;g = 1;}_asasa(cq_asai(  g __ie_io_asaa(cq cue i ( w_asa {ko_m _asa=w_asacooasaasa;ko_m _asa=11Aei Soue Cosw_asacooasaio ;SE_ASA( ko_m ;}cq_uock (cq gs  auswa me, moc me ee mo = wa__moc ;seamesc(ue ccooai cue ccooai _secmo_sec cue ccooai _ecmo_ec  ;ko_m ai _sec =cue ccooai _sec ;ko_m ai _usec =cue ccooai _ec / EC_USEC; see we ag cue ccoois_we_=  se i useocess  co__use(o_m o_msiosuccoom_? U;} sys_coo 117Aei Soue Cose coo_se Co coo_ges_se: as a gsoome see quesieaome ikme_ Ao ases e coesi ueue ck. s: e ie cooqueue gs : e I ags saeous.ime: e amou ome  seikme_ .sc kme_coo_ges_se(cooqueue q uig gs kme_mesucmese;kme_mai;mei (& meCCK_MOC MEMO_;meise(S cue secue_s (SK_UEUIE ;mesa (S meme MEMO_;cq_uock (cq ags i(ke (asksc (mecae memai= megemai( mei( kme__ (mai  kme_se(;ee mai;11Aei Soue Cos}3 e owi Co ow : imeme owi ouames.Iis caeom ac_sk isc. ciow (sucsk_sucsucueue q{suci_scm o = ;sucme_ = ^ _sec = _usec = ;mm_sks++;  acoowakeu se  i(is_cooaime ({ ie e coos io e cooai(mecom (cooaai S  { ie io meouaie_io_cooa(Sqcq COOMEOUA; a mo om coosequeue mo_sk_om_coosequeue ( Sqcq ;} ie a oecoo i,  ow a   ie my s io e ai(mm_sks  ;119Aei Soue Cosi(ke (eais_emy(a{ =(suci_scmami(a}i({ask_scmuame =uame ;}ee{seamescask_scmuame  ;} ie sk io e queuei( ke (cask_scmea {ie_ask_i o__queue (  EA_GW}}e ci Co  _oci : is is e maici o Ima : Ioy goes o way, i . e. , mos a acoosk  a seo sk. e asseioae  gii oe o eus ais is oi_ci (sucueue qsucsk_sucsk{g_asse ( k g_asse (1Aei Soue Cosg_asse (is_cooaime (k  ; We e see i uame oe cesk  e coomais uame. is wi eu awe sk s coec uame oe e scces i i me  ie .kci_scm uame =kcsk_scmuame ; gisis sk as i  e seo mai Oe is is , e scu wi coecy ce e i me ois sk  e sk ie a  e coomaik c m = S_mai [M_SEO] ; sk uame is goi   e uame oe iiaskkcsk_scm =Sskci_scm ;cacoosk (k }  _ci 5 e MoeKeeac_sk(oac_sk mo a sk om e ueue.sc i ac_sk  (suc sk_suc1Aei Soue Cossuc q{( COIG_SCCOOEAIMEsucueue q = S;ic__i(  ;queue_sk (ay ay = ;(COIG_SCCOOEAIMEi(is_(;i_sk = ;mecaeqmemeac = i( is_cooaime (  aci s yekeace , so  maewewe a coo se o  we mo ous om cooacause e sk is gei acsmo_sk_om_cooqueues (Sqcq ;i(ccoois_we_es{_ci (  } / iee {1Aei Soue Cosie_io_cooa(Sqcq COOEA;}  ee } ee {mo_sk_om_queue (  ;_mm_sks--;} / ee 1

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