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Appendix 2. Environmental Protection and Enforceability: Excerpts from 147 National Constitutions for.. Boyd, David R. 2011

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APPENDIX ?2 ??Environmental Protection and Enforceability: Excerpts from 147 National Constitutions ?This document provides a comprehensive inventory of constitutional provisions related to environmental protection and the enforceability of those provisions. It is intended to provide a tool for comparative research and a compendium of precedents for constitutional drafting. For information on the methodology used to identify these provisions, please consult Appendix 1 of The Environmental Rights Revolution, by David R. Boyd (UBC Press, 2012).  All excerpts, unless otherwise noted, are from R. Wolfrum and R. Grote, eds, Constitutions of the Countries of the World, Vols. I-XX (New York: Oxford University Press, 2010). Online versions of constitutions were checked to confirm that the versions in Wolfrum and Grote are the most recent available. The URLs provided for online sources were current as of September 2011. In the case of some recent constitutions (e.g. Ecuador [2008], Turkmenistan [2008], Bolivia [2009]), translations were done by the author, and these should not be relied upon for any legal purpose.  Dates in brackets following the name of a nation refer to the date when environmental provisions were included in that nation?s constitution. ? UBC Press 2012Afghanistan (2004) Preamble?We?the?people?of?Afghanistan:?...?10.??For?ensuring?a?prosperous?life?and?a?sound?environment?for?all?those?residing?in?this?land,?...?Hav itution?...?e?adopted?this?ConstChapter?1:?The?State?ARTICLE 9  Mines?and?other?underground?resources?are?the?property?of?the?state.?The?protection,?management?and?proper?utilization?of?public?properties?as?well?as?natural?resources?shall?be?regulated?by?law.??ARTICLE 15  The?state?is?obligated?to?adopt?necessary?measures?for?safeguarding?forests?and?the?environment.?Chapter?2:?Fundamental?Rights?and?Duties?of?Citizens?ARTICLE 51  Any?individual?suffering?damage?without?due?cause?from?the?administration?shall?deserve?compensation,?and?shall?appeal?to?a?court?for?acquisition.?Except?in?conditions?stipulated?by?law,?the?state?shall?not,?without?the?order?of?an?authoritative?court,?claim?its?rights.?Source: http://supremecourt.gov.af/Content/Media/Documents/constitution2004_english3012201016726844.pdf  2? UBC Press 2012Albania (1998) Chapter?1:?General?Principles?ARTICLE 17 1.? The?limitation?of?the?rights?and?freedoms?provided?for?in?this?Constitution?may?be?established?only?by?law?for?a?public?interest?or?for?the?protection?of?the?rights?of?others.?A?limitation?shall?be?in?proportion?with?the?situation?that?has?dictated?it.?2.? These?limitations?may?not?infringe?the?essence?of?the?rights?and?freedoms?and?in?no?case?may?exceed?the?limitations?provided?for?in?the?European?Convention?on?Human?Rights.?Pa ?Freedoms??rt?Two:?Fundamental?Human?Rights?andChapter?II:?Fundamental?Rights?and?Freedoms?ARTICLE 42 1.? The?freedom,?property,?and?rights?recognized?in?the?Constitution?and?by?law?may?not?be?infringed?without?due?process.?2.? Everyone,?to?protect?his?constitutional?and?legal?rights,?freedoms,?and?interests,?or?in?the?case?of?an?accusation?raised?against?him,?has?the?right?to?a?fair?and?public?trial,?ecified?by?law.??within?a?reasonable?time,?by?an?independent?and?impartial?court?spChapter?IV:?Economic,?Social,?and?Cultural?Rights?and?Freedoms?ARTICLE 56  Everyone?has?the?right?to?be?informed?about?the?status?of?the?environment?and?its?protection.??Chapter?V:?Social?Objectives?ARTICLE 59  1.? The?State,?within?its?constitutional?powers?and?the?means?at?its?disposal,?aims?to?supplement?private?initiative?and?responsibility?with:?... e)? a?healthy?and?ecologically?adequate?environment?for?the?present?and?future?generations;?and??f)? rational?exploitation?of?forests,?waters,?pastures?and?other?natural?resources?on?the?basis?of?the?principle?of?sustainable?development.??2.? Fulfillment?of?social?objectives?may?not?be?claimed?directly?in?court.?The?law?defines?the?conditions?and?extent?to?which?the?realization?of?these?objectives?can?be?claimed.? 3? UBC Press 2012Chapter?VI:?People?s?Advocate?ARTICLE 60 1.? The?People?s?Advocate?defends?the?rights,?freedoms?and?lawful?interests?of?individuals?from?unlawful?or?improper?actions?or?failures?to?act?of?the?organs?of?public?administration.?2.? The?People?s?Advocate?is?independent?in?the?exercise?of?his?duties.?3.? The?People?s?Advocate?has?his?own?budget,?which?he?administers?himself.?He?proposes?the?budget?pursuant?to?law.? ARTICLE 63 1.? The?People?s?Advocate?presents?an?annual?report?before?the?Assembly.?2.? The?People?s?Advocate?reports?before?the?Assembly?when?it?is?requested?of?him,?and?he?may?request?the?Assembly?to?hear?him?on?matters?he?determines?important.?3.? The?People?s?Advocate?has?the?right?to?make?recommendations?and?to?propose?measures?when?he?observes?violations?of?human?rights?and?freedoms?by?the?public?administration.?4.? Public?organs?and?officials?are?obligated?to?present?to?the?People?s?Advocate?all?m.?documents?and?information?requested?by?hiPart?Sixteen:?Extraordinary?Measures?ARTICLE 170 1.? Extraordinary?measures?can?be?taken?due?to?a?state?of?war,?state?of?emergency,?or?natural?disaster?and?last?for?as?long?as?these?states?continue.?2.? The?principles?for?actions?of?public?organs,?as?well?as?the?extent?of?limitations?on?human?rights?and?freedoms?during?the?existence?of?such?situations?that?require?extraordinary?measures,?are?defined?by?law.??3.? The?law?must?define?the?principles,?the?areas,?and?the?manner?of?compensation?for?losses?caused?as?a?result?of?the?limitation?of?human?rights?and?freedoms?during?the?period?in?which?extraordinary?measures?are?taken.?4.? Acts?taken?as?a?result?of?extraordinary?measures?must?be?in?proportion?with?the?level?of?risk?and?must?aim?to?re?establish?the?conditions?for?the?normal?functioning?of?the?state,?as?soon?as?possible.?...?  ARTICLE 175 1.? During?the?state?of?war?or?state?of?emergency?the?rights?and?freedoms?contemplated?by?articles:?15;?18;?19;?20;?21;?24;?25;?29;?30;?31;?32;?34;?39,?paragraph?1;?41,?paragraphs?1,?2,?3,?and?5;?42;?43;?48;?54;?55?may?not?be?limited.?2.? During?the?state?of?natural?disaster?the?rights?and?freedoms?contemplated?by?articles:?37;?38;?41,?paragraph?4;?49;?51?may?be?limited.? 4? UBC Press 20123.? The?acts?for?declaring?the?state?of?war,?emergency?or?natural?disaster?must?specify?the?rights?and?freedoms?which?are?limited?according?to?paragraphs?1?and?2?of?this?article.?Source: http://www.ipls.org/services/kusht/contents.html 5? UBC Press 2012Algeria (1996)?Pa ples?Governing?Algerian?Society?rt?1:?General?PrinciChapter?III:?The?State?ARTICLE 17  Public?property?belongs?to?the?national?collectivity.?It?includes?the?underground,?the?mines?and?quarries,?the?natural?resources?of?energy,?the?mineral,?natural?and?living?reso nt?zones,?national?maritime?areas,?waters?and?forests.??urces?in?the?differeChapter?V:?Duties?ARTICLE 66  The?duty?of?every?citizen?is?to?protect?the?public?property?and?the?interests?of?the?national?community?and?to?respect?the?property?of?others.??Source: http://www.algeria-un.org/default.asp?doc=-const  6? UBC Press 2012An 993) dorra (1Preamble??The?Andorran?People,?with?full?liberty?and?independence,?and?in?the?exercise?of?their?own?sovereignty,??Willing?to?bring?their?collaboration?and?effort?to?all?the?common?causes?of?mankind,?and?especially?to?those?of?preserving?the?integrity?of?the?Earth?and?guaranteeing?an?environment?fit?for?life?for?the?coming?generations,??A ?the?exercise?of?their?sovereignty:?pprove?the?present?Constitution,?inTitle?II:?Rights?and?Freedoms?Chapter?V:?Rights,?and?Economic,?Social?and?Cultural?principles?ARTICLE 31 The?State?has?the?task?of?ensuring?the?rational?use?of?the?soil?and?of?all?the?natural?resources,?so?as?to?guarantee?a?befitting?quality?of?life?for?all?and,?for?the?sake?of?the?coming?generations,?to?restore?and?maintain?a?reasonable?ecological?balance?in?the?atm tochthonous?flora?and?fauna.?osphere,?water?and?land,?as?well?as?to?protect?the?auChapter?VII:?Guarantees?of?Rights?and?Freedoms?ARTICLE 39 1.? The?rights?and?freedoms?recognised?in?chapters?III?and?IV?of?this?Title?bind?immediately?all?public?authorities?as?directly?enforceable?law.?Their?contents?cannot?be?limited?by?law?and?are?protected?by?the?Courts.?2.? Aliens?legally?resident?in?Andorra?can?freely?exercise?the?rights?and?freedoms?of?chapter?II?of?this?Title.?3.? The?rights?of?chapter?V?form?the?basis?of?the?legislation?and?the?actions?of?the?public?authorities,?but?they?may?only?be?invoked?within?the?conditions?determined?by?the?laws.? ARTICLE 41 1.? The?rights?and?freedoms?recognised?in?chapters?III?and?IV?are?protected?by?regular?courts?through?urgent?and?preferent?proceedings?regulated?by?law,?which?in?any?case?shall?be?transacted?in?two?instances.?2.? A?law?shall?create?an?exceptional?Procedure?of?Appeal?before?the?Constitutional?Court?against?the?acts?of?the?public?authorities?which?may?violate?the?essential?contents?of?the?rights?mentioned?in?the?paragraph?above,?with?the?exception?of?the?case?provided?for?in?article?22.? 7? UBC Press 2012Title?VII:?Justice?ARTICLE 86  4.? The?jurisdictional?defence?of?the?general?interest?may?be?carried?out?by?means?of?d?by?the?laws?of?procedure.?popular?action?in?the?cases?regulateTitle?VIII:?Constitutional?Court?ARTICLE 102 A?constitutional?appeal?against?the?acts?of?public?authorities?impairing?fundamental?rights?may?be?lodged?by:?a)? Those?having?been?part?or?accessory?to?the?previous?legal?proceedings?referred?to?in?article?41.2?of?this?Constitution.?b)? Those?having?a?legal?interest?related?to?non?enforceable?provisions?or?acts?of?the?Counsel?General.?c)? The?Public?Prosecutor?in?case?of?violation?of?the?fundamental?right?to?jurisdiction.?Source: http://www.andorramania.com/constit_gb.htm 8? UBC Press 2012Angola (1992) Part?II:?Fundamental?Rights?and?Duties?ARTICLE 24 (1)?All?citizens?shall?have?the?right?to?live?in?a?healthy?and?unpolluted?environment.?(2)? The?State?shall?take?the?requisite?measures?to?protect?the?environment?and?national?species?of?flora?and?fauna?throughout?the?national?territory?and?maintain?ecological?balance.??(3)?Acts?that?damage?or?directly?or?indirectly?jeopardize?conservation?of?the?environment?shall?be?punishable?by?law.??ARTICLE 43  Citizens?shall?have?the?right?to?contest?and?take?legal?action?against?any?acts?that?violate?their?rights?as?set?out?in?the?present?Constitutional?Law?and?other?legislation.? ARTICLE 52 (1)? The?exercise?of?the?rights,?freedoms?and?guarantees?of?citizens?may?be?restricted?or?suspended?only?in?accordance?with?the?law?if?such?constitute?a?threat?to?public?order,?community?interests,?individual?rights,?freedoms?and?guarantees,?or?in?the?event?of?the?declaration,?a?state?of?siege?or?emergency,?and?such?restrictions?shall?always?be?limited?to?necessary?and?adequate?measures?to?maintain?public?order,?in?the?interest?of?the?community?and?the?restoration?of?constitutional?normality.?(2)?On?no?account?shall?the?declaration?of?a?state?of?siege?or?state?of?emergency?affect?the?right?to?life,?personal?integrity,?personal?identity,?civil?capacity,?citizenship,?the?non?retroactive?nature?of?penal?law,?the?right?of?the?accused?to?defense?or?freedom?of?conscience?and?religion.?(3)?A?state?of?siege?and?state?of?emergency?shall?be?regulated?by?a?specific?law.?Source: http://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/ao00000_.html 9? UBC Press 2012Argentina (1994) Part?I Chapter?II:?New?Rights?and?Guarantees?SECTION 41  (1)?All?inhabitants?enjoy?the?right?to?a?healthy,?balanced?environment?which?is?fit?for?human?development?so?that?productive?activities?satisfy?current?needs?without?compromising?those?of?future?generations;?and?have?the?duty?to?preserve?the?environment.?Damaging?the?environment?generates?the?obligation?to?repair?it,?as?a?priority,?in?the?manner?that?is?established?by?law.?(2)? The?authorities?shall?provide?for?the?protection?of?this?right,?for?the?rational?use?of?natural?resources,?for?the?preservation?of?the?natural?and?cultural?patrimony?and?of?biological?diversity,?and?for?providing?environmental?information?and?education.?(3)? It?falls?to?the?Nation?to?dictate?laws?containing?a?minimum?budget?necessary?for?protecting?the?environment,?and?to?the?Provinces?to?dictate?those?laws?necessary?to?complement?the?National?laws,?without?such?laws?altering?local?jurisdiction.?(4)? The?entry?into?the?National?territory?of?dangerous?or?potentially?dangerous?wastes?and?of?radioactive?materials?is?prohibited.?  SECTION 43  Any?person?shall?file?a?prompt?and?swift?amparo?[summary?proceeding]?regarding?constitutional?guarantees,?provided?there?is?no?other?legal?remedy,?against?any?act?or?omission?of?the?public?authorities?or?individuals?which?currently?or?imminently?may?damage,?limit,?modify?or?threaten?rights?and?guarantees?recognized?by?this?Constitution,?treaties?or?laws,?with?open?arbitrariness?or?illegality.?In?such?case,?the?judge?may?declare?that?the?act?or?omission?is?based?on?an?unconstitutional?rule.??This?summary?proceeding?against?any?form?of?discrimination?and?about?rights?protecting?the?environment,?competition,?users?and?consumers,?as?well?as?about?rights?of?general?public?interest,?may?be?filed?by?the?affected?party,?the?Defender?of?the?People?[ombudsman]?and?the?associations?which?foster?such?ends?that?are?registered?according?to?a?law?determining?the?requirements?and?forms?of?their?organization.??Chapter?VII:?The?Ombudsman?SECTION 86  The?Ombudsman?is?an?independent?authority?created?within?the?sphere?of?the?National?Congress?operating?with?full?autonomy?and?without?receiving?instructions?from?any?other?authority.?The?mission?of?the?Ombudsman?is?the?defense?and?protection?of?human?rights?and?other?rights,?guarantees?and?interests?sheltered?under?this?Constitution?and?the?laws,?in?the?face?of?deeds,?acts?or?omissions?of?the?Administration;?as?well?as?the?control?of?public?administrative?functions.? 10? UBC Press 2012The?Ombudsman?has?capacity?to?be?a?party?in?a?lawsuit.?He?is?appointed?and?removed?by?Congress?with?the?vote?of?two?thirds?of?the?members?present?of?each?House.?He?has?the?immunities?and?privileges?of?legislators.?He?shall?hold?office?for?the?term?of?five?years?and?may?only?be?re?appointed?on?one?occasion.?The?organization?and?operation?of?this?body?shall?be?ruled?by?a?special?law.?Source: http://www.argentina.gov.ar/argentina/portal/documentos/constitucion_ingles.pdf 11? UBC Press 2012Arm 1995) enia (Preamble?The?Armenian?People,?...??to?ensure?the?freedom,?general?well?being?and?civic?harmony?of?future?generations,?...?Her a.?eby?adopts?the?Constitution?of?the?Republic?of?ArmeniChapter?1:?The?Foundations?of?Constitutional?Order?ARTICLE 3  The?human?being,?his/her?dignity?and?the?fundamental?human?rights?and?freedoms?are?an?ultimate?value.??The?state?shall?ensure?the?protection?of?fundamental?human?and?civil?rights?in?conformity?with?the?principles?and?norms?of?the?international?law.??The?state?shall?be?limited?by?fundamental?human?and?civil?rights?as?directly?applicable?rights.? ARTICLE 10  The?state?shall?ensure?the?protection?and?reproduction?of?the?environment?and?the?rational?utilization?of?natural?resources.?Chapter?2:?Fundamental?Human?and?Civil?Rights?and?Freedoms?ARTICLE 18  Everyone?shall?be?entitled?to?effective?legal?remedies?to?protect?his/her?rights?and?freedoms?before?judicial?as?well?as?other?public?bodies.??Everyone?shall?have?a?right?to?protect?his/her?rights?and?freedoms?by?any?means?not?prohibited?by?the?law.??Everyone?shall?be?entitled?to?have?the?support?of?the?Human?Rights??Defender?for?the?protection?of?his/her?rights?and?freedoms?on?the?grounds?and?in?conformity?with?the?procedure?prescribed?by?law.??Everyone?shall?in?conformity?with?the?international?treaties?of?the?Republic?of?Armenia?be?entitled?to?apply?to?the?international?institutions?protecting?human?rights?and?freedoms?with?a?request?to?protect?his/her?rights?and?freedoms.? ARTICLE 31  Everyone?shall?have?the?right?to?freely?own,?use,?dispose?of?and?bequeath?the?property?belonging?to?him/her.?The?right?to?property?shall?not?be?exercised?so?as?to?cause?damage?to?the?environment?or?infringe?on?the?rights?and?lawful?interests?of?other?persons,?society,?or?the?state.? 12? UBC Press 2012ARTICLE 33.2  Everyone?shall?have?the?right?to?live?in?an?environment?favorable?to?his/her?health?and?well?being,?and?shall?be?obliged?to,?individually?or?as?a?group,?protect?and?improve?it.?The?public?officials?shall?be?held?responsible?for?the?concealment?of?or?denial?of?access?to?information?on?environmental?issues.?  ARTICLE 43  The?fundamental?human?and?civil?rights?and?freedoms?set?forth?in?Articles?23?25,?27,?28?30,?30.1,?Part?3?of?Article?32?may?be?temporarily?restricted?only?by?the?law?if?it?is?necessary?in?a?democratic?society?in?the?interests?of?national?security,?public?order,?crime?prevention,?protection?of?public?health?and?morality,?constitutional?rights?and?freedoms,?as?well?as?honor?and?reputation?of?others.??Limitations?on?fundamental?human?and?civil?rights?and?freedoms?may?not?exceed?the?scope?defined?by?the?international?commitments?assumed?by?the?Republic?of?Armenia.? ARTICLE 44 Special?categories?of?fundamental?human?and?civil?rights,?except?for?those?stipulated?in?Articles?15,?17?22?and?42?of?the?Constitution?may?be?temporarily?restricted?as?prescribed?by?the?law?in?case?of?martial?law?or?state?of?emergency?within?the?scope?of?the?assumed?international?commitments?on?deviating?from?commitments?in?cases?of?emergency.? ARTICLE 48 The?basic?tasks?of?the?state?in?the?economic,?social?and?cultural?spheres?are:?...?10)?to?pursue?the?environmental?security?policy?for?present?and?future?generations;?...?The?state?shall,?within?the?scope?of?its?possibilities,?be?obliged?to?undertake?necessary?mea ses?prescribed?in?this?Article.?sures?for?the?fulfillment?of?the?purpoChapter?4:?The?National?Assembly?ARTICLE 83.5  The?issues?below?shall?be?set?forth?exclusively?by?the?laws?of?the?Republic?of?Armenia:??1)?terms?and?procedures?for?the?exercise?and?protection?of?the?rights?by?natural?persons?and?legal?entities;??2)?restrictions?on?the?rights?and?freedoms?of?natural?persons?and?legal?entities,?their?obligations,?as?well?as?forms,?extent?and?procedure?for?liability?thereof,?means?of?compulsion?and?the?procedure?for?such,?types,?amounts?and?procedures?for?the?payment?of?taxes,?duties?and?other?binding?fees?paid?by?natural?persons?and?legal?entities;???  13? UBC Press 2012Chapter?6:?The?Judicial?Power?ARTICLE 101  In?conformity?with?the?procedure?set?forth?in?the?Constitution?and?the?law?on?the?Constitutional?Court?the?application?to?the?Constitutional?Court?may?be?filed?by:?6)? every?person?in?a?specific?case?when?the?final?judicial?act?has?been?adopted,?when?the?possibilities?of?judicial?protection?have?been?exhausted?and?when?the?constitutionality?of?a?law?provision?applied?by?the?act?in?question?is?being?challenged;?...?8)? the?Human?Rights?Defender???on?the?issue?of?compliance?of?normative?acts?listed?in?clause?1?of?Article?100?of?the?Constitution?[laws,?resolutions?of?the?National?Assembly,?decrees?and?orders?of?the?President,?decisions?of?the?Prime?Minister?and?local?self?government]?with?the?provisions?of?Chapter?2?of?the?Constitution;?...?The ly?upon?the?receipt?of?an?application.??Constitutional?Court?shall?start?proceedings?onChapter?9:?Final?and?Transitional?Provisions?ARTICLE 117  After?the?amendments?to?the?Constitution?come?into?force:???3)? The?social?rights?provided?in?the?Constitution?shall?be?valid?to?extent?specified?by?the?appropriate?laws.?Source: http://www.president.am/library/constitution/eng 14? UBC Press 2012Austria (1984)1 Federal?Act?dated?27th?November?1984?for?Comprehensive?Protection?of?the?Environment?? 1 (1)? The?Republic?of?Austria?(Federation,?Laender?and?Municipalities)?acknowledges?its?responsibility?for?the?comprehensive?protection?of?the?environment.?(2)?Comprehensive?protection?of?the?environment?is?protecting?the?natural?environment?as?the?basis?of?mankind?s?life?resources?against?detrimental?effects.?Comprehensive?protection?of?the?environment?consists?in?particular?of?measures?to?keep?air,?water?and?soils?clean?and?to?avoid?disturbing?noise.? ? 2 The?Federal?Government?shall?be?in?charge?of?executing?this?Federal?Constitutional?Act.?Federal?Act?on?Environmental?Impact?Assessment?(Environmental?Impact?Assessment?Act?2000)?Section?2:?Environmental?Impact?Assessment?and?Consolidated?Development?Consent?Procedure?Locus?standi,?Right?of?Participation?and?Right?of?Appeal?19 (4)? (Constitutional?provision)?Comments?according?to?Article?9?(5)?may?be?supported?by?entering?one?s?name,?address,?date?of?birth?and?signature?on?a?list?of?signatures.?The?list?of?signatures?shall?be?submitted?at?the?same?time?as?the?comment.?If?a?comment?is?supported?by?200?persons?or?more?who?have?the?right?to?vote?in?municipal?elections?in?the?host?municipality?or?in?a?directly?adjoining?municipality?at?the?time?of?expressing?their?support,?this?group?of?persons?(citizens??group)?shall?have?locus?standi?in?the?development?consent?procedure?for?the?project?and?in?the?procedure?according?to?Article?20?or?shall?be?considered?to?be?a?party?involved?(paragraph?2).?Citizens??groups?having?locus?standi?shall?be?entitled?to?claim?the?observance?of?environmental?provisions?as?a?subjective?right?in?the?procedure?and?to?complain?to?the?Administrative?Court?or?the?Constitutional?Court.?...??                                                 1?Austria?s?legal?system?is?unique?in?that?it?is?very?easy?to?amend?the?body?of?laws?known?as??constitutional?law,??even?by?identifying?a?passage?in?regular?legislation?as??constitutional.??The?only?requirement?is?a?majority?of?two?thirds?in?the?National?Council.?Only?fundamental?changes?to?the?constitution?such?as?Austria?s?accession?to?the?European?Union?in?1995?require?a?confirmation?by?referendum.?? 15? UBC Press 2012(7)? (Constitutional?provision)?In?agreement?with?the?Federal?Minister?for?Economic?Affairs?and?Labour,?the?Federal?Minister?of?Agriculture?and?Forestry,?Environment?and?Water?Management?shall?decide?upon?request?by?administrative?order?whether?an?environmental?organisation?meets?the?criteria?of?paragraph?6?and?in?which?Laender?the?environmental?organisation?is?entitled?to?exercise?the?rights?related?to?locus?standi.?Complaints?against?the?decision?may?also?be?filed?with?the?Constitutional?Court.?Section?3:?Environmental?Impact?Assessment?for?Federal?Roads?and?High?Speed?Railroads?Decision?and?Post?Project?Analysis?24(H)  (8)? (Constitutional?provision)?The?persons?stipulated?in?the?applicable?administrative?provisions?and?the?persons?affected?by?the?subject?of?individual?procedures?pursuant?to?Article?19?(1)?no.?1?shall?have?locus?standi?in?the?development?consent?procedures?according?to?paragraph?6.?The?persons?listed?in?Article?19?(1)?no.?3?to?6?shall?have?locus?standi?subject?to?the?provisions?of?Article?19,?the?right?to?demand?compliance?with?provisions?of?environmental?protection?as?a?subjective?right?in?the?procedure?and?the?right?to?complain?to?the?Administrative?Court;?citizens??groups?shall?also?be?entitled?to?complain?to?the?Constitutional?Court.?Persons?according?to?Article?19?(1)?no.?7?shall?have?locus?standi?subject?to?the?provisions?of?Article?19,?the?right?to?demand?compliance?with?provisions?of?environmental?protection?in?the?procedure?and?the?right?to?complain?to?the?Administrative?Court.?If?the?environmental?impact?assessment?was?performed?in?a?simplified?procedure,?citizens??groups?in?accordance?with?Article?19?(4)?may?participate?in?the?simplified?procedure?as?parties?involved?with?the?right?to?inspect?the?files.?Article?24c?(2)?and?(3)?shall?apply?to?the?development?consent?procedures?pursuant?to?paragraph?6?and?co?ordination?according?to?paragraph?7.?Sources: (German, from Federal Law Gazette No. 491/1984, 1 Aug. 2005) http://ris2.bka.gv.at/Dokument.wxe?QueryID=Erv&Dokumentnummer=ERV_1984_491; (English) http://www.ris.bka.gv.at/englische-rv/  16? UBC Press 2012A mended) zerbaijan (1995,?as?aFirst?Section:?General??Chapter?II:?Basis?of?State??ARTICLE 16. SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT AND STATE II.? The?Azerbaijanian?state?participates?in?development?of?culture,?education,?public?health,?science,?arts,?protects?environment,?historical,?material?and?spiritual?heritage?of?the?people.?Se ties?cond?Section:?Basic?Rights,?Liberties?and?ResponsibiliChapter?III:?Basic?Rights?and?Liberties?of?a?Person?and?Citizen?ARTICLE 39. RIGHT TO LIFE IN A HEALTHY ENVIRONMENT I.? Everyone?has?the?right?to?live?in?a?healthy?environment.?II.? Everyone?has?the?right?to?collect?information?on?the?environmental?situation?and?to?get?compensation?for?damage?rendered?to?the?health?and?property?due?to?the?violation?of?ecological?rights.?III.?No?one?may?cause?threat?or?damage?to?the?environment?and?natural?resources?beyond?the?limits?set?by?law.?IV.?The?state?guarantees?the?preservation?of?ecological?balance?and?protection?of?the?species?of?wild?plants?and?animals?determined?by?law.? ARTICLE 60. GUARANTEE OF RIGHTS AND LIBERTIES BY LAW COURT I.? Legal?protection?of?rights?and?liberties?of?every?citizen?is?ensured.?II.? Everyone?may?appeal?to?law?court?regarding?decisions?and?activity?(or?inactivity)?of?state?bodies,?political?parties,?trade?unions,?other?public?organizations?and?officials.? ARTICLE 71. PROTECTION OF RIGHTS AND LIBERTIES OF A HUMAN BEING AND CITIZEN I.? To?observe?and?to?protect?rights?and?liberties?of?a?human?being?and?citizen?specified?in?the?Constitution?is?the?responsibility?of?bodies?of?legislative,?executive?and?legal?power.?II.? No?one?may?restrict?implementation?of?rights?and?liberties?of?a?human?being?and?citizen.?III.?Rights?and?liberties?of?a?human?being?and?citizen?may?be?partially?and?temporarily?restricted?on?announcement?of?war,?martial?law?and?state?of?emergency,?and?also?mobilization,?taking?into?consideration?international?obligations?of?the?Azerbaijan?Republic.?Population?of?the?Republic?shall?be?notified?in?advance?about?restrictions?as?regards?their?rights?and?liberties.?...?VII.?Any?arguments?related?to?violation?of?rights?and?liberties?of?a?human?being?and?citizen?are?settled?in?law?courts.? 17? UBC Press 2012Chapter?IV:?Main?Responsibilities?of?Citizens?ARTICLE 78. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION P ?is?the?duty?of?everyone.?rotection?of?the?environmentSection?III:?State?Power?Chapter?VII:?Judicial?Power?ARTICLE 130 V.? Everyone?claiming?to?be?the?victim?of?a?violation?of?his/her?rights?and?freedoms?by?the?decisions?of?legislative,?executive?and?judiciary,?municipal?acts?set?forth?in?the?items?1?7?of?the?Para?III?of?this?Article?may?appeal,?in?accordance?with?the?procedure?provided?for?by?law,?to?the?Constitutional?Court?of?the?Republic?of?Azerbaijan?with?the?view?of?the?restoration?of?violated?human?rights?and?freedoms.?VI.?In?accordance?with?the?procedure?provided?for?by?the?laws?of?Azerbaijan?Republic?the?courts?may?file?the?Constitutional?Court?of?Azerbaijan?Republic?a?request?on?interpretation?of?the?Constitution?and?the?laws?of?Azerbaijan?Republic?as?regards?the?matters?concerning?the?implementation?of?human?rights?and?freedoms.?VII.?Ombudsman?of?Azerbaijan?Republic?in?accordance?with?the?procedure?provided?for?by?the?laws?of?the?Republic?of?Azerbaijan?for?solving?the?matters?indicated?in?items?1?7,?para?III?of?the?given?Article?shall?apply?to?the?Constitutional?Court?of?the?Republic?of?Azerbaijan?in?cases?where?the?rights?and?freedoms?of?a?person?had?been?violated?by?legislative?acts?in?force,?normative?acts?of?executive?power,?municipalities?as?well?as?the?court?decisions?Source: http://en.president.az/azerbaijan/constitution/ 18? UBC Press 2012hrain (1973) Chapter?II:?Basic?Constituents?of?Society?BaARTICLE 9H  The?State?shall?take?the?necessary?measures?for?the?protection?of?the?environment?and?the?conservation?of?wildlife.? ARTICLE 11  All?natural?wealth?and?resources?are?State?property.?The?State?shall?safeguard?them?and?exploit?them?properly,?while?observing?the?requirements?of?the?security?of?the?State?and?of?the?national?economy.?Chapter?IV:?Public?Authorities?Section?IV:?Judicial?Authority?ARTICLE 106  (1)?A?Constitutional?Court?shall?be?established,?and?shall?comprise?a?President?and?six?members,?all?of?whom?are?appointed?by?a?Royal?Order?for?a?period?specified?by?the?law.?The?court?s?area?of?competence?is?to?watch?over?the?constitutionality?of?laws?and?statutes.?(2)? The?law?shall?state?the?regulations?that?ensure?that?the?members?of?the?Court?are?not?liable?to?dismissal,?and?specifies?the?procedures?that?are?followed?before?the?Court.?The?law?shall?guarantee?the?right?of?the?Government,?Consultative?Council,?the?Chamber?of?Deputies?and?notable?individuals?and?others?to?challenge?before?the?Court?the?constitutionality?of?laws?and?statutes.?A?ruling?by?the?Court?that?a?text?in?a?law?or?a?statute?is?unconstitutional?shall?have?a?direct?effect,?unless?the?Court?specifies?a?subsequent?date?for?the?purpose.?Thus?if?the?Court?s?rule?on?unconstitutionality?is?related?to?a?text?in?the?penal?code?then?the?convictions?made?on?the?basis?of?such?a?text?are?deemed?null?and?void.?(3)? The?King?may?refer?to?the?Court?any?draft?laws?before?they?are?adopted?to?determine?the?extent?of?their?agreement?with?the?Constitution.?The?Court?s?determination?is?binding?on?all?State?authorities?and?on?everyone.?Source: http://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/ba00000_.html  19? UBC Press 2012Bangladesh (2011) Part?II:?Fundamental?Principles?of?State?Policy?ARTICLE 18A. PROTECTION AND IMPROVEMENT OF ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY  The?State?shall?endeavour?to?protect?and?improve?the?environment?and?to?preserve?and?safeguard?the?natural?resources,?biodiversity,?wetlands,?forests?and?wild?life?for?the?present?and?future?citizens.? 20? UBC Press 2012Belarus (1994) Section?II:?Individual,?Society,?and?the?State?ARTICLE 23  Restriction?of?personal?rights?and?liberties?shall?be?permitted?only?in?the?instances?specified?in?law,?in?the?interest?of?national?security,?public?order,?the?protection?of?the?morals?and?health?of?the?population?as?well?as?rights?and?liberties?of?other?persons.?No?one?may?enjoy?advantages?and?privileges?that?are?contrary?to?the?law.? ARTICLE 34  Citizens?of?the?Republic?of?Belarus?shall?be?guaranteed?the?right?to?receive,?store,?and?disseminate?complete,?reliable,?and?timely?information?on?the?activities?of?state?bodies?and?public?associations,?on?political,?economic,?and?international?life,?and?on?the?state?of?the?environment.? ARTICLE 44  The?State?shall?guarantee?everyone?the?right?of?property?and?shall?contribute?to?its?acquisition.??...?(6)? The?exercise?of?the?right?of?property?shall?not?be?harmful?to?the?environment?or?historical?and?cultural?treasures,?or?infringe?upon?the?rights?and?legally?protected?interests?of?others.? ARTICLE 45 Citizens?of?the?Republic?of?Belarus?shall?be?guaranteed?the?right?to?health?care,?including?free?treatment?at?state?health?care?establishments.?The?State?shall?make?health?care?facilities?accessible?to?all?of?its?citizens.?The?right?of?citizens?of?the?Republic?of?Belarus?to?health?care?shall?also?be?secured?by?the?development?of?physical?training?and?sport,?measures?to?improve?the?environment,?the?opportunity?to?use?fitness?establishments?and?improvements?in?occupational?safety.? ARTICLE 46 Everyone?is?entitled?to?a?wholesome?environment?and?to?compensation?for?loss?or?damage?caused?by?the?violation?of?this?right.?The?State?shall?supervise?the?rational?utilization?of?natural?resources,?protects?and?improves?living?conditions,?and?preserves?and?restores?the?environment.? ARTICLE 55 It?is?the?duty?of?everyone?to?protect?the?environment.? 21? UBC Press 2012ARTICLE 60  Everyone?shall?be?guaranteed?protection?of?one?s?rights?and?liberties?by?a?competent,?independent?and?impartial?court?of?law?within?time?periods?specified?in?law.?To?defend?their?rights,?liberties,?honour?and?dignity,?citizens?shall?be?entitled?in?accordance?with?the?law?to?recover,?through?the?courts,?both?property?damage?and?financial?compensation?for?moral?injury.? ARTICLE 61  Everyone?shall?have?the?right?in?accordance?with?the?international?instruments?ratified?by?the?Republic?of?Belarus?to?appeal?to?international?organizations?to?defend?their?rights?and?liberties,?provided?all?available?intrastate?means?of?legal?defence?have?been?exhausted.? ARTICLE 62  Everyone?shall?have?the?right?to?legal?assistance?to?exercise?and?defend?his?rights?and?liberties,?including?the?right?to?make?use,?at?any?time,?of?the?assistance?of?lawyers?and?one?s?other?representatives?in?court,?other?state?bodies,?bodies?of?local?government,?enterprises,?establishments,?organizations?and?public?associations,?and?also?in?relations?with?officials?and?citizens.?In?the?instances?specified?in?law,?legal?assistance?shall?be?rendered?from?public?funds.?Opposition?to?the?rendering?of?legal?assistance?shall?be?prohibited?in?the?Republic?of?Belarus.? ARTICLE 63  The?exercise?of?the?personal?rights?and?liberties?specified?in?this?Constitution?may?be?suspended?only?during?a?state?of?emergency?or?martial?law?under?the?procedure?and?within?the?limits?specified?in?the?Constitution?and?the?law.?In?carrying?out?special?measures?during?a?state?of?emergency,?the?rights?specified?in?Article?24,?part?three?of?Article?25?and?Articles?26?and?31?of?the?Constitution?may?not?be?restricted.?Source: http://www.president.gov.by/en/press10669.html 22? UBC Press 2012B melgiu  (1994) Title?IBIS:?On?General?Political?Objectives?of?Federal?Belgium,?the?Communities,?and?the?Regions?ARTICLE 7BIS  In?the?exercise?of?their?respective?competences,?the?Federal?State,?the?Communities?and?the?Regions?follow?the?objectives?of?sustainable?development?in?its?social,?economic?and?e ?solidarity?between?the?generations.?nvironmental?aspects,?taking?into?account?theTitle?II:?On?Belgians?and?Their?Rights?ARTICLE 23  Everyone?has?the?right?to?lead?a?life?in?keeping?with?human?dignity.?To?this?end,?the?laws,?federate?laws?and?rules?referred?to?in?Article?134?guarantee?economic,?social?and?cultural?rights,?taking?into?account?corresponding?obligations,?and?determine?the?conditions?for?exercising?them.?These?rights?include?among?others:?...? 4.?the?right?to?the?protection?of?a?healthy?environment;?Source: http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/un-dpadm/unpan040595.pdf  23? UBC Press 2012Be 1) lize (198Preamble?Whereas?the?people?of?Belize?...??e)? require?policies?of?state?...?which?protect?the?environment?Now,?therefore,?the?following?provisions?shall?have?effect?as?the?Constitution?of?Belize?...?Source: http://www.belizelaw.org/belize_constitution01.pdf 24? UBC Press 2012Benin (1990) Title?II:?Rights?and?Duties?of?the?Individual?ARTICLE 7  The?rights?and?duties?proclaimed?and?guaranteed?by?the?African?Charter?on?Human?and?Peoples??Rights?adopted?in?1981?by?the?Organization?of?African?Unity?and?ratified?by?Benin?on?January?20,?1986?shall?be?an?integral?part?of?the?Constitution?and?Beninese?law.? ARTICLE 27  Every?person?has?the?right?to?a?healthy,?satisfying?and?lasting?environment?and?has?the?duty?to?defend?it.?The?State?shall?watch?over?the?protection?of?the?environment.??ARTICLE 28  The?storage,?handling,?and?removal?of?toxic?wastes?or?pollutants?originating?from?factories?and?other?industrial?or?cottage?industry?units?installed?in?the?national?territory?shall?be?regulated?by?law.? ARTICLE 29  The?transportation,?importation,?storage,?burying?and?the?discharging?on?the?national?territory?of?toxic?wastes?or?foreign?pollutants?and?any?agreement?relating?to?it?shall?constitute?a?crime?against?the?nation.?The?applicable?sanctions?shall?be?defined?by?law.?Source: http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/category,LEGAL,,,BEN,3ae6b57d4,0.html  25? UBC Press 2012Bhutan (2008) Article?5:?Environment?1.? Every?Bhutanese?is?a?trustee?of?the?Kingdom?s?natural?resources?and?environment?for?the?benefit?of?the?present?and?future?generations?and?it?is?the?fundamental?duty?of?every?citizen?to?contribute?to?the?protection?of?the?natural?environment,?conservation?of?the?rich?biodiversity?of?Bhutan?and?prevention?of?all?forms?of?ecological?degradation?including?noise,?visual?and?physical?pollution?through?the?adoption?and?support?of?environment?friendly?practices?and?policies.??2.? The?Royal?Government?shall:?(a)? Protect,?conserve?and?improve?the?pristine?environment?and?safeguard?the?biodiversity?of?the?country;?(b)?Prevent?pollution?and?ecological?degradation;?(c)? Secure?ecologically?balanced?sustainable?development?while?promoting?justifiable?economic?and?social?development;?and?(d)?Ensure?a?safe?and?healthy?environment.?  3.? The?Government?shall?ensure?that,?in?order?to?conserve?the?country?s?natural?resources?and?to?prevent?degradation?of?the?ecosystem,?a?minimum?of?sixty?percent?of?Bhutan?s?total?land?shall?be?maintained?under?forest?cover?for?all?time.??4.? Parliament?may?enact?environmental?legislation?to?ensure?sustainable?use?of?natural?resources?and?maintain?intergenerational?equity?and?reaffirm?the?sovereign?rights?of?the?State?over?its?own?biological?resources.??5.? Parliament?may,?by?law,?declare?any?part?of?the?country?to?be?a?National?Park,?Wildlife?Reserve,?Nature?Reserve,?Protected?Forest,?Biosphere?Reserve,?Critical?ories?meriting?protection.?Watershed?and?such?other?categArticle?7:?Fundamental?Rights?22.?Notwithstanding?the?rights?conferred?by?this?Constitution,?nothing?in?this?Article?shall?prevent?the?State?from?subjecting?reasonable?restriction?by?law,?when?it?concerns:?(a)? The?interests?of?the?sovereignty,?security,?unity?and?integrity?of?Bhutan;?(b)?The?interests?of?peace,?stability?and?well?being?of?the?nation;?(c)? The?interests?of?friendly?relations?with?foreign?States;? 26? UBC Press 2012(d)? Incitement?to?an?offence?on?the?grounds?of?race,?sex,?language,?religion?or?region;?(e)? The?disclosure?of?information?received?in?regard?to?the?affairs?of?the?State?or?in?discharge?of?official?duties;?or?(f)? The?rights?and?freedom?of?others.?  23.?All?persons?in?Bhutan?shall?have?the?right?to?initiate?appropriate?proceedings?in?the?Supreme?Court?or?High?Court?for?the?enforcement?of?the?rights?conferred?by?this?is?Article?and?procedures?prescribed?by?law.?Article,?subject?to?section?22?of?thArticle?8:?Fundamental?Duties?2.? A?Bhutanese?citizen?shall?have?the?duty?to?preserve,?protect?and?respect?the?heritage?of?the?nation.?environment,?culture?and?Article?21:?The?Judiciary?18.?Every?person?has?the?right?to?approach?the?courts?in?matters?arising?out?of?the?Constitution?or?other?laws?subject?to?section?23?of?Article?7.?Source: http://www.constitution.bt/TsaThrim%20Eng%20(A5).pdf 27? UBC Press 2012Bo 02,?amended?2009)livia (20Preamble?2 In?ancient?times?mountains?arose,?rivers?moved,?and?lakes?were?formed.?Our?Amazonia,?our?swamps,?our?highlands,?and?our?plains?and?valleys?were?covered?with?greenery?and?flowers.?We?populated?this?sacred?Mother?Earth?with?different?faces,?and?since?that?time?we?have?understood?the?plurality?that?exists?in?all?things?and?in?our?diversity?as?human?beings?and?cultures.?Thus,?our?peoples?were?formed,?and?we?never?knew?racism?until?we?were?subjected?to?it?during?the?terrible?times?of?colonialism.?We,?the?Bolivian?people,?of?plural?composition,?from?the?depths?of?history,?inspired?by?the?struggles?of?the?past,?by?the?anti?colonial?indigenous?uprising,?and?in?independence,?by?the?popular?struggles?of?liberation,?by?the?indigenous,?social?and?labor?marches,?by?the?water?and?October?wars,?by?the?struggles?for?land?and?territory,?construct?a?new?State?in?memory?of?our?martyrs.?A?State?based?on?respect?and?equality?for?all,?on?principles?of?sovereignty,?dignity,?interdependence,?solidarity,?harmony,?and?equity?in?the?distribution?and?redistribution?of?the?social?wealth,?where?the?search?for?a?good?life?predominates;?based?on?respect?for?the?economic,?social,?juridical,?political?and?cultural?pluralism?of?the?inhabitants?of?this?land;?and?on?collective?coexistence?with?access?to?water,?work,?education,?health?and?housing?for?all.?Part?I:?Fundamental?Basis?of?State?Rights,?Duties,?and?Guarantees?Title?I:?FundamentalChapter?I:?General?Matters??Basis?of?the?State?ARTICLE 13 I.? The?rights?recognized?in?this?Constitution?are?inviolable,?universal,?inter?dependent,?indivisible?and?progressive.?The?State?has?the?duty?to?promote,?protect?and?respect?them.?II.? The?rights?declared?in?this?Constitution?shall?not?be?understood?to?deny?other?rights?that?are?not?enumerated.?III.?The?classification?of?the?rights?established?in?this?Constitution?does?not?determine?any?hierarchy?or?superiority?of?some?rights?over?others.?IV.?International?treaties?and?conventions?ratified?by?the?Pluri?National?Legislative?Assembly,?which?recognize?human?rights?and?prohibit?their?limitation?in?States?of?Emergency,?prevail?over?internal?law.?The?rights?and?duties?consecrated?in?this?                                                 2?Translated?from?the?original?Spanish?by?author.? 28? UBC Press 2012Constitution?shall?be?interpreted?in?accordance?with?the?International?Human?Rights?Treaties?ratified?by?Bolivia.?Chapter?Two:?Principles,?Values,?and?Aims?of?the?State?ARTICLE 9 Essential?State?purposes?and?functions,?in?addition?to?those?established?by?the?Constitution?and?laws,?are:????6.? To?promote?and?ensure?responsible?and?planned?use?of?natural?resources,?and?promote?industrialization?through?the?development?and?strengthening?the?productive?base?in?different?dimensions?and?levels?as?well?as?environmental?conservation,?for?the?welfare?of?generations?present?and?future.?Title?II:?Fundamental?RightsChapter?Two:?Fundamental?Rights??and?Guarantees?ARTICLE 16  I.? Everyone?has?the?right?to?water?and?food.??II.? The?State?has?an?obligation?to?ensure?food?security?for?the?whole?population?through?a?healthy,?adequate,?and?sufficient?diet.?Chapter?Four:?Rights?of?the?Indigenous?Original?Rural?Nations?and?Peoples??ARTICLE 30  I.? The?human?community?that?shares?cultural?identity,?language,?historical?traditions,?institutions,?territoriality?and?world?view,?whose?existence?predates?the?Spanish?colonial?invasion?is?the?indigenous?original?rural?nations?and?peoples.??II.? Under?the?state?s?unity?and?in?accordance?with?this?Constitution,?the?original?rural?indigenous?peoples?and?nations?enjoy?the?following?rights:???To?live?in?a?healthy?environment,?with?proper?management?and?use?of?ecosystems.?Chapter?Five:?Social?and?Economic?Rights?Section?I:?Right?to?a?Healthy?Environment??ARTICLE 33  People?have?a?right?to?a?healthy?protected?and?balanced?environment.?The?exercise?of?this?right?should?enable?individuals?and?communities?of?present?and?future?generations,?and?other?living?beings,?to?develop?normally?and?permanently.?? 29? UBC Press 2012ARTICLE 34 Any?person,?individually?or?on?behalf?of?a?community,?is?empowered?to?bring?legal?actions?in?defense?of?environmental?rights,?without?prejudice?to?the?obligation?of?public?institutions?to?act?on?their?own?against?attacks?on?the?environment.??Section?IV:?The?Right?to?Property?ARTICLE 56 I.? Everyone?has?the?right?to?private?property?individually?or?collectively,?provided?it?fulfills?a?social?function.?II.? Private?property?is?guaranteed?provided?that?the?use?made?thereof?is?not?harmful?to?collective?interests.?Chapter?Six:?Education,?Multiculturalism,?and?Cultural?Rights?Section?I:?Education??ARTICLE 80  I.? Education?shall?aim?at?the?integral?formation?of?individuals?and?the?strengthening?of?critical?social?consciousness?in?life?and?for?life.?Education?shall?be?directed:?to?individual?and?collective?training;?the?development?of?physical?and?intellectual?skills,?aptitudes,?and?abilities?to?link?theory?with?productive?practice;?and?to?conservation?and?protection?of?the?environment,?biodiversity,?and?land?for?living?well.?Its?regulation?and?enforcement?will?be?established?by?law.??Title?III:?Duties??ARTICLE 108  The?duties?of?Bolivia?and?the?Bolivians?are?to:???  15.?Protect?and?defend?natural?resources?and?contribute?to?their?sustainable?use,?to?preserve?the?rights?of?future?generations.??16.??Protect?and?defend?an?environment?adequate?for?the?development?of?living?beings.?Title?IV:?Judicial?GuaranteeChapter?One:?Judicial?Guarantees??s?and?Defense?Actions?ARTICLE 109  I.? All?rights?under?the?Constitution?are?directly?applicable?and?enjoy?equal?protection?of?their?guarantees.??II.? The?rights?and?guarantees?may?only?be?regulated?by?law.?? 30? UBC Press 2012 ARTICLE 110  I.? People?who?violate?constitutional?rights?are?subject?to?the?jurisdiction?and?venue?of?the?Bolivian?authorities.??II.? The?violation?of?constitutional?rights?makes?their?material?and?intellectual?authors?accountable.?? ARTICLE 113  I.? The?infringement?of?rights?grants?victims?the?right?to?indemnification,?reparation?and?compensation?for?damage?and?harms?in?a?timely?manner.??II.? If?the?state?is?ordered?to?pay?financial?restitution?for?damages,?it?shall?bring?action?for?recourse?against?the?authority?or?public?servant?responsible?for?the?act?or?omission?which?caused?the?damage.?? ARTICLE 115  I.? All?persons?will?be?protected?by?the?judges?and?courts?in?a?timely?and?effectively?manner?in?the?exercise?of?their?rights?and?interests.??II.? The?State?guarantees?the?right?to?due?process,?defense?and?timely,?free,?transparent?and?expeditious?justice.??Chapter?Two:?Defense?Actions?Section?II:?Constitutional?Protection?Action?(Amparo)?ARTICLE 128  The?Constitutional?Protection?Action?(Amparo)?will?be?used?against?unlawful?acts?or?omissions?or?misuse?of?public?servants,?or?a?specific?person?or?group,?that?restrict,?deny?or?threaten?to?restrict?or?deny?the?rights?conferred?by?the?Constitution?and?the?law.?? ARTICLE 129  I.? The?Constitutional?Protection?Action?(Amparo)?is?filed?by?the?affected?person,?or?another?person?with?sufficient?power?or?with?the?authority?according?to?the?Constitution,?before?any?competent?court,?provided?there?is?no?other?means?or?remedy?for?the?immediate?protection?of?the?rights?and?guarantees?restricted,?suppressed?or?threatened.??II.? The?constitutional?Amparo?must?be?filed?within?six?months,?counted?from?the?commission?of?the?alleged?infringement?or?notification?of?the?latest?administrative?or?judicial?decision.??III.?The?authority?or?person?accused?shall?be?summoned?in?the?manner?provided?for?the?Action?of?Liberty?with?the?purpose?of?giving?this?information?and,?where?appropriate,?the?action?taken?concerning?the?act?denounced,?not?later?than?forty?eight?hours?after?the?presentation?of?the?Action.??IV.?The?final?hearing?shall?be?public?and?will?take?place?immediately?after?receiving?the?information?from?the?authority?or?defendant?and,?failing?that,?it?does?so?on?the?basis? 31? UBC Press 2012of?the?evidence?offered?by?the?individual?plaintiff.?The?judicial?authority?shall?examine?the?competency?of?the?public?servant?or?public?official?or?of?the?defendant?and,?if?the?demand?is?found?to?be?true?and?effective,?give?the?remedy?requested.?The?decision?can?be?appealed?to?the?Constitutional?Court?for?review?within?twenty?four?hours?after?the?issuance?of?the?verdict.??V.? The?final?decision?granting?the?claim?for?constitutional?protection?will?be?implemented?immediately?and?without?objection.?In?case?of?resistance,?plaintiff?may?proceed?in?accordance?with?the?stipulations?stated?in?the?Action?of?Liberty.?The?appropriate?judicial?authority?that?does?not?act?in?accordance?with?the?provisions?of?this?article?shall?be?subject?to?the?penalties?provided?by?law.? Section?IV:?Action?of?Unconstitutionality??ARTICLE 132 Any?individual?or?group?affected?by?a?rule?of?law?contrary?to?the?Constitution?shall?be?entitled?to?pursue?the?Action?of?Unconstitutionality,?in?accordance?with?procedures?established?by?law.?? ARTICLE 133  The?ruling?declaring?the?unconstitutionality?of?a?law,?decree,?or?any?kind?of?non?judicial?resolution?makes?it?inapplicable?and?has?full?effect?for?all.?? Section?V:?Enforcement?Action??ARTICLE 134  I.? The?Enforcement?Action?will?proceed?in?case?of?breach?of?constitutional?provisions?or?of?the?law?by?public?servants,?in?order?to?guarantee?the?implementation?of?the?law?or?standard?omitted.??II.? The?action?can?be?filed?by?the?affected?individual?or?group,?or?by?another,?with?sufficient?power,?in?their?name,?before?a?competent?court?and?shall?be?handled?in?the?same?way?as?the?Constitutional?Protection?Action?(Amparo).??III.?The?final?resolution?shall?be?announced?in?open?court,?immediately?after?receiving?the?information?from?the?defendant?authority?and,?failing?that,?it?does?so?on?the?basis?of?the?evidence?offered?by?the?applicant.?The?judicial?authority?shall?examine?the?background?and,?if?found?the?demand?is?true?and?effective,?approve?the?Action?and?order?the?immediate?implementation?of?the?duty?omitted.??IV.?The?decision?may?be?appealed?to?the?Constitutional?Court?for?review?within?twenty?four?hours?after?the?issuance?of?the?verdict,?without?thereby?suspending?the?execution?of?the?decision.??V.? The?final?decision?granting?enforcement?action?will?be?implemented?immediately?and?without?objection.?In?case?of?resistance,?plaintiff?may?proceed?in?accordance?with?the?stipulations?stated?in?the?Action?of?Liberty.?The?appropriate?judicial?authority?that?does?not?act?in?accordance?with?the?provisions?of?this?article?shall?be?subject?to?the?penalties?provided?by?law.?? 32? UBC Press 2012 Section?VI:?People?s?Action??ARTICLE 135  The?People?s?Action?will?proceed?against?any?act?or?omission?of?the?authorities?or?specific?individuals?or?groups?that?violate?or?threaten?to?violate?rights?and?interests?related?to?property,?space,?safety?and?public?health,?environment?and?others?of?a?similar?nature?recognized?by?this?Constitution.???ARTICLE 136  I.? The?People?s?Action?may?be?brought?during?the?ongoing?violation?or?threat?to?collective?rights?and?interests.?To?bring?this?action?it?is?not?necessary?to?exhaust?the?judicial?or?administrative?proceedings?that?may?exist.??II.? This?action?may?be?brought?by?any?person,?individually?or?on?behalf?of?a?community?and,?in?mandatory?terms,?the?Public?Prosecutor?and?the?Ombudsman,?when?in?the?performance?of?their?duties?they?become?aware?of?these?acts.?The?procedure?of?the?aro)?will?apply.?Constitutional?Protection?Action?(AmpChapter?Three:?States?of?Emergency?ARTICLE 137 In?case?of?danger?to?state?security,?external?threats,?internal?disorder?or?natural?disaster,?the?President?of?the?State?shall?have?the?power?to?declare?a?state?of?emergency?in?all?or?part?of?the?territory?where?necessary.?The?declaration?of?emergency?rule?may?in?no?case?suspend?the?guarantees?of?the?rights?or?fundamental?rights,?the?right?to?due?process,?the?right?to?information?and?the?rights?of?detainees.?Part?II:?Structure?and?Functional?Organization?of?the?State?Title?III:?Constitutional?Court?and?NChapter?Three:?Agri?Environmental?Court?ational?Judicial?Body??ARTICLE 186 The?Agri?Environmental?Court?is?the?highest?court?specializing?in?agri?environmental?matters.?It?applies?the?principles?of?social?function,?integrity,?immediacy,?sustainability,?and?multiculturalism.?? ARTICLE 187 To?be?selected?as?a?Judge?of?the?Agri?Environmental?Court,?one?needs?the?same?requirements?as?members?of?the?Supreme?Court,?in?addition?to?expertise?in?these?areas?and?have?served?capably,?ethically?and?honestly?in?the?agricultural?judiciary?or?as?a?university?professor?in?this?area?for?eight?years.?The?screening?of?candidates?will?ensure?the?diverse?composition,?considering?criteria?of?multinationality.?? 33? UBC Press 2012 ARTICLE 189 The?powers?of?the?Agri?Environmental?Court,?in?addition?to?those?identified?by?law,?include:??1.? Resolve?appeals?and?actions?in?farming,?forestry,?environmental,?water,?rights?and?use?of?renewable?natural?resources?(including?water,?forests,?and?biodiversity);?complaints?about?acts?threatening?the?fauna,?flora,?water?and?environment,?and?practices?that?endanger?the?ecosystem?and?the?conservation?of?species?or?animals.???3.? Hear?and?resolve?in?a?single?instance?the?administrative?proceedings?arising?from?the?contracts,?negotiations,?permits,?granting,?distribution,?and?redistribution?of?rights?of?use?of?renewable?natural?resources?and?other?administrative?acts?and?decisions.??4.? ?Organize?the?Agri?Environmental?courts.?Title?VIII:?International?Relations,?Borders,?Integration,?and?Maritime?Restoration??Chapter?One:?International?Relations?ARTICLE 255 I.? International?relations?and?the?negotiation,?signing?and?ratification?of?international?treaties?serve?the?objectives?of?the?state?in?terms?of?sovereignty?and?the?interests?of?the?people.?II.? The?negotiation,?signing?and?ratification?of?international?relations?shall?be?guided?by?the?principles?of:???3.? Defense?and?promotion?of?human,?economic,?social,?cultural?and?environmental?rights,?with?repudiation?of?all?forms?of?racism?and?discrimination.?4.? ?Respect?for?the?rights?of?native?indigenous?rural?peoples.?5.? ?Cooperation?and?solidarity?among?states?and?peoples.?6.? Preservation?of?patrimony,?capacity?of?State?management?and?regulation.?7.? Harmony?with?nature,?defense?of?biodiversity,?and?prohibition?of?forms?of?private?appropriation?for?exclusive?use?and?exploitation?of?plants,?animals,?microorganisms?and?any?living?matter.?8.?? Food?security?and?sovereignty?for?the?entire?population;?the?prohibition?of?importation,?production?and?commercialization?of? 34? UBC Press 2012genetically?modified?organisms?and?toxic?elements?that?harm?health?and?the?environment.?9.? Access?of?the?entire?population?to?basic?services?for?their?wellbeing?and?development.?Part?IV:?Economic?Structure?and?Organization?of?the?State?Title?I:?State?Economic?OrgChapter?One:?General?Provisions?anization?ARTICLE 312  I.? All?economic?activity?should?contribute?to?strengthening?the?country?s?economic?sovereignty.?The?private?accumulation?of?economic?power?to?such?an?extent?that?it?endangers?the?economic?sovereignty?of?the?state?will?not?be?allowed.??II.? All?forms?of?economic?organization?are?required?to?generate?decent?work?and?contribute?to?reducing?inequalities?and?eradicating?poverty.??III.? ?have?an?obligation?to?protect?the?environment.?All?forms?of?economic?organizationChapter?Three:?Economic?Policy?ARTICLE 319  I.? The?industrialization?of?natural?resources?will?be?the?priority?in?economic?policies?in?a?framework?of?respect?and?protection?of?the?environment?and?the?rights?of?indigenous?rural?nations?and?peoples.?The?joint?exploitation?of?natural?resources?with?the?domestic?productive?apparatus?will?be?a?priority?in?economic?policies?of?the?state.??II.? In?the?commercialization?of?strategic?natural?resources?and?energy,?the?State?shall?consider,?in?determining?the?costs?of?commercialization,?taxes,?royalties?and?shares?payable?for?the?public?finances.? Section?Four:?Sectoral?Policies?ARTICLE 337  I.? Tourism?is?a?strategic?economic?activity?to?be?developed?in?a?sustainable?manner?taking?into?account?the?wealth?of?cultures?and?respect?for?the?environment.??Title?II:?Environment,Chapter?One:?Environment???Natural?Resources,?Land,?and?Territory? 35? UBC Press 2012ARTICLE 342  It?is?the?duty?of?the?State?and?people?to?preserve,?protect?and?sustainably?use?natural?resources?and?biodiversity?and?maintain?environmental?balance.?? ARTICLE 343  The?public?has?a?right?to?participation?in?environmental?management,?to?be?consulted?and?informed?in?advance?about?decisions?that?might?affect?the?quality?of?the?environment.?? ARTICLE 344  I.? The?manufacture?and?use?of?chemical,?biological?and?nuclear?weapons?in?the?Bolivian?territory,?and?the?import,?transit?and?storage?of?nuclear?waste?and?toxic?waste?are?prohibited.??II.? The?State?shall?regulate?the?import,?production,?marketing,?and?use?of?techniques,?methods,?materials?and?substances?that?affect?health?and?the?environment.?? ARTICLE 345  Environmental?management?policies?are?based?on:??1.? Participatory?planning?and?management,?with?social?control.??2.? The?application?of?systems?of?environmental?impact?assessment?and?environmental?quality?control,?no?exceptions?and?across?any?activity?of?producing?goods?and?services?that?use,?process,?or?affect?natural?resources?and?the?environment.??3.? The?responsibility?for?implementing?any?activity?that?produces?environmental?damage?and?the?resulting?civil?penalty,?criminal?and?administrative?liability?for?breach?of?the?rules?of?environmental?protection.???ARTICLE 346  The?natural?heritage?is?of?public?and?strategic?interest?for?the?country?s?sustainable?development.?Its?conservation?and?utilization?for?the?benefit?of?the?population?will?be?the?exclusive?responsibility?and?accountability?of?the?State,?and?does?not?compromise?the?State?s?sovereignty?over?natural?resources.?The?law?establishes?the?principles?and?arrangements?for?its?management.???ARTICLE 347  I.? The?State?and?society?shall?promote?the?mitigation?of?harmful?effects?to?the?environment,?and?environmental?liabilities?affecting?the?country.?It?states?the?responsibility?for?historical?environmental?damage?and?applicability?of?environmental?crimes.??II.? Those?engaged?in?impact?on?the?environment?should,?at?all?stages?of?production,?avoid,?minimize,?mitigate,?remedy,?redress?and?compensate?for?the?damage?which? 36? UBC Press 2012occurs?to?the?environment?and?health?of?people,?and?establish?security?measures?fects?of?environmental?liabilities.??needed?to?neutralize?the?possible?efChapter?Two:?Natural?Resources??ARTICLE 348  I.? Natural?resources?include?minerals?in?all?their?states,?oil,?water,?air,?soil?and?subsoil,?forests,?biodiversity,?the?electromagnetic?spectrum,?and?all?those?elements?and?physical?forces?that?can?be?exploited.??II.? Natural?resources?are?of?strategic?character?and?public?interest?for?the?development?of?the?country.?? ARTICLE 349  I.? Natural?resources?are?directly?owned?and?controlled,?indivisible,?and?inalienable?of?the?Bolivian?people?and?for?the?State?administration?on?the?basis?of?collective?interest.??II.? The?State?shall?recognize?and?respect?individual?and?collective?property?rights?over?land?and?rights?of?use?and?exploitation?of?other?natural?resources.??III.?Agriculture,?livestock,?and?hunting?and?fishing?activities?that?do?not?involve?protected?species?are?activities?that?are?governed?by?the?provisions?in?Part?IV?of?this?Constitution?relating?to?the?structure?and?economic?organization?of?the?State.?? ARTICLE 351  I.? The?State?will?assume?control?and?management?of?the?exploration,?exploitation,?industrialization,?transport,?and?marketing?of?strategic?natural?resources?through?public?agencies,?cooperatives?or?community?organizations,?which?in?turn?can?hire?private?companies?and?form?joint?ventures.??II.? The?State?may?enter?into?contracts?with?legal?entities,?Bolivian?or?foreign,?for?the?use?of?natural?resources.?The?state?must?ensure?that?economic?profits?are?reinvested?in?the?country?...? ARTICLE 352  The?exploitation?of?natural?resources?within?a?given?territory?shall?be?subject?to?a?consultation?process?with?the?affected?population,?convened?by?the?State,?that?will?be?free,?timely,?and?informed.?This?ensures?public?participation?in?environmental?management?and?will?promote?the?conservation?of?ecosystems,?in?accordance?with?the?Constitution?and?the?law.?For?the?indigenous?rural?nations?and?peoples,?consultation?will?take?place?while?respecting?their?own?rules?and?procedures.?? ARTICLE 353  The?Bolivian?people?have?equitable?access?to?benefits?arising?from?the?use?of?all?natural?resources.?Priority?of?participation?will?be?assigned?to?territories?where?natural?resources?are?located,?and?indigenous?rural?nations?and?peoples.??  37? UBC Press 2012ARTICLE 354  The?State?shall?develop?and?promote?research?concerning?the?management,?conservation?and?utilization?of?natural?resources?and?biodiversity.?? ARTICLE 355  I.? The?industrialization?and?commercialization?of?natural?resources?will?be?priorities?for?the?State.??II.? Proceeds?derived?from?the?exploitation?and?industrialization?of?natural?resources?will?be?distributed?and?reinvested?to?promote?economic?diversification?in?the?different?territorial?levels?of?the?state.?The?percentage?distribution?of?profits?shall?be?established?by?law.??III.?The?industrialization?process?will?be?carried?out?preferably?in?the?place?of?origin?of?production?and?create?conditions?that?promote?competitiveness?in?domestic?and?international?markets.?? ARTICLE 356  The?exploration,?exploitation,?refining,?processing,?transportation?and?marketing?of?non?renewable?natural?resources?will?have?the?character?of?state?necessity?and?public?utility.?? ARTICLE 357 Since?it?is?social?property?of?the?Bolivian?people,?no?foreign?person?or?enterprise,?nor?any?private?Bolivian?person?or?enterprise,?may?register?the?property?title?to?Bolivian?natural?resources?in?stock?markets,?nor?can?they?use?them?as?means?for?financial?operations?that?grant?title?to?or?use?them?as?security.?The?annotation?and?registry?of?reserves?is?the?exclusive?authority?of?the?State.??ARTICLE 358 The?rights?to?use?and?exploit?natural?resources?must?be?subject?to?the?provisions?of?the?Constitution?and?the?law.?These?rights?are?subject?to?regular?monitoring?of?compliance?with?technical,?economic?and?environmental?regulations.?The?breach?of?the?law?will?resu tion?of?rights?of?use?or?benefit.?lt?in?the?reversal?or?cancellaChapter?III:?Hydrocarbons?ARTICLE 359 I.? The?hydrocarbons,?in?whatever?state?they?are?found?or?form?in?which?they?are,?are?the?inalienable?and?unlimited?property?of?the?Bolivian?people.?The?State,?on?behalf?of?and?in?representation?of?the?Bolivian?people,?is?owner?of?the?entire?hydrocarbon?production?of?the?country?and?is?the?only?one?authorized?to?sell?them.?The?totality?of?the?income?received?by?the?sale?of?hydrocarbons?shall?be?the?property?of?the?State.?II.? No?contract,?agreement?or?convention,?whether?direct?or?indirect,?tacit?or?express,?may?violate?totally?or?partially?that?which?is?established?in?this?article.?In?the?event?of?violation,?the?contracts?shall?be?null?and?void?as?a?matter?of?law,?and?those?who?have?agreed?to,?signed,?approved?or?executed?them,?have?committed?the?crime?of?treason.? 38? UBC Press 2012ARTICLE 360 The?state?shall?define?the?policy?for?hydrocarbons,?shall?promote?their?comprehensive,?sust ment,?and?shall?guarantee?energy?sovereignty.?ainable?and?equitable?developChapter?V:?Water?Resources?ARTICLE 373 I.? Water?constitutes?a?fundamental?right?for?life,?within?the?framework?of?the?sovereignty?of?the?people.?The?State?shall?promote?the?use?and?access?to?water?on?the?basis?of?principles?of?solidarity,?complementariness,?reciprocity,?equity,?diversity?and?sustainability.?II.? Water?resources?in?all?their?states,?surface?and?subterraneous,?constitute?finite,?vulnerable,?strategic?resources,?and?serve?a?social,?cultural?and?environmental?function.?These?resources?cannot?be?the?object?of?private?appropriation?and?they,?as?well?as?water?services,?shall?not?be?given?as?concessions?and?are?subject?to?a?system?of?licensing,?registration?and?authorization?pursuant?to?the?law.? ARTICLE 374 I.? The?State?shall?protect?and?guarantee?the?priority?use?of?water?for?life.?It?is?the?duty?of?the?State?to?manage,?regulate,?protect?and?plan?the?adequate?and?sustainable?use?of?water?resources,?with?social?participation,?guaranteeing?access?to?water?for?all?the?habitants.?The?law?shall?establish?the?conditions?and?limitations?of?all?the?uses.?II.? The?State?shall?recognize,?respect?and?protect?the?uses?and?customs?of?the?community,?of?its?local?authorities?and?the?rural?native?indigenous?organizations?over?the?right,?management?and?administration?of?sustainable?water.?III.?The?fossil,?glacial,?wetland,?subterraneous,?mineral,?medicinal?and?other?waters?are?priorities?for?the?State,?which?must?guarantee?its?conservation,?protection,?preservation,?restoration,?sustainable?use?and?complete?management;?they?are?inalienable,?not?attachable?and?cannot?be?limited.? ARTICLE 375 I.? It?is?the?duty?of?the?State?to?develop?plans?for?the?use,?conservation,?management?and?sustainable?exploitation?of?the?river?basins.?II.? The?State?shall?regulate?the?management?and?sustainable?administration?of?the?water?resources?and?the?basins?for?irrigation,?food?security?and?basic?services,?respecting?the?uses?and?customs?of?the?communities.?III.? It?is?the?duty?of?the?State?to?carry?out?the?studies?for?the?identification?of?fossil?waters?and?their?consequent?protection,?management?and?sustainable?administration.? ARTICLE 376 Water?resources?of?the?rivers,?lakes?and?lagoons?that?form?the?water?basins?are?considered?strategic?resources?for?the?development?and?sovereignty?of?Bolivia?because?of?their?potential,?for?the?variety?of?natural?resources?that?they?contain,?and?because?they?are?a?fundamental?part?of?the?ecosystems.?The?State?shall?avoid?actions?in?the?sources? 39? UBC Press 2012and?intermediary?zones?of?rivers?that?may?cause?damages?to?the?ecosystems?or?diminish?the?flow?volume,?shall?preserve?the?natural?state,?and?shall?watch?over?the?development?and?welfare?of?the?population.? ARTICLE 377 I.? Every?international?treaty?on?water?resources?that?the?State?signs?shall?guarantee?the?sovereignty?of?the?country?and?shall?prioritize?the?interest?of?the?State.?II.? The?State?shall?safeguard?permanently?the?boundary?and?transboundary?waters?for?he?water?riches?that?contribute?to?the?integration?of?peoples.?the?conservation?of?tChapter?VI:?Energy?ARTICLE 378 I.? The?different?forms?of?energy?and?their?sources?constitute?a?strategic?resource;?access?to?them?is?a?fundamental?and?essential?right?for?full?development?and?the?social?development?of?the?country;?and?they?shall?be?governed?by?the?principles?of?efficiency,?continuity,?adaptability,?and?environmental?preservation.?II.? It?is?the?exclusive?authority?of?the?State?to?develop?the?chain?of?energy?production?in?the?phases?of?generation,?transport,?and?distribution,?by?means?of?public,?mixed?enterprises,?non?profit?institutions,?cooperatives,?private?enterprises,?and?community?and?social?enterprises,?with?public?participation?and?control.?The?chain?of?energy?production?may?not?be?held?exclusively?by?private?interests,?nor?may?it?be?licensed.?Private?participation?shall?be?regulated?by?law.? ARTICLE 379 I.? The?State?shall?develop?and?promote?research,?as?well?as?the?use?of?new?forms?of?the?production?of?alternative?energy,?compatible?with?the?conservation?of?the?environment.?II.? The?State?shall?guarantee?the?generation?of?energy?for?internal?consumption;?the?try.?export?of?excess?energy?must?anticipate?the?reserves?necessary?for?the?counChapter?VII:?Biodiversity,?Coca,?Protected?Areas?and?Forest?Resources?Section?I:?Biodiversity?ARTICLE 380 I.? The?renewable?natural?resources?shall?be?exploited?in?a?sustainable?way,?respecting?the?characteristics?and?natural?value?of?each?ecosystem.?II.? In?order?to?guarantee?ecological?equilibrium,?the?land?must?be?used?in?accordance?with?its?capacity?for?greater?use?within?the?framework?of?the?process?of?the?organization?of?use?and?occupation?of?lands,?taking?into?account?their?biophysical,?socioeconomic,?cultural?characteristics,?and?institutional?policies.? 40? UBC Press 2012ARTICLE 381 I.? Native?animal?and?vegetable?species?are?natural?assets.?The?State?shall?establish?the?measures?necessary?for?their?conservation,?exploitation?and?development.?II.? The?State?shall?protect?all?genetic?and?micro?organic?resources,?which?are?found?in?the?ecosystems?of?the?territory,?as?well?as?the?knowledge?associated?with?their?use?and?exploitation.?For?their?protection,?a?system?of?registry?that?safeguards?their?existence?shall?be?established,?as?well?as?a?registry?of?the?intellectual?property?in?the?name?of?the?State?or?the?local?individuals?who?claim?it.?The?State?shall?establish?procedures?for?protection?under?the?law?of?all?those?resources?that?are?not?registered.? ARTICLE 382 The?State?has?the?authority?and?duty?to?defend,?recover,?protect?and?repatriate?biological?material?derived?from?natural?resources,?from?ancestral?knowledge?and?other?sources?that?originate?within?the?territory.? ARTICLE 383 The?State?shall?establish?measures?for?the?partial?or?total,?temporary?or?permanent,?restriction?of?the?uses?of?extracts?from?the?resources?of?biodiversity.?The?measures?shall?be?directed?toward?the?need?to?preserve,?conserve,?recover?and?restore?the?biodiversity?at?risk?of?extinction.?Illegal?possession,?handling?and?trafficking?of?species?of?biodiversity?shall?be?criminally?punished.? Section?II:?Coca?ARTICLE 384 The?State?protects?the?native?and?ancestral?coca?as?cultural?patrimony,?as?a?renewable?natural?resource?of?the?biodiversity?of?Bolivia,?and?as?a?factor?of?social?unity.?In?its?natural?state?coca?is?not?a?narcotic.?The?revaluation,?production,?sale?and?industrialization?of?coca?shall?be?governed?by?law.? Section?III:?Protected?Areas?ARTICLE 385 I.? The?protected?areas?constitute?a?common?good,?and?they?form?part?of?the?natural?and?cultural?patrimony?of?the?country.?They?perform?environmental,?cultural,?social?and?economic?functions?for?sustainable?development.?II.? Wherever?rural?native?indigenous?protected?areas?and?territories?are?recovered,?shared?management?shall?be?undertaken,?subject?to?the?norms?and?procedures?of?the?rural?native?indigenous?nations?and?peoples,?and?respecting?the?goal?of?creating?these?areas.? 41? UBC Press 2012Section?IV:?Forest?Resources?ARTICLE 386 The?natural?forests?and?woodlands?are?strategic?for?the?development?of?the?Bolivian?people.?The?State?shall?recognize?the?rights?to?exploit?the?forests?for?the?benefit?of?communities?and?individual?traders.?In?addition,?it?shall?promote?activities?of?conservation?and?sustainable?exploitation,?the?generation?of?added?value?to?its?products,?and?the?rehabilitation?and?reforestation?of?degraded?areas.? ARTICLE 387 I.? The?State?shall?guarantee?the?conservation?of?natural?forests?in?the?areas?of?native?forests,?their?sustainable?exploitation,?and?the?conservation?and?recovery?of?the?flora,?fauna,?and?degraded?areas.?II.? The?law?shall?regulate?the?protection?and?exploitation?of?the?species?of?trees?that?have?socio?economic,?social?and?ecological?importance.? ARTICLE 388 The?rural?native?indigenous?communities?located?within?forest?areas?shall?have?the?exclusive?right?to?their?exploitation?and?their?management,?in?accordance?with?the?law.? ARTICLE 389 I.? The?conversion?of?tree?covered?land?to?agricultural?and?other?uses?shall?only?be?carried?out?in?areas?legally?allocated?for?that?use,?in?accordance?with?the?planning?policies?and?in?accordance?with?the?law.?II.? The?law?shall?determine?the?ecological?rights?of?way?and?zoning?for?internal?uses?in?order?to?guarantee?the?long?term?conservation?of?the?land?and?bodies?of?water.?III.?Every?conversion?of?land?in?areas?not?classified?for?such?purposes?shall?constitute?a?punishable?infraction?and?shall?give?rise?to?the?obligation?to?repair?the?damages?caused.?Chapter?VIII:?Amazonia?ARTICLE 390 I.? Because?of?its?high?environmental?sensitivity,?existing?biodiversity,?water?resources?and?for?the?eco?regions,?the?Bolivian?Amazonia?basin?constitutes?a?strategic?area?of?special?protection?for?the?comprehensive?development?of?the?country.?II.? The?Bolivian?Amazonia?includes?the?entire?Department?of?Pando,?Iturralde?Province?of?the?Department?of?La?Paz?and?the?provinces?of?Vaca?Diez?and?Ballivan?of?the?Department?of?Beni.?The?full?development?of?the?Bolivian?Amazonia,?as?a?territorial?area?of?tropical?rain?forests,?in?accordance?with?the?specific?characteristics?of?the?extract?and?harvesting?resources,?shall?be?governed?by?a?special?law?in?benefit?of?the?region?and?the?country.? 42? UBC Press 2012ARTICLE 391 I.? The?State?shall?prioritize?the?sustainable,?integral?development?of?the?Bolivian?Amazonia,?through?a?comprehensive,?participatory,?shared?and?equitable?administration?of?the?Amazon?jungle.?The?administration?shall?be?directed?to?the?generation?of?employment?and?the?improvement?of?the?income?of?its?inhabitants,?within?the?framework?of?protection?and?sustainability?of?the?environment.?II.? The?State?shall?encourage?access?to?financing?for?tourism,?eco?tourism?and?other?initiatives?of?regional?enterprise.?III.?The?State,?in?coordination?with?the?rural?native?indigenous?authorities?and?the?inhabitants?of?the?Amazonia,?shall?create?a?special,?decentralized?organ,?with?headquarters?in?the?Amazonia,?to?promote?its?own?activities?in?the?region.  ARTICLE 392 I.? The?State?shall?implement?special?policies?to?benefit?the?rural?native?indigenous?nations?and?peoples?of?the?region?in?order?to?generate?the?necessary?conditions?for?the?reactivation,?encouragement,?industrialization,?commercialization,?protection?and?conservation?of?traditional?extract?products.?II.? The?historical?cultural?and?economic?value?of?the?siringa?and?the?castano,?symbols?of?the?Bolivian?Amazonia,?is?recognized,?and?cutting?them?down?shall?be?punished,?except?in?cases?of?public?interest?as?regulated?by?the?law.?Title?III:?Comprehensive?Sustainable?Rural?Development??ARTICLE 405 Comprehensive,?sustainable?rural?development?is?a?fundamental?part?of?the?economic?policies?of?the?State,?which?shall?prioritize?its?actions?to?encourage?all?communitarian?economic?undertakings?and?those?of?the?group?of?rural?actors,?placing?emphasis?on?food?security?and?sovereignty,?by?means?of?the?following:?1.? The?sustained?and?sustainable?increase?of?agricultural,?livestock,?manufacturing,?agro?industrial,?and?tourist?industry?productivity,?as?well?as?their?commercial?capacity.?2.? The?articulation?and?internal?complementary?form?of?the?structures?of?agricultural,?livestock?and?agro?industrial?production.?3.? Achievement?of?better?conditions?for?economic?exchange?of?the?rural?productive?sector?in?relation?to?the?rest?of?the?Bolivian?economy.?4.? The?importance?and?respect?of?the?rural?native?indigenous?communities?in?all?dimensions?of?their?life.?5.? The?strengthening?of?the?economy?of?the?small?agricultural?and?livestock?producers?and?of?the?family?and?communitarian?economy.? 43? UBC Press 2012 ARTICLE 406 I.? The?State?shall?guarantee?the?sustainable?comprehensive?rural?development?by?means?of?policies,?plans,?programs?and?comprehensive?projects?that?encourage?agricultural,?artisan,?and?forestry?production,?and?tourism,?with?the?goal?of?obtaining?better?exploitation,?transformation,?industrialization?and?commercialization?of?renewable?natural?resources.?II.? The?State?shall?promote?and?strengthen?the?rural?economic?productive?organizations,?among?which?are?the?artisans,?the?cooperatives,?the?associations?of?agricultural?producers?and?manufacturers,?and?the?micro,?small?and?medium?communitarian?agricultural?enterprises,?which?contribute?to?the?social?economic?development?of?the?country,?in?accord?with?their?cultural?and?productive?identity.? ARTICLE 407 The?objectives?of?the?policy?of?the?State?for?comprehensive?rural?development,?in?coordination?with?the?autonomous?and?decentralized?territorial?entities,?are?the?following:? ?1.? To?guarantee?food?security?and?sovereignty,?prioritizing?the?production?and?consumption?of?agricultural?foods?produced?in?the?territory?of?Bolivia.?2.? To?establish?mechanisms?for?the?protection?of?Bolivian?agricultural?production.?3.? To?promote?the?production?and?sale?of?ecological?agricultural?products.?4.? To?protect?agricultural?and?agro?industrial?production?from?natural?disasters?and?inclement?climate,?and?geological?catastrophes.?The?law?shall?provide?for?the?creation?of?agricultural?insurance.?5.? To?implement?and?develop?technical,?productive,?and?ecological?education,?at?all?levels?and?in?all?modalities.?6.? To?establish?policies?and?sustainable?projects,?obtaining?the?conservation?and?recuperation?of?the?soil.?7.? To?promote?irrigation?systems?for?the?purpose?of?guaranteeing?agricultural?and?livestock?production.?8.? To?guarantee?technical?assistance?and?to?establish?mechanisms?of?innovation?and?transfer?of?technology?in?the?entire?agricultural?productive?chain.?9.? To?establish?the?creation?of?a?seed?bank?and?centers?of?genetic?research.? 44? UBC Press 201210.?To?establish?policies?to?encourage?and?support?the?productive?agricultural?sectors?that?have?natural?structural?weaknesses.?11.?To?control?the?exit?and?entrance?into?the?country?of?biological?and?genetic?resources.?12.?To?establish?policies?and?programs?to?guarantee?agricultural?sanitation?and?food?safety.?13.?To?provide?productive,?manufacturing?and?industrial?infrastructure?and?basic?services?for?the?agricultural?sector.??ARTICLE 408 The?State?shall?determine?the?incentives?for?the?benefit?of?small?and?medium?producers?for?the?purpose?of?compensating?for?the?disadvantages?of?unequal?exchange?between?agricultural?and?livestock?products?and?the?rest?of?the?economy.? ARTICLE 409 The?production,?importation?and?commercialization?of?genetically?altered?products?shall?be?regulated?by?law.?Source: http://pdba.georgetown.edu/constitutions/bolivia/bolivia.html 45? UBC Press 2012Brazil (1988) Title?II:?Fundamental?Rights?and?Guarantees?Chapter?1:?Individual?and?Collective?Rights?and?Duties?ARTICLE 5 LXXIII.?Any?citizen?has?standing?to?institute?a?people?s?legal?action?seeking?to?annul?an?act?to?the?public?property?or?to?property?pertaining?to?an?entity?in?which?the?State?participates,?to?administrative?morality,?to?the?environment,?and?to?historical?and?cultural?monuments,?and?the?plaintiff?shall,?except?in?the?event?of?proven?bad?faith,?be?exempt?from?court?costs?and?from?the?burden?of?paying?the?prevailing?party?s?attorneys??fees?and?costs;???Title?VII:?Economic?and?Financial?Order?Chapter?1:?General?Principles?of?Economic?Activity?ARTICLE 170 The?economic?order,?founded?on?the?appreciation?of?the?value?of?human?labor?and?free?enterprise,?is?intended?to?assure?everyone?a?dignified?existence,?according?to?the?dictates?of?social?justice,?observing?the?following?principles:?I.? ?national?sovereignty;?II.? ?private?property;?III.?social?function?of?property;?IV.?free?competition;?V.??consumer?protection;?VI.?environmental?protection,?including?through?differentiated?treatment?in?accordance?with?the?environmental?impact?of?the?products?and?services?and?the?processes?by?which?they?are?d;???[amended?in?2003]?elaborated?and?rendereTitle?VIII:?The?Social?Order?Chapter?VI:?The?Environment?ARTICLE 225. ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION Everyone?has?the?right?to?an?ecologically?balanced?environment,?which?is?a?public?good?for?the?people?s?use?and?is?essential?to?healthy?life.?The?Government?and?the?community?have?a?duty?to?defend?and?preserve?the?environment?for?present?and?future?generations.?? 46? UBC Press 2012(1)? In?order?to?ensure?the?effectiveness?of?this?right,?it?is?the?responsibility?of?the?Government?to:?I.? ?preserve?and?restore?essential?ecological?processes?and?provide?ecological?management?of?species?and?ecosystems;?II.? ?preserve?the?diversity?and?integrity?of?Brazil?s?genetic?wealth?and?supervise?entities?engaged?in?research?and?manipulation?of?genetic?material;??III.? ?determine,?in?all?units?of?the?Federation,?territorial?spaces?and?components?which?are?to?receive?special?protection,?any?alteration?and?suppression?only?being?allowed?by?means?of?law,?and?prohibiting?any?use?which?adversely?affects?the?integrity?of?the?attributes?which?justify?their?protection;?IV.? require,?as?provided?by?law,?a?prior?environment?impact?study,?which?shall?be?made?public,?for?the?installation?of?works?or?activities?which?may?cause?significant?degradation?of?the?environment;?V.? ?control?the?production,?marketing,?and?use?of?techniques,?methods,?and?substances?which?represent?a?risk?to?life,?to?the?quality?of?life,?and?to?the?environment;?VI.? promote?environmental?education?at?all?school?levels?and?public?awareness?of?the?need?to?preserve?the?environment;?VII.? protect?the?fauna?and?the?flora,?prohibiting,?as?provided?by?the?law,?all?practices?which?jeopardize?their?ecological?function,?cause?the?extinction?of?species?or?subject?animals?to?cruelty.?(2)? Those?who?exploit?mineral?resources?shall?be?required?to?restore?the?degraded?environment,?in?accordance?with?the?technical?solutions?required?by?the?proper?government?agencies,?as?required?by?the?law.?(3)?Conduct?and?activities?considered?harmful?to?the?environment?shall?subject?the?individual?or?corporate?wrongdoers?to?criminal?and?administrative?sanctions,?in?addition?to?the?obligation?to?repair?the?damages?caused.?(4)? The?Brazilian?Amazon?Forest,?the?Atlantic?Woodlands,?the?Serra?do?Mar,?the?Pantanal?of?Mato?Grosso,?and?the?Coastal?Zone?are?part?of?the?national?wealth,?and?they?shall?be?used,?according?to?the?law,?under?conditions?which?ensure?preservation?of?the?environment,?including?the?use?of?natural?resources.?(5)?Vacant?lands?or?lands?which?have?reverted?to?the?States?through?discriminatory?actions,?which?are?necessary?to?protect?natural?ecosystems,?are?inalienable.?(6)? Power?plants?with?nuclear?reactors?shall?have?their?location?defined?in?a?federal?law?and?may?otherwise?not?be?installed.? 47? UBC Press 2012Source: http://www.v-brazil.com/government/laws/constitution.html 48? UBC Press 2012Bulgaria (1991)  Chapter?One:?Fundamental?Principles?ARTICLE 5 (1)  The?Constitution?shall?be?the?supreme?law,?and?no?other?law?shall?contravene?it.?...?(2)? The?provisions?of?the?Constitution?shall?apply?directly.? ARTICLE 15  The?Republic?of?Bulgaria?shall?ensure?the?protection?and?reproduction?of?the?environment,?the?conservation?of?living?Nature?in?all?its?variety,?and?the?sensible?utilization?of?the?country?s?natural?wealth?and?resources.?? ARTICLE 21  (1)? Land,?as?a?chief?national?asset,?shall?enjoy?particular?protection?on?the?part?of?the?State?and?society.?(2)?Arable?land?shall?be?used?for?agricultural?purposes?only.?Any?change?in?purposes?shall?be?allowed?only?in?exceptional?circumstances,?when?necessity?has?been?proven,?and?on?terms?and?by?a?procedure?established?by?a?law.?Chapter?Two:?Fundamental?Rights?and?Duties?of?Citizens?ARTICLE 55 Citizens?shall?have?the?right?to?a?healthy?and?favorable?environment?corresponding?to?the?established?standards?and?norms.?They?are?obligated?to?protect?the?environment.???ARTICLE 57 (1)? The?fundamental?civil?rights?shall?be?irrevocable.?(2)? Rights?shall?not?be?abused,?nor?shall?they?be?exercised?to?the?detriment?of?the?rights?or?the?legitimate?interests?of?others.?(3)? Following?a?proclamation?of?war,?martial?law?or?a?state?of?emergency?the?exercise?of?individual?civil?rights?may?be?temporarily?curtailed?by?law,?except?for?the?rights??paras?1,?2?and?3,?Art.?32?para?1,?and?Art.?37.?established?by?Art.?28,?Art.?29,?Art.?31Chapter?Three:?National?Assembly?ARTICLE 91A (1)? The?National?Assembly?shall?elect?an?Ombudsman,?who?shall?defend?the?rights?and?freedoms?of?the?citizens.?(2)? The?powers?and?activities?of?the?Ombudsman?shall?be?regulated?by?a?law.? 49? UBC Press 2012Chapter?Six:?The?Judiciary?ARTICLE 120  (1)? The?courts?shall?supervise?the?legality?of?the?acts?and?actions?of?the?administrative?bodies.?(2)?Citizens?and?legal?entities?shall?be?free?to?challenge?any?administrative?act?which?ssly?by?the?laws.?affects?them,?except?those?listed?expreChapter?Eight:?Constitutional?Court?ARTICLE 150  (3)? The?Ombudsman?may?approach?the?Constitutional?Court?with?a?request?for?declaring?as?unconstitutional?a?law?which?infringes?human?rights?and?freedoms.?Source: http://www.parliament.bg/?page=const&lng=en 50? UBC Press 2012 Burkina Faso (1991) Preamble?We?the?Sovereign?People?of?Burkina?Faso?...?Conscious?of?the?absolute?necessity?of?protecting?the?environment?A his?preamble?is?made?an?integral?part.?pprove?and?Adopt?this?Constitution?of?which?tTit s?le?I:?Fundamental?Rights?and?DutieChapter?III:?Economic?Rights?and?Duties?ARTICLE 14 The?natural?wealth?and?resources?belong?to?the?people.?They?are?utilized?for?the?amelioration?of?their?conditions?of?life.?Title?I:?Fundamental?Rights?and?Duties?Chapter?IV:?Social?and?Cultural?Rights?and?Duties?ARTICLE 29 The?right?to?a?healthy?environment?shall?be?recognized;?the?protection,?defense?and?promotion?of?the?environment?shall?be?a?duty?to?all.? ARTICLE 30 Every?citizen?shall?have?the?right?to?initiate?an?action?or?to?join?a?collective?action?under?the?form?of?a?petition?against?these?acts: ?? harming?the?public?heritage;??? harming?the?interests?of?social?communities;??? harming?the?environment?or?the?cultural?or?historic?heritage.?Title?VI:?Respective?Domains?of?the?Law?and?of?the?Regulation?ARTICLE 101 The?law?determines?the?rules?concerning:??? citizenship,?civic?rights,?and?the?exercise?of?public?freedoms???Statutes?shall?also?lay?down?the?basic?principles?of:??? the?protection?and?promotion?of?the?environment;?...? 51? UBC Press 2012Title?VIII:?The?Judicial?Power?ARTICLE 125 The?Judicial?Power?is?the?guardian?of?individual?and?collective?liberties.?It?sees?to?the?respect?of?the?rights?and?liberties?defined?in?the?present?Constitution.?Source: (French) http://www.chr.up.ac.za/index.php/documents-by-country-database/burkina-faso.html 52? UBC Press 2012Burundi (2005) Title?II:?Charter?of?Fundamental?Rights?and?Duties?of?Individuals?and?Citizens?ARTICLE 19 The?rights?and?duties?proclaimed?and?guaranteed,?among?others,?by?the?Universal?Declaration?of?Human?Rights,?the?International?Covenants?on?Human?Rights,?the?African?Charter?on?Human?and?Peoples??Rights,?the?Convention?on?the?Elimination?of?All?Forms?of?Discrimination?Against?Women?and?the?Convention?on?the?Rights?of?the?Child?are?an?integral?part?of?the?Constitution?of?Burundi.?These?fundamental?rights?are?not?subject?to?any?restriction?or?derogation,?except?in?certain?circumstances?which?can?be?justified?by?the?general?interest?or?the?protection?of?a?fundamental?right.?Chapter?1:?Fundamental?Rights??ARTICLE 35 The?State?guarantees?the?sound?management?and?the?efficient?exploitation?of?the?natural?resources?of?the?country,?while?preserving?the?environment?and?ensuring?the?conservation?of?these?resources?for?future?generations.? ARTICLE 38 Every?person?is?entitled,?in?judicial?or?administrative?proceedings,?to?a?fair?hearing?of?his?cause?and?to?a?judgment?within?a?reasonable?time.? ARTICLE 47 Any?restriction?of?a?basic?right?must?be?founded?on?a?legal?basis;?it?must?be?justified?by?the?general?interest?or?the?protection?of?a?basic?right?of?others;?it?must?be?proportionate?with?the?set?aim.? ARTICLE 48 The?fundamental?rights?must?be?respected?throughout?the?whole?legal,?administrative?and?institutional?order.?The?Constitution?is?the?supreme?law.?The?legislative,?the?exeutive?and?the?judiciary?have?to?enforce?it.?Any?law?which?is?not?in?conformity?with?the?Constitution?is?void.? ARTICLE 52 Any?person?is?entitled?to?obtain?the?satisfaction?of?the?economic,?social,?and?cultural?rights?essential?to?her?dignity?and?the?free?development?of?her?person,?thanks?to?the?national?effort?and?taking?into?account?the?resources?of?the?country.?  53? UBC Press 2012ARTICLE 60 The?judiciary,?guardian?of?the?public?rights?and?freedoms,?guarantees?the?respect?for?t itions?specified?by?law.?hese?rights?and?freedoms?in?the?condTitle?VIII:?The?Judicial?Power?ARTICLE 230  ??Every?interested?physical?or?moral?person,?as?well?as?the?Public?Ministry,?may?request?the?Constitutional?Court?to?rule?on?the?constitutionality?of?laws,?either?directly?by?means?of?an?action?or?by?the?procedure?of?objection?of?unconstitutionality?invoked?in?a?matter?tried?before?another?jurisdiction.?Title?IX:?The?Ombudsman?ARTICLE 237 The?Ombudsman?receives?the?complaints?and?conducts?the?enquiries?concerning?management?failures?and?violations?of?the?rights?of?citizens?by?agents?of?the?public?function?and?the?judiciary?and?submits?recommendations?on?the?subject?to?the?competent?authorities.?He?also?ensures?mediation?between?the?Administration?and?the?citizens?and?between?the?ministries?and?the?Administration?and?fulfills?a?monitoring?role?concerning?the?functioning?of?the?public?administration.?The?organization?and?the?functioning?of?his?service?are?established?by?law.?Title?XIII:?International?Treaties?and?Agreements?ARTICLE 293 Agreements?authorizing?the?storage?of?toxic?wastes?or?other?substances?likely?to?harm?the?environment?are?prohibited.?Source: (French) http://www.chr.up.ac.za/index.php/documents-by-country-database/burundi.html  54? UBC Press 2012Cambodia (1993) Chapter?III:?The?Rights?and?Duties?of?Khmer?Citizens?ARTICLE 39 Khmer?citizens?shall?have?the?right?to?denounce,?make?complaints?or?file?claims?against?any?breach?of?the?law?by?state?and?social?organs?or?by?members?of?such?organs?committed?during?the?course?of?their?duties.?The?settlement?of?complaints?and?claims?sha f?the?courts.?ll?be?the?competence?oChapter?V:?Economy?ARTICLE 59 The?State?shall?protect?the?environment?and?balance?of?abundant?natural?resources?and?establish?a?precise?plan?of?management?of?land,?water,?air,?wind,?geology,?ecological?system,?mines,?energy,?petrol?and?gas,?rocks?and?sand,?gems,?forests?and?forestry?pro uatic?resources.?ducts,?wildlife,?fish,?and?aqChapter?XI:?The?Judiciary?ARTICLE 128 The?Judiciary?shall?guarantee?and?uphold?impartiality?and?protect?the?rights?and?freedoms?of?the?citizens.?Source: http://www.embassy.org/cambodia/cambodia/constitu.htm 55? UBC Press 2012Ca  (1996) meroonPreamble???...?every?person?shall?have?a?right?to?healthy?environment.?The?protection?of?the?environment?shall?be?the?duty?of?every?citizen.?The?State?shall?ensure?the?protection?and?i ?...?mprovement?of?the?environment;Part?XII?Special?Provisions?ARTICLE 65 The?Preamble?is?an?integral?part?of?the?Constitution.?Source: http://confinder.richmond.edu/admin/docs/Cameroon.pdf 56? UBC Press 2012 57Cape Verde?(1992) Part?I:?Fundamental?Principles?Title?I:?The?Republic?ARTICLE 7. DUTIES OF THE STATE The?following?are?the?fundamental?duties?of?the?State:??...?j)? To?create,?progressively,?the?necessary?conditions?for?the?transformation?and?modernization?of?the?economic?and?social?structures,?so?as?to?make?the?economic,?social?and?cultural?rights?effective;?k)? To?protect?the?land,?nature,?natural?resources?and?the?environment;?...?Part?II:?Fundamental?Rights?and?Duties?of?Citizens?Title?I:?General?Principles?ARTICLE 15. RECOGNITION OF THE INVIOLABILITY OF RIGHTS, LIBERTIES AND GUARANTEES 1.?? The?State?shall?recognize?the?rights?and?liberties?enshrined?in?the?Constitution?as?being?inviolable?and?shall?guarantee?their?protection.?2.?? Any?public?authority?shall?have?the?duty?to?respect?and?guarantee?the?free?exercise?of?the?rights?and?liberties?and?the?compliance?with?the?constitutional?or?legal?duties.? ARTICLE 16. RESPONSIBILITY OF THE PUBLIC ENTITIES 1.?? The?State?and?other?public?entities?shall?be?liable?for?actions?or?omissions?of?their?agents?which?take?place?in?the?exercise?of?their?public?functions?or?resulting?therefrom?and?which,?by?any?means,?violate?the?rights,?liberties?and?guarantees?in?detriment?of?the?holder?of?such?rights,?liberties?and?guarantees?or?of?third?parties.?2.?? The?agents?of?the?State?or?of?any?public?entity?shall?be?criminally?responsible?for?actions?or?omissions?which?result?in?violation?of?the?rights,?liberties?and?guarantees?enshrined?in?the?Constitution?or?established?by?law.?3.?? Everyone?shall?have?the?right?to?request?compensation?for?the?damages?caused?to?him?by?the?violation?of?his?fundamental?rights?and?liberties.? ? UBC Press 2012ARTICLE 17. AMBIT AND DIRECTION OF RIGHTS, LIBERTIES AND GUARANTEES ....?3.?? The?constitutional?and?legal?norm?concerning?fundamental?rights?shall?be?interpreted?and?the?gaps?filled?in?conformity?with?the?Universal?Declaration?of?Human?Rights.?4.?? The?rights,?liberties?and?guarantees?shall?be?limited?by?law?only?when?expressly?allowed?by?the?Constitution.?5.?? The?laws?limiting?rights,?liberties?and?guarantees?shall?be?necessarily?of?a?general?and?abstract?character?and?shall?not?have?retroactive?effect,?nor?shall?they?diminish?the?ambit?and?the?essential?content?of?constitutional?norms?and?they?shall?be?strictly?limited?to?the?safeguard?of?other?constitutionally?protected?rights.? ARTICLE 18. JUDICIAL ENFORCEABILITY The?constitutional?provisions?relating?to?the?rights,?freedoms?and?guarantees?are?binding?on?all?the?public?and?private?entities?and?are?directly?applicable.??ARTICLE 20. PROTECTION OF RIGHTS, LIBERTIES AND GUARANTEES 1.?? Every?citizen?shall?have?the?right?to?request?the?Constitutional?Court,?through?the?amparo?appeal,?the?protection?of?their?constitutionally?recognized?fundamental?rights,?liberties?and?guarantees,?in?accordance?with?the?law?and?pursuant?to?the?following:?a)? The?amparo?appeal?shall?only?be?filed?against?acts?or?omissions?of?public?authorities,?which?are?injurious?of?the?fundamental?rights,?liberties?and?guarantees,?once?all?other?means?of?ordinary?appeal?have?been?exhausted;?b)? The?amparo?appeal?shall?be?filed?through?a?simple?petition?and?have?an?urgent?character?and?its?procedure?shall?be?based?on?the?summary?principle.?2.?? Everyone?is?entitled?to?require,?by?law,?compensation?or?damages?for?violations?of?their?rights,?freedoms?and?guarantees.??3.?? All?citizens?can?complain,?for?actions?or?omissions?of?public?authorities,?to?the?Ombudsman?requesting?a?review,?without?power?of?decision,?but?offering?public?authorities?the?necessary?recommendations?to?prevent?and?remedy?unlawful?acts?or?injustices.?4.? The?work?of?the?Ombudsman?is?independent?of?legal?remedies?provided?under?the?Constitution?and?laws.? ARTICLE 21. ACCESS TO THE COURTS 1.? Everyone?is?guaranteed?the?right?of?access?to?justice?and?to?obtain,?within?a?reasonable?time?and?through?a?fair?process,?protection?of?their?rights?or?legal?interests.??? 58? UBC Press 20122.?? Everyone?has?the?right,?personally?or?through?associations?defending?collective?interests,?to?promote?the?prevention,?cessation?and?prosecution?of?offenses?against?public?health,?environment,?quality?of?life,?and?cultural?heritage.? ARTICLE 26. SUSPENSION OF RIGHTS, LIBERTIES AND GUARANTEES The?rights,?liberties?and?guarantees?shall?only?be?suspended?in?case?of?the?state?of?siege?or?emergency,?in?accordance?with?the?provisions?of?the?Constitution.?Title?III:?Economic,?Social,?and?Cultural?Rights?and?Duties??ARTICLE 72 (RIGHT TO ENVIRONMENT) 1.?? All?are?entitled?to?a?healthy?and?ecologically?balanced?environment?and?have?a?duty?to?protect?and?value?the?environment.?2.?? In?order?to?guarantee?the?right?to?environment,?the?government?shall?a)? Develop?and?implement?appropriate?policies?for?planning,?defense,?and?preservation?of?the?environment;?and?promote?the?efficient?use?of?all?natural?resources,?safeguarding?their?capacity?for?renewal?and?ecological?stability;?b)? Promote?environmental?education,?including?respect?for?environmental?values,?the?fight?against?desertification,?and?the?effects?of?drought.?Title?IV?Fundamental?Duties?ARTICLE 84 (DUTIES TOWARDS THE NATION AND THE COMMUNITY) Every?citizen?has?the?duty?to:?...?h)? To?defend?and?promote?health,?the?environment,?and?cultural?heritage.?Part?III:?Economic,?Financial,?and?Fiscal?Organization?Title?I:?The?Economic?System?ARTICLE 88. GENERAL PRINCIPLES ...?3.?? Economic?activities?must?be?undertaken?in?ways?that?preserve?the?eco?system,?promote?sustainable?development,?and?contribute?to?the?equilibrium?of?the?relations?between?humans?and?the?environment.? 59?? UBC Press 2012 60Part?V:?Organization?of?Political?Power?Title?VII:?The?Public?Administration?ARTICLE 241. RIGHTS AND GUARANTEES OF THE CITIZENS BEFORE THE ADMINISTRATION 1.?? Any?citizen?shall,?directly?or?through?the?association?or?organization?to?which?he?belongs?and?in?accordance?with?the?law,?have?the?right:?a)? To?be?heard?in?respect?to?administrative?processes?in?which?he?has?a?vested?interest;?b)? To?be?informed?by?the?Administration,?whenever?he?so?requests,?about?the?evolution?of?the?said?processes,?should?he?be?so?directly?interested;?c)? To?be?notified?about?administrative?acts?in?which?he?has?a?vested? ?interest?and?which?shall?always?be?substantiated?in?fact?and?in?law;?d)? To?appeal?judicially?against?any?administrative?act?which?offends?his?rights?and?legitimate?interests,?based?on?argument?of?illegality.? 2.? The?citizen?shall?also?have,?in?accordance?with?the?law,?the?following?rights:?...?b)? The?access?to?administrative?judicial?means?for?the?defense?of?his?rights?and?legitimate?interests;?c)? The?compensation?for?damages?suffered?as?a?result?of?the?violation?of?his?rights?or?legitimate?interests,?caused?by?action?or?omission?of?the?civil?servants?and?remaining?agents?of?the?State?and?of?other?public?entities?that?take?place?in?the?exercise?of?their?functions?and?as?a?result?of?them.?Source: http://www.chr.up.ac.za/index.php/documents-by-country-database/cape-verde.html? UBC Press 2012Central African Republic (2004) Preamble?The?Central?African?People,?...?Aware?of?the?fact?that?only?dedicated?work?and?the?rigorous?and?transparent?management?of?public?affairs?and?of?the?environment?can?ensure?harmonious,?rational?and?sustainable?development,?...?Title?I:?The?Fundamental?Basis?of?Society?ARTICLE 9 The?Republic?guarantees?to?each?citizen?the?right?to?work,?to?a?clean?environment,?to?rest?and?to?leisure?subject?to?the?requirements?of?national?development.?...???ARTICLE 17 Every?individual?who?is?a?victim?of?a?violation?of?Articles?1?to?15?of?the?present?Title?has?a?right?to?reparation.?Title?VI:?Constitutional?Court?ARTICLE 73  ...?Any?person?who?considers?himself?wronged?may?apply?to?the?Constitutional?Court?with?regard?to?the?constitutionality?of?laws,?either?directly?or?by?the?procedure?of?objection?of?unconstitutionality?raised?before?a?jurisdiction?in?a?case?concerning?him.?The?Constitutional?Court?is?required?to?give?its?ruling?within?the?period?of?one?month.?In?the?case?of?urgency,?this?period?may?be?reduced?to?eight?(8)?days.?Source: (French) http://www.sangonet.com/actu-snews/ICAR/Dsp/constitution2004-qmout.html 61? UBC Press 2012Chad (1996) Tit d?Duties?le?II:?Liberties,?Fundamental?Rights?anChapter?I:?Liberties?and?Fundamental?Rights?ARTICLE 47 Every?person?has?the?right?to?a?healthy?environment.? ARTICLE 48 The?State?and?the?Decentralized?Territorial?Collectivities?must?see?to?the?protection?of?the?environment.??The?conditions?of?stocking,?handling,?and?removal?of?toxic?or?polluting?wastes?originating?from?national?activities?are?determined?by?law.?The?transit,?importation,?stocking,?burying,?and?dumping?on?the?national?territory?of?luting?wastes?are?forbidden.?foreign?toxic?or?polChapter?II:?Duties?ARTICLE 52 E nd?protect?the?environment.?very?citizen?has?the?duty?to?respect?aTitle?III:?The?Executive?Power?Chapter?I:?The?President?of?the?Republic?ARTICLE 87 When?the?institutions?of?the?Republic,?the?independence?of?the?nation,?the?territorial?integrity?or?the?execution?of?international?commitments?are?threatened?in?a?grave?and?immediate?manner?and?when?the?regular?functioning?of?the?public?powers?is?interrupted,?the?President?of?the?Republic,?after?consultation?with?the?Presidents?of?the?Assemblies?and?the?President?of?the?Constitutional?Council,?may?take?in?the?Council?of?Ministers?for?a?period?not?exceeding?fifteen?(15)?days,?such?exceptional?measures?as?are?required?by?the?circumstances.?This?period?may?only?be?extended?following?the?affirmation?of?the?two?Assemblies.?The?President?of?the?Republic?informs?the?nation?by?a?message.?The?Parliament?shall?meet?as?of?right?if?it?is?not?in?session.?These?exceptional?measures?may?never?justify?any?negative?effects?to?the?rights?to?life,?to?moral?and?physical?integrity?and?to?the?jurisdictional?guarantees?granted?to?individuals.? 62? UBC Press 2012Title?VII:?The?Constitutional?Council?ARTICLE 171 Every?citizen?may?raise?the?exception?of?unconstitutionality?before?any?jurisdiction?regarding?a?matter?that?concerns?him.?In?such?a?case,?the?jurisdiction?suspends?judgment?and?seizes?the?Constitutional?Council,?which?must?make?a?decision?within?a?maximum?of?forty?five?days.?Source: (French with English abstracts) http://www.chr.up.ac.za/index.php/documents-by-country-database/chad.html  63? UBC Press 2012Chile (1980)?Chapter?III:?Constitutional?Rights?and?Duties?ARTICLE 19. THE CONSTITUTION GUARANTEES TO ALL PERSONS: ...??(8)? ? The?right?to?live?in?an?environment?free?from?contamination.??It?is?the?duty?of?the?State?to?watch?over?the?preservation?of?nature?and?ensure?that??this?right?is?not?affected.??The?law?may?establish?specific?restrictions?on?the?exercise?of?certain?rights?or?freedoms?in?order?to?protect?the?environment?...?(24)? The?right?of?property?in?its?different?forms?over?all?classes?of?corporeal?and?incorporeal?property.??Only?the?law?may?establish?the?manner?to?acquire?property?and?to?use,?enjoy?and?dispose?of?it,?and?the?limitations?and?obligations?derived?from?its?social?function.??This?includes,?to?the?extent?required?by?the?general?interests?of?the?Nation,?national?security,?public?utility?and?public?health,?and?the?conservation?of?the?environmental?patrimony.?...?(26)?? The?assurance?that?the?legal?precepts?which,?by?mandate?of?the?Constitution,?regulate?or?complement?the?guarantees?established?therein?or?which?should?limit?them?in?the?cases?authorized?by?the?Constitution,?may?not?affect?the?rights?in?their?essence?nor?impose?conditions,?taxes?or?requirements?which?may?prevent?their?free?exercise.? ARTICLE 20  ??The?action?for?the?protection?of?fundamental?rights?(recurso?de?proteccion)?shall?always?lie?in?the?case?of?numeral?8?of?Article?19,?when?the?right?to?live?in?an?environment?free?from?contamination?has?been?affected?by?an?illegal?act?or?omission?imputable?to?an?authority?or?specific?person.?Chapter?IV:?Government?ARTICLE 39 The?rights?and?guarantees,?ensured?to?all?persons?by?the?Constitution,?may?only?be?affected?in?the?following?exceptional?situations:?foreign?or?internal?war,?internal?dist nd?public?calamity.?urbances,?emergency?aChapter?VI:?Judiciary?ARTICLE 80 The?Supreme?Court?may,?by?means?of?an?official?letter?or?upon?request?of?a?party,?in?matters?of?which?it?takes?cognizance,?or?which?may?have?been?submitted?to?it?by?an?appeal?filed?for?a?cause?followed?before?another?Court,?declare?inapplicable?for?such? 64? UBC Press 2012particular?cases?all?legal?precepts?contrary?to?the?Constitution.?This?appeal?may?be?filed?during?any?stage?of?the?proceedings?and?the?Court?may?order?stay?of?proceedings.?Sources: (Spanish) http://pdba.georgetown.edu/Constitutions/Chile/vigente.html; (English) http://confinder.richmond.edu/admin/docs/Chile.pdf  65? UBC Press 2012China (1982) Chapter?I:?General?Principles?ARTICLE 9  All?mineral?resources,?waters,?forests,?mountains,?grasslands,?unreclaimed?land,?beaches?and?other?natural?resources?are?owned?by?the?state,?that?is,?by?the?whole?people,?with?the?exception?of?the?forests,?mountains,?grasslands,?unreclaimed?land?and?beaches?that?are?owned?by?collectives?in?accordance?with?the?law.?The?state?ensures?the?rational?use?of?natural?resources?and?protects?rare?animals?and?plants.?Appropriation?or?damaging?of?natural?resources?by?any?organization?or?individual?by?whatever?means?is?prohibited.? ARTICLE 26 The?state?protects?and?improves?the?living?environment?and?the?ecological?environment.?It?prevents?and?controls?pollution?and?other?public?hazards.?The?state?organizes?and?encourages?afforestation?and?the?protection?of?forests.?Source: http://english.gov.cn/2005-08/05/content_20813.htm 66? UBC Press 2012Colombia (1991) Title?I:?Fundamental?Principles?ARTICLE 8 It?is?the?obligation?of?the?State?and?individuals?to?protect?the?cultural?and?natural?assets?of?the?nation.?Title?II:?Rights,?Guarantees,?and?Duties?Chapter?II:?Social,?Economic,?and?Cultural?Rights?ARTICLE 49  Public?health?and?environmental?protection?are?public?services?for?which?the?state?is?responsible.?All?individuals?are?guaranteed?access?to?services?that?promote,?protect,?and?rehabilitate?public?health.??It?is?the?responsibility?of?the?state?to?organize,?direct,?and?regulate?the?delivery?of?health?services?and?of?environmental?protection?to?the?population?in?accordance?with?the?principles?of?efficiency,?universality,?and?cooperation,?and?to?establish?policies?for?the?provision?of?health?services?by?private?entities?and?to?exercise?supervision?and?control?over?them?...?? ARTICLE 67 Education?is?an?individual?right?and?a?public?service?that?has?a?social?function.?Through?education?individuals?seek?access?to?knowledge,?science,?technology,?and?the?other?benefits?and?values?of?culture.?The?Colombian?citizen?will?be?educated?in?the?respect?for?human?rights,?peace,?and?democracy,?and?in?the?use?of?work?and?recreation?for?cultural,?scientific,?and?he?environment.?...?technological?improvement?and?for?the?protection?of?tChapter?III:?Collective?Rights?and?the?Environment?ARTICLE 79 Every?individual?has?the?right?to?enjoy?a?healthy?environment.?The?law?will?guarantee?the?community?s?participation?in?the?decisions?that?may?affect?it.?It?is?the?duty?of?the?state?to?protect?the?diversity?and?integrity?of?the?environment,?to?conserve?the?areas?of?special?ecological?importance,?and?to?foster?education?for?the?achievement?of?these?ends.? ARTICLE 80 The?state?will?plan?the?handling?and?use?of?natural?resources?in?order?to?guarantee?their?sustainable?development,?conservation,?restoration,?or?replacement.?Additionally,?it?will?have?to?prevent?and?control?the?factors?of?environmental?deterioration,?impose?legal?sanctions,?and?demand?the?repair?of?any?damage?caused.?? 67? UBC Press 2012In?the?same?way,?it?will?cooperate?with?other?nations?in?the?protection?of?the?ecosystems?located?in?the?border?areas.? ARTICLE 81 The?manufacture,?importation,?possession,?and?use?of?chemical,?biological,?or?nuclear?weapons?are?prohibited?as?is?the?introduction?into?the?national?territory?of?nuclear?and?toxic?wastes.?The?state?will?regulate?the?importation?and?exportation?of?genetic?resources?and?their?use,?in?accordance?with?the?national?interest.? ARTICLE 82 It?is?the?duty?of?the?state?to?protect?the?integrity?of?public?space?and?its?assignment?to?common?use,?which?has?priority?over?the?individual?interest.?Public?entities?will?participate?in?the?profits?generated?by?their?urban?planning?activities?and?will?regulate?the?use?of?the?soil?and?the?urban?air?space?in?order?to?protect?the?common?interest.?Chapter?IV:?The?Protection?and?Application?of?Rights?ARTICLE 84 When?a?right?or?an?activity?has?been?regulated?in?a?general?way,?the?public?authorities?may?not?establish?or?demand?permits,?licenses,?or?impose?additional?conditions?for?its?exercise.?? ARTICLE 85 The?rights?mentioned?in?Articles?11,?12,?13,?14,?15,?16,?17,?18,?19,?20,?21,?23,?24,?26,?27,?28,?29,?30,?31,?33,?34,?37?and?40?are?applicable?immediately.?? ARTICLE 86 Every?person?has?the?right?to?file?a?writ?of?protection?before?a?judge,?at?any?time?or?place,?through?a?preferential?and?summary?proceeding,?for?himself/herself?or?by?whomever?acts?in?his/her?name?for?the?immediate?protection?of?his/her?fundamental?constitutional?rights?when?that?person?fears?the?latter?may?be?violated?by?the?action?or?omission?of?any?public?authority.??The?protection?will?consist?of?all?order?issued?by?a?judge?enjoining?others?to?act?or?refrain?from?acting.?The?order,?which?must?be?complied?with?immediately,?may?be?challenged?before?a?superior?court?judge,?and?in?any?case?the?latter?may?send?it?to?the?Constitutional?Court?for?possible?revision.?? 68? UBC Press 2012ARTICLE 87 Any?person?may?appear?before?the?legal?authority?to?demand?the?application?of?a?law?or?fulfillment?of?an?administrative?act.?In?case?of?a?successful?action,?the?sentence?will?order?the?delinquent?authority?to?perform?its?mandated?duty.?? ARTICLE 88 The?law?will?regulate?popular?actions?for?the?protection?of?collective?rights?and?interests?related?to?the?homeland,?space,?public?safety?and?health,?administrative?morality,?the?environment,?free?economic?competition,?and?others?of?a?similar?nature.?It?will?also?regulate?the?actions?arising?out?of?harm?caused?to?a?large?number?of?individuals,?without?barring?appropriate?individual?action.?In?the?same?way,?it?will?ge?caused?to?collective?rights?and?interests.?define?cases?of?civil?liability?for?damaChapter?V:?Duties?and?Obligations??ARTICLE 95  ...?Every?individual?is?obligated?to?obey?the?Constitution?and?the?laws.?The?following?are?duties?of?the?individual?and?of?the?citizen:?...?8.? To?protect?the?country?s?cultural?and?natural?resources?and?to?keep??preserved;?...?watch?that?a?healthy?environment?is?beingChapter?VI:?Concerning?the?States?of?Exception?ARTICLE 214 The?states?of?exception?referred?to?in?the?previous?articles?[war,?serious?disruption?of?public?order]?will?be?subject?to?the?following?provisions:?...?2.? Neither?human?rights?nor?fundamental?freedoms?may?be?suspended.?In?all?cases,?the?rules?of?international?humanitarian?law?will?be?observed.?A?statutory?law?will?regulate?the?powers?of?the?government?during?the?states?of?exception?and?will?establish?the?legal?controls?and?a?guarantee?to?protect?rights,?in?accordance?with?international?treaties.?The?measures?which?are?adopted?must?be?avity?of?the?events.??proportionate?to?the?gr Title?X:?Supervisory?Bodies Chapter?I:?The?Office?of?the?Comptroller?General?of?the?Republic?ARTICLE 267  Fiscal?control?is?a?public?function?to?be?exercised?by?the?Office?of?the?Comptroller?General?of?the?Republic,?which?oversees?the?fiscal?management?of?the?administration?and?of?individuals?or?entities?which?handle?funds?or?assets?belonging?to?the?nation.?? 69? UBC Press 2012Said?control?will?be?exercised?selectively?ex?post?facto?in?accordance?with?the?procedures,?systems,?and?principles?established?by?law.?However,?the?law?may?authorize?that?in?special?cases,?Colombian?private?enterprises,?selected?on?the?basis?of?a?public?performance?contest?and?contracted?according?to?the?plan?of?the?Council?of?State,?may?conduct?the?supervision.??Oversight?of?the?fiscal?management?of?the?State?includes?the?exercise?of?financial?control,?management,?and?performance,?based?on?efficiency,?economy,?equity,?and?ts.?appraising?the?environmental?cosChapter?II:?The?Public?Ministry?ARTICLE 277 The?National?Attorney?General,?by?himself/herself?or?through?his/her?delegates?and?agents,?will?have?the?following?functions:?...?4.? To?defend?the?collective?interests,?especially?the?protection?of?the?environment.? Title?XII:?The?Economic?and?Financial?Regime Chapter?I:?General?Provisions?ARTICLE 333 Economic?activity?and?private?initiative?must?not?be?impeded?within?the?limits?of?the?public?good.?No?one?may?require?permits?or?licenses?to?exercise?economic?activity?except?when?authorized?by?law?...??The?law?will?limit?the?scope?of?economic?freedom?when?the?social?interest,?the?environment,?and?the?cultural?patrimony?of?the?nation?require?it.?? ARTICLE 334 The?general?management?of?the?economy?is?the?responsibility?of?the?state.?By?means?of?the?law,?the?state?will?intervene?in?the?exploitation?of?natural?resources,?land?use,?the?production,?distribution,?use,?and?consumption?of?goods,?and?in?public?and?private?services?in?order?to?streamline?the?economy?with?the?purpose?of?achieving?an?improved?quality?of?life?for?the?inhabitants,?the?equitable?distribution?of?opportunities,?and?the?benefits?of?development?and?conservation?of?a?healthy?environment.?Chapter?V:?The?Social?Purpose?of?the?State?and?Public?Services?ARTICLE 366 The?general?welfare?and?improvement?of?the?population?s?quality?of?life?are?social?purposes?of?the?state.?A?basic?objective?of?the?state?s?activity?will?be?to?address?unsatisfied?public?health,?educational,?environmental,?and?drinking?water?needs.??For?this?purpose,?public?social?expenditures?will?have?priority?over?any?other?allocation?in?the?plans?and?budgets?of?the?nation?and?of?the?territorial?entities.?? 70? UBC Press 2012Source: http://confinder.richmond.edu/admin/docs/colombia_const2.pdf 71? UBC Press 2012Co 001) moros (2Preamble?The?Comorian?people?solemnly?affirm?their?commitment?to?...?the?right?to?a?healthy?environment?and?the?duty?of?all?to?protect?the?environment.??T e?constitution.?his?Preamble?is?an?integral?part?of?thTitle?VI:?Constitutional?Court?ARTICLE 36 The?Constitutional?Court?is?the?judge?of?the?constitutionality?of?the?laws?of?the?Union?and?the?Islands.?It?supervises?the?regularity?of?electoral?operations?both?in?the?Islands?and?on?the?level?of?the?Union,?including?as?regards?referendums;?it?judges?any?electoral?disputes.?It?guarantees?finally?the?basic?rights?of?the?human?person?and?public?freedoms.?The?Constitutional?Court?is?guarantor?of?the?distribution?of?competences?between?the?Union?and?the?Islands.?It?is?charged?to?rule?on?the?conflicts?of?competence?between?two?or?several?institutions?of?the?Union,?between?the?Union?and?the?Islands,?and?the?Islands?themselves.?Any?citizen?can?seize?the?Constitutional?Court?on?the?constitutionality?of?the?laws,?either?directly,?or?by?the?procedure?of?exception?of?unconstitutionality?called?upon?in?a?case?that?relates?to?it?in?front?of?a?jurisdiction?of?the?Union?or?Islands.?Those?must?postpone?their?procedures?until?the?decision?of?the?Constitutional?Court,?which?must?intervene?within?thirty?days.?Source: (French) http://www.beit-salam.km/article.php3?id_article=34 72? UBC Press 2012Congo, Democratic Republic of (formerly Zaire) (2005)  Title?II:?Human?Rights,?Fundamental?Liberties?and?Duties?of?the?Citizen?and?the?State Chapter?2:?Economic,?Social,?and?Cultural?Rights?ARTICLE 47 The?right?to?health?and?to?food?security?are?guaranteed.?The?law?defines?the?fundamental?principles?and?the?rules?of?organization?for?public?health?and?food?security.? ARTICLE 48 The?right?to?decent?housing,?the?right?of?access?to?drinking?water,?and?to?electric?energy?are? es?the?conditions?for?the?exercise?of?these?rights.?guaranteed.?The?law?establishChapter?3:?Collective?Rights?ARTICLE 53  All?persons?have?the?right?to?a?healthy?environment?that?is?favourable?to?their?development.?They?have?the?duty?to?defend?it.?The?State?ensures?the?protection?of?the?environment?and?the?health?of?the?population.? ARTICLE 54 The?conditions?for?the?construction?of?industrial?plants,?the?storage,?the?manipulation,?the?burning?and?the?removal?of?toxic,?polluting?or?radioactive?waste?produced?by?industrial?units?or?workshops?in?the?national?territory?are?regulated?by?law.?Any?pollution?or?destruction?resulting?from?an?economic?activity?gives?rise?to?compensation?and/or?reparation.?The?law?defines?the?nature?of?the?compensatory?and?reparatory?measures?as?well?as?the?conditions?for?their?implementation.? ARTICLE 55 The?transfer,?importation,?storage,?spilling?and?disposal?of?toxic,?polluting?or?radioactive?waste?or?any?other?dangerous?product?in?the?internal?waters?or?maritime?spaces?under?national?jurisdiction,?or?their?release?into?the?airspace,?whether?they?hail?from?abroad?or?not,?constitute?a?crime?punishable?by?law.? ARTICLE 60 The?respect?of?human?rights?and?fundamental?liberties?guaranteed?by?the?Constitution?is?incumbent?on?the?public?authorities?and?all?persons.?  73? UBC Press 2012 74ARTICLE 61 In?no?case,?not?even?when?the?state?of?siege?or?the?state?of?emergency?has?been?proclaimed?in?accordance?with?Articles?87?and?88?of?this?Constitution,?is?a?derogation?admissible?from?the?following?rights?and?fundamental?principles:??? the?right?to?life??? the?prohibition?of?torture?and?of?cruel,?inhumane?or?degrading?punishment?or?torture??? the?prohibition?of?slavery?and?servitude??? the?principle?of?legality?of?offenses?and?penalties??? the?right?to?defense?and?to?a?remedy??? the?prohibition?of?imprisonment?for?debt??? the?freedom?of?thought,?conscience?and?religion?Tit cise?of?Authority?le?III:?The?Organization?and?ExerChapter?I:?Institutions?of?the?Republic?Section?III:?The?Relationship?Between?the?Executive?Power?and?the?Legislative?Power?ARTICLE 143 ...?The?rights?and?duties?of?the?citizens?in?times?of?war?or?of?invasion?or?of?attack?of?the?national?territory?by?foreign?forces?are?regulated?by?law.? Section?IV:?Judicial?Authority,?Subsection?V:?The?Constitutional?Court?ARTICLE 162 The?Constitutional?Court?rules?on?the?objection?of?unconstitutionality?raised?by?or?before?a?court.?Any?individual?may?appeal?to?the?Constitutional?Court?for?unconstitutionality?of?a?statutory?or?regulatory?measure.?In?addition,?he/she?may?appeal?to?the?Constitutional?Court?by?way?of?raising?an?objection?of?unconstitutionality?in?a?matter?affecting?him/her?before?a?court.??The?former?court?suspends?the?proceedings?and?submits?the?matter?to?the?Constitutional?Court,?by?giving?it?preference?over?all?its?other?work.?Source: (French) http://www.chr.up.ac.za/index.php/documents-by-country-database/democratic-republic-of-the-congo.html ? UBC Press 2012C ) (2002) ongo, Republic of (Congo-BrazzavilleTitle?II:?Rights?and?Fundamental?Liberties?ARTICLE 35  Each?citizen?shall?have?the?right?to?a?healthy,?satisfactory,?and?sustainable?environment?and?the?duty?to?defend?it.?The?State?shall?strive?for?the?protection?and?the?conservation?of?the?environment.??ARTICLE 36  Storing,?manipulating,?incinerating,?and?discharging?toxic,?polluting?or?radioactive?wastes?originating?in?factories?and?other?industrial?or?artisan?units?installed?on?the?national?territory?shall?be?regulated?by?law.?All?pollution?or?destruction?resulting?from?an?economic?activity?provides?rights?for?compensation.??ARTICLE 37 The?transit,?importation,?storage,?concealment,?dumping?in?continental?waters?and?maritime?spaces?under?national?jurisdiction,?emission?in?the?airspace?of?toxic?wastes,?pollutants?or?radioactive?materials,?or?other?dangerous?products?of?foreign?origin,?constitute?a?crime?punishable?by?law.? ARTICLE 41 Every?citizen?who?has?experienced?prejudice?by?an?act?of?the?administration?has?the?r rmined?by?law.?ight?to?seek?justice,?in?the?forms?deteTitle?IX:?Constitutional?Court?ARTICLE 149 Any?individual,?be?it?directly?or?by?the?procedure?of?exception?of?unconstitutionality,?invoked?before?a?jurisdiction?in?a?matter?that?concerns?him,?may?seize?the?Constitutional?Court?on?the?constitutionality?of?laws.?In?the?case?of?exception?of?unconstitutionality,?the?seized?jurisdiction?is?given?one?month?to?rule?from?the?notification?of?the?decision.?Source: (French with English extracts) http://www.chr.up.ac.za/index.php/documents-by-country-database/congo.html 75? UBC Press 2012Costa Rica (1994) Title?I:?The?Republic?ARTICLE 10 A?specialized?Chamber?of?the?Supreme?Court?of?Justice?shall?declare,?by?the?absolute?majority?vote?of?its?members,?the?unconstitutionality?of?provisions?of?any?nature?and?acts?subject?to?Public?Law.?Title?IV:?Individual?Rights?and?Guarantees?ARTICLE 46  ...?The?consumers?and?users?have?right?to?the?protection?of?their?health,?environment,?security?and?economic?interests,?to?receive?suitable?and?truthful?information;?to?the?freedom?of?election,?and?equitable?treatment.?The?State?will?support?any?bodies?established?for?defending?these?rights.?The?law?will?regulate?these?matters.? ARTICLE 48 Every?person?has?the?right?to?present?writs?of?habeas?corpus?to?guarantee?his?freedom?and?personal?integrity?and?writs?of?amparo?to?maintain?or?reestablish?the?enjoyment?of?other?rights?conferred?by?this?Constitution?as?well?as?those?of?fundamental?nature?established?in?international?instruments?on?human?rights,?enforceable?in?the?Republic.?B e?Chamber?indicated?in?Article?10.?oth?writs?shall?be?within?the?jurisidiction?of?thTitle?V:?Social?Rights?and?Guarantees?ARTICLE 50 The?State?shall?procure?the?greatest?welfare?of?all?inhabitants?of?the?country,?organizing?and?promoting?production?and?the?most?adequate?distribution?of?wealth.??Every?person?has?the?right?to?a?healthy?and?ecologically?balanced?environment,?being?therefore?entitled?to?denounce?any?acts?that?may?infringe?said?right?and?claim?redress?for?the?damage?caused.??The?State?shall?guarantee,?defend?and?preserve?that?right.?The?Law?shall?establish?the?alties.??appropriate?responsibilities?and?penTitle?VII:?Education?and?Culture?ARTICLE 89 The?cultural?aims?of?the?Republic?include:?to?protect?its?natural?beauty,?to?preserve?and?develop?the?historic?and?artistic?wealth?of?the?Nation,?and?to?support?private?initiative?directed?to?scientific?and?artistic?progress.? 76? UBC Press 2012Title?IX:?The?Legislative?Branch Chapter?II:?Powers?of?the?Legislative?Assembly?ARTICLE 121 In?addition?to?other?powers?vested?in?it?by?this?Constitution,?the?Legislative?Assembly?has?exclusive?powers?to:?...?7.? Suspend,?by?vote?of?no?less?than?two?thirds?of?its?membership,?in?case?of?clear?public?need,?the?individual?rights?and?guarantees?conferred?by?Articles?22,?23,?24,?26,?28,?29,?30,?and?37?of?this?Constitution.?This?suspension?may?include?all?or?certain?rights?and?guarantees,?throughout?the?territory?or?only?in?a?part?of?it,?and?for?no?more?than?thirty?days.?...?In?no?case?may?individual?rights?and??subsection?be?suspended.?guarantees?not?listed?in?thisTitle?X:?The?Executive?Branch?Chapter?II:?Powers?and?Duties?of?the?Executive?Branch?ARTICLE 140 The?following?are?the?joint?powers?of?the?President?and?the?appropriate?Cabinet?Minister:?...??4.??During?the?period?of?adjournment?of?the?Legislative?Assembly,?to?order?the?suspension?of?the?rights?and?guarantees?to?which?Article?121(7)?refers,?in?the?same?instances?and?with?the?same?limitations?as?established?therein,?and?to?report?it?immediately?to?the?Assembly.?A?decree?of?suspension?of?guarantees?is?equivalent,?ipso?facto,?to?a?call?of?the?Assembly,?which?shall?meet?in?the?next?forty?eight?hours.?If?the?Assembly?does?not?confirm?the?measure?by?a?two?thirds?majority?of?its?entire?membership,?the?guarantees?shall?be?considered?reestablished.??Source: (Spanish) http://pdba.georgetown.edu/Constitutions/Costa/costa2.html 77? UBC Press 2012Cote d?Ivoire (Ivory Coast) (2000) Title?I:?Freedoms,?Rights,?and?Duties?Chapter?I:?Freedoms?and?Rights?ARTICLE 19 The?right?to?a?healthy?environment?is?recognized?to?all.? ARTICLE 20 A cess?to?Justice.?ll?persons?have?the?right?to?free?and?equal?acTitle?I:?Freedoms,?Rights,?and?Duties?Chapter?II:?Duties?ARTICLE 28 The?protection?of?the?environment?and?the?promotion?of?the?quality?of?life?are?a?duty?for?the?community?and?for?each?physical?or?moral?person.?Title?V:?Relations?Between?the?Executive?Power?and?Legislative?Power?ARTICLE 71 The?National?Assembly?holds?the?legislative?power.?It?alone?votes?the?law.?The?law?establishes?the?rules?concerning:?? citizenship,?the?civic?rights?and?the?fundamental?guarantees?granted?to?the?citizens?for?the?exercise?of?the?public?liberties????ARTICLE 77 The?laws?can,?before?their?promulgation,?be?referred?to?the?Constitutional?Council?by?the?President?of?the?National?Assembly?or?by?one?tenth?at?least?of?the?Deputies?or?by?the?parliamentary?groups.?The?Associations?of?the?Defense?of?the?Rights?of?Man?legally?constituted?can?equally?defer?to?the?Constitutional?Council?the?laws?concerning?the?public?freedoms.?The?Constitutional?Council?decides?in?a?time?period?of?fifteen?days?from?being?seized.?Title?VII:?The?Constitutional?Council?ARTICLE 96 Any?litigant?may?enter?a?plea?of?unconstitutionality?of?a?law?before?any?court.?The?conditions?for?referring?a?matter?to?the?Constitutional?Council?shall?be?determined?by?law.? 78? UBC Press 2012Sources: http://democratie.francophonie.org/article.php3?id_article=492&id_rubrique=80 79? UBC Press 2012Croatia (1990) Chapter?II:?Basic?Provisions?ARTICLE 3  Freedom,?equal?rights,?national?equality?and?equality?of?genders,?love?of?peace,?social?justice,?respect?for?human?rights,?inviolability?of?ownership,?conservation?of?nature?and?the?environment,?the?rule?of?law,?and?a?democratic?multiparty?system?are?the?highest?values?of?the?constitutional?order?of?the?Republic?of?Croatia.? ARTICLE 16  Freedoms?and?rights?may?only?be?restricted?by?law?in?order?to?protect?freedoms?and?rights?of?others,?public?order,?public?morality?and?health.?Every?restriction?of?freedoms?or?rights?shall?be?proportional?to?the?nature?of?the?necessity?for?restriction?in?each?individual?case.? ARTICLE 17  During?a?state?of?war?or?an?immediate?threat?to?the?independence?and?unity?of?the?State,?or?in?the?event?of?severe?natural?disasters,?individual?freedoms?and?rights?guaranteed?by?the?Constitution?may?be?restricted.?This?shall?be?decided?by?the?Croatian?Parliament?by?a?two?thirds?majority?of?all?members?or,?if?the?Croatian?Parliament?is?unable?to?meet,?at?the?proposal?of?the?Government?and?upon?the?counter?signature?of?the?Prime?Minister,?by?the?President?of?the?Republic.?The?extent?of?such?restrictions?shall?be?adequate?to?the?nature?of?the?danger,?and?may?not?result?in?the?inequality?of?persons?in?respect?of?race,?color,?gender,?language,?religion,?national?or?social?origin.?Not?even?in?the?case?of?an?immediate?threat?to?the?existence?of?the?State?may?restrictions?be?imposed?on?the?application?of?the?provisions?of?this?Constitution?concerning?the?right?to?life,?prohibition?of?torture,?cruel?or?degrading?treatment?or?punishment,?on?the?legal?definitions?of?penal?offenses?and?punishments,?or?on?freedom?of?thought,?conscience?and?religion.? ARTICLE 19  Individual?decisions?of?administrative?agencies?and?other?bodies?vested?with?public?authority?shall?be?grounded?on?law.?Judicial?review?of?decisions?made?by?administrative?agencies?and?other?bodies?vested?with?public?authority?shall?be?guaranteed.?Chapter?III:?Protection?of?Human?Rights?and?Fundamental?Freedoms?Part?3:?Economic,?Social,?and?Cultural?Rights? 80? UBC Press 2012ARTICLE 50. EXPROPRIATION, RESTRICTIONS FOR BUSINESSES (1)? Property?may,?in?the?interest?of?the?Republic?of?Croatia,?be?restricted?or?expropriated?by?law?upon?payment?of?compensation?equal?to?its?market?value.?(2)? The?exercise?of?entrepreneurial?freedom?and?property?rights?may?exceptionally?be?restricted?by?law?for?the?purposes?of?protecting?the?interests?and?security?of?the?Republic?of?Croatia,?nature,?the?environment,?and?public?health.? ARTICLE 52 The?sea,?seashore?and?islands,?waters,?air?space,?mineral?wealth?and?other?natural?resources,?as?well?as?land,?forests,?fauna?and?flora,?other?parts?of?nature,?real?estate?and?goods?of?special?cultural,?historic,?economic?or?ecological?significance?which?are?specified?by?law?to?be?of?interest?to?the?Republic?of?Croatia?shall?enjoy?its?special?protection.? ARTICLE 69. HEALTH, ENVIRONMENT, NATURE Everyone?shall?have?the?right?to?a?healthy?life.?The?State?shall?ensure?citizens?the?right?to?a?healthy?environment.?Everyone?shall?be?obligated,?within?their?powers?and?activities,?to?pay?special?attention?to?the?protection?of?public?health,?nature?and?environment.?Source: http://www.constitution.org/cons/croatia.htm 81? UBC Press 2012Cuba (1976) Chapter?I:?Political,?Social,?and?Economic?Principles?of?the?State?ARTICLE 27  The?state?protects?the?environment?and?natural?resources?of?the?country.?It?recognizes?the?close?links?they?have?with?sustainable?economic?and?social?development?to?make?human?life?more?rational?and?to?ensure?the?survival,?well?being?and?security?of?present?and?future?generations.?It?corresponds?to?the?competent?bodies?to?implement?this?policy.?It?is?the?duty?of?citizens?to?contribute?to?the?protection?of?the?waters?and?the?atmosphere,?and?to?the?conservation?of?the?soil,?flora,?fauna?and?nature?s?entire?rich?potential.?Source: http://www.cubanet.org/ref/dis/const_92_e.htm 82? UBC Press 2012Czech Republic (1992) Constitution?of?the?Czech?Republic?Preamble?We,?the?citizens?of?the?Czech?Republic?...?reso ural,?cultural,?material,?and?spiritual?heritage?...?lved?to?protect?and?develop?their?natChapter?I:?Fundamental?Provisions?ARTICLE 3 An?integral?component?of?the?constitutional?system?of?the?Czech?Republic?is?the?Charter?of?Fundamental?Rights?and?Freedoms.? ARTICLE 4 The?fundamental?rights?and?basic?freedoms?shall?enjoy?the?protection?of?judicial?bodies.?? ARTICLE 7 The?state?shall?see?to?it?that?natural?resources?are?used?prudently?and?natural?wealth?is?protected.?Chapter?IV:?Judicial?Power?ARTICLE 87  The?Constitutional?Court?shall?rule?on:???(d)?constitutional?complaints?filed?against?final?decisions?and?other?interventions?by?agencies?of?public?authority,?violating?constitutionally?guaranteed?fundamental?rights?and?freedoms???Ch undamental?Rights?and?Freedoms??arter?of?FPreamble?The?Federal?Assembly,?...?Recalling?its?share?of?responsibility?towards?future?generations?for?the?fate?of?all?life?on?Earth,?...?Has?enacted?this?Charter?of?Fundamental?Rights?and?Freedoms:? 83? UBC Press 2012Chapter?One:?General?Provisions?ARTICLE 1 All?people?are?free,?have?equal?dignity,?and?enjoy?equality?of?rights.?Their?fundamental?rights?and?basic?freedoms?are?inherent,?inalienable,?non?prescriptible,?and?not?subject?to?repeal.? ARTICLE 4 (1)?Duties?may?be?imposed?upon?persons?only?on?the?basis?of?and?within?the?bounds?of?law,?and?only?while?respecting?the?fundamental?rights?and?basic?freedoms?of?the?individual.?(2)? Limitations?may?be?placed?upon?the?fundamental?rights?and?basic?freedoms?only?by?law?and?under?the?conditions?prescribed?in?this?Charter?of?Fundamental?Rights?and?Basic?Freedoms?(hereinafter??Charter?).?(3)?Any?statutory?limitation?upon?the?fundamental?rights?and?basic?freedoms?must?apply?in?the?same?way?to?all?cases?which?meet?the?specified?conditions.?(4)? In?employing?the?provisions?concerning?limitations?upon?the?fundamental?rights?and?basic?freedoms,?the?essence?and?significance?of?these?rights?and?freedoms?must?be?preserved.?Such?limitations?are?not?to?be?misused?for?purposes?other?than?those?for?which?they?were?laid?down.?Chapter?Two:?Fundamental?Rights?and?Freedoms?Division?One:?Fundamental?Human?Rights?and?Freedoms?ARTICLE 11 (3)?Ownership?entails?obligations.?It?may?not?be?misused?to?the?detriment?of?the?rights?of?others?or?against?legally?protected?public?interests.?Its?exercise?may?not?cause?beyond?statutory?limits.?damage?to?human?health,?nature?and?the?environment?Chapter?Four:?Economic,?Social,?and?Cultural?Rights?ARTICLE 35  (1)? Everybody?has?the?right?to?a?favourable?environment.?(2)? Everybody?is?entitled?to?timely?and?complete?information?about?the?state?of?the?environment?and?natural?resources.?(3)? In?exercising?his?or?her?rights?nobody?may?endanger?or?cause?damage?to?the?environment,?natural?resources,?the?wealth?of?natural?species,?and?cultural?monuments?beyond?limits?set?by?law.? 84? UBC Press 2012Chapter?Five:?The?Right?to?Judicial?and?Other?Legal?Protection?ARTICLE 36 (1)? Everyone?may?assert,?through?the?legally?prescribed?procedure,?his?rights?before?an?independent?and?impartial?court?or,?in?specified?cases,?before?another?body.?(2)?Unless?a?law?provides?otherwise,?a?person?who?claims?that?her?rights?were?curtailed?by?a?decision?of?a?public?administrative?authority?may?turn?to?a?court?for?review?of?the?legality?of?that?decision.?However,?judicial?review?of?decisions?affecting?the?fundamental?rights?and?basic?freedoms?listed?in?this?Charter?may?not?be?removed?from?the?jurisdiction?of?courts.?(3)? Everybody?is?entitled?to?compensation?for?damage?caused?him?by?an?unlawful?decision?of?a?court,?other?state?bodies,?or?public?administrative?authorities,?or?as?the?result?of?an?incorrect?official?procedure.?(4)? rovisions?shall?be?set?by?law.?Conditions?therefor?and?detailed?pChapter?Six:?General?Provisions?ARTICLE 41 (1)? The?rights?specified?in?Article?26,?Article?27(4),?Articles?28?to?31,?Article?32(1)?and?(3),?Article?33,?and?Article?35?of?this?Charter?may?be?claimed?only?within?the?confines?of?the?laws?implementing?these?provisions.?Sources: http://www.hrad.cz/en/czech-republic/constitution-of-the-cr.shtml 85? UBC Press 2012Dominican Republic (2010) Tit ent?and?Fundamental?Principles?le?I:?Nation,?State,?GovernmChapter?IV:?Natural?Resources?ARTICLE 14. NATURAL RESOURCES Non?renewable?natural?resources?in?the?territory?and?maritime?areas?under?national?jurisdiction,?genetic?resources,?biodiversity?and?the?radio?spectrum?are?the?Nation?s?heritage.?  ARTICLE 15. WATER RESOURCES  (1)?Water?is?the?national?heritage,?strategic?for?public?use,?inalienable,?indefeasible,?and?essential?for?life.?Human?consumption?of?water?has?priority?over?any?other?use.?The?State?promotes?the?development?and?implementation?of?effective?policies?for?the?protection?of?the?Nation?s?water?resources.?  (2)? The?upper?reaches?of?rivers?and?areas?of?endemic,?native,?and?migratory?biodiversity?are?under?special?protection?by?the?government?to?ensure?their?management?and?preservation?as?fundamental?assets?of?the?Nation.?Rivers,?lakes,?lagoons,?beaches,?and?national?coasts?belong?to?the?public?domain?and?are?freely?accessible,?while?always?respecting?private?property?rights.?The?law?shall?regulate?conditions,?ways?and?easements?in?which?individuals?gain?access?to?the?enjoyment?or?management?of?these?areas.?  ARTICLE 16. PROTECTED AREAS Wildlife,?conservation?units?within?the?National?System?of?Protected?Areas,?and?the?ecosystems?and?species?therein,?are?heritage?assets?of?the?nation?and?are?inalienable?and?indefeasible.?The?boundaries?of?protected?areas?can?only?be?reduced?by?a?law?approved?by?two?thirds?of?the?votes?of?the?members?of?the?chambers?of?the?National?Congress.?  ARTICLE 17. USE OF NATURAL RESOURCES Deposits?of?minerals?and?oil?and,?in?general,?non?renewable?natural?resources?can?only?be?explored?and?exploited?by?individuals,?under?sustainable?environmental?criteria?in?grants,?contracts,?licenses,?permits?or?quotas,?under?the?conditions?determined?by?law.?Individuals?can?take?advantage?of?renewable?natural?resources?rationally?in?accordance?with?the?conditions,?obligations?and?limitations?provided?by?law.?Therefore:?1)? It?is?declared?to?be?of?high?public?interest?to?explore?for?and?exploit?hydrocarbons?in?the?national?territory?and?in?maritime?areas?under?national?jurisdiction;?2)? It?is?declared?to?be?a?national?priority?and?of?social?interest?to?reforest?the?country,?and?pursue?forest?conservation?and?renewal?of?forest?resources;? 86? UBC Press 20123)? It?is?declared?to?be?a?national?priority?to?ensure?the?preservation?and?rational?use?of?the?living?and?the?non?living?resources?of?the?national?maritime?areas,?especially?the?set?of?banks?and?emersion?in?the?national?policy?for?maritime?development?[el?conjunto?de?bancos?y?emersiones?dentro?de?la?pol?tica?nacional?de?desarrollo?mar?timo;]?4)? The?benefits?received?by?the?State?for?the?exploitation?of?natural?resources?will?be?devoted?to?the?natural?development?of?the?Nation?and?the?provinces?where?found?in?the?proportions?and?conditions?set?by?law.?Tit s,?and?Basic?Duties?le?II:?The?Rights,?GuaranteeChapter?I:?Fundamental?Rights?Section?II:?Economic?and?Social?Rights?ARTICLE 61. RIGHT TO HEALTH Everyone?has?the?right?to?comprehensive?health?care.?Therefore:?1)? The?State?shall?ensure?the?protection?of?the?health?of?all?people,?access?to?clean?water,?better?food,?health?services,?hygiene,?environmental?sanitation?and?seek?means?for?prevention?and?treatment?of?all?diseases,?ensuring?access?to?quality?medicines?and?providing?medical?and?free?hospitals?to?those?who?require?it;?2)?The?State?shall?ensure,?through?legislation?and?public?policy,?the?exercise?of?economic?and?social?rights?of?people?with?lower?incomes?and,?therefore?provide?protection?and?assistance?to?vulnerable?groups?and?sectors;?and?fight?social?vices?with?appropriate?measures?with?the?help?of?international?conventions?and?organizations.? Section?IV:?Collective?Rights?and?the?Environment?ARTICLE 66. COLLECTIVE AND DIFFUSE RIGHTS The?State?recognizes?the?collective?and?common?rights?and?interests,?which?are?exercised?under?the?conditions?and?limitations?established?by?law.?Consequently?the?State?protects:?1)? The?conservation?of?the?ecological?balance,?of?both?fauna?and?flora;?2)? The?protection?of?the?environment;?3)? The?preservation?of?cultural,?historical,?urban,?artistic,?architectural,?and?archaeological?heritage.? 87? UBC Press 2012  ARTICLE 67. PROTECTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT The?duties?of?the?State?are?to?prevent?pollution,?protect?and?maintain?the?environment?for?the?benefit?of?present?and?future?generations.?Therefore:?1)? Everyone?has?the?right,?both?individually?and?collectively,?to?the?use?and?sustainable?enjoyment?of?natural?resources;?to?live?in?an?environment?that?is?healthy,?ecologically?balanced?and?appropriate?for?the?development?and?preservation?of?different?forms?of?life,?landscape?and?nature;?2)? The?State?prohibits?the?introduction,?development,?production,?possession,?sale,?transport,?storage?and?use?of?chemical,?biological,?and?nuclear?weapons,?and?agricultural?chemicals?that?are?internationally?forbidden,?as?well?as?nuclear?waste?and?toxic?and?hazardous?wastes;?3)? The?State?shall?promote,?in?the?public?and?private?sectors,?the?use?of?technologies?and?non?polluting?alternative?energy;?4)? In?the?contracts?that?the?State?enters?into?or?permits?to?be?granted?that?involve?the?use?and?exploitation?of?natural?resources,?the?obligation?to?preserve?the?ecological?balance,?access?to?technology?and?its?transfer?and?the?restoration?of?the?environment?to?its?natural?state,?if?it?is?altered,?shall?be?considered.?5)? The?public?authorities?prevent?and?control?the?factors?causing?environmental?deterioration,?impose?legal?sanctions?including?strict?liability?for?damage?to?the?environment?and?natural?resources,?and?require?their?restoration?repair.?Also,?cooperate?with?other?nations?in?protecting?the?ecosystems?along?the?maritime?and?terrestrial?borders.?Chapter?II:?Guarantees?of?Fundamental?Rights?ARTICLE 68. GUARANTEES OF FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS  The?Constitution?guarantees?the?effectiveness?of?fundamental?rights,?through?the?mechanisms?of?tutela?and?amparo,?that?offer?the?person?offering?the?possibility?of?satisfying?their?rights?against?the?obligors?or?debtors?of?the?same.?The?fundamental?rights?are?binding?on?all?public?authorities,?which?should?ensure?effectiveness?in?the?terms?established?by?this?Constitution?and?the?law.? ARTICLE 69 Effective?judicial?protection?and?due?process.?Everyone,?in?the?exercise?of?their?legitimate?rights?and?interests,?is?entitled?to?effective?judicial?protection?with?respect?for?due?process?that?will?consist?of?the?minimum?guarantees?set?out?below:?? 88? UBC Press 20121)? The?right?to?accessible,?timely?and?free?justice;?2)? The?right?to?be?heard?within?a?reasonable?time?by?a?competent,?independent?and?impartial?tribunal?previously?established?by?law;?3)? The?right?to?be?presumed?innocent?and?treated?as?such,?while?not?being?declared?guilty?by?absolute?decree;?4)? The?right?to?a?public,?oral,?and?adversarial?trial,?with?full?equality?and?respect?to?the?right?of?defense;?5)?No?person?shall?be?tried?twice?for?the?same?cause;?6)?No?person?shall?be?compelled?to?testify?against?himself;?7)?No?person?shall?be?tried?except?under?laws?that?predate?the?act?which?he?is?charged,?before?a?competent?court?and?in?compliance?with?the?fulfillment?of?formalities?of?each?trial;?8)?Any?evidence?obtained?in?violation?of?the?law?is?disallowed;?9)?Any?sentence?can?be?appealed?in?accordance?with?the?law.?The?higher?court?may?not?increase?the?penalty?imposed?when?only?the?person?sentenced?appeals?the?sentence;?10)?The?rules?of?due?process?apply?to?all?kinds?of?judicial?and?administrative?proceedings.? ARTICLE 72. AMPARO ACTION  (1)? Everyone?is?entitled?to?pursue?an?action?before?the?courts,?by?themselves?or?by?anyone?acting?on?its?behalf,?for?the?immediate?protection?of?their?fundamental?rights?when?they?are?not?protected?by?habeas?corpus,?when?they?are?violated?or?threatened?by?any?action?or?omission?of?any?authority?public?or?private,?to?enforce?compliance?with?a?law?or?administrative?act,?or?to?ensure?the?collective?and?diffuse?rights?and?interests.?In?accordance?with?the?law,?the?procedure?is?preferred,?summary,?oral,?public,?free?and?not?subject?to?formalities.?(2)? The?measures?adopted?during?states?of?emergency?that?unreasonably?violate?suspended?rights?are?subject?to?amparo?proceedings.?Chapter?III:?Principles?of?Interpretation?of?the?Fundamental?Rights?and?Guarantees?ARTICLE 74. PRINCIPLES OF REGULATION AND INTERPRETATION The?interpretation?and?regulation?of?fundamental?rights?and?guarantees?recognized?in?the?present?Constitution?are?governed?by?the?following?principles:?1)? They?have?no?limitation?and?therefore?do?not?exclude?other?rights?and?guarantees?of?a?similar?nature;?? 89? UBC Press 20122)? The?exercise?of?fundamental?rights?and?guarantees?may?be?regulated?only?by?law,?as?permitted?by?this?Constitution,?with?respect?for?their?essential?content?and?the?principle?of?reasonableness;?3)? The?treaties,?pacts,?and?conventions?on?human?rights,?signed?and?ratified?by?the?Dominican?government,?have?constitutional?status?and?are?of?direct?and?immediate?application?by?the?courts?and?other?state?bodies;?4)? The?public?authorities?interpret?and?apply?the?rules?relating?to?rights?and?fundamental?guarantees?in?the?manner?most?favorable?to?the?person?holding?the?same?and?in?case?of?conflict?between?fundamental?rights,?seek?to?balance?the?interests?protected?by?the?Constitution.?Chapter?IV:?Essential?Duties?ARTICLE 75. FUNDAMENTAL DUTIES The?fundamental?rights?recognized?in?this?Constitution?determine?an?order?of?legal?and?moral?responsibility,?requiring?the?conduct?of?men?and?women?in?society.?Consequently,?they?declare?as?people?s?basic?duties:?...?11)? To?develop?and?disseminate?the?Dominican?culture?and?protect?the?natural?resources?of?the?country,?guaranteeing?the?nd?healthy?environment;?preservation?of?a?clean?aTitle?VIII:?The?Ombudsman?ARTICLE 190. EMPOWERMENT OF THE OMBUDSMAN The?Ombudsman?is?an?independent?authority?with?administrative?and?budgetary?autonomy.?The?Ombudsman?operates?exclusively?within?the?mandate?of?the?Constitution?and?the?law.? ARTICLE 191. ESSENTIAL FUNCTIONS  The?essential?function?of?the?Ombudsman?is?to?help?safeguard?the?fundamental?rights?of?people?and?the?collective?and?diffuse?interests?set?forth?in?this?Constitution?and?laws,?in?case?they?are?violated?by?State?officials?or?bodies,?by?members?of?the?public?service?orindividuals?that?affect?collective?and?diffuse?interests.?The?law?shall?regulate?matters?relating?to?the?Ombudsman?s?organization?and?operation.?Title?XI:?The?Economic,?Financial,?and?Auditing?System??Chapter?I:?The?Economic?System?Section?I:?Guiding?Principles? 90? UBC Press 2012ARTICLE 217. GUIDANCE AND FOUNDATION The?economic?system?is?geared?towards?the?pursuit?of?human?development.?It?is?based?on?economic?growth,?redistribution?of?wealth,?social?justice,?equity,?social?and?territorial?cohesion,?and?environmental?sustainability,?within?a?framework?of?fair?competition,?e ty,?participation?and?solidarity.?qual?opportunities,?social?responsibiliTitle?XIII:?States?of?Emergency?ARTICLE 262. DEFINITION States?of?emergency?are?considered?to?be?extraordinary?situations?that?seriously?affect?the?security?of?the?nation,?institutions?and?people?in?which?the?ordinary?powers?are?insufficient.?The?President,?with?the?authorization?of?Congress,?declare?states?of?emergency?in?three?forms:?State?of?Defence,?State?of?Internal?Disturbance,?and?State?of?Emergency.?  ARTICLE 263. STATE OF DEFENCE If?national?sovereignty?or?territorial?integrity?are?compromised?by?serious?and?imminent?external?armed?aggression,?the?Executive,?without?prejudice?to?the?powers?inherent?in?his?office,?may?request?the?National?Congress?of?State?for?a?declaration?of?State?of?Defence.?In?this?state?the?following?rights?may?not?be?suspended:?1)? The?right?to?life,?under?the?provisions?of?Article?37;?2)? The?right?to?humane?treatment?under?the?provisions?of?Article?42;?3)? Freedom?of?conscience?and?of?worship,?according?to?the?provisions?of?Article?45;?4)? The?protection?of?the?family,?under?the?provisions?of?Article?55;?5)? The?right?to?name,?according?to?the?provisions?of?Article?55,?paragraph?7;?6)? The?rights?of?the?child,?according?to?the?provisions?of?Article?56;?7)? The?right?to?nationality?under?the?provisions?of?Article?18;?8)? The?rights?of?citizenship,?under?the?provisions?of?Article?22;?9)? The?prohibition?of?slavery?and?servitude,?according?to?the?provisions?of?article?41;?10)?The?principle?of?legality?and?retroactivity,?as?provided?in?article?40(13)?and?(15);?11)?The?right?to?recognition?of?juridical?personality,?according?to?Articles?43?and?55(7);?12)?The?judicial,?procedural?and?institutional?guarantees?essential?for?rights?protection?under?the?provisions?of?Articles?69,?71?and?72.? 91? UBC Press 2012 ARTICLE 266. REGULATORY PROVISIONS States?of?emergency?are?subject?to?the?following?provisions:?...?6)??In?States?of?Internal?Disturbance?and?Emergency,?only?the?following?rights?recognized?by?this?Constitution?can?be?suspended:?a)? Imprisonment?without?judicial?scrutiny,?according?to?the?provisions?of?Article?40(1);?b)?? Deprivation?of?liberty?without?cause?or?without?legal?formalities,?as?provided?in?Article?40(6);?c)?? Deadlines?for?submission?to?the?judicial?authority?or?release?from?confinement,?established?in?Article?40(5);??d)??The?transfer?from?prisons?or?elsewhere,?arranged?in?Article?40(12);?e)?? The?presentation?of?detainees?in?Article?40(11);?f)?? With?respect?to?habeas?corpus,?as?specified?in?Article?71;?g)?? The?inviolability?of?the?home?and?privacy,?arranged?in?Article?44(1);?h)? Freedom?of?movement,?provided?for?in?Article?46;?i)? Freedom?of?expression?in?the?terms?provided?for?in?Article?49;?j)? The?freedoms?of?association?and?assembly,?laid?down?in?Articles?47?and?48;?k)? The?inviolability?of?correspondence,?established?in?Article?44(3).?Source: (Spanish) http://pdba.georgetown.edu/Constitutions/DomRep/vigente.html  92? UBC Press 2012East Timor (2002) Part?I:?Fundamental?Principles?SECTION 6. OBJECTIVES OF THE STATE The?fundamental?objectives?of?the?State?shall?be:?...?f)? To?protect?the?environment?and?to?preserve?natural?resources;?...?Part?II:?Rights,?Duties,?Liberties?and?Fundamental?Guarantees?Title?I:?General?Principles?SECTION 24. RESTRICTIVE LAWS 1.? Restriction?of?rights,?freedoms?and?guarantees?can?only?be?imposed?by?law?in?order?to?safeguard?other?constitutionally?protected?rights?or?interests?and?in?cases?clearly?provided?for?by?the?Constitution.?2.? Laws?restricting?rights,?freedoms?and?guarantees?have?necessarily?a?general?and?abstract?nature?and?may?not?reduce?the?extent?and?scope?of?the?essential?contents?of?constitutional?provisions?and?shall?not?have?a?retroactive?effect.? SECTION 25. STATE OF EXCEPTION 1.? Suspension?of?the?exercise?of?fundamental?rights,?freedoms?and?guarantees?shall?only?take?place?if?a?state?of?siege?or?a?state?of?emergency?has?been?declared?as?provided?for?by?the?Constitution.?2.? A?state?of?siege?or?a?state?of?emergency?shall?only?be?declared?in?case?of?effective?or?impending?aggression?by?a?foreign?force,?of?serious?disturbance?or?threat?of?serious?disturbance?to?the?democratic?constitutional?order,?or?of?public?disaster.?3.? A?declaration?of?a?state?of?siege?or?a?state?of?emergency?shall?be?substantiated,?specifying?rights,?freedoms?and?guarantees?the?exercise?of?which?is?to?be?suspended.?4.? A?suspension?shall?not?last?for?more?than?thirty?days,?without?prejudice?of?possible?justified?renewal,?when?strictly?necessary,?for?equal?periods?of?time.?5.? In?no?case?shall?a?declaration?of?a?state?of?siege?affect?the?right?to?life,?physical?integrity,?citizenship,?non?retroactivity?of?the?criminal?law,?defence?in?a?criminal?case?and?freedom?of?conscience?and?religion,?the?right?not?to?be?subjected?to?torture,?slavery?or?servitude,?the?right?not?to?be?subjected?to?cruel,?inhuman?or?degrading?treatment?or?punishment,?and?the?guarantee?of?non?discrimination.?6.? Authorities?shall?restore?constitutional?normality?as?soon?as?possible.? 93? UBC Press 2012SECTION 26. ACCESS TO COURTS Access?to?courts?is?guaranteed?to?all?for?the?defence?of?their?legally?protected?rights?and?interests.?Justice?shall?not?be?denied?for?insufficient?economic?means.? SECTION 27. OMBUDSMAN 1.? The?Ombudsman?shall?be?an?independent?organ?in?charge?to?examine?and?seek?to?settle?citizens??complaints?against?public?bodies,?certify?the?conformity?of?the?acts?with?the?law,?prevent?and?initiate?the?whole?process?to?remedy?injustice.?2.? Citizens?may?present?complaints?concerning?acts?or?omissions?on?the?part?of?public?bodies?to?the?Ombudsman,?who?shall?undertake?a?review,?without?power?of?decision,?and?shall?forward?recommendations?to?the?competent?organs?as?deemed?necessary.?Title?III:?Economic,?Social?and?Cultural?Rights?and?Duties?SECTION 61. ENVIRONMENT 1.? Everyone?has?the?right?to?a?humane,?healthy,?and?ecologically?balanced?environment?and?the?duty?to?protect?it?and?improve?it?for?the?benefit?of?the?future?generations.?2.? The?State?recognizes?the?need?to?preserve?and?rationalize?natural?resources.?3.? The?State?shall?promote?actions?aimed?at?protecting?the?environment?and?omy.?safeguarding?the?sustainable?development?of?the?econPart?IV:?Economic?and?Financial?Organisation?Title?I:?General?Principles?ARTICLE 139. NATURAL RESOURCES 1.? The?resources?of?the?soil,?the?subsoil,?the?territorial?waters,?the?continental?shelf?and?the?exclusive?economic?zone,?which?are?essential?to?the?economy,?shall?be?owned?by?the?State?and?shall?be?used?in?a?fair?and?equitable?manner?in?accordance?with?national?interests.?2.? The?conditions?for?the?exploitation?of?the?natural?resources?referred?to?in?item?1?above?should?lend?themselves?to?the?establishment?of?mandatory?financial?reserves,?in?accordance?with?the?law.?3.? The?exploitation?of?the?natural?resources?shall?preserve?the?ecological?balance?and?prevent?destruction?of?ecosystems.?Source: http://www.constitution.org/cons/east_timor/constitution-eng.htm 94? UBC Press 2012Ec 984,?amended?2008)uador (1Preamble??3 We,?the?sovereign?people?of?Ecuador?...?Celebrating?Nature,?the?Pacha?Mama,?which?is?part?and?is?vital?to?our?existence,???We?decided?to?build???A?new?form?of?citizen?coexistence?in?diversity?and?harmony?with?nature,?to?achieve?the?g ?kawsay;???ood?life,?the?sumakTitle?II:?Rights??Chapter?One:?Principles?of?Implementation?of?Rights??ARTICLE 10  Individuals,?communities,?nations,?nationalities?and?groups?hold?and?enjoy?the?rights?guaranteed?in?the?Constitution?and?international?instruments.?Nature?will?be?subject?to?those?rights?recognized?in?the?Constitution.?? ARTICLE 11  The?exercise?of?rights?is?governed?by?the?following?principles:???1.? The?rights?can?be?exercised,?promoted?and?enforced?individually?or?collectively?with?the?relevant?authorities;?these?authorities?will?ensure?compliance.?...?3.? The?rights?and?guarantees?established?in?the?Constitution?and?international?human?rights?instruments?will?be?of?direct?and?immediate?application?to?any?servant?or?public?servant,?administrative?or?judicial,?ex?officio?or?on?application.?To?exercise?rights?and?constitutional?guarantees?requires?no?conditions?or?requirements?that?are?not?established?in?the?Constitution?or?the?law.?The?rights?are?fully?justiciable.?You?cannot?claim?lack?of?rule?of?law?to?justify?its?violation?or?disregard,?to?dismiss?the?action?for?those?events?or?to?deny?them?recognition.??4.? No?rule?of?law?may?restrict?the?content?of?rights?or?constitutional?guarantees.??5.? In?terms?of?rights?and?constitutional?guarantees,?the?servants?and?public?servants,?administrative?or?judicial,?must?apply?the?rule?and?the?interpretation?most?favoring?its?actual?effect.??6.? All?the?principles?and?inalienable?rights?are?inalienable,?indivisible,?interdependent?and?of?equal?standing.??7.? The?recognition?of?rights?and?guarantees?established?in?the?Constitution?and?international?human?rights?instruments?does?not?exclude?other?rights?deriving?from?the?dignity?of?individuals,?communities,?peoples?and?nationalities,?which?are?necessary?for?its?full?development.??                                                 3?Translated?from?the?original?Spanish?by?author.? 95? UBC Press 20128.? The?content?of?the?rights?will?be?developed?progressively?through?the?rules,?jurisprudence?and?public?policy.?The?State?will?create?and?ensure?conditions?for?their?full?recognition?and?exercise.?Any?act?or?omission?relating?to?repealing,?unjustifiably?impairing?or?nullifying?the?exercise?of?rights?will?be?unconstitutional.??9.? The?highest?duty?of?the?State?to?respect?and?enforce?the?rights?guaranteed?in?the?Constitution.?The?State,?its?delegates,?licensees?and?any?person?acting?in?the?exercise?of?public?authority?are?obliged?to?remedy?violations?of?the?rights?of?individuals?by?the?lack?or?deficiency?in?the?provision?of?public?services,?or?for?acts?or?omissions?of?its?officers,?officials,?and?public?employees?in?performing?their?duties.?The?State?shall?exercise?immediately?the?right?of?recourse?against?those?responsible?for?the?damage,??and?administrative?remedies???without?prejudice?to?any?civil,?criminal,Chapter?Two:?Rights?of?the?Good?Life??Section?One:?Water?and?Food??ARTICLE 12 The?human?right?to?water?is?fundamental?and?indispensable.?Water?is?a?strategic?national?asset?for?public?use,?inalienable,?indefeasible,?unattachable?and?essential?for?life.?? ARTICLE 13 Individuals?and?communities?are?entitled?to?safe?and?permanent?access?to?safe,?sufficient?and?nutritious?food,?preferably?locally?produced?and?in?accordance?with?their?different?cultural?identities?and?traditions.?The?Ecuadorian?State?shall?promote?food?sovereignty.?? Section?Two:?Healthy?Environment??ARTICLE 14 The?right?of?people?to?live?in?a?healthy?and?ecologically?balanced?environment?that?ensures?sustainability?and?good?living,?sumak?kawsay.?There?is?a?public?interest?in?environmental?preservation,?conservation?of?ecosystems,?biodiversity?and?genetic?integrity?of?the?country,?prevention?of?environmental?damage,?and?the?recovery?of?degraded?natural?areas.?? ARTICLE 15 The?State?shall?promote,?in?both?public?and?private?sectors,?the?use?of?environmentally?clean?technologies?and?alternative,?clean,?low?impact?energy.?Energy?sovereignty?will?not?be?achieved?at?the?expense?of?food?sovereignty,?or?affect?the?right?to?water.?The?development,?production,?holding,?trading,?import,?transport,?storage?and?use?of?chemical,?biological,?and?nuclear?weapons,?and?of?highly?toxic?persistent?organic?pollutants,?agrochemicals?banned?internationally,?experimental?technologies,?harmful?biological?agents,?and?genetically?modified?organisms?harmful?to?human?health?or?that?violate?the?25?ecosystems?and?food?sovereignty,?and?the?introduction?of?nuclear?waste?and?toxic?waste?into?the?country?are?all?prohibited.? 96? UBC Press 2012 Section?Five:?Education??ARTICLE 27 Education?will?focus?on?the?human?being?and?ensure?their?holistic?development,?in?a?framework?of?respect?for?human?rights,?environment?and?sustainable?democracy.?Education?will?be?participatory,?mandatory,?cultural,?democratic,?inclusive?and?diverse,?of?high?quality?and?humane;?promote?gender?equity,?justice,?solidarity?and?peace;?encourage?critical?thinking,?art?and?physical?culture,?individual?initiative?and?community;?and?develop?skills?and?abilities?to?create?and?work.?Education?is?essential?to?understanding?the?exercise?of?rights?and?the?construction?of?a?sovereign?country?and?is?a?strategic?hub?for?national?development.? Section?Seven:?Health??ARTICLE 32 Health?is?a?right?guaranteed?by?the?state,?whose?performance?is?linked?to?the?exercise?of?other?rights?including?the?rights?to?water,?food,?education,?physical?education,?labor,?social?security,?and?healthy?environments?that?support?good?living.?The?State?guarantees?this?right?through?economic,?social,?cultural,?educational,?and?environmental?policies?and?permanent?access?to?timely?(and?without?exclusion)?programs,?actions?and?promotion?services?and?comprehensive?health?care,?sexual?and?reproductive?health.?The?provision?of?health?services?shall?be?governed?by?principles?of?equity,?universality,?solidarity,?intercultural,?quality,?efficiency,?effectiveness,?care?and?bioethics,?with?a?focus?on?gender?and?generations.?Chapter?Six:?Rights?of?Freedom??ARTICLE 66  It?is?recognized?and?guaranteed?to?persons:?...?27.? The?right?to?live?in?a?healthy,?ecologically?balanced,?pollution?free?y?with?nature.??environment?and?in?harmonChapter?Seven:?Rights?of?Nature??ARTICLE 71 Nature?or?Pacha?Mama,?where?life?plays?and?performs,?is?entitled?to?full?respect,?existence,?and?the?maintenance?and?regeneration?of?its?vital?cycles,?structure,?functions?and?evolutionary?processes.?Any?person,?community,?nation?or?nationality?may?require?the?public?authority?to?comply?with?the?rights?of?nature.?The?principles?enshrined?in?the?Constitution?will?be?used?to?apply?and?interpret?these?rights,?as?appropriate.?The?State?will?encourage?individuals,?legal?persons,?and?collective?entities?to?protect?nature?and?promote?respect?for?all?the?elements?that?form?an?ecosystem.?? 97? UBC Press 2012ARTICLE 72 Nature?is?entitled?to?restoration.?This?restoration?is?independent?of?the?obligation?of?the?State?and?persons?or?companies?to?compensate?individuals?and?groups?that?depend?on?affected?natural?systems.?In?cases?of?severe?or?permanent?environmental?impact,?including?those?linked?to?the?exploitation?of?nonrenewable?natural?resources,?the?State?shall?establish?the?most?effective?mechanisms?to?achieve?the?restoration,?and?take?appropriate?measures?to?eliminate?or?mitigate?adverse?environmental?consequences.?? ARTICLE 73 The?State?will?apply?precautionary?and?restrictive?measures?to?activities?that?could?lead?to?species?extinction,?destruction?of?ecosystems,?or?the?permanent?alteration?of?natural?cycles.?The?import?of?organisms?and?organic?and?inorganic?material?that?may?ultimately?alter?the?national?genetic?heritage?is?prohibited.?? ARTICLE 74 Individuals,?communities,?peoples?and?nations?are?entitled?to?benefit?from?the?environment?and?natural?resources?that?allow?them?to?live?well.?Environmental?services?are?not?subject?to?appropriation;?their?production,?delivery,?use?and?development?are?regulated?by?the?state.??Chapter?Eight:?Rights?Protection??ARTICLE 75 Everyone?has?the?right?to?free?access?to?justice?and?effective?protection,?impartial?and?prompt?investigation?of?their?rights?and?interests,?subject?to?the?principles?of?immediacy?and?speed;?and?in?no?case?shall?be?defenseless.?Failure?to?comply?with?court?judgments?shall?be?punished?by?law.??Chapter?Nine:?Responsibilities??ARTICLE 83 The?duties?and?responsibilities?of?Ecuador?and?Ecuadorians,?without?prejudice?to?any?other?under?the?Constitution?and?laws,?include:?...?5.? Respect?human?rights?and?fight?for?their?compliance.??6.? Respect?the?rights?of?nature,?preserve?a?healthy?environment,?and?d?sustainably.?use?natural?resources?rationally?anTitle?III:?Constitutional?Guarantees??Chapter?One:?Policy?Guarantees??ARTICLE 84 The?National?Assembly?and?any?body?with?regulatory?powers?will?be?required?to?adapt,?both?formally?and?materially,?the?laws?and?other?legal?norms?on?the?rights?provided?in? 98? UBC Press 2012the?Constitution?and?international?treaties,?and?those?necessary?to?ensure?the?human?dignity?of?communities,?peoples?and?nationalities.?In?no?case?shall?reform?of?the?Constitution,?laws,?other?legal?rules?or?acts?of?public?authority?prejudice?the?rights?guaranteed?by?the?Constitution.??Chapter?Two:?Public?Policies,?Public?Services?and?Citizen?Participation??ARTICLE 85 The?design,?implementation,?evaluation?and?control?of?public?policies?and?public?services?that?guarantee?the?rights?recognized?by?the?Constitution?shall?be?governed?in?accordance?with?the?following?provisions:??1.? Public?policies?and?the?provision?of?public?goods?and?services?will?be?geared?towards?the?realization?of?the?good?life?and?all?rights,?and?will?be?formulated?based?on?the?principle?of?solidarity.??2.? Notwithstanding?the?prevalence?of?general?interest?over?particular?interests,?when?the?effects?of?the?implementation?of?public?policies?or?the?provision?of?public?goods?or?services?infringe?or?threaten?to?violate?constitutional?rights,?policies?or?benefits?shall?be?reformulated?or?alternative?measures?shall?be?adopted?to?reconcile?the?conflicting?rights.??3.? The?State?shall?ensure?the?equitable?and?supportive?provision?of?the?budget?for?the?implementation?of?public?policies?and?the?provision?of?public?goods?and?services.?The?formulation,?implementation,?evaluation?and?control?of?public?policies?and?public?services?will?ensure?the?participation?of?individuals,?nalities.??communities,?peoples?and?natioChapter?Three:?Judicial?Guarantees??Section?One:?Common?Provisions?ARTICLE 86 The?judicial?guarantees?shall?be?governed?generally?by?the?following?provisions:??1.? Any?person,?group?of?people,?community,?nation?or?nationality?may?propose?measures?envisaged?in?the?Constitution.??2.? The?judge?with?jurisdiction?in?the?place?where?the?deed?or?omission?occurred?or?where?its?impacts?were?felt?shall?be?the?competent?authority?and?the?following?rules?of?procedure?shall?apply:??a)? The?procedure?will?be?simple,?fast?and?efficient.?At?all?stage?and?levels?it?will?be?oral.?? 99? UBC Press 2012b)?Access?to?judge?will?be?available?all?days?and?hours.??c)? They?may?be?oral?or?written?proposals,?no?formalities,?and?without?citing?the?provision?in?question.?Hiring?a?lawyer?is?not?necessary?to?propose?action.??d)?Notification?shall?be?by?the?most?effective?means?that?are?available?to?the?judge,?the?interested?parties,?and?the?body?responsible?for?the?act?or?omission.??e)? It?shall?not?apply?the?procedural?rules?that?tend?to?slow?its?fast?clearance.??3.? Once?the?proceeding?is?initiated,?the?judge?with?jurisdiction?shall?immediately?convene?a?public?hearing,?and?at?any?time?during?the?proceedings?may?order?the?collection?of?evidence?and?appoint?committees?to?collect?that?evidence.?The?grounds?alleged?by?the?plaintiff?when?the?public?entity?does?not?prove?otherwise?or?does?not?report?will?be?presumed?to?be?true.?The?judge?with?jurisdiction?shall?decide?the?case,?and?if?the?violation?is?found,?shall?issue?a?declaration,?order?reparation,?tangible?and?intangible,?and?specify?and?identify?the?duties,?both?positive?and?negative,?to?be?met?by?the?addressee?of?the?judicial?decision.?The?judgments?of?first?instance?may?be?appealed?to?the?provincial?court.?Legal?proceedings?will?end?only?with?the?full?execution?of?the?sentence?or?decision.??4.? If?the?decision?or?resolution?is?not?met?by?servants?or?public?servants,?the?judge?or?court?shall?order?his?removal?from?office?or?employment,?without?prejudice?to?civil?or?criminal?liability?that?may?arise.?Where?an?individual?fails?to?comply?with?the?decision?or?resolution,?they?shall?be?given?the?responsibility?determined?in?the?law.??5.? All?judgments?rendered?shall?be?referred?to?the?Constitutional?Court,?for?the?development?of?its?jurisprudence.?? ARTICLE 87 The?Court?may?order?interim?measures?jointly?or?independently?of?the?constitutional?actions?to?protect?rights,?with?the?aim?of?preventing?or?restraining?the?violation?or?threatened?violation?of?a?right.?? Section?Two:?Protective?Action??ARTICLE 88 The?protection?action?shall?aim?at?the?direct?and?effective?defense?of?the?rights?recognized?in?the?Constitution,?and?may?be?brought?where?there?is?a?violation?of? 100? UBC Press 2012constitutional?rights?by?acts?or?omissions?of?any?non?judicial?public?authority;?against?public?policy?when?involving?the?deprivation?of?the?enjoyment?or?exercise?of?constitutional?rights;?and?when?the?violation?comes?from?a?particular?person,?if?the?violation?is?capable?of?causing?serious?damage,?if?improper?provision?of?public?services,?if?acting?under?delegation?or?grant,?or?if?the?person?concerned?is?in?a?state?of?subordination,?powerlessness?and?discrimination.?? Section?Four:?Action?for?Access?to?Public?Information??ARTICLE 91 The?action?of?access?to?public?information?will?aim?at?ensuring?access?to?it?when?it?has?been?denied,?expressly?or?implicitly,?or,?when?furnished,?is?not?complete?or?reliable.?The?action?may?be?filed?even?if?the?refusal?is?based?on?secrecy,?reserved,?or?any?other?confidential?classification?of?information.?The?confidentiality?of?the?information?must?be?declared?prior?to?the?request?by?the?competent?authority?and?in?accordance?with?law.?? Section?Six:?Enforcement?Action??ARTICLE 93 The?remedy?for?breach?shall?be?to?ensure?implementation?of?standards?that?make?up?the?legal?system,?enforcement?of?judgments?or?reports?from?international?human?rights?tribunals?when?the?statute?or?decision?under?which?compliance?is?sought?contains?an?explicit?and?enforceable?obligation?to?act?or?not?act.?The?action?shall?be?brought?before?the?Constitutional?Court.?? Section?Seven:?Extraordinary?action?to?protect??ARTICLE 94 The?extraordinary?protection?action?lies?against?definitive?judgments?or?orders?that?have?violated?rights?under?the?Constitution?by?action?or?omission,?and?shall?be?brought?before?the?Constitutional?Court.?The?appeal?shall?have?been?filed?after?the?exhaustion?of?other?legal?remedies,?unless?the?lack?of?filing?of?these?cases?is?not?attributable?to?the?negligence?o constitutional?right.?f?the?person?holding?the?violated?Title?VI:?Development?Plan?Chapter?One:?General?Principles??ARTICLE 276 The?development?plan?has?the?following?objectives:?...?4.? Recover?and?conserve?nature?and?maintain?a?healthy?and?sustainable?environment?that?ensures?local?people?equitable?access,?permanent?air,?soil,?and?water?quality,?and?the?benefits?of?subsoil?resources?and?natural?heritage.?? 101? UBC Press 2012 102? UBC Press 2012Chapter?Three:?Food?Sovereignty??ARTICLE 281 Food?sovereignty?is?a?strategic?objective?and?a?state?obligation?to?ensure?that?individuals,?communities,?peoples,?and?nations?achieve?healthy?and?culturally?appropriate?food?self?sufficiency?permanently.?These?will?be?the?responsibilities?of?government:?...?4.? Promote?redistributive?policies?that?allow?the?access?of?peasants?to?land,?water?and?other?productive?resources.???ARTICLE 282 The?State?will?regulate?the?use?and?access?to?land?for?meeting?social?and?environmental?functions.?A?National?Land?Fund,?established?by?law,?will?regulate?the?equitable?access?of?peasants?to?land.?It?prohibits?large?estates?and?the?concentration?of?land?and?hoarding?or?privatization?of?water?and?its?sources.?The?State?shall?regulate?the?use?and?management?of?irrigation?water?for?food?production,?under?the?principles?of?equity,?efficiency?and?environmental?sustainability.??Chapter?Five:?Strategic?Sectors,?Public?Services?and?Companies??ARTICLE 313 The?State?reserves?the?right?to?administer,?regulate,?control?and?manage?the?strategic?sectors?in?accordance?with?the?principles?of?environmental?sustainability,?precaution,?prevention?and?efficiency.?The?strategic?sectors?are?those?which?by?their?magnitude?are?of?decisive?importance?and?economic?influence,?social?or?environmental?policy,?and?should?be?oriented?to?the?full?development?of?human?rights?and?social?interest.?Energy?in?all?its?forms,?telecommunications,?non?renewable?natural?resources,?transport?and?refining?of?hydrocarbons,?biodiversity,?genetic?heritage,?the?radio?electric?spectrum,?water,?and?others?determined?by?law?are?considered?strategic?sectors.???ARTICLE 314 The?State?shall?be?responsible?for?the?provision?of?public?services?of?drinking?water?and?irrigation,?sanitation,?electricity,?telecommunications,?roads,?port?and?airport?infrastructures,?and?others?determined?by?law.?The?State?shall?ensure?that?public?services?and?their?provision?meet?the?principles?of?obligation,?generality,?consistency,?efficiency,?accountability,?universality,?accessibility,?continuity?and?quality.?The?State?shall?take?steps?to?ensure?that?the?prices?and?rates?of?public?services?are?fair,?and?shall?control?and?regulate?those?fees.???ARTICLE 318 Water?is?a?strategic?national?asset?for?public?use,?inalienable?and?indefeasible.?Water?is?a?vital?element?in?nature?and?the?existence?of?human?beings.?All?forms?of?water?privatization?are?prohibited.?Water?management?will?be?exclusively?public?or?community?based.?Public?service?sanitation,?water?supply?and?irrigation?will?be? 103? UBC Press 2012provided?only?by?state?agencies?or?community.?The?State?shall?strengthen?the?management?and?operation?of?community?initiatives?around?water?management?and?provision?of?public?services?by?encouraging?partnerships?between?the?public?and?the?community?to?provide?services.?The?state,?through?the?single?water?authority,?will?be?directly?responsible?for?the?planning?and?management?of?water?resources?to?be?used?for?human?consumption,?irrigation?to?ensure?food?sovereignty,?ecological?flow,?and?production?activities.?State?approval?is?required?for?water?use?for?productive?purposes?by?the?public,?private?and?popular?solidarity?economy,?according?to?the?law.?? Section?Two:?Property?Types??ARTICLE 321 The?State?recognizes?and?guarantees?the?right?to?property?in?its?public,?private,?community,?state,?associative,?cooperative,?and?mixed?forms;?and?property?must?fulfill?its?social?and?environmental?functions.?? ARTICLE 322 Intellectual?property?is?recognized?in?accordance?with?the?conditions?stipulated?by?law.?All?forms?of?appropriation?of?collective?knowledge?in?the?field?of?science,?technology?and?ancestral?wisdom?are?prohibited.?The?misappropriation?of?genetic?resources?that?contain?biological?diversity?and?agro?biodiversity?is?also?prohibited.?? ARTICLE 323 In?order?to?implement?plans?of?social?development,?sustainable?management?of?environment?and?collective?welfare,?state?institutions,?for?reasons?of?public?utility?or?social?and?national?interest,?may?declare?the?expropriation?of?property,?with?fair?value,?compensation,?and?payment?in?accordance?with?law.?All?forms?of?confiscation?are?prohibited.?Title?VII:?Rules?of?Good?Living?Chapter?Two:?Biodiversity?and?Natural?Resources??Section?One:?Nature?and?Environment??ARTICLE 395 The?Constitution?recognizes?the?following?environmental?principles:??1.? The?State?guarantees?a?sustainable?model?of?environmentally?balanced?development,?respectful?of?cultural?diversity,?to?conserve?biodiversity?and?the?natural?regeneration?capacity?of?ecosystems,?and?to?ensure?the?satisfaction?of?the?needs?of?present?and?future?generations.??? 104? UBC Press 20122.? Environmental?management?policies?will?apply?on?a?cross?cutting?basis?and?shall?be?binding?on?the?part?of?governments?at?all?levels?and?on?all?natural?or?legal?persons?in?the?country.???3.? The?State?guarantees?the?active?and?permanent?participation?of?individuals,?communities,?peoples?and?nations?involved?in?the?planning,?implementation?and?monitoring?of?all?activities?that?generate?environmental?impacts.???4.? In?case?of?doubt?about?the?scope?of?laws?on?environmental?matters,?laws?will?be?applied?in?the?manner?most?favorable?to?the?protection?of?nature.?  ARTICLE 396 The?State?shall?adopt?appropriate?policies?and?measures?to?prevent?negative?environmental?impacts?when?there?is?certainty?of?harm.?If?in?doubt?about?the?environmental?impact?of?any?action?or?omission,?although?there?is?no?scientific?evidence?of?harm,?the?State?shall?take?effective?and?appropriate?protective?measures.?The?liability?for?environmental?damage?is?objective.?Any?damage?to?the?environment,?in?addition?to?the?penalties,?will?also?imply?an?obligation?to?fully?restore?the?ecosystem?and?compensate?the?affected?individuals?and?communities.?Each?of?the?actors?in?the?processes?of?production,?distribution,?marketing?and?use?of?goods?or?services?will?assume?direct?responsibility?to?prevent?any?environmental?impact,?to?mitigate?and?repair?the?damage?he?has?caused,?and?to?maintain?a?permanent?environmental?control?system.?The?legal?actions?to?pursue?and?punish?environmental?damages?cannot?be?barred.???ARTICLE 397 In?case?of?environmental?damage?the?state?will?act?immediately?and?effectively?to?ensure?the?health?and?restoration?of?ecosystems.?In?addition?to?the?appropriate?sentence?against?the?operator?of?the?activity?that?produced?the?damage?are?the?obligations?of?reparation,?under?the?conditions?and?procedures?established?by?law.?Responsibility?also?lies?with?the?server?or?servers?responsible?for?performing?environmental?monitoring.?To?ensure?the?individual?and?collective?right?to?live?in?a?healthy?and?ecologically?balanced?environment,?the?State?will:??1.? Allow?any?natural?or?legal?person,?community?or?human?group,?such?legal?action?and?recourse?to?the?judicial?and?administrative?bodies,?subject?to?its?direct?interest,?for?the?effective?protection?of?these?environmental?rights,?including?the?possibility?of?applying?measures?allowing?interim?injunctions?halting?the?threat?or?environmental?damage?in?dispute.?The?burden?of?proof?regarding?the?absence?of?actual?or?potential?harm?lies?with?the?manager?of?the?activity?or?the?defendant.?? 105? UBC Press 20122.? Establish?effective?mechanisms?for?prevention?and?control?of?environmental?pollution,?recovery?of?degraded?natural?areas,?and?sustainable?management?of?natural?resources.??3.? Regulate?the?production,?importation,?distribution,?use?and?disposal?of?substances?that?are?toxic?and?hazardous?to?humans?or?the?environment.?4.? Ensure?the?inviolability?of?the?natural?protected?areas,?so?as?to?ensure?conservation?of?biodiversity?and?maintain?ecological?functions?of?ecosystems.?The?State?will?be?in?charge?of?the?management?and?administration?of?natural?protected?areas.??5.? Establish?a?national?system?of?prevention?and?risk?management?for?natural?disasters,?based?on?the?principles?of?immediacy,?efficiency,?caution,?responsibility?and?solidarity.???ARTICLE 398 Any?decision?or?state?authority?which?may?affect?the?environment?must?be?consulted?with?the?community,?producing?a?timely?and?comprehensive?report.?The?individual?consultant?will?be?the?State.?The?law?shall?regulate?the?preliminary?consultation,?citizen?participation,?time?limits,?the?subject?consulted,?the?evaluation?criteria,?and?objections?to?the?activity?subject?to?consultation.?The?State?values?the?opinion?of?the?community?according?to?criteria?set?in?law?and?international?human?rights?instruments.?If?the?consultation?process?results?in?the?overwhelming?opposition?of?the?respective?community,?the?decision?whether?to?execute?the?project?shall?be?taken?by?a?duly?reasoned?decision?of?the?superior?administrative?authority?in?accordance?with?law.???ARTICLE 399  The?comprehensive?exercise?of?state?supervision?over?the?environment?and?the?responsibility?of?citizens?in?environmental?preservation?will?be?articulated?through?a?decentralized?national?system?of?environmental?management,?which?will?be?responsible?for?advocacy?of?the?environment?and?nature.?? Section?Two:?Biodiversity??ARTICLE 400 The?State?shall?exercise?sovereignty?over?biodiversity.?The?administration?and?management?will?be?handled?with?intergenerational?responsibility.?The?conservation?of?biodiversity?and?its?components,?including?agricultural?and?wild?biodiversity?and?the?genetic?heritage?of?the?country,?is?declared?to?be?in?the?public?interest.? ARTICLE 401 Ecuador?is?declared?free?of?transgenic?crops?and?seeds.?Exceptionally,?and?only?when?national?interests?are?duly?substantiated?by?the?Office?of?the?President?and?approved?by? 106? UBC Press 2012the?National?Assembly,?may?genetically?modified?seeds?and?crops?be?introduced.?The?State?shall?regulate?under?strict?biosecurity?the?use?and?development?of?modern?biotechnology?and?its?products,?and?their?experimentation,?use?and?marketing.?It?prohibits?the?application?of?risky?or?experimental?biotechnologies.?? ARTICLE 402 The?State?prohibits?the?granting?of?rights,?including?intellectual?property,?related?to?natural?or?synthetic?products,?obtained?from?the?collective?knowledge?associated?with?the?national?biodiversity.?? ARTICLE 403 The?State?does?not?engage?in?cooperative?agreements?or?agreements?containing?clauses?that?undermine?the?conservation?and?sustainable?management?of?biodiversity,?human?health,?and?the?collective?rights?and?rights?of?nature.?? Section?Three:?Natural?Heritage?and?Ecosystems??ARTICLE 404 Ecuador?s?unique?and?invaluable?natural?heritage?includes,?inter?alia,?physical,?biological?and?geological?elements?whose?value?from?the?standpoint?of?environmental,?scientific,?cultural?or?landscape?requires?their?protection,?conservation,?recovery?and?advocacy.?Its?management?is?subject?to?the?principles?and?guarantees?enshrined?in?the?Constitution?and?will?be?conducted?according?to?land?use?planning?and?ecological?zoning,?in?accordance?with?law.?? ARTICLE 405 The?national?system?of?protected?areas?ensures?the?conservation?of?biodiversity?and?the?maintenance?of?ecological?functions.?The?system?shall?be?comprised?of?state?decentralized?autonomous,?community,?and?private?subsystems,?and?it?shall?be?directed?and?regulated?by?the?State.?The?State?will?allocate?the?necessary?financial?resources?for?the?financial?sustainability?of?the?system?and?encourage?the?participation?in?administration?and?management?of?communities,?peoples?and?nations?that?have?ancestrally?inhabited?protected?areas.?The?foreign?natural?or?legal?persons?may?not?acquire?title?to?any?land?or?concessions?in?the?areas?of?national?security?or?in?protected?areas,?in?accordance?with?law.?? ARTICLE 406 The?State?shall?regulate?the?conservation,?management,?sustainable?use,?and?recovery?of?fragile?and?endangered?ecosystems?including,?among?others,?moorland,?wetlands,?cloud?forests,?tropical?dry?forests,?humid?mangroves,?and?marine?and?marine?coastal?ecosystems.??  107? UBC Press 2012ARTICLE 407 The?extraction?of?nonrenewable?resources?in?protected?areas?and?in?areas?declared?as?intangible?is?prohibited,?including?logging.?These?resources?may?be?exploited?in?exceptional?circumstances?at?the?request?of?the?Presidency?of?the?Republic?and?based?on?a?previous?declaration?of?national?interest?by?the?National?Assembly,?which?as?it?sees?fit,?may?convene?a?referendum.?? Section?Four:?Natural?Resources??ARTICLE 408 Nonrenewable?natural?resources?and,?in?general,?subsoil?products,?minerals?and?hydrocarbons,?substances?whose?nature?is?different?from?the?soil,?including?those?located?in?areas?covered?by?the?waters?of?the?territorial?sea?and?maritime?areas,?as?well?as?biodiversity?and?its?genetic?heritage?and?the?radio?spectrum?are?property?of?the?state?and?are?inalienable.?These?assets?may?be?exploited?only?in?strict?compliance?with?environmental?principles?enshrined?in?the?Constitution.?The?State?will?participate?in?the?benefits?of?exploiting?these?resources,?in?an?amount?not?less?than?those?of?the?company?that?exploits?them.?The?State?shall?ensure?that?the?mechanisms?of?production,?consumption?and?use?of?energy?and?natural?resources?preserve?and?recover?natural?cycles?and?allow?living?with?dignity.?? Section?Five:?Soil??ARTICLE 409 Land?conservation,?especially?topsoil,?is?of?public?interest?and?national?priority.?The?State?will?establish?a?policy?framework?for?its?protection?and?sustainable?use?that?will?prevent?its?degradation,?particularly?that?caused?by?pollution,?desertification?and?erosion.?In?areas?affected?by?degradation?and?desertification,?the?State?shall?develop?and?encourage?afforestation,?reforestation?and?re?vegetation?to?avoid?monoculture?and?using,?preferably,?native?species?adapted?to?the?area.?? ARTICLE 410 The?State?will?provide?farmers?and?rural?communities?with?support?for?conservation,?soil?restoration,?and?development?of?agricultural?practices?that?protect?and?promote?food?sovereignty.?? Section?Six:?Water??ARTICLE 411 The?State?shall?guarantee?the?conservation,?restoration?and?comprehensive?management?of?water?resources,?watershed?management,?and?ecological?flows?associated?with?the?hydrological?cycle.?It?will?regulate?all?activities?that?may?affect?the?quality?and?quantity?of?water?and?the?equilibrium?of?ecosystems,?especially?in?the?water?source?and?recharge? 108? UBC Press 2012areas.?The?sustainability?of?ecosystems?and?human?consumption?will?be?high?priorities?in?water?management?and?use.?? ARTICLE 412 The?authority?in?charge?of?water?management?will?be?responsible?for?planning,?regulation?and?control.?This?authority?shall?cooperate?and?coordinate?with?the?agency?responsible?for?environmental?management?to?ensure?water?management?with?an?ecosystem?approach.?? Section?Seven:?Biosphere,?Urban?Ecology?and?Alternative?Energy??ARTICLE 413 The?State?shall?promote?energy?efficiency,?the?development?and?use?of?environmentally?clean?technologies?and?practices,?and?healthy?and?diversified?low?impact?renewable?energy?that?shall?not?endanger?food?sovereignty,?ecological?balance,?ecosystems?and?the?right?to?water.?? ARTICLE 414 The?State?shall?take?appropriate?and?effective?measures?to?mitigate?climate?change?by?limiting?emissions?of?greenhouse?gases,?deforestation,?and?air?pollution,?and?will?take?steps?to?conserve?forests?and?vegetation,?and?to?protect?the?populations?at?risk.?? ARTICLE 415 The?central?State?and?autonomous?decentralized?governments?will?adopt?comprehensive?policies?for?participatory?urban?land?management?and?land?use?to?regulate?urban?growth,?manage?urban?wildlife,?and?encourage?the?establishment?of?green?areas.?The?decentralized?autonomous?governments?will?develop?programs?that?ensure?rational?water?use,?recycling,?reducing?waste,?and?proper?treatment?of?solid?and?liquid?wastes,?and?will?encourage?and?facilitate?non?motorized?land?transport,?particularly?through?the?establishment?of?bicycle?routes.??Title?VIII:?International?Relations?Chapter?One:?Principles?of?International?Relations??ARTICLE 416 The?relations?between?Ecuador?and?the?international?community?must?respond?to?the?interests?of?the?Ecuadorian?people,?and?accordingly:?...?13.? ?Promote?the?creation,?ratification?and?observance?of?international?instruments?for?the?conservation?and?regeneration?of?the?life?cycles?of?the?planet?and?biosphere.?? 109? UBC Press 2012Chapter?Two:?International?Treaties?and?Instruments??ARTICLE 419 The?ratification?and?denunciation?of?international?treaties?require?the?prior?approval?of?the?National?Assembly?in?the?cases:?...?8.? That?compromise?the?natural?heritage?and?in?particular?water,?biodiversity?and?genetic?heritage.??Chapter?Three:?Latin?American?Integration??ARTICLE 423 Integration,?especially?with?countries?of?Latin?America?and?the?Caribbean,?will?be?a?strategic?objective?of?the?State.?In?all?instances?and?integration?processes,?the?Ecuadorian?State?shall?undertake:?...?2.? To?promote?joint?strategies?for?sustainable?management?of?natural?heritage,?particularly?the?regulation?of?extractive?activities,?cooperation?on?sustainable?energy,?the?conservation?of?biodiversity,?ecosystems?and?water,?research,?scientific?development?and?exchange?of?knowledge?and?technology,?and?implementation?of?coordinated?strategies?of?food?sovereignty.?Source: (Spanish) http://pdba.georgetown.edu/Constitutions/Ecuador/ecuador08.html  110? UBC Press 2012Egypt (2007) Part?III:?Public?Rights,?Freedoms,?and?Duties?ARTICLE 57 Any?violation?of?individual?liberty?or?the?inviolability?of?the?private?life?of?citizens?or?on?any?other?rights?or?liberties?guaranteed?by?the?Constitution?and?by?the?law?shall?be?considered?a?crime,?whose?criminal?and?civil?prosecution?is?not?subject?to?the?statute?of?limitations.??The?State?shall?grant?a?fair?compensation?to?the?victim?of?such?violation.? ARTICLE 59 Safeguarding?the?environment?is?a?national?duty,?and?the?law?shall?regulate?the?right?to?easures?necessary?to?safeguard?it.?a?good?environment?and?the?mPart?IV:?Sovereignty?of?Law?ARTICLE 68  The?right?to?litigation?is?inalienable?and?guaranteed?for?all,?and?every?citizen?has?the?right?to?have?access?to?a?judge.?The?State?shall?guarantee?accessibility?of?judicature?for?litigants,?and?rapid?decision?on?cases.?Any?provision?in?the?law?stipulating?immunity?of?any?act?or?administrative?decision?from?the?control?of?the?judicature?is?prohibited.?Sources: http://www.chr.up.ac.za/index.php/documents-by-country-database/egypt.html  111? UBC Press 2012El Salvador (1983) Tit Fundamental?Guarantees?of?the?Person?le?II:?The?Rights?and?Chapter?II:?Social?Rights?First?Section:?The?Family?ARTICLE 34 Every?child?has?the?right?to?live?in?familial?and?environmental?conditions?that?permit?his?integral?development,?for?which?he?shall?have?the?protection?of?the?State.?Tit Fundamental?Guarantees?of?the?Person?le?II:?The?Rights?and?Chapter?II:?Social?Rights?Fourth?Section:?Public?Health?and?Social?Assistance?ARTICLE 69 The?State?shall?be?equipped?with?the?necessary?and?indispensable?resources?for?permanent?control?of?the?quality?of?chemical,?pharmaceutical?and?veterinary?products?through?surveillance?organisms.?Likewise?the?State?shall?control?the?quality?of?food?p l?conditions?that?may?affect?health?and?well?being.?roducts?and?the?environmentaTitle?V:?Economic?Order?ARTICLE 117 It?shall?be?the?State?s?duty?to?protect?the?natural?resources?as?well?as?the?diversity?and?integrity?of?the?environment,?and?to?guarantee?sustainable?development.?The?protection,?conservation,?rational?development,?restoration?or?replacement?of?natural?resources?are?of?social?interest?and?will?be?managed?according?to?laws.?The?introduction?of?nuclear?residues?and?toxic?waste?into?the?national?territory?is?prohibited.??Title?VI:?Organs?of?the?Government,?Powers,?and?Competencies?Chapter?IV:?Public?Ministry?ARTICLE 194 The?Procurator?for?the?Defense?of?Human?Rights?and?the?Attorney?General?of?the?Republic?shall?have?the?following?functions:? 112? UBC Press 20121.? It?falls?to?the?Procurator?for?the?Defense?of?Human?Rights:?1st.?? To?guard?for?the?respect?and?guarantee?of?Human?Rights;?2nd.? To?investigate,?officially?or?by?a?denouncement?that?has?been?received,?cases?of?Human?Rights?violations;?3rd.?? To?assist?alleged?victims?of?Human?Rights?violations;?4th.?? To?promote?judical?or?administrative?resources?for?the?protection?of?Human?Rights;?5th.? To?maintain?vigil?over?the?situation?of?private?persons?with?respect?to?their?freedom.?He?shall?be?notified?of?all?arrests?and?shall?take?care?that?the?legal?limits?of?administrative?detention?are?respected;?6th.? To?carry?out?inspections,?where?he?deems?necessary,?to?secure?respect?for?Human?Rights;?7th.? To?supervise?the?performance?of?the?Public?Administration;?8th.? To?promote?reforms?before?Organs?of?State?for?the?advancement?of?Human?Rights;?9th.? To?issue?opinions?on?bills?of?law?which?affect?the?exercise?of?Human?Rights;?10th.? To?promote?and?propose?steps?he?deems?necessary?to?prevent?violation?of?Human?Rights;?11th.? To?publicly?or?privately?formulate?conclusions?and?recommendations;?12th.? To?elaborate?and?publish?reports;?13th.? To?develop?a?permanent?program?of?promotion?activities?on?knowledge?of?and?respect?for?Human?Rights;?14th.? The?others?assigned?to?him?by?the?ConstitutiTitle?IX:?Scope,?Application,?Reform?and?Repeal?on?or?the?Law.?ARTICLE 246 The?principles,?rights,?and?obligations?established?by?this?Constitution?may?not?be?altered?by?laws?that?regulate?their?exercise.?The?Constitution?shall?prevail?over?all?laws?and?regulations.?The?public?interest?shall?come?before?private?interest.?  113? UBC Press 2012ARTICLE 247 Any?person?may?seek?amparo?before?the?Constitutional?Division?of?the?Supreme?Court?of?Justice?for?the?violation?of?rights?granted?by?this?Constitution.?Source: http://pdba.georgetown.edu/Constitutions/ElSal/constitucion2003.pdf  114? UBC Press 2012Equatorial Guinea (1982) Title?I:?Fundamental?Principles?of?the?State?ARTICLE 6 The?State?shall?encourage?and?promote?culture,?artistic?creativity,?scientific?and?technological?research,?and?shall?assure?conservation?of?nature,?the?cultural?inheritance,?and?the?artistic?and?historical?wealth?of?the?Nation.?Source: http://www.chr.up.ac.za/index.php/documents-by-country-database/equatorial-guinea.html  115? UBC Press 2012Eritrea (1997) Chapter?II:?National?Objectives?and?Directive?Principles?ARTICLE 8. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT ...?2.? The?State?shall?work?to?bring?about?a?balanced?and?sustainable?development?throughout?the?country,?and?shall?use?all?available?means?to?enable?all?citizens?to?improve?their?livelihood?in?a?sustainable?manner,?through?their?participation.?3.? In?the?interest?of?present?and?future?generations,?the?State?shall?have?the?responsibility?to?regulate?all?land,?water,?air?and?natural?resources?and?to?ensure?their?management?in?a?balanced?and?sustainable?manner;?and?to?create?the?right?feguard?the?environment.?conditions?for?securing?the?participation?of?the?people?to?saChapter?III:?Fundamental?Rights,?Freedoms,?and?Duties?ARTICLE 24. ADMINISTRATIVE REDRESS 1.? Any?person?with?an?administrative?question?shall?have?the?right?to?be?heard?respectfully?by?the?administrative?officials?concerned?and?to?receive?quick?and?equitable?answers?from?them.?2.? Any?person?with?an?administrative?question,?whose?rights?or?interests?are?interfered?with?or?threatened,?shall?have?the?right?to?seek?due?administrative?redress.? ARTICLE 28. ENFORCEMENT OF FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS ...??2.? Any?aggrieved?person?who?claims?that?a?fundamental?right?or?freedom?guaranteed?by?this?Constitution?has?been?denied?or?violated?shall?be?entitled?to?petition?a?competent?court?for?redress.?Where?it?ascertains?that?such?fundamental?right?or?freedom?has?been?denied?or?violated,?the?court?shall?have?the?power?to?make?all?such?orders?as?shall?be?necessary?to?secure?for?such?petitioner?the?enjoyment?of?such?fundamental?right?or?freedom,?and?where?such?applicant?suffers?damage,?to?include?an?award?of?monetary?compensation.?Source: http://www.chr.up.ac.za/undp/domestic/docs/c_Eritrea.pdf  116? UBC Press 2012Estonia (1992) Chapter?I:?General?Provisions?ARTICLE 5 The?natural?wealth?and?resources?of?Estonia?are?national?assets,?which?shall?be?used?economically.?Chapter?II:?Fundamental?Rights,?Liberties,?and?Duties?ARTICLE 53 Everyone?shall?be?obligated?to?preserve?the?human?and?natural?environment?and?to?compensate?for?damages?caused?by?him?or?her?to?the?environment.?The?procedures?for?compensation?shall?be?determined?by?law.?Source: http://www.president.ee/en/republic-of-estonia/the-constitution/index.html  117? UBC Press 2012Ethiopia (1995) Chapter?Two:?Fundamental?Principles?of?the?Constitution?ARTICLE 10. HUMAN AND DEMOCRATIC RIGHTS 1.? Human?rights?and?freedoms,?emanating?from?the?nature?of?mankind,?are?inviolable?and?inalienable.?2.? shall?be?respected.?Human?and?democratic?rights?of?citizens?and?peoples?Chapter?Three:?Fundamental?Rights?and?Freedoms?Part?Two:?Democratic?Rights?ARTICLE 37. RIGHT OF ACCESS TO JUSTICE 1.? Everyone?has?the?right?to?bring?a?justiciable?matter?to,?and?to?obtain?a?decision?or?judgment?by,?a?court?of?law?or?any?other?competent?body?with?judicial?power.?2.? The?decision?or?judgment?referred?to?under?sub?Article?1?of?this?Article?may?also?be?sought?by:?(a)?Any?association?representing?the?Collective?or?individual?interest?of?its?members;?or?(b)?Any?group?or?person?who?is?a?member?of,?or?represents?a?group?with?similar?interests.? ARTICLE 43. THE RIGHT TO DEVELOPMENT 1.? The?right?of?the?peoples?of?Ethiopia?collectively,?or?the?nations,?nationalities?and?peoples?in?Ethiopia,?individually,?to?improve?their?standard?of?living?and?to?sustainable?development?is?guaranteed.??2.? Citizens?shall?have?the?right?to?participate?in?national?development,?and?in?particular,?to?demand?that?their?opinions?be?heard?on?matters?of?policies?and?of?projects?pertaining?to?the?community?of?which?they?are?members.?3.? International?agreements?entered?into?or?relations?formed?by?the?State?shall?be?such?as?to?guarantee?the?right?to?the?sustainable?development?of?Ethiopia.?...?? ARTICLE 44. ENVIRONMENTAL RIGHTS?1.? Everyone?has?the?right?to?a?clean?and?healthy?environment.?2.? All?persons?who?have?been?displaced?or?whose?livelihoods?have?been?adversely?affected?as?a?result?of?State?programmes?have?the?right?to?commensurate?monetary?or?alternative?means?of?compensation,?including?relocation?with?adequate?State?assistance.? 118? UBC Press 2012Chapter?Ten:?National?Policy?Principles?and?Objectives?ARTICLE 85. OBJECTIVES 1.? Any?organ?of?Government?shall,?in?the?implementation?of?the?Constitution,?other?laws?and?public?policies,?be?guided?by?the?principles?and?objectives?specified?under?this?Chapter.? ARTICLE 90. SOCIAL OBJECTIVES 1.?? To?the?extent?the?country?s?resources?permit,?policies?shall?aim?to?provide?all?Ethiopians?access?to?public?health?and?education,?clean?water,?housing,?food?and?social?security.? ARTICLE 91. CULTURAL OBJECTIVES 2.? Government?and?all?Ethiopian?citizens?shall?have?the?duty?to?protect?the?country?s?natural?endowment,?historical?sites?and?objects.? ARTICLE 92. ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES 1.? The?State?shall?have?the?responsibility?to?strive?to?ensure?a?clean?and?healthy?environment?for?all?Ethiopians.?2.? Any?economic?development?activity?shall?not?in?any?way?be?disruptive?to?the?ecological?balance?or?damaging?to?the?environment.?3.? People?have?the?right?to?give?their?opinions?in?the?preparation?and?implementation?of?environmental?policies?and?projects?that?affect?them?directly.?4.? protect?the?environment.?The?State?and?citizens?shall?have?the?duty?to?Chapter?Eleven:?Miscellaneous?Provisions?ARTICLE 93. DECLARATION OF STATE OF EMERGENCY ??4.?? (a)?When?a?state?of?emergency?is?declared,?the?Council?of?Ministers?shall,?in??accordance?with?regulations?it?issues,?have?all?necessary?power?to?protect?the?country?s?peace?and?sovereignty,?and?to?maintain?public?security,?law?and?order.?(b)?The?Council?of?Ministers?shall?have?the?power?to?suspend?such?political?and??democratic?rights?contained?in?this?Constitution?to?the?extent?necessary?to?avert?the?conditions?that?required?the?declaration?of?a?state?of?emergency.?(c)? In?the?exercise?of?its?emergency?powers?the?Council?of?Ministers?can?not,?however,?suspend?or?limit?the?rights?provided?for?in?Articles?1,?18,?25,?and?sub?Articles?1?and?2?of?Article?39?of?this?Constitution.?Source: http://www.chr.up.ac.za/index.php/documents-by-country-database/ethiopia.html  119? UBC Press 2012Finland (1995) Chapter?2:?Basic?Rights?and?Liberties?SECTION 20. RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE ENVIRONMENT  (1)?Nature?and?its?biodiversity,?the?environment?and?the?national?heritage?are?the?responsibility?of?everyone.?(2)? The?public?authorities?shall?endeavour?to?guarantee?for?everyone?the?right?to?a?healthy?environment?and?for?everyone?the?possibility?to?influence?the?decisions?that?concern?their?own?living?environment.? SECTION 21. PROTECTION UNDER THE LAW Everyone?has?the?right?to?have?his?or?her?case?dealt?with?appropriately?and?without?undue?delay?by?a?legally?competent?court?of?law?or?other?authority,?as?well?as?to?have?a?decision?pertaining?to?his?or?her?rights?or?obligations?reviewed?by?a?court?of?law?or?other?independent?organ?for?the?administration?of?justice.?Provisions?concerning?the?publicity?of?proceedings,?the?right?to?be?heard,?the?right?to?receive?a?reasoned?decision?and?the?right?of?appeal,?as?well?as?the?other?guarantees?of?a?fair?trial?and?good?governance?shall?be?laid?down?by?an?Act.? SECTION 22. PROTECTION OF BASIC RIGHTS AND LIBERTIES The?public?authorities?shall?guarantee?the?observance?of?basic?rights?and?liberties?and?human?rights.? SECTION 23. BASIC RIGHTS AND LIBERTIES IN SITUATIONS OF EMERGENCY Such?provisional?exceptions?to?basic?rights?and?liberties?that?are?compatible?with?Finland?s?international?obligations?concerning?human?rights?and?that?are?deemed?necessary?in?the?case?of?an?armed?attack?against?Finland?or?if?there?exists?an?emergency?that?threatens?the?nation?and?which?according?to?an?Act?is?so?serious?that?it?can?be?com rovided?by?an?Act.?pared?with?an?armed?attack?may?be?pChapter?10:?Supervision?of?Legality?SECTION 108. DUTIES OF THE CHANCELLOR OF JUSTICE OF THE GOVERNMENT The?Chancellor?of?Justice?shall?oversee?the?lawfulness?of?the?official?acts?of?the?Government?and?the?President?of?the?Republic.?The?Chancellor?of?Justice?shall?also?ensure?that?the?courts?of?law,?the?other?authorities?and?the?civil?servants,?public?employees?and?other?persons,?when?the?latter?are?performing?a?public?task,?obey?the?law?and?fulfill?their?obligations.?In?the?performance?of?his?or?her?duties,?the?Chancellor?of?Justice?monitors?the?implementation?of?basic?rights?and?liberties?and?human?rights.?...???SECTION 109. DUTIES OF THE PARLIAMENTARY OMBUDSMAN The?Ombudsman?shall?ensure?that?the?courts?of?law,?the?other?authorities?and?civil?servants,?public?employees?and?other?persons,?when?the?latter?are?performing?a?public? 120? UBC Press 2012task,?obey?the?law?and?fulfill?their?obligations.?In?the?performance?of?his?or?her?duties,?the?Ombudsman?monitors?the?implementation?of?basic?rights?and?liberties?and?human?rights.?Source: http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/kaannokset/1999/en19990731.pdf  121? UBC Press 2012France (2005) Constitution?of?October?4,?1958?Preamble?The?French?people?solemnly?proclaim?their?attachment?to?the?Rights?of?Man?and?to?the?principles?of?national?sovereignty?as?defined?by?the?Declaration?of?1789,?reaffirmed?and?complemented?by?the?Preamble?to?the?Constitution?of?1946,?and?to?the?rights?and?obligations?defined?by?the?Charter?of?the?Environment?of?2004.?Title?V:?On?Relations?between?Parliament?and?the?Government?ARTICLE 34. STATUTES SHALL DETERMINE THE RULES CONCERNING: ?? civic?rights?and?the?fundamental?guarantees?granted?to?citizens?for?the?exercise?of?their?civil?liberties;?freedom,?pluralism?and?the?independence?of?the?media;?the?obligations?imposed?for?the?purposes?of?national?defence?upon?the?person?and?property?of?citizens.?...??Statutes?shall?also?lay?down?the?basic?principles?of:?...??? the?preservation?of?the?environmTitle?XI?A:?The?Defender?of?Rights?ent;?...??ARTICLE 71 The?Defender?of?Rights?shall?ensure?the?due?respect?of?rights?and?freedoms?by?state?administrations,?territorial?communities,?public?legal?entities,?as?well?as?by?all?bodies?carrying?out?a?public?service?mission?or?by?those?that?the?Institutional?Act?decides?fall?within?his?remit.?Referral?may?be?made?to?the?Defender?of?Rights,?in?the?manner?determined?by?an?Institutional?Act,?by?every?person?who?considers?his?rights?to?have?been?infringed?by?the?operation?of?a?public?service?or?of?a?body?mentioned?in?the?first?paragraph.?He?may?act?without?referral.??The?Institutional?Act?shall?set?down?the?mechanisms?for?action?and?powers?of?the?Defender?of?Rights.?It?shall?determine?the?manner?in?which?he?may?be?assisted?by?third?parties?in?the?exercise?of?certain?of?his?powers.?The?Defender?of?Rights?shall?be?appointed?by?the?President?of?the?Republic?for?a?six?year,?non?renewable?term,?after?the?application?of?the?procedure?provided?for?in?the?last?paragraph?of?article?13.?This?position?is?incompatible?with?membership?of?the?Government?or?membership?of?Parliament.?Other?incompatibilities?shall?be?determined?by?the?Institutional?Act.? 122? UBC Press 2012The?Defender?of?Rights?is?accountable?for?his?actions?to?the?President?of?the?Republic?and?to?Parliament.?Charter?of?the?Environment,?2004??The?French?people,?considering?that:???? natural?resources?and?ecosystems?have?contributed?to?the?emergence?of?humanity;???? the?future?and?the?very?existence?of?humanity?are?intrinsically?linked?with?its?natural?environment;???? the?environment?is?the?common?heritage?of?all?human?beings;???? mankind?has?a?growing?influence?on?the?conditions?of?life?and?on?its?own?evolution;???? biological?diversity,?personal?fulfillment,?and?progress?of?human?societies?are?affected?by?certain?types?of?consumption?or?production?and?by?the?excessive?exploitation?of?natural?resources;???? the?preservation?of?the?environment?must?be?achieved?with?the?same?devotion?as?other?fundamental?national?interests;???? in?order?to?ensure?sustainable?development,?choices?aiming?to?meet?present?needs?must?not?compromise?the?capacity?of?future?generations?and?other?peoples?to?satisfy?their?own?needs;?Hereby?proclaim:? ARTICLE 1 Everyone?has?the?right?to?live?in?an?environment?that?is?both?well?balanced?and?favorable?to?his/her?health.??ARTICLE 2 Every?person?has?the?duty?to?take?part?in?the?preservation?and?the?improvement?of?the?environment.??ARTICLE 3 Every?person?must,?in?the?conditions?defined?by?law,?prevent?or,?at?a?minimum,?limit?the?harm?that?it?is?susceptible?to?bring?on?the?environment.??ARTICLE 4 Every?person?must?contribute?to?the?reparation?of?damages?that?it?causes?to?the?environment,?in?the?conditions?defined?by?law.?? 123? UBC Press 2012ARTICLE 5 Upon?the?risk?of?damage,?even?when?uncertain?given?current?scientific?knowledge,?that?might?impact?the?environment?in?a?serious?and?irreversible?manner,?public?authorities?will?ensure,?by?application?of?the?precautionary?principle,?the?adoption?of?appropriate?provisionary?measures?aiming?to?avoid?the?risk?of?the?damage?and?to?implement?evaluation?procedures?to?measure?the?level?of?risk.??ARTICLE 6 Public?policies?must?promote?sustainable?development.?To?this?effect,?they?must?take?into?account?the?protection?and?the?improvement?of?the?environment?and?must?reconcile?these?objectives?with?economic?and?social?development.??ARTICLE 7 Every?person?has?the?right,?under?limited?conditions?defined?by?law,?to?access?information?relative?to?the?environment?that?is?held?by?public?authorities,?and?to?participate?in?the?creation?of?public?decisions?that?have?an?impact?on?the?environment.??ARTICLE 8 Education?and?information?on?the?environment?must?contribute?to?the?implementation?of?the?rights?and?responsibilities?defined?by?this?charter.??ARTICLE 9 Research?and?innovation?must?bring?their?participation?to?the?preservation?and?improvement?of?the?environment.??ARTICLE 10 This?charter?inspires?France?into?action?within?the?European?Union?and?international?community.?Source: http://www.assemblee-nationale.fr/english/8ab.asp 124? UBC Press 2012Gabon (1991) Preliminary?Title:?Fundamental?Rights?and?Principles?ARTICLE 1?The?Gabonese?Republic?recognizes?and?guarantees?the?inviolable?and?imprescriptible?rights?of?Man,?which?obligatorily?constrain?public?powers:?...?8)? the?State,?according?to?its?possibilities,?shall?guarantee?to?all,?notably?to?the?child,?the?mother,?the?handicapped,?to?aged?workers?and?to?the?elderly,?the?protection?of?health,?social?security,?a?preserved?natural?environment,?rest?and?leisure.?Title?IV:?Relations?Between?the?Executive?Power?and?the?Legislative?Power?ARTICLE 47 Outside?the?cases?expressly?provided?for?by?the?Constitution,?the?law?establishes?the?rules?concerning:?? ?? the?exercise?of?fundamTitle?VI:?Constitutional?Court?ental?rights?and?duties?of?citizens???ARTICLE 83 The?Constitutional?Court?is?the?highest?jurisdiction?in?the?State?in?constitutional?matters.?It?is?the?judge?of?the?constitutionality?of?laws?and?it?guarantees?the?fundamental?rights?of?the?human?person?and?public?liberties?...?? ARTICLE 85  ...?The?other?categories?of?laws?as?well?as?regulatory?acts?may?be?deferred?to?the?Constitutional?Court,?either?by?the?President?of?the?Republic,?or?by?the?Prime?Minister,?or?by?the?presidents?of?the?Chambers?of?Parliament?or?one?tenth?the?members?of?each?Chamber,?or?by?the?presidents?of?the?Judicial?and?Administrativ?Courts?and?the?Court?of?Accounts,?or?by?any?citizen?or?moral?person?aggrieved?by?the?law?or?contested?act.?...?Source: (French) http://democratie.francophonie.org/IMG/pdf/Gabon.pdf  125? UBC Press 2012Gambia (1996) Chapter?XX:?Directive?Principles?of?State?Policy?SECTION 211 The?principles?of?state?policy?in?this?chapter?shall?form?part?of?the?public?policy?of?The?Gambia?for?the?establishment?of?a?just,?free,?and?democratic?state.?These?principles?shall?not?confer?legal?rights?or?be?enforceable?in?any?court?but??(a)? subject?to?the?limits?of?the?economic?capacity?and?development?of?The?Gambia,?the?Executive,?the?Legislature?and?all?other?organs?of?the?State?in?taking?policy?decisions,?making?laws?and?in?the?administration?of?the?Gambia,?shall?according?to?their?respective?functions?be?guided?by?and?observe?them?with?a?view?to?achieving?by?legislation?or?otherwise?the?full?realisation?of?these?principles;?and??(b)? the?courts?are?entitled?to?have?regard?to?these?principles?in?interpreting?any?laws?based?on?them.??SECTION 215 (3)? The?State?shall?pursue?a?policy?of?...?(d)?protecting?the?environment?of?the?nation?for?posterity;?and??(e)? co?operating?with?other?nations?and?bodies?to?protect?the?global?environment.?SECTION 216 (4)? The?State?shall?endeavour?to?facilitate?equal?access?to?clean?and?safe?water,?adequate?health?and?medical?services,?habitable?shelter,?sufficient?food?and?security?to?all?persons.?? SECTION 218 The?State?and?all?the?people?of?The?Gambia?shall?strive?to?protect,?preserve?and?foster?the?languages,?historic?sites,?cultural,?natural?and?artistic?heritage?of?The?Gambia.? SECTION 220 (1)? The?exercise?and?enjoyment?of?rights?and?freedoms?are?inseparable?from?the?performance?of?duties?and?obligations,?and?accordingly,?every?citizen?shall?...?(j)? protect?and?conserve?the?environment?of?The?Gambia.??(2)? It?shall?be?the?duty?of?every?citizen?to?abide?by?and?conform?with?the?provisions?set?out?in?subsection?(1),?but?such?duties?shall?not,?of?themselves,?render?any?person?liable?to?proceedings?of?any?kind?in?any?court.?? 126? UBC Press 2012Source: http://www.ncce.gm/files/constitution.pdf  127? UBC Press 2012Georgia (1995) Chapter?One:?General?Provisions?ARTICLE 7 The?state?shall?recognise?and?protect?universally?recognised?human?rights?and?freedoms?as?eternal?and?supreme?human?values.?While?exercising?authority,?the?people?and?the?stat ng?law.?e?shall?be?bound?by?these?rights?and?freedoms?as?directly?actiChapter?Two:?Fundamental?Human?Rights?and?Freedoms?ARTICLE 37  3.?? Everyone?has?the?right?to?live?in?a?healthy?environment?and?enjoy?natural?and?cultural?surroundings.?Everyone?is?obliged?to?protect?the?natural?and?cultural?surroundings.?4.? With?the?view?to?ensuring?a?safe?environment,?in?accordance?with?the?ecological?and?economic?interests?of?society,?with?due?regard?to?the?interests?of?the?current?and?future?generations,?the?State?shall?guarantee?the?protection?of?the?environment?and?the?rational?use?of?nature.?5.?? A?person?shall?have?the?right?to?receive?complete,?objective?and?timely?information?as?to?the?state?of?his/her?working?and?living?environment.? ARTICLE 42 1.? Everyone?has?the?right?to?apply?to?a?court?for?the?protection?of?his/her?rights?and?freedoms.? ARTICLE 43 1.? The?protection?of?human?rights?and?fundamental?freedoms?within?the?territory?of?Georgia?shall?be?supervised?by?the?Public?Defender?of?Georgia?who?shall?be?elected?for?a?term?of?five?years?by?the?majority?of?the?total?number?of?the?members?of?the?Parliament?of?Georgia.?2.? The?Public?Defender?shall?be?authorised?to?reveal?facts?of?the?violation?of?human?rights?and?freedoms?and?to?report?on?them?to?corresponding?bodies?and?officials.?The?creation?of?impediments?to?the?activity?of?the?Public?Defender?shall?be?punishable?by?law.?3.? The?authority?of?the?Public?Defender?shall?be?determined?by?the?Organic?Law.? ARTICLE 46 1.? In?case?of?a?state?emergency?or?martial?law,?the?President?of?Georgia?shall?be?authorised?to?restrict?the?rights?and?freedoms?enumerated?in?Articles?18,?20,?21,?22,?24,?25,?30,?33?and?41?of?the?Constitution?either?throughout?the?whole?country?or?a?certain?part?thereof.?The?President?shall?be?obliged?to?submit?the?decision?to?the?Parliament?for?approval?within?48?hours.? 128? UBC Press 2012Chapter?Five:?Judicial?Power?ARTICLE 89 1.? The?Constitutional?Court?of?Georgia?on?the?basis?of?a?constitutional?claim?or?a?submission?of?the?President?of?Georgia,?the?Government,?not?less?than?one?fifth?of?the?members?of?the?Parliament,?a?court,?the?higher?representative?bodies?the?Autonomous?Republic?of?Abkhazia?and?the?Autonomous?Republic?of?Ajara,?the?Public?Defender?or?a?citizen?in?accordance?with?a?procedure?established?by?the?Organic?Law?shall:?...?f.? consider,?on?the?basis?of?a?claim?of?a?person,?constitutionality?of?normative?acts?in?relation?to?fundamental?human?rights?and?freedoms?enshrined?in?Chapter?Two?of?the?Constitution;?Source: http://www.parliament.ge/files/68_1944_951190_CONSTIT_27_12.06.pdf 129? UBC Press 2012Ge ded?in?2002) rmany (1994,?amenChapter?I:?Basic?Rights?ARTICLE 19(4) Should?any?person?s?rights?be?violated?by?public?authority,?he?may?have?recourse?to?the?courts.?If?no?other?jurisdiction?has?been?established,?recourse?shall?be?to?the?ordinary?courts.?The?second?sentence?of?paragraph?(2)?of?Article?10?shall?not?be?affected?by?this?paragraph.?Chapter?II:?The?Federation?and?the?Lander?ARTICLE 20(A). PROTECTION OF THE NATURAL BASES OF LIFE AND ANIMALS Mindful?also?of?its?responsibility?toward?future?generations,?the?state?shall?protect?the?natural?bases?of?life?and?the?animals?by?legislation?and,?in?accordance?with?law?and?justice,?by?executive?and?judicial?action,?all?within?the?framework?of?the?constitutional?order.?Chapter?IX:?The?Judiciary?ARTICLE 93. [JURISDICTION OF THE FEDERAL CONSTITUTIONAL COURT] (1)? The?Federal?Constitutional?Court?shall?rule:?...?4a.? ?on?constitutional?complaints,?which?may?be?filed?by?any?person?alleging?that?one?of?his?basic?rights?or?one?of?his?rights?under?paragraph?(4)?of?Article?20?or?under?Article?33,?38,?101,?103?or?104?has?been?infringed?by?public?authority;?Source: https://www.btg-bestellservice.de/pdf/80201000.pdf 130? UBC Press 2012Ghana (1992) Chapter?Six:?The?Directive?Principles?of?State?Policy?ARTICLE 34  (1)? The?Directive?Principles?of?State?Policy?contained?in?this?Chapter?shall?guide?all?citizens,?Parliament,?the?President,?the?Judiciary,?the?Council?of?State,?the?Cabinet,?political?parties?and?other?bodies?and?persons?in?applying?or?interpreting?this?Constitution?or?any?other?law?and?in?taking?and?implementing?any?policy?decisions,?for?the?establishment?of?a?just?and?free?society.?(2)? The?President?shall?report?to?Parliament?at?least?once?a?year?all?the?steps?taken?to?ensure?the?realization?of?the?policy?objectives?contained?in?this?Chapter?and,?in?particular,?the?realization?of?basic?human?rights,?a?healthy?economy,?the?right?to?work,?the?right?to?good?health?care?and?the?right?to?education.? ARTICLE 36  (9)? The?State?shall?take?appropriate?measures?needed?to?protect?and?safeguard?the?national?environment?for?posterity;?and?shall?seek?cooperation?with?other?states?and?bodies?for?purposes?of?protecting?the?wider?international?environment?for?mankind.?  ARTICLE 41 The?exercise?and?enjoyment?of?rights?and?freedoms?is?inseparable?from?the?performance?of?duties?and?obligations,?and?accordingly,?it?shall?be?the?duty?of?every?citizen?...?(k)? to?protect?and?safeguard?the?environment.?Source: http://www.chr.up.ac.za/index.php/documents-by-country-database/ghana.html 131? UBC Press 2012Greece (1975) Part?Two:?Individual?and?Social?Rights?ARTICLE 20 1.? Every?person?shall?be?entitled?to?receive?legal?protection?by?the?courts?and?may?plead?before?them?his?views?concerning?his?rights?or?interests,?as?specified?by?law.?2.? The?right?of?a?person?to?a?prior?hearing?also?applies?in?any?administrative?action?or?measure?adopted?at?the?expense?of?his?rights?or?interests.? ARTICLE 24 1.? The?protection?of?the?natural?and?cultural?environment?constitutes?a?duty?of?the?State?and?a?right?of?every?person.?The?State?is?bound?to?adopt?special?preventive?or?repressive?measures?for?the?preservation?of?the?environment?in?the?context?of?the?principle?of?sustainability.?Matters?pertaining?to?the?protection?of?forests?and?forest?expanses?in?general?shall?be?regulated?by?law.4?Alteration?of?the?use?of?forests?and?forest?expanses?is?prohibited,?except?where?agricultural?development?or?other?uses?imposed?for?the?public?interest?prevail?for?the?benefit?of?the?national?economy.?[Amended?in?2002]?2.? The?master?plan?of?the?country,?and?the?arrangement,?development,?urbanization?and?expansion?of?towns?and?residential?areas?in?general,?shall?be?under?the?regulatory?authority?and?the?control?of?the?State,?in?the?aim?of?serving?the?functionality?and?the?development?of?settlements?and?of?securing?the?best?possible?living?conditions.?The?relevant?technical?choices?and?considerations?are?conducted?according?to?the?rules?of?science.?The?compilation?of?a?national?cadastre?constitutes?an?obligation?of?the?State.?3.? For?the?purpose?of?designating?an?area?as?residential?and?of?activating?its?urbanization,?properties?included?therein?must?participate,?without?compensation?from?the?respective?agencies,?in?the?disposal?of?land?necessary?for?the?construction?of?roads,?squares?and?public?utility?areas?in?general,?and?contribute?toward?the?expenses?for?the?execution?of?the?basic?public?urban?works,?as?specified?by?law.?4.? The?law?may?provide?for?the?participation?of?property?owners?of?an?area?designated?as?residential?in?the?development?and?general?accommodation?of?that?area,?on?the?basis?of?an?approved?town?plan,?in?exchange?for?real?estate?or?apartments?of?equal?value?in?the?parts?of?such?areas?that?shall?finally?be?designated?as?suitable?for?construction?or?in?buildings?of?the?same?area.?                                                 4?The?Greek?Constitution?includes?the?following?interpretative?clause:??The?term?forest?or?forest?ecosystem?means?the?organic?whole?of?wild?plants?with?woody?trunk?on?the?necessary?area?of?ground?which,?together?with?the?flora?and?fauna?co?existing?there,?constitute?via?their?mutual?interdependence?and?interaction,?a?particular?ecosystem?(forest?ecosystem)?and?a?particular?natural?environment?(forest?derived).?A?forest?expanse?exists?when?the?wild?woody?vegetation,?either?high?or?shrubbery,?is?sparse.?? 132? UBC Press 20125.? The?provisions?of?the?preceding?paragraphs?shall?also?be?applicable?in?the?rehabilitation?of?existing?residential?areas.?Spaces?remaining?free?after?rehabilitation?shall?be?allotted?to?the?creation?of?common?utility?areas?or?shall?be?sold?to?cover?expenses?incurred?for?the?rehabilitation,?as?specified?by?law.?6.? Monuments?and?historic?areas?and?elements?shall?be?under?the?protection?of?the?State.?A?law?shall?provide?for?measures?restrictive?of?private?ownership?deemed?necessary?for?protection?thereof,?as?well?as?for?the?manner?and?the?kind?of?compensation?payable?to?owners.? ARTICLE 25 1.? The?rights?of?man?as?an?individual?and?as?a?member?of?the?society?and?the?principle?of?the?constitutional?welfare?state?are?guaranteed?by?the?State.?All?agents?of?the?State?shall?be?obliged?to?ensure?the?unhindered?and?effective?exercise?thereof.?These?principles?also?apply?to?relations?between?private?individuals?to?which?they?pertain.?Restrictions?of?any?kind?which,?according?to?the?Constitution,?may?be?imposed?upon?these?rights,?should?be?provided?either?directly?by?the?Constitution?or?by?the?law,?in?case?a?reservation?exists?in?the?latter?s?favour,?and?should?respect?the?principle?of?proportionality.?2.? The?recognition?and?protection?of?the?fundamental?and?inalienable?rights?of?man?by?the?State?aims?at?the?achievement?of?social?progress?in?freedom?and?justice.?Source: http://www.hellenicparliament.gr/UserFiles/f3c70a23-7696-49db-9148-f24dce6a27c8/001-156%20aggliko.pdf  133? UBC Press 2012Guatemala (1985) Title?II:?Human?Rights?Chapter?II:?Social?Rights?Section?Two:?Culture?ARTICLE 64. NATURAL HERITAGE  The?conservation,?protection,?and?improvement?of?the?natural?heritage?of?the?Nation?is?declared?to?be?of?national?interest.?The?State?will?promote?the?creation?of?national?parks,?reservations,?and?natural?sanctuaries,?which?are?inalienable.?A?law?will?guarantee?their?protection?and?that?of?the?fauna?and?flora?to?be?found?in?them.? Section?Seven:?Health,?Security?and?Social?Assistance?ARTICLE 96. QUALITY CONTROL OF PRODUCTS The?State?will?control?the?quality?of?food?products,?pharmaceuticals,?chemicals,?and?of?everything?that?can?affect?the?health?and?well?being?of?its?inhabitants.?It?will?see?to?the?establishment?and?programming?of?priorities?to?health?and?the?improvement?of?the?conditions?of?the?basic?environmental?guarantee?of?the?communities?that?are?least?protected.? ARTICLE 97. ENVIRONMENT AND ECOLOGICAL BALANCE The?State,?the?municipalities?and?the?inhabitants?of?the?national?territory?are?obliged?to?promote?social,?economic,?and?technological?development?that?would?prevent?the?contamination?of?the?environment?and?maintain?the?ecological?balance.?The?State?will?issue?all?the?necessary?regulations?to?guarantee?that?the?use?of?the?fauna,?flora,?land,?and?water?will?be?realized?rationally,?obviating?their?depredation.? Section?Ten:?Economic?and?Social?Regime?ARTICLE 119. OBLIGATIONS OF THE STATE The?following?are?basic?obligations?the?State:?...?c.? To?adopt?the?means?that?may?be?necessary?for?the?conservation,?development?and?exploitation?of?natural?resources?in?efficient?form;?ARTICLE 126. REFORESTATION  The?reforestation?of?the?country?and?the?conservation?of?forests?is?declared?to?be?a?matter?of?national?urgency.?The?law?will?determine?the?form?and?requirements?for?the?rational?exploitation?of?forestry?resources?and?their?renewal,?including?the?resins,?rubber,?wild?forest?botanical?products?and?other?similar?products,?and?will?promote?their?industrial?use.?...? 134? UBC Press 2012The?forest?and?vegetation?on?the?banks?of?rivers?and?lakes?and?in?the?vicinity?of?water?sources?will?enjoy?special?protection.? ARTICLE 127. WATER REGIME All?the?waters?belong?to?the?public?domain?and?are?inalienable?and?imprescriptible.?Their?exploitation,?use,?and?enjoyment?are?granted?in?the?form?established?by?law?in?accordance?with?the?social?interest.?A?specific?law?will?regulate?this?matter.?Title?VI:?Constitutional?Guarantees?and?Defense?of?the?Constitutional?Order?Chapter?II:?Amparo?ARTICLE 265. PROCEEDING OF AMPARO Amparo?is?instituted?for?the?purpose?of?protecting?persons?against?the?threats?of?violations?of?their?rights?or?to?restore?the?rule?of?same?should?the?violation?have?occurred.?There?is?no?area?which?is?not?subject?to?amparo,?and?it?will?always?proceed?whenever?the?acts,?resolutions,?provisions,?or?laws?of?authority?should?imply?a?threat,?restraint,?or?violation?of?the?rights?which?the?Constitution?and?the?laws?guarantee.?Source: (Spanish) http://pdba.georgetown.edu/Constitutions/Guate/guate93.html  135? UBC Press 2012Guinea (1990) Title?II:?Liberties,?Duties,?and?Fundamental?Rights?ARTICLE 5 The?person?and?the?dignity?of?man?are?sacred.?The?State?has?the?duty?to?respect?and?protect?them.?The?rights?and?duties?enumerated?hereinafter?are?inviolable,?inalienable?and?indefeasible.?They?are?the?foundation?of?all?humanity?and?guarantee?peace?and?justice?in?the?world.??ARTICLE 19  ??The?people?of?Guinea?shall?freely?and?[with]?sovereignty?determine?its?institutions?and?the?economic?and?social?organization?of?the?Nation.?They?shall?have?an?inalienable?right?to?its?resources.?These?shall?benefit?all?the?citizens?in?an?equitable?manner.?They?shall?have?the?right?to?the?preservation?of?their?heritage,?culture?and?environment.??ARTICLE 22??The?law?guarantees?to?all?the?exercise?of?fundamental?rights?and?liberties.?It?shall?determine?the?conditions?under?which?they?shall?be?exercised.?The?law?shall?only?set?limits?on?these?rights?and?liberties?which?are?indispensable?to?the?maintenance?of?public?order?and?democracy.???Title?V:?Relations?Between?the?President?of?the?Republic?and?the?National?Assembly?ARTICLE 59  ??The?law?shall?fix?rules?concerning:??? guarantees?of?liberties?and?fundamental?rights,?the?conditions?under?which?they?are?exercised?and?the?limitation?imposed?on?them;???Statutes?shall?also?lay?down?the?basic?principles?of:??? cultural?development?and?of?the?protection?of?the?national?heritage?and?the?environment?Source: (French) http://droit.francophonie.org/df-web/publication.do?publicationId=4279  136? UBC Press 2012Gu 980,?as?amended?in?2003) yana (1Preamble?We,?the?Guyanese?people?...?Acknowledge?the?aspirations?of?our?young?people?who,?in?their?own?words,?have?declared?that?the?future?of?Guyana?belongs?to?its?young?people,?who?aspire?to?live?in?a?safe?society?which?respects?their?dignity,?protects?their?rights,?recognises?their?potential,?listens?to?their?voices,?provides?opportunities,?ensures?a?healthy?environment?and?encourages?people?of?all?races?to?live?in?harmony?and?peace?and?affirm?that?their?declaration?will?be?binding?on?our?institutions?and?be?a?part?of?the?context?of?our?basic?law;?D ?protect?our?natural?environment?and?endowment;?...?emonstrate?our?commitment?toPart?1:?General?Principles?Chapter?II:?Principles?and?Bases?of?the?Political,?Economic,?and?Social?System?ARTICLE 25 Every?citizen?has?a?duty?to?participate?in?activities?designed?to?improve?the?environment?and?protect?the?health?of?the?nation.???ARTICLE 36 The?well?being?for?the?nation?depends?upon?preserving?clean?air,?fertile?soils,?pure?water?and?the?rich?diversity?of?plants,?animals?and?eco?systems.???ARTICLE 39 (1)? It?is?the?duty?of?Parliament,?the?Government,?the?courts?and?all?other?public?agencies?to?be?guided?in?the?discharge?of?their?functions?by?the?principles?set?out?in?this?Chapter,?and?Parliament?may?provide?for?any?of?those?principles?to?be?enforceable?in?any?court?or?tribunal.?(2)? In?the?interpretation?of?the?fundamental?rights?provisions?in?this?Constitution?a?court?shall?pay?due?regard?to?international?law,?international?conventions,?covenants?and?an?rights.?charters?bearing?on?humPart?2:?Specific?Rules?Title?I:?Protection?of?Fundamental?Rights?and?Freedoms?of?The?Individual??ARTICLE 149J (1)? Everyone?has?the?right?to?an?environment?that?is?not?harmful?to?his?or?her?health?or?well?being.? 137? UBC Press 2012(2)? The?State?shall?protect?the?environment,?for?the?benefit?of?present?and?future?generations,?through?reasonable?legislative?and?other?measures?designed?to???(a)? prevent?pollution?and?ecological?degradation;?(b)?promote?conservation;?and?(c)? secure?sustainable?development?and?use?of?natural?resources?while?promoting?justifiable?economic?and?social?development.?(3)? It?shall?not?be?an?infringement?of?a?person?s?rights?under?paragraph?(1)?if,?by?reason?only?of?an?allergic?condition?or?other?peculiarity?the?environment?is?harmful?to?that?person?s?health?or?well?being.? ARTICLE 153(1)  (1)? Subject?to?the?provisions?of?paragraph?(6),?if?any?person,?including?a?person?acting?on?behalf?of?another?who?is?not?acting?in?his?or?her?own?name,?or?a?person?acting?on?behalf?of?a?group?or?an?association?acting?on?behalf?of?its?members,?alleges?that?any?of?the?provisions?of?articles?138?to?151?(inclusive)?has?been,?is?being,?or?is?likely?to?be?contravened?in?relation?to?him?or?her?(or?in?the?case?of?a?person?who?is?detained,?if?any?other?person?alleges?such?a?contravention?in?relation?to?the?detained?person)?then,?without?prejudice?to?any?other?action?with?respect?to?the?same?matter?which?is?lawfully?available,?that?person?or?association?(or?that?other?person)?may?apply?to?the?High?Court?for?redress.?(2)? The?High?Court?shall?have?original?jurisdiction???(a)? to?hear?and?determine?any?application?made?by?any?person?in?pursuance?of?the?preceding?paragraph;?(b)? to?determine?any?question?arising?in?the?case?of?any?person?which?is?referred?to?it?in?pursuance?of?the?next?following?paragraph,?and?may?make?such?orders,?issue?such?writs?and?give?such?directions?as?it?may?consider?appropriate?for?the?purpose?of?enforcing?or?securing?the?enforcement?of?any?of?the?provisions?of?articles?138?to?151?(inclusive).?(3)? If?in?any?proceedings?in?any?court?subordinate?to?the?High?Court?any?question?arises?as?to?the?contravention?of?any?of?the?provisions?of?articles?138?to?151?(inclusive),?the?person?presiding?in?that?court?shall?refer?the?question?to?the?High?Court?unless,?in?his?opinion,?the?raising?of?the?question?is?merely?frivolous?or?vexatious.?(4)?Where?any?question?is?referred?to?the?High?Court?in?pursuance?of?paragraph?(3),?the?High?Court?shall?give?its?decision?upon?the?question?and?the?court?in?which?the?question?arose?shall?dispose?of?the?case?in?accordance?with?that?decision?or?if?that?decision?is?the?subject?of?an?appeal?under?this?Constitution?to?the?Court?of?Appeal,?in?accordance?with?the?decision?of?the?Court?of?Appeal.?(5)? Parliament?may?confer?upon?the?High?Court?such?powers?in?addition?to?those?conferred?by?this?article?as?may?appear?to?Parliament?to?be?necessary?or?desirable?for? 138? UBC Press 2012the?purpose?of?enabling?the?High?Court?more?effectively?to?exercise?the?jurisdiction?conferred?upon?it?by?this?article.?(6)? Parliament?may?make?provision?with?respect?to?the?practice?and?procedure???(a)? of?the?High?Court?in?relation?to?the?jurisdiction?and?powers?conferred?upon?it?by?or?under?this?article;?(b)?of?the?High?Court?and?the?Court?of?Appeal?in?relation?to?appeals?to?the?Court?of?Appeal?from?decisions?of?the?High?Court?in?the?exercise?of?such?jurisdiction;?(c)? of?subordinate?courts?in?relation?to?references?to?the?High?Court?under?paragraph?(3),?including?provision?with?respect?to?the?time?within?which?any?application,?reference?or?appeal?shall?or?may?be?made?or?brought;?and,?subject?to?any?provision?so?made,?provision?may?be?made?with?respect?to?the?matters?aforesaid?by?rules?of?court.?Part?2:?Specific?Rules?Title?IA:?Protection?of?Human?Rights?ARTICLE 154A (1)? Subject?to?paragraphs?(3)?and?(6),?every?person,?as?contemplated?by?the?respective?international?treaties?set?out?in?the?Fourth?Schedule?to?which?Guyana?has?acceded?is?entitled?to?the?human?rights?enshrined?in?the?said?international?treaties,?and?such?rights?shall?be?respected?and?upheld?by?the?executive,?legislature,?judiciary?and?all?organs?and?agencies?of?Government?and,?where?applicable?to?them,?by?all?natural?and?legal?persons?and?shall?be?enforceable?in?the?manner?hereinafter?prescribed.?(2)? The?rights?referred?to?in?paragraph?(1)?do?not?include?any?fundamental?right?under?this?Constitution.?(3)? The?State?shall,?having?regard?to?the?socio?cultural?level?of?development?of?the?society,?take?reasonable?legislative?and?other?measures?within?its?available?resources?to?achieve?the?progressive?realisation?of?the?rights?provided?for?in?paragraph?(1).?(4)? If?any?person?alleges?that?any?of?the?rights?referred?to?in?paragraph?(1),?has?been,?is?being?or?is?about?to?be?contravened?in?relation?to?him?or?her,?then,?without?prejudice?to?any?other?action?with?respect?to?the?same?matter?which?is?lawfully?available,?that?person?may?apply?to?the?Human?Rights?Commission?in?such?manner?as?the?Commission?may?prescribe,?for?redress.?(5)?Nothing?contained?in?this?article?shall?be?construed?so?as?to?abrogate?any?human?right,?not?enumerated?herein,?which?a?person?had?at?the?time?of?the?commencement?of?this?Article.?(6)? The?State?may?divest?itself?or?otherwise?limit?the?extent?of?its?obligation?under?any?of?the?treaties?listed?in?the?Fourth?Schedule,?provided?that?two?thirds?of?the?elected? 139? UBC Press 2012members?of?the?National?Assembly?have?voted?in?favour?of?such?divestment?or?limitation.?Fourth?Schedule:?Conventions??Convention?on?the?Rights?of?the?Child.?Convention?on?the?Elimination?of?All?Forms?of?Discrimination?against?Women.?Convention?on?the?Elimination?of?All?Forms?of?Racial?Discrimination.?Convention?Against?Torture?and?Other?Inhuman?or?Degrading?Treatment?or?Punishment.?Covenant?on?Economic,?Social?and?Cultural?Rights.?Covenant?on?Civil?and?Political?Rights.?Inter?American?Convention?on?the?Prevention,?Punishment?and?Eradication?of?Violence?against?Women.?Source: http://www.parliament.gov.gy/constitution/constitutionindex.php  140? UBC Press 2012Haiti (1987) Title?III:?Basic?Rights?and?Duties?of?the?Citizen?Chapter?II:?Basic?Rights?Section?J:?Right?to?Security?ARTICLE 42 No?citizen,?whether?civilian?or?military,?may?be?denied?access?to?the?courts?open?to?him?under?the?Constitution?and?the?laws.?Chapter?III:?Duties?of?the?Citizen?ARTICLE 52.1 Civic?duties?are?the?citizen?s?moral,?political,?social?and?economic?obligations?as?a?whole?to?the?State?and?the?country.?These?obligations?are:?...?(h)?To?respect?and?protect?the?environment;?Title?IX:?Economics,?Agriculture,?and?the?Environment?Chapter?II:?The?Environment?ARTICLE 253 Since?the?environment?is?the?natural?framework?of?the?life?of?the?people,?any?practices?that?might?disturb?the?ecological?balance?are?strictly?forbidden.?? ARTICLE 254 The?State?shall?organize?the?enhancement?of?natural?sites?to?ensure?their?protection?and?make?them?accessible?to?all.?? ARTICLE 255 To?protect?forest?reserves?and?expand?the?plant?coverage,?the?State?encourages?the?development?of?local?sources?of?energy:?solar,?wind?and?others.?? ARTICLE 256 Within?the?framework?of?protecting?the?environment?and?public?education,?the?State?has?the?obligation?to?proceed?to?establish?and?maintain?botanical?and?zoological?gardens?at?certain?points?in?its?territory.?? ARTICLE 257 The?law?specifies?the?conditions?for?protecting?flora?and?fauna,?and?punishes?violations?thereof.??  141? UBC Press 2012ARTICLE 258 No?one?may?introduce?into?the?country?wastes?or?residues?of?any?kind?from?foreign?sources.?Source: http://pdba.georgetown.edu/constitutions/haiti/haiti1987.html  142? UBC Press 2012Honduras (1982) Title?III:?Declarations,?Rights,?and?Guarantees?Chapter?I:?Declarations?ARTICLE 62 The?rights?of?every?man?are?limited?by?the?rights?of?all?others,?of?collective?security,?and?by?the?just?demands?of?the?general?welfare?and?democratic?development.? ARTICLE 64 Laws?and?governmental?provisions?or?any?other?provisions?that?regulate?the?exercise?of?rights?and?guarantees?recognized?by?this?Constitution?shall?not?be?enforced?if?they?dim e?such?rights?and?guarantees.?inish,?restrict?or?evadChapter?VII:?Health ARTICLE 145 The?right?to?the?protection?of?one?s?health?is?hereby?recognized.?It?is?everyone?s?duty?to?participate?in?the?promotion?and?preservation?of?individual?and?community?health.?The?State?shall?maintain?a?satisfactory?environment?for?the?protection?of?everyone?s?health.?Title?IV:?Constitutional?Guarantees?Chapter?I:?Habeas?Corpus?and?Amparo?ARTICLE 183 The?State?recognizes?the?guarantee?of?Amparo.?Consequently,?every?aggrieved?person,?or?any?other?in?his?behalf,?has?the?right?to?interpose?the?recourse?of?Amparo:?1.? To?have?the?enjoyment?of?his?rights?and?guarantees?under?the?Constitution?maintained?or?restored;?and??2.? For?a?declaratory?judgment?in?particular?cases?that?a?law?or?resolution?or?act?of?authority?does?not?bind?the?petitioner,?and?is?not?applicable?because?it?contravenes,?limits,?or?restricts?any?of?the?rights?recognized?by?this?Constitution.?The?Recourse?of?Amparo?shall?be?interposed?in?accordance?with?the?Law.? 143? UBC Press 2012Chapter?II:?Unconstitutionality?and?Review?ARTICLE 184 The?Laws?may?be?declared?unconstitutional?by?reason?of?form?or?content?...?? ARTICLE 185 A?declaration?of?unconstitutionality?of?a?law?and?its?inapplicability?may?be?petitioned?by?any rsonal,?and?legitimate?interest?...?one?who?considers?himself?injured?in?his?direct,?peChapter?III:?Restriction?or?Suspension?of?Rights?ARTICLE 187 The?exercise?of?the?rights?established?in?Articles?69,?71,?72,?78,?81,?84,?93,?99,?and?103?may?be?suspended?in?the?event?of?an?invasion?of?the?national?territory,?serious?disturbance?of?the?peace,?an?epidemic,?or?other?general?disaster,?or?by?the?President?of?the?Republic?in?agreement?with?the?Council?of?Ministers,?by?means?of?a?decree?that?shall?contain:?1.? The?reasons?justifying?the?suspension;?2.? The?guarantee?or?guarantees?that?are?restricted;?3.? The?territory?to?be?affected?by?the?restriction;?and?4.? The?duration?of?the?restriction???Source: http://pdba.georgetown.edu/Constitutions/Honduras/hond05.html  144? UBC Press 2012Hungary (1989) Chapter?I:?General?Provisions?ARTICLE 8 (1)? The?Republic?of?Hungary?recognizes?inviolable?and?inalienable?fundamental?human?rights.?The?respect?and?protection?of?these?rights?is?a?primary?obligation?of?the?State.??(2)? In?the?Republic?of?Hungary?regulations?pertaining?to?fundamental?rights?and?duties?are?determined?by?law;?such?law,?however,?may?not?restrict?the?basic?meaning?and?contents?of?fundamental?rights.??(4)?During?a?state?of?national?crisis,?state?of?emergency?or?state?of?danger,?the?exercise?of?fundamental?rights?may?be?suspended?or?restricted,?with?the?exception?of?the?fundamental?rights?specified?in?Articles?54?56,?Paragraphs?(2)?(4)?of?Article?57,?Article?60,?Articles?66??69,?and?Article?70/E.? ARTICLE 18 The?Republic?of?Hungary?recognizes?and?shall?implement?everyone?s?right?to?a?healthy?environment.?Chapter?V:?The?Parliamentary?Ombudsman?for?Civil?Rights?and?the?Parliamentary?Ombudsman?for?the?Rights?of?National?and?Ethnic?Minorities?ARTICLE 32/B  (1)? The?Parliamentary?Ombudsman?for?Civil?Rights?is?responsible?for?investigating?or?initiating?the?investigation?of?cases?involving?the?infringement?of?constitutional?rights?which?come?to?his?attention?and?initiating?general?or?specific?measures?for?their?remedy.?...??(3)? Everyone?has?the?right?to?initiate?proceedings?by?the?Parliamentary?Ombudsmen?in?the?cases?specified?by?law.??(4)? The?Parliamentary?Ombudsmen?for?Civil?Rights?and?for?the?Rights?of?National?and?Ethnic?Minorities?shall?be?elected?by?a?majority?of?two?thirds?of?the?votes?of?the?Members?of?Parliament,?based?on?the?recommendation?made?by?the?President?of?the?Republic.?The?Parliament?may?also?elect?special?Ombudsmen?for?the?protection?of?individual?constitutional?rights.?Chapter?XII:?Fundamental?Rights?and?Duties?of?Citizens?ARTICLE 70/D  (1)? Everyone?living?in?the?territory?of?the?Republic?of?Hungary?has?the?right?to?the?highest?possible?level?of?physical?and?mental?health.?(2)? The?Republic?of?Hungary?shall?implement?this?right?through?institutions?of?labor?safety?and?health?care,?through?the?organization?of?medical?care?and?the?opportunities?for?regular?physical?activity,?as?well?as?through?the?protection?of?the?urban?and?natural?environment.? 145? UBC Press 2012 ARTICLE 70/K Claims?arising?from?infringement?of?fundamental?rights,?and?objections?to?the?decisions?of?public?authorities?regarding?the?fulfillment?of?duties?may?be?brought?before?a?court?of?law.?Source: http://www.mkab.hu/index.php?id=constitution 146? UBC Press 2012India (1976) Part?III:?Fundamental?Rights?ARTICLE 32. RIGHT TO CONSTITUTIONAL REMEDIES (1)? The?right?to?move?the?Supreme?Court?by?appropriate?proceedings?for?the?enforcement?of?the?rights?conferred?by?this?Part?is?guaranteed.?(2)? The?Supreme?Court?shall?have?power?to?issue?directions?or?orders?or?writs,?including?writs?in?the?nature?of?habeas?corpus,?mandamus,?prohibition,?quo?warranto?and?certiorari,?whichever?may?be?appropriate,?for?the?enforcement?of?any?of?the?rights?conferred?by?this?Part.?(3)?Without?prejudice?to?the?powers?conferred?on?the?Supreme?Court?by?clauses?(1)?and?(2),?Parliament?may?by?law?empower?any?other?court?to?exercise?within?the?local?limits?of?its?jurisdiction?all?or?any?of?the?powers?exercisable?by?the?Supreme?Court?under?clause?(2).?(4)? The?right?guaranteed?by?this?article?shall?not?be?suspended?except?as?otherwise?provided?for?by?this?Constitution.?Part?IV:?Directive?Principles?of?State?Policy?ARTICLE 37 The?provisions?contained?in?this?Part?shall?not?be?enforceable?by?any?court,?but?the?principles?therein?laid?down?are?nevertheless?fundamental?in?the?governance?of?the?country?and?it?shall?be?the?duty?of?the?State?to?apply?these?principles?in?making?laws.? ARTICLE 48A The?State?shall?endeavour?to?protect?and?improve?the?environment?and?to?safeguard?the?forests?and?wild?life?of?the?country.??Part?IV?A:?Fundamental?Duties?ARTICLE 51A It?shall?be?the?duty?of?every?citizen?of?India:?...?(g)? to?protect?and?improve?the?natural?environment?including?forests,?lakes,?rivers?and?wild?life,?and?to?have?compassion?for?living?creatures;????Source: http://indiacode.nic.in/coiweb/welcome.html  147? UBC Press 2012Indonesia (2000) Section?XA:?Human?Rights?ARTICLE 28H (1)? Each?person?has?a?right?to?a?life?of?well?being?in?body?and?mind,?to?a?place?to?dwell,?to?enjoy?a?good?and?healthy?environment,?and?to?receive?medical?care.?? ARTICLE 28I (1)? The?rights?to?life,?freedom?from?torture,?freedom?of?thought?and?conscience,?freedom?of?religion,?freedom?from?enslavement,?recognition?as?a?person?before?the?law,?and?the?right?not?to?be?tried?under?a?law?with?retrospective?effect?are?all?human?rights?that?cannot?be?limited?under?any?circumstances.??(2)? Every?person?shall?have?the?right?to?be?free?from?discriminative?treatment?based?upon?any?grounds?whatsoever?and?shall?have?the?right?to?protection?from?such?discriminative?treatment.??(3)? The?cultural?identities?and?rights?of?traditional?communities?shall?be?respected?in?accordance?with?the?development?of?times?and?civilisations.??(4)? The?protection,?advancement,?upholding?and?fulfillment?of?human?rights?are?the?responsibility?of?the?state,?especially?the?government.??(5)? For?the?purpose?of?upholding?and?protecting?human?rights?in?accordance?with?the?principle?of?a?democratic?and?law?based?state,?the?implementation?of?human?rights?shall?be?guaranteed,?regulated?and?set?forth?in?laws?and?regulations.? ARTICLE 28J  (2)? In?exercising?his/her?rights?and?freedoms,?every?person?shall?have?the?duty?to?accept?the?restrictions?established?by?law?for?the?sole?purposes?of?guaranteeing?the?recognition?and?respect?of?the?rights?and?freedoms?of?others?and?of?satisfying?just?demands?based?upon?considerations?of?morality,?religious?values,?security?and?public?order?in?a?democratic?society.?Section?XIV:?National?Economy?and?Social?Welfare?ARTICLE 33  (3)? The?land?and?the?waters?as?well?as?the?natural?riches?therein?are?to?be?controlled?by?the?state?to?be?exploited?to?the?greatest?benefit?of?the?people.??(4)? The?organization?of?the?national?economy?shall?be?based?on?economic?democracy?that?upholds?the?principles?of?solidarity,?efficiency?along?with?fairness,?sustainability,?keeping?the?environment?in?perspective,?self?sufficiency,?and?that?is?concerned?as?well?with?balanced?progress?and?with?the?unity?of?the?national?economy.?[Amended?in?2002]?Source: http://www.embassyofindonesia.org/about/pdf/IndonesianConstitution.pdf  148? UBC Press 2012Iran (1979,?as?amended) Chapter?III:?The?Rights?of?the?People?ARTICLE 34 It?is?the?indisputable?right?of?every?citizen?to?seek?justice?by?recourse?to?competent?courts.?All?citizens?have?right?of?access?to?such?courts,?and?no?one?can?be?barred?from?courts?to?which?he?has?a?legal?right?of?recourse.? ARTICLE 40 No?one?is?entitled?to?exercise?his?rights?in?a?way?injurious?to?others?or?detrimental?to?public?interests.?Chapter?IV:?Economy?and?Financial?Affairs?ARTICLE 50 The?preservation?of?the?environment,?in?which?the?present?as?well?as?the?future?generations?have?a?right?to?flourishing?social?existence,?is?regarded?as?a?public?duty?in?the?Islamic?Republic.?Economic?and?other?activities?that?inevitably?involve?pollution?of?the? arable?damage?to?it?are?therefore?forbidden.??environment?or?cause?irrepChapter?XI:?The?Judiciary?ARTICLE 156 The?judiciary?is?an?independent?power,?the?protector?of?the?rights?of?the?individual?and?society,?responsible?for?the?implementation?of?justice,?and?entrusted?with?the?following?duties:?1.? investigating?and?passing?judgement?on?grievances,?violations?of?rights,?and?complaints;?the?resolution?of?litigation;?the?settling?of?disputes;?and?the?taking?of?all?necessary?decisions?and?measures?in?probate?matters?as?the?law?may?determine;?2.? restoring?public?rights?and?promoting?justice?and?legitimate?freedoms;?...??Source: http://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/ir00000_.html  149? UBC Press 2012Iraq (2005) Section?One:?Fundamental?Principles?ARTICLE 2 First:? ? Islam?is?the?official?religion?of?the?State?and?is?a?foundation?source?of?legislation:?A.? No?law?may?be?enacted?that?contradicts?the?established?provisions?of?Islam?B.? No?law?may?be?enacted?that?contradicts?the?principles?of?democracy.?C.? No?law?may?be?enacted?that?contradicts?the?rights?and?basic?stitution.?freedoms?stipulated?in?this?ConSection?Two:?Rights?and?Liberties?Chapter?One:?Rights?First?Part:?Civil?and?Political?Liberties?ARTICLE 19 Third:? ? Litigation?shall?be?a?protected?and?guaranteed?right?for?all.? Second?Part:?Economic,?Social,?and?Cultural?Liberties?ARTICLE 33 First:? ? Every?individual?has?the?right?to?live?in?a?safe?environment.?Second:?? The?State?undertakes?the?protection?and?preservation?of?the?environment?and?biological?diversitChapter?Two:?Liberties?y.?ARTICLE 46 Restricting?or?limiting?the?practice?of?any?of?the?rights?or?liberties?stipulated?in?this?Constitution?is?prohibited,?except?by?a?law?or?on?the?basis?of?a?law,?and?insofar?as?that?limitation?or?restriction?does?not?violate?the?essence?of?the?right?or?freedom.?Source: http://www.uniraq.org/documents/iraqi_constitution.pdf  150? UBC Press 2012Italy (1948) Fundamental?Principles?ARTICLE 9  (1)? The?republic?promotes?cultural?development?and?scientific?and?technical?research.?(2)? It?safeguards?natural?beauty?and?the?historical?and?artistic?heritage?of?the?nation.? ARTICLE 24 (1)? Everyone?may?bring?cases?before?a?court?of?law?in?order?to?protect?their?rights?under?civil?and?administrative?law.?(2)?Defense?is?an?inviolable?right?at?every?stage?and?instance?of?legal?proceedings.?(3)? The?poor?are?entitled?by?law?to?proper?means?for?action?or?defense?in?all?courts.?(4)? The?law?defines?the?conditions?and?forms?for?reparation?in?the?case?of?judicial?errors.?Source: http://servat.unibe.ch/icl/it00000_.html  151? UBC Press 2012Jamaica (2011) Charter?of?Fundamental?Rights?and?Freedoms?(Constitutional?Amendment)?Act?of?2011?Chapter?III:?Charter?of?Fundamental?Rights?and?Freedoms?SECTION 13 (1)?Whereas??(a)? the?state?has?an?obligation?to?promote?universal?respect?for,?and?observance?of,?human?rights?and?freedoms;??(b)? all?persons?in?Jamaica?are?entitled?to?preserve?for?themselves?and?future?generations?the?fundamental?rights?and?freedoms?to?which?they?are?entitled?by?virtue?of?their?inherent?dignity?as?persons?and?as?citizens?of?a?free?and?democratic?society;?and??(c)? all?persons?are?under?a?responsibility?to?respect?and?uphold?the?rights?of?others?recognized?in?this?Chapter,??the?following?provisions?of?this?Chapter?shall?have?effect?for?the?purpose?of?affording?protection?to?the?rights?and?freedoms?of?persons?as?set?out?in?those?provisions,?to?the?extent?that?those?rights?and?freedoms?do?not?prejudice?the?rights?and?freedoms?of?others.???(2)? Subject?to?sections?18?and?49,?and?to?subsections?(9)?and?(12)?of?this?section,?and?save??only?as?may?be?demonstrably?justified?in?a?free?and?democratic?society??(a)? this?Chapter?guarantees?the?rights?and?freedoms?set?out?in?subsections?(3)?and?(6)?of?this?section?and?in?sections?14,?15,?16?and?17;?and??(b)?Parliament?shall?pass?no?law?and?no?organ?of?the?State?shall?take?any?action?which?abrogates,?abridges?or?infringes?those?rights.??(3)? The?rights?and?freedoms?referred?to?in?subsection?(2)?are?as?follows:???(l)? the?right?to?enjoy?a?healthy?and?productive?environment?free?from?the?threat?of?injury?or?damage?from?environmental?abuse?and?degradation?of?the?ecological?heritage;?...? SECTION 15 (1)?No?property?of?any?description?shall?be?compulsorily?taken?possession?of?and?no?interest?in?or?right?over?property?of?any?description?shall?be?compulsorily?acquired?except?by?or?under?the?provisions?of?a?law?that?? 152? UBC Press 2012(a)? prescribes?the?principles?on?which?and?the?manner?in?which?compensation?therefor?is?to?be?determined?and?given;?and??(b)? secures?to?any?person?claiming?an?interest?in?or?right?over?such?property?a?right?of?access?to?a?court?for?the?purpose?of??(i)? establishing?such?interest?or?right?(if?any);??(ii)? determining?the?compensation?(if?any)?to?which?he?is?entitled;?and??? (iii)? enforcing?his?right?to?any?such?compensation??? (3)?Nothing?in?this?section?shall?be?construed?as?affecting?the?making?or?operation?of?any?law?so?far?as?it?(a)?makes?such?provisions?as?are?reasonably?required?for?the?protection?of?the?environment;?...? SECTION 19 (l)? If?any?person?alleges?that?any?of?the?provisions?of?this?Chapter?has?been,?is?being?or?is?likely?to?be?contravened?in?relation?to?him,?then,?without?prejudice?to?any?other?action?with?respect?to?the?same?matter?which?is?lawfully?available,?that?person?may?apply?to?the?Supreme?Court?for?redress.??(2)?Any?person?authorized?by?law,?or,?with?the?leave?of?the?Court,?a?public?or?civic?organization,?may?initiate?an?application?to?the?Supreme?Court?on?behalf?of?persons?who?are?entitled?to?apply?under?subsection?(1)?for?a?declaration?that?any?legislative?or?executive?act?contravenes?the?provisions?of?this?Chapter.??(3)? The?Supreme?Court?shall?have?original?jurisdiction?to?hear?and?determine?any?application?made?by?any?person?in?pursuance?of?subsection?(1)?of?this?section?and?may?make?such?orders,?issue?such?writs?and?give?such?directions?as?it?may?consider?appropriate?for?the?purpose?of?enforcing,?or?securing?the?enforcement?of,?any?of?the?provisions?of?this?Chapter?to?the?protection?of?which?the?person?concerned?is?entitled.??(4)?Where?any?application?is?made?for?redress?under?this?Chapter,?the?Supreme?Court?may?decline?to?exercise?its?powers?and?may?remit?the?matter?to?the?appropriate?court,?tribunal?or?authority?if?it?is?satisfied?that?adequate?means?of?redress?for?the?contravention?alleged?are?available?to?the?person?concerned?under?any?other?law.??(5)?Any?person?aggrieved?by?any?determination?of?the?Supreme?Court?under?this?section?may?appeal?therefrom?to?the?Court?of?Appeal.??(6)? Parliament?may?make?provision?or?authorize?the?making?of?provision?with?respect?to?the?practice?and?procedure?of?any?court?for?the?purposes?of?this?section?and?may?confer?upon?that?court?such?powers,?or?may?authorize?the?conferment?thereon?of?such?powers,?in?addition?to?those?conferred?by?this?section,?as?may?appear?to?be?necessary?or?desirable?for?the?purpose?of?enabling?that?court?more?effectively?to?exercise?the?jurisdiction?conferred?upon?it?by?this?section.?? 153? UBC Press 2012 154Source: http://www.japarliament.gov.jm/attachments/339_The%20Charter%20of%20Fundamental %20Rights%20and%20Freedoms%20%28Constitutional%20Amendment%29%20Act,%202011.pdf ? UBC Press 2012K ed) azakhstan (1995,?as?amendSection?II:?Man?and?Citizen??ARTICLE 13  2.? Everyone?shall?have?the?right?to?judicial?defence?of?his?rights?and?freedoms.??3.? Everyone?shall?have?the?right?to?qualified?legal?assistance.?In?cases?stipulated?by?law,?legal?assistance?shall?be?provided?free?of?charge.?? ARTICLE 31 1.? The?State?shall?set?objectives?to?protect?the?environment?favorable?for?the?life?and?health?of?the?people.??2.? Officials?shall?be?held?accountable,?in?accordance?with?law,?for?the?concealment?of?facts?and?circumstances?endangering?the?life?and?health?of?the?people.? ARTICLE 38 Citizens?of?the?Republic?of?Kazakhstan?must?preserve?nature?and?protect?natural?resources.?Source: http://www.eicee.org/pix/pdf/kazakhstan.pdf  155? UBC Press 2012Ke 0) nya (201Preamble??We,?the?people?of?Kenya??...?RESPECTFUL?of?the?environment,?which?is?our?heritage,?and?determined?to?sustain?it?for? ations;?...?the?benefit?of?future?generChapter?2:?The?Republic?ARTICLE 10  (2)? The?national?values?and?principles?of?governance?include????(d)?sustainable?developmeChapter?4:?The?Bill?of?Rights?nt.??Part?1:?General?Provisions?Relating?to?the?Bill?of?Rights??ARTICLE 19  (1)? The?Bill?of?Rights?is?an?integral?part?of?Kenya?s?democratic?state?and?is?the?framework?for?social,?economic?and?cultural?policies.??(2)? The?purpose?of?recognising?and?protecting?human?rights?and?fundamental?freedoms?is?to?preserve?the?dignity?of?individuals?and?communities?and?to?promote?social?justice?and?the?realisation?of?the?potential?of?all?human?beings.??(3)? The?rights?and?fundamental?freedoms?in?the?Bill?of?Rights???(a)? belong?to?each?individual?and?are?not?granted?by?the?State;??(b)?do?not?exclude?other?rights?and?fundamental?freedoms?not?in?the?Bill?of?Rights?but?recognised?or?conferred?by?law,?except?to?the?extent?that?they?are?inconsistent?with?this?Chapter;?and??(c)? are?subject?only?to?the?limitations?contemplated?in?this?Constitution.?? ARTICLE 20  (1)? The?Bill?of?Rights?applies?to?all?law?and?binds?all?State?organs?and?all?persons.??(2)? Every?person?shall?enjoy?the?rights?and?fundamental?freedoms?in?the?Bill?of?Rights?to?the?greatest?extent?consistent?with?the?nature?of?the?right?or?fundamental?freedom.??(3)? In?applying?a?provision?of?the?Bill?of?Rights,?a?court?shall???(a)? develop?the?law?to?the?extent?that?it?does?not?give?effect?to?a?right?or?fundamental?freedom;?and??(b)? adopt?the?interpretation?that?most?favours?the?enforcement?of?a?right?or?fundamental?freedom.?? 156? UBC Press 2012ARTICLE 22  (1)? Every?person?has?the?right?to?institute?court?proceedings?claiming?that?a?right?or?fundamental?freedom?in?the?Bill?of?Rights?has?been?denied,?violated?or?infringed,?or?is?threatened.??(2)? In?addition?to?a?person?acting?in?their?own?interest,?court?proceedings?under?clause?(1)?may?be?instituted?by???(a)? a?person?acting?on?behalf?of?another?person?who?cannot?act?in?their?own?name;??(b)? a?person?acting?as?a?member?of,?or?in?the?interest?of,?a?group?or?class?of?persons;??(c)? a?person?acting?in?the?public?interest;?or??(d)?an?association?acting?in?the?interest?of?one?or?more?of?its?members.?? ARTICLE 24 (1)?A?right?or?fundamental?freedom?in?the?Bill?of?Rights?shall?not?be?limited?except?by?law,?and?then?only?to?the?extent?that?the?limitation?is?reasonable?and?justifiable?in?an?open?and?democratic?society?based?on?human?dignity,?equality?and?freedom,?taking?into?account?all?relevant?factors,?including???(a)? the?nature?of?the?right?or?fundamental?freedom;??(b)? the?importance?of?the?purpose?of?the?limitation;??(c)? the?nature?and?extent?of?the?limitation;??(d)? the?need?to?ensure?that?the?enjoyment?of?rights?and?fundamental??freedoms?by?any?individual?does?not?prejudice?the?rights?and?fundamental?freedoms?of?others;?and??(e)? the?relation?between?the?limitation?and?its?purpose?and?whether?there?are?less?restrictive?means?to?achieve?the?purpose.??(2)?Despite?clause?(1),?a?provision?in?legislation?limiting?a?right?or?fundamental?freedom???(a)? in?the?case?of?a?provision?enacted?or?amended?on?or?after?the?effective?date,?is?not?valid?unless?the?legislation?specifically?expresses?the?intention?to?limit?that?right?or?fundamental?freedom,?and?the?nature?and?extent?of?the?limitation;??(b)? shall?not?be?construed?as?limiting?the?right?or?fundamental?freedom?unless?the?provision?is?clear?and?specific?about?the?right?or?freedom?to?be?limited?and?the?nature?and?extent?of?the?limitation;?and??(c)? shall?not?limit?the?right?or?fundamental?freedom?so?far?as?to?derogate?from?its?core?or?essential?content.?? 157? UBC Press 2012(3)? The?State?or?a?person?seeking?to?justify?a?particular?limitation?shall?demonstrate?to?the?court,?tribunal?or?other?authority?that?the?requirements?of?this?Article?have?been?satisfied.??(4)? The?provisions?of?this?Chapter?on?equality?shall?be?qualified?to?the?extent?strictly?necessary?for?the?application?of?Muslim?law?before?the?Kadhis??courts,?to?persons?who?profess?the?Muslim?religion,?in?matters?relating?to?personal?status,?marriage,?divorce?and?inheritance.??(5)?Despite?clause?(1)?and?(2),?a?provision?in?legislation?may?limit?the?application?of?the?rights?or?fundamental?freedoms?in?the?following?provisions?to?persons?serving?in?the?Kenya?Defence?Forces?or?the?National?Police?Service???(a)?Article?31?Privacy;??(b)?Article?36?Freedom?of?association;??(c)? Article?37?Assembly,?demonstration,?picketing?and?petition;??(d)?Article?41?Labour?relations;??(e)? Article?43?Economic?and?social?rights;?and??(f)? Article?49?Rights?of?arrested?persons.?? ARTICLE 25 Despite?any?other?provision?in?this?Constitution,?the?following?rights?and?fundamental?freedoms?shall?not?be?limited???(a)? freedom?from?torture?and?cruel,?inhuman?or?degrading?treatment?or?punishment;??(b)? freedom?from?slavery?or?servitude;??(c)? the?right?to?a?fair?trial;?and??(d)? the?right?to?an?order?of?habeas?corpus.??Part?2:?Rights?and?Fundamental?Freedoms?ARTICLE 42 Every?person?has?the?right?to?a?clean?and?healthy?environment,?which?includes?the?right???(a)? to?have?the?environment?protected?for?the?benefit?of?present?and?future?generations?through?legislative?and?other?measures,?particularly?those?contemplated?in?Article?69;?and??(b)? to?have?obligations?relating?to?the?environment?fulfilled?under?Article?70.??ARTICLE 43 (1)? Every?person?has?the?right??? 158? UBC Press 2012(a)? to?the?highest?attainable?standard?of?health,?which?includes?the?right?to?health?care?services,?including?reproductive?health?care;??(b)? to?accessible?and?adequate?housing,?and?to?reasonable?standards?of?sanitation;??(c)? to?be?free?from?hunger,?and?to?have?adequate?food?of?acceptable?quality;??(d)? to?clean?and?safe?water?in?adequate?quantities;??(e)? to?social?security;?and??(f)? to?education.??(2)?A?person?shall?not?be?denied?emergency?medical?treatment.??(3)? The?State?shall?provide?appropriate?social?security?to?persons?who?are?unable?to?support?themselves?and?their?dependents.?? ARTICLE 56  The?State?shall?put?in?place?affirmative?action?programmes?designed?to?ensure?that?minorities?and?marginalised?groups??????(e)? have?reasonable?access?to?water,?health?services?and?infrastructure.? ARTICLE 58  (6)?Any?legislation?enacted?in?consequence?of?a?declaration?of?a?state?of?emergency???(a)?may?limit?a?right?or?fundamental?freedom?in?the?Bill?of?Rights?only?to?the?extent?that???? ?(i)? the?limitation?is?strictly?required?by?the?emergency;?and??(ii)? the?legislation?is?consistent?with?the?Republic?s?obligations?under?international?law?applicable?to?a?state?of?emergency;?and?(b)? shall?not?take?effect?until?it?is?published?in?the?Gazette.?? Part?5:?Kenya?National?Human?Rights?and?Equality?Commission??ARTICLE 59 (1)? There?is?established?the?Kenya?National?Human?Rights?and?Equality?Commission.????(3)? Every?person?has?the?right?to?complain?to?the?Commission,?alleging?that?a?right?or?fundamental?freedom?in?the?Bill?of?Rights?has?been?denied,?violated?or?infringed,?or?is?threatened.?? 159? UBC Press 2012Chapter?5:?Land?And?Environment??Part?1:?Land??ARTICLE 60  (1)? Land?in?Kenya?shall?be?held,?used?and?managed?in?a?manner?that?is?equitable,?efficient,?productive?and?sustainable,?and?in?accordance?with?the?following?principles???(a)? equitable?access?to?land;??(b)? security?of?land?rights;??(c)? sustainable?and?productive?management?of?land?resources;??(d)? transparent?and?cost?effective?administration?of?land;??(e)? sound?conservation?and?protection?of?ecologically?sensitive?areas;??(f)? elimination?of?gender?discrimination?in?law,?customs?and?practices?related?to?land?and?property?in?land;?and??(g)? encouragement?of?communities?to?settle?land?disputes?through?recognised?local?community?initiatives?consistent?with?this?Constitution.?? Part?2:?Environment?and?Natural?Resources??ARTICLE 69 (1)? The?State?shall???(a)? ensure?sustainable?exploitation,?utilisation,?management?and?conservation?of?the?environment?and?natural?resources,?and?ensure?the?equitable?sharing?of?the?accruing?benefits;??(b)?work?to?achieve?and?maintain?a?tree?cover?of?at?least?ten?per?cent?of?the?land?area?of?Kenya;??(c)? protect?and?enhance?intellectual?property?in,?and?indigenous?knowledge?of,?biodiversity?and?the?genetic?resources?of?the?communities;??(d)?encourage?public?participation?in?the?management,?protection?and?conservation?of?the?environment;??(e)? protect?genetic?resources?and?biological?diversity;??(f)? establish?systems?of?environmental?impact?assessment,?environmental?audit?and?monitoring?of?the?environment;??(g)? eliminate?processes?and?activities?that?are?likely?to?endanger?the?environment;?and?? 160? UBC Press 2012(h)?utilise?the?environment?and?natural?resources?for?the?benefit?of?the?people?of?Kenya.??(2)? Every?person?has?a?duty?to?cooperate?with?State?organs?and?other?persons?to?protect?and?conserve?the?environment?and?ensure?ecologically?sustainable?development?and?use?of?natural?resources.?? ARTICLE 70  (1)? If?a?person?alleges?that?a?right?to?a?clean?and?healthy?environment?recognised?and?protected?under?Article?42?has?been,?is?being?or?is?likely?to?be,?denied,?violated,?infringed?or?threatened,?the?person?may?apply?to?a?court?for?redress?in?addition?to?any?other?legal?remedies?that?are?available?in?respect?to?the?same?matter.??(2)?On?application?under?clause?(1),?the?court?may?make?any?order,?or?give?any?directions,?it?considers?appropriate???(a)? to?prevent,?stop?or?discontinue?any?act?or?omission?that?is?harmful?to?the?environment;??(b)? to?compel?any?public?officer?to?take?measures?to?prevent?or?discontinue?any?act?or?omission?that?is?harmful?to?the?environment;?or??(c)? to?provide?compensation?for?any?victim?of?a?violation?of?the?right?to?a?clean?and?healthy?environment.??(3)? For?the?purposes?of?this?Article,?an?applicant?does?not?have?to?demonstrate?that?any?person?has?incurred?loss?or?suffered?injury.?? ARTICLE 71  (1)?A?transaction?is?subject?to?ratification?by?Parliament?if?it???(a)? involves?the?grant?of?a?right?or?concession?by?or?on?behalf?of?any?person,?including?the?national?government,?to?another?person?for?the?exploitation?of?any?natural?resource?of?Kenya;?and??(b)? is?entered?into?on?or?after?the?effective?date.??(2)? Parliament?shall?enact?legislation?providing?for?the?classes?of?transactions?subject?to?ratification?under?clause?(1).?? ARTICLE 72 Par n?to?give?full?effect?provisions?of?this?Part.??liament?shall?enact?legislatioChapter?10:?The?Judiciary?Part?I:?Judicial?Authority?and?Legal?System? 161? UBC Press 2012 162ARTICLE 162 (1)? The?superior?courts?are?the?Supreme?Court,?the?Court?of?Appeal,?the?High?Court?and?the?courts?mentioned?in?clause?(2).??(2)? Parliament?shall?establish?courts?with?the?status?of?the?High?Court?to?hear?and?determine?disputes?relating?to???(a)? employment?and?labour?relations;?and??(b)? the?environment?and?Chapter?12:?Public?Finance?the?use?and?occupation?of,?and?title?to,?land.??Part?I:?Principles?and?Framework?of?Public?Finance??ARTICLE 204  (1)? There?is?established?an?Equalisation?Fund?into?which?shall?be?paid?one?half?per?cent?of?all?the?revenue?collected?by?the?national?government?each?year?calculated?on?the?basis?of?the?most?recent?audited?accounts?of?revenue?received,?as?approved?by?the?National?Assembly.??(2)? The?national?government?shall?use?the?Equalisation?Fund?only?to?provide?basic?services?including?water,?roads,?health?facilities?and?electricity?to?marginalised?areas?to?the?extent?necessary?to?bring?the?quality?of?those?services?in?those?areas?to?the?by?sible.??the?rest?of?the?nation,?so?far?as?posChapter?17:?General?Provisions?ARTICLE 258  (1)? Every?person?has?the?right?to?institute?court?proceedings,?claiming?that?this?Constitution?has?been?contravened,?or?is?threatened?with?contravention.??(2)? In?addition?to?a?person?acting?in?their?own?interest,?court?proceedings?under?clause?(1)?may?be?instituted?by???(a)? a?person?acting?on?behalf?of?another?person?who?cannot?act?in?their?own?name;??(b)? a?person?acting?as?a?member?of,?or?in?the?interest?of,?a?group?or?class?of?persons;??(c)? a?person?acting?in?the?public?interest;?or??(d)?an?association?acting?in?the?interest?of?one?or?more?of?its?members.??Source: www.coekenya.go.ke/images/stories/Resources/the_proposed_constitution_of_ kenya.pdf? UBC Press 2012Kuwait (1962) Part?II:?Fundamental?Constitutents?of?the?Kuwaiti?Society?ARTICLE 21. NATURAL RESOURCES Natural?resources?and?all?revenues?there?from?are?the?property?of?the?State.?It?shall?ensure?their?preservation?and?proper?exploitation?due?regard?being?given?to?the?r ?security?and?the?national?economy.?equirements?of?StatePart?IV:?Powers?Chapter?V:?The?Judicial?Power?ARTICLE 166. RECOURSE TO THE COURTS The?right?of?recourse?to?the?Courts?is?guaranteed?to?all?people.?Law?prescribes?the?procedure?and?manner?necessary?for?the?exercise?of?this?right.? ARTICLE 173. CONSTITUTIONAL REVIEW (1)? The?law?specifies?the?judicial?body?competent?to?deciding?disputes?relating?to?the?constitutionality?of?laws?and?regulations?and?determines?its?jurisdiction?and?procedure.?(2)? The?law?ensures?the?right?of?both?the?Government?and?the?interested?parties?to?challenge?the?constitutionality?of?laws?and?regulations?before?the?said?body.?(3)? If?the?said?body?decides?that?a?law?or?a?regulation?is?unconstitutional,?it?is?considered?null?and?void.?Source: http://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/ku00000_.html  163? UBC Press 2012rgyzstan (1993) Chapter?I:?The?Kyrghyz?Republic?KySection?1:?General?Principles?ARTICLE 4(5) The?land,?its?underlying?resources,?airspace,?water?bodies,?forests,?flora?and?fauna,?and?other?natural?resources?shall?be?the?property?of?the?Kyrgyz?Republic,?shall?be?used?as?the?basis?of?life?and?activity?of?the?people?of?Kyrgyzstan?and?shall?enjoy?special?protection?from?the?State.?Chapter?II:?Citizens?Section?2:?The?Rights?and?Freedoms?of?the?Individual?ARTICLE 15 1.? Dignity?of?an?individual?in?the?Kyrghyz?Republic?shall?be?absolute?and?inviolable.?2.? The?basic?human?rights?and?freedoms?shall?belong?to?every?person?from?birth.?They?shall?be?recognized?as?absolute,?inalienable?and?protected?by?law?and?the?courts?from?infringement?by?any?other?person.?3.? All?persons?in?the?Kyrghyz?Republic?are?equal?before?law?and?the?court.?No?person?shall?be?subject?to?any?kind?of?discrimination,?violation?of?his?rights?and?freedoms?on?the?ground?of?ethnic?origin,?sex,?race,?nationality,?language,?religion,?political?and?religious?convictions,?as?well?as?under?other?conditions?and?circumstances?of?private?or?social?nature.?4.? Human?rights?and?freedoms?are?valid?in?the?Kyrghyz?Republic.?Such?rights?shall?determine?the?meaning,?content?and?application?of?the?laws,?shall?be?respected?by?legislative?and?executive?branches?and?local?self?government,?and?shall?be?guaranteed?by?the?judicial?system.? ARTICLE 17 1.? In?the?Kyrghyz?Republic?no?laws?shall?be?enacted?which?abolish?or?infringe?on?human?rights?and?freedoms.?2.? Restrictions?on?the?exercise?of?rights?and?freedoms?shall?be?allowed?by?the?Constitution?and?laws?of?the?Kyrghyz?Republic?only?for?the?purposes?of?guaranteeing?rights?and?freedoms?of?other?persons?providing?public?safety?and?constitutional?order.?In?such?cases,?the?essence?of?the?constitutional?rights?and?freedoms?shall?not?be?effected.? 164? UBC Press 2012Chapter?2:?Citizens?Section?3:?The?Rights?and?Duties?of?a?Citizen?ARTICLE 35  1.? Citizens?of?the?Kyrgyz?Republic?shall?have?the?right?to?a?healthy,?safe?environment?and?to?compensation?for?damage?caused?to?one?s?health?or?property?by?activities?involving?the?exploitation?of?natural?assets.?? ARTICLE 38 1.? It?is?the?duty?of?the?state?and?all?its?bodies?and?officials?to?provide?for?full,?absolute?and?immediate?protection?of?the?rights?and?freedoms?of?citizens,?to?prevent?the?infringement?of?rights?in?this?sphere?and?to?restore?the?violated?provision.?2.? The?Kyrghyz?Republic?shall?guarantee?judicial?defence?of?all?the?rights?and?freedoms?of?citizens?established?by?the?Constitution?and?laws.? ARTICLE 40 Every?citizen?in?the?Kyrgyz?Republic?shall?be?guaranteed?effective?legal?assistance?and?defence?of?the?rights?and?freedoms?provided?for?by?the?Constitution.?Source: (constitution) http://confinder.richmond.edu/admin/docs/kyrgyz_const.pdf; (2010 amendments in Russian) http://www.24kg.org/konstitucija2010/74533-v-kyrgyzstane-podgotovlen-okonchatelnyj-proekt.html    165? UBC Press 2012os (1991) Chapter?II:?The?Socio?Economic?System?LaARTICLE 17 All?organizations?and?citizens?must?protect?the?environment?and?natural?resources:?land,?underground,?forests,?fauna,?water?sources?and?atmosphere.??Source: http://www.un.int/lao/constitution.htm  166? UBC Press 2012tvia (1998) Chapter?VIII:?Fundamental?Human?Rights?LaARTICLE 92 Everyone?has?the?right?to?defend?his?rights?and?lawful?interests?in?a?fair?court.?Everyone?shall?be?presumed?innocent?until?his?guilt?has?been?established?in?accordance?with?law.?Everyone,?where?his?rights?are?violated?without?basis,?has?a?right?to?commensurate?compensation.?Everyone?has?a?right?to?the?assistance?of?counsel.? ARTICLE 115 The?State?shall?protect?the?right?of?everyone?to?live?in?a?benevolent?environment?by?providing?information?about?environmental?conditions?and?by?promoting?the?preservation?and?improvement?of?the?environment.? ARTICLE 116 The?rights?of?persons?set?out?in?Articles?ninety?six,?ninety?seven,?ninety?eight,?one?hundred,?one?hundred?and?two,?one?hundred?and?three,?one?hundred?and?six,?and?one?hundred?and?eight?of?the?Constitution?may?be?subject?to?restrictions?in?circumstances?provided?for?by?law?in?order?to?protect?the?rights?of?other?people,?the?democratic?structure?of?the?State,?and?public?safety,?welfare?and?morals.?On?the?basis?of?the?conditions?set?forth?in?this?Article,?restrictions?may?also?be?imposed?on?the?expression?of?religious?beliefs.?Source: http://www.satv.tiesa.gov.lv/?lang=2&mid=8  167? UBC Press 2012sotho (1993) Chapter?III:?Principles?of?State?Policy?LeARTICLE 25. APPLICATION OF THE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The?principles?contained?in?this?Chapter?shall?form?part?of?the?public?policy?of?Lesotho.?These?principles?shall?not?be?enforceable?by?any?court?but,?subject?to?the?limits?of?the?economic?capacity?and?development?of?Lesotho,?shall?guide?the?authorities?and?agencies?of?Lesotho,?and?other?public?authorities,?in?the?performance?of?their?functions?with?a?view?to?achieving?progressively,?by?legislation?or?otherwise,?the?full?realisation?of?these?principles.? ARTICLE 27. PROTECTION OF HEALTH (1)? Lesotho?shall?adopt?policies?aimed?at?ensuring?the?highest?attainable?standard?of?physical?and?mental?health?for?its?citizens,?including?policies?designed?to:?...?(b)? improve?environmental?and?industrial?hygiene? ARTICLE 36. PROTECTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT  Lesotho?shall?adopt?policies?designed?to?protect?and?enhance?the?natural?and?cultural?environment?of?Lesotho?for?the?benefit?of?both?present?and?future?generations?and?shall?endeavour?to?assure?to?all?citizens?a?sound?and?safe?environment?adequate?for?their?health?and?well?being.?Source: http://www.chr.up.ac.za/index.php/documents-by-country-database/lesotho.html  168? UBC Press 2012Lithuania (1992) Chapter?I:?The?State?of?Lithuania?ARTICLE 6 The?Constitution?shall?be?an?integral?and?directly?applicable?act.?Eve ?ryone?may?defend?his?rights?by?invoking?the?Constitution.Chapter?II:?The?Human?Being?and?the?State?ARTICLE 30 The?person?whose?constitutional?rights?or?freedoms?are?violated?shall?have?the?right?to?apply?to?court.?Compensation?for?material?and?moral?damage?inflicted?upon?a?person?shall?be?established?by?law.?Chapter?IV:?National?Economy?and?Labour?ARTICLE 53 (1)? The?State?shall?take?care?of?people?s?health?and?shall?guarantee?medical?aid?and?services?in?the?event?of?sickness.?The?procedure?for?providing?medical?aid?to?citizens?free?of?charge?at?State?medical?facilities?shall?be?established?by?law.?(2)? The?State?shall?promote?physical?culture?of?the?society?and?shall?support?sports.?(3)? The?State?and?each?person?must?protect?the?environment?from?harmful?influences.?? ARTICLE 54 (1)?The?State?shall?take?care?of?the?protection?of?the?natural?environment,?wildlife?and?plants,?individual?objects?of?nature?and?areas?of?particular?value?and?shall?supervise?a?sustainable?use?of?natural?resources,?their?restoration?and?increase.?(2)?The?destruction?of?land?and?the?underground,?the?pollution?of?water?and?air,?radioactive?impact?on?the?environment?as?well?as?depletion?of?wildlife?and?plants?shall?be?prohibited?by?law.? Source: http://www3.lrs.lt/home/Konstitucija/Constitution.htm  169? UBC Press 2012Luxembourg (2007)  ARTICLE 11.2  The?State?guarantees?the?protection?of?the?human?and?natural?environment,?working?to?establish?a?sustainable?balance?between?nature?conservation,?especially?its?capacity?for?renewal,?and?satisfying?the?needs?of?present?and?future?generations.??It?promotes?the?protection?and?welfare?of?animals.?? ARTICLE 95.3  (1)? The?Constitutional?Court?decides?on?the?conformity?of?laws?with?the?Constitution.? ARTICLE113  Nothing?in?the?Constitution?can?be?suspended.?Source: (French) http://www.legilux.public.lu/leg/textescoordonnes/compilation/code_ administratif/VOL_1/CONST_DROITS_HOMMES.pdf  170? UBC Press 2012Macedonia (1991) Part?I:?Basic?Provisions?ARTICLE 8 The?fundamental?values?of?the?constitutional?order?of?the?Republic?of?Macedonia?are:?...??? development?based?on?proper?urban?and?rural?planning?to?promote?and?improve?social?well?being?and?protection?and?promotion?of?the?environment?and?nature?Pa f?the?Individual?and?Citizen?rt?II:?Basic?Freedoms?and?Rights?o2.?Economic,?Social?and?Cultural?Rights?ARTICLE 43 Everyone?has?the?right?to?a?healthy?environment?to?live?in.?Everyone?is?obliged?to?promote?and?protect?the?environment?and?nature.?The?Republic?provides?conditions?for?the?exercise?of?the?right?of?citizens?to?a?healthy?environment.?3.?Guarantees?of?Basic?Freedoms?and?Rights?ARTICLE 50 Every?citizen?may?invoke?the?protection?of?freedoms?and?rights?determined?by?the?Constitution?before?the?regular?courts,?as?well?as?before?the?Constitutional?Court?of?Macedonia,?through?a?procedure?based?upon?the?principles?of?priority?and?urgency.?Judicial?protection?of?the?legality?of?individual?acts?of?state?administration,?as?well?as?of?other?institutions?carrying?out?public?mandates,?is?guaranteed.?A?citizen?has?the?right?to?be?informed?on?human?rights?and?basic?freedoms?as?well?as?actively?to?contribute,?individually?or?jointly?with?others,?to?their?promotion?and?protection.? ARTICLE 54 The?freedoms?and?rights?of?the?individual?and?citizen?can?be?restricted?only?in?cases?determined?by?the?Constitution.?The?freedoms?and?rights?of?the?individual?and?citizen?can?be?restricted?during?states?of?war?or?emergency,?in?accordance?with?the?provisions?of?the?Constitution.?The?restriction?of?freedoms?and?rights?cannot?discriminate?on?grounds?of?sex,?race,?colour?of?skin,?language,?religion,?national?or?social?origin,?property?or?social?status.?The?restriction?of?freedoms?and?rights?cannot?be?applied?to?the?right?to?life,?the?interdiction?of?torture,?inhuman?and?humiliating?conduct?and?punishment,?the?legal?determination?of?punishable?offences?and?sentences,?as?well?as?to?the?freedom?of?personal?conviction,?conscience,?thought?and?religious?confession.? 171? UBC Press 20124.?Foundations?for?Economic?Relations?ARTICLE 55 The?freedom?of?the?market?and?entrepreneurship?is?guaranteed.?...?The?freedom?of?the?market?and?entrepreneurship?can?be?restricted?by?law?only?for?reasons?of?the?defence?of?the?Republic,?protection?of?nature?and?environment,?or?public?health.? ARTICLE 56 All?the?natural?resources?of?the?Republic?of?Macedonia,?the?flora?and?fauna,?the?amenities?in?common?use,?as?well?as?the?objects?and?buildings?of?particular?cultural?or?istorical?value?determined?by?law,?are?goods?of?common?interest?for?the?Republic?and?henjoy?special?protection.??Part?III:?The?Organization?of?State?Authority 1.?The?Assembly?of?the?Republic?of?Macedonia?ARTICLE 77 The?Assembly?elects?the?Public?Attorney?by?a?majority?vote?of?the?total?number?of?Representatives,?within?which?there?must?be?a?majority?of?the?votes?of?the?total?number?of?Representatives?who?belong?to?communities?not?in?the?majority?in?the?population?of?Macedonia.??The?Public?Attorney?protects?the?constitutional?and?legal?rights?of?citizens?when?these?are?violated?by?bodies?of?state?administration?and?by?other?bodies?and?organizations?with?public?mandates.?The?Public?Attorney?shall?give?particular?attention?to?safeguarding?the?principles?of?non?discrimination?and?equitable?representation?of?communities?in?public?bodies?at?all?levels?and?in?other?areas?of?public?life.?The?Public?Attorney?is?elected?for?a?term?of?eight?years,?with?the?right?to?one?reelection.?The?conditions?for?election?and?dismissal,?the?sphere?of?competence?and?the?mode?of?work?of?the?Public?Attorney?are?regulated?by?law.?Source: http://www.sobranie.mk/en/default.asp?vidi=ustav   172? UBC Press 2012Madagascar, Republic of (1998)5 Preamble?...?Aware,?in?the?name?of?humanism,?of?the?necessity?to?reconcile?Man?as?much?with?his?creator?and?his?kin?as?with?nature?and?its?environment,?as?well?as?of?the?exceptional?importance?of?the?richness?and?the?plant,?animal,?and?mineral?resources?unique?to?it,?which?nature?has?endowed?Madagascar?with?and?that?it?is?important?to?preserve?for?future?generations;?...?Title?II:?Freedoms,?Rights,?and?Duties?of?Citizens?Section?I:?Civil?and?Political?Rights?and?Duties?ARTICLE 13  (6)? The?law?shall?assure?everyone?access?to?justice;?lack?of?resources?will?not?be?an?obstacle.?Section?II:?Economic,?Social,?and?Cultural?Rights?and?Duties?ARTICLE 35 The?Fokonolona?may?take?appropriate?measures?to?prevent?destruction?of?their?environment,?loss?of?their?land,?seizure?of?herds?of?cattle,?or?loss?of?their?ceremonial?heritage,?unless?these?measures?jeopardize?the?common?interest?or?public?order.?The?coverage?and?terms?of?these?provisions?shall?be?determined?by?law.??ARTICLE 37 The?State?guarantees?the?freedom?of?enterprise?within?the?limits?of?respect?for?the?general?interest,?the?public?order?and?the?environment.? ARTICLE 39 Everyone?shall?have?the?duty?to?respect?cultural?values,?the?public?good,?and?the?environment.?The?State?shall,?with?the?participation?of?the?autonomous?provinces,?assure?the?protection,?conservation,?and?improvement?of?the?environment?through?appropriate?means.?Source: http://www.servat.unibe.ch/law/icl/ma00000_.html; (French, including minor revisions from 2007) http://www.primature.gov.mg/webfiles/Projet-Rev-Constitution.pdf                                                   5?A?new?constitution?was?adopted?by?Madagascar?in?2010.?Minor?revisions?to?these?articles?may?be?viewed?in?French?at?http://aceproject.org/ero?en/regions/africa/MG/madagascar?2010?constitution?2011?french/view.? 173? UBC Press 2012Malawi (1994) Chapter?III:?Fundamental?Principles?ARTICLE 13 The?State?shall?actively?promote?the?welfare?and?development?of?the?people?of?Malawi?by?progressively?adopting?and?implementing?policies?and?legislation?aimed?at?achieving?the?following?goals??...?(d)?The?Environment??To?manage?the?environment?responsibly?in?order?to??i.? ?prevent?the?degradation?of?the?environment;?ii.? ?provide?a?healthy?living?and?working?environment?for?the?people?of?Malawi;?iii.??accord?full?recognition?to?the?rights?of?future?generations?by?means?of?environmental?protection?and?the?sustainable?development?of?natural?resources;?and?iv.??conserve?and?enhance?the?biological?diversity?of?Malawi.? ARTICLE 14 The?principles?of?national?policy?contained?in?this?Chapter?shall?be?directory?in?nature?but?courts?shall?be?entitled?to?have?regard?to?them?in?interpreting?and?applying?any?of?the?provisions?of?this?Constitution?or?of?any?law?or?in?determining?the?validity?of?dec ?the?interpretation?of?the?provisions?of?this?Constitution.?isions?of?the?executive?and?inChapter?IV:?Human?Rights?ARTICLE 15 1.? The?human?rights?and?freedoms?enshrined?in?this?Chapter?shall?be?respected?and?upheld?by?the?executive,?legislature?and?judiciary?and?all?organs?of?the?Government?and?its?agencies?and,?where?applicable?to?them,?by?all?natural?and?legal?persons?in?Malawi?and?shall?be?enforceable?in?the?manner?prescribed?in?this?Chapter.?2.? Any?person?or?group?of?persons?with?sufficient?interest?in?the?protection?and?enforcement?of?rights?under?this?Chapter?shall?be?entitled?to?the?assistance?of?the?courts,?the?Ombudsman,?the?Human?Rights?Commission?and?other?organs?of?Government?to?ensure?the?promotion,?protection?and?redress?of?grievance?in?respect?of?those?rights.? ARTICLE 41 1.? Every?person?shall?have?a?right?to?recognition?as?a?person?before?the?law.??2.? Every?person?shall?have?access?to?any?court?of?law?or?any?other?tribunal?with?jurisdiction?for?final?settlement?of?legal?issues.? 174? UBC Press 20123.? Every?person?shall?have?the?right?to?an?effective?remedy?by?a?court?of?law?or?tribunal?for?acts?violating?the?rights?and?freedoms?granted?to?him?by?this?Constitution?or?any?other?law.? ARTICLE 43 Every?person?shall?have?the?right?to:?a)? lawful?and?procedurally?fair?administrative?action,?which?is?justifiable?in?relation?to?reasons?given?where?his?or?her?rights,?freedoms,?legitimate?expectations?or?interests?are?affected?or?threatened;?and?b)? be?furnished?with?reasons?in?writing?for?administrative?action?where?his?or?her?rights,?freedoms,?legitimate?expectations?or?interests?if?those?interests?are?known.? ARTICLE 44  1.? There?shall?be?no?derogation,?restrictions?or?limitation?with?regard?to:?a)? the?right?to?life;???2.? Without?prejudice?to?subsection?(1),?no?restrictions?or?limitations?may?be?placed?on?the?exercise?of?any?rights?and?freedoms?provided?for?in?this?Constitution?other?than?those?prescribed?by?law,?which?are?reasonable,?recognized?by?international?human?rights?standards?and?necessary?in?an?open?and?democratic?society.?3.? Laws?prescribing?restrictions?or?limitations?shall?not?negate?the?essential?content?of?the?right?or?freedom?in?question,?shall?be?of?general?application? ARTICLE 46  1.? Save?in?so?far?as?it?may?be?authorized?to?do?so?by?this?Constitution,?the?National?Assembly?or?any?subordinate?legislative?authority?shall?not?make?any?law,?and?the?executive?and?the?agencies?of?Government?shall?not?take?any?action?which?abolishes?or?abridges?the?fundamental?rights?and?freedoms?conferred?by?this?Chapter,?and?any?law?or?action?in?contravention?thereof?shall,?to?the?extent?of?the?contravention,?be?invalid.?2.? Any?person?who?claims?that?a?fundamental?right?or?freedom?guaranteed?by?this?Constitution?has?been?infringed?or?threatened?shall?be?entitled:?a)? to?make?application?to?a?competent?court?to?enforce?or?protect?such?a?right?or?freedom;?and?b)? to?make?application?to?the?Ombudsman?or?the?Human?Rights?Commission?in?order?to?secure?such?assistance?or?advice?as?he?or?she?may?reasonably?require.?3.? Where?a?court?referred?to?in?subsection?(2)(a)?finds?that?rights?or?freedoms?conferred?by?this?Constitution?have?been?unlawfully?denied?or?violated,?it?shall?have?the?power?to?make?any?orders?that?are?necessary?and?appropriate?to?secure?the?enjoyment?of? 175? UBC Press 2012those?rights?and?freedoms?and?where?a?court?finds?that?a?threat?exists?to?such?rights?or?freedoms,?it?shall?have?the?power?to?make?any?orders?necessary?and?appropriate?to?prevent?those?rights?and?freedoms?from?being?unlawfully?denied?or?violated.?4.? A?court?referred?to?in?subsection?(2)(a)?shall?have?the?power?to?award?compensation?to?any?person?whose?rights?or?freedoms?have?been?unlawfully?denied?or?violated?where?it?considers?it?to?be?appropriate?in?the?circumstances?of?a?particular?case.?5.? The?law?shall?prescribe?criminal?penalties?for?violations?of?those?non?derogable?rights?listed?in?subsection?44(1).?Chapter?XI:?Human?Rights?Commission?ARTICLE 129 There?shall?be?a?Human?Rights?Commission,?the?primary?functions?of?which?shall?be?the?protection?and?investigation?of?violations?of?the?rights?accorded?by?this?Constitution?or?any?other?law.? ARTICLE 130 The?Human?Rights?Commission?shall,?with?respect?to?the?applications?of?an?individual?or?class?of?persons,?or?on?its?own?motion,?have?such?powers?of?investigation?and?recommendation?as?are?reasonably?necessary?for?the?effective?promotion?of?the?rights?conferred?by?or?under?this?Constitution,?but?shall?not?exercise?a?judicial?or?legislative?function?and?shall?not?be?given?powers?so?to?do.?Source: http://www.sdnp.org.mw/constitut/dtlindx.html  176? UBC Press 2012Maldives (2008) Chapter?I:?State,?Sovereignty,?and?Citizens?ARTICLE 9. CITIZENS (a)? The?following?persons?are?citizens?of?the?Maldives:?1.? citizens?of?the?Maldives?at?the?commencement?of?this?Constitution;?2.? children?born?to?a?citizen?of?the?Maldives;?and?3.? foreigners?who,?in?accordance?with?the?law,?become?citizens?of?the?Maldives.?(b)?No?citizen?of?the?Maldives?may?be?deprived?of?citizenship.?(c)? Any?person?who?wishes?to?relinquish?his?citizenship?may?do?so?in?accordance?with?law.?(d)?Despite?the?provisions?of?article?(a)?a?non?Muslim?may?not?become?a?citizen?of?the?Maldives.?Chapter?II:?Fundamental?Rights?and?Freedoms?ARTICLE 16?(a)? This?Constitution?guarantees?to?all?persons,?in?a?manner?that?is?not?contrary?to?any?tenet?of?Islam,?the?rights?and?freedoms?contained?within?this?Chapter,?subject?only?to?such?reasonable?limits?prescribed?by?a?law?enacted?by?the?People?s?Majlis?in?a?manner?that?is?not?contrary?to?this?Constitution.?Any?such?law?enacted?by?the?People?s?Majlis?can?limit?the?rights?and?freedoms?to?any?extent?only?if?demonstrably?justified?in?a?free?and?democratic?society.?(b)?The?limitation?of?a?right?or?freedom?specified?in?this?Chapter?by?a?law?enacted?by?the?People?s?Majlis?as?provided?for?in?this?Constitution,?and?in?order?to?protect?and?maintain?the?tenets?of?Islam,?shall?not?be?contrary?to?article?(a).?(c)? In?deciding?whether?a?right?or?freedom?in?this?Chapter,?has?been?limited?in?accordance?with?article?(a)?and?(b),?a?court?must?be?fully?cognisant?of?and?make?reference?to?all?the?facts,?including:?1.? the?nature?and?character?of?the?right?or?freedom;?2.? the?purpose?and?importance?of?limiting?the?right?or?freedom;?3.? the?extent?and?manner?of?limiting?the?right?or?freedom;?4.? the?relationship?between?the?limitation?of?the?right?or?freedom?and?the?importance?of?the?right?or?freedom;?5.? the?extent?to?which?the?objective?for?which?the?right?or?freedom?has?been?limited?could?have?been?achieved?by?limiting?the?right?or?freedom?to?a?lesser?degree;?6.? the?extent?to?which?the?right?or?freedom?must?be?limited?in?order?to? 177? UBC Press 2012protect?the?tenets?of?Islam,?where?the?right?or?freedom?has?been?limited?pursuant?to?article?(b).?(d)?The?onus?of?establishing?that?the?limitation?to?any?extent,?of?a?right?or?freedom?included?in?this?Chapter?is?within?the?reasonable?limitations?prescribed?in?this?Constitution?is?on?the?State?or?the?person?asserting?the?limitation?of?the?right?or?freedom.? ARTICLE 22. PROTECTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT The?State?has?a?fundamental?duty?to?protect?and?preserve?the?natural?environment,?biodiversity,?resources?and?beauty?of?the?country?for?the?benefit?of?present?and?future?generations.?The?State?shall?undertake?and?promote?desirable?economic?and?social?goals?through?ecologically?balanced?sustainable?development?and?shall?take?measures?necessary?to?foster?conservation,?prevent?pollution,?the?extinction?of?any?species?and?ecological?degradation?from?any?such?goals.? ARTICLE 23. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL RIGHTS Every?citizen?has?the?following?rights?pursuant?to?this?Constitution,?and?the?State?undertakes?to?achieve?the?progressive?realisation?of?these?rights?by?reasonable?measures?within?its?ability?and?resources:?(a)? adequate?and?nutritious?food?and?clean?water;?(b)? clothing?and?housing;?(c)? good?standards?of?health?care,?physical?and?mental;?(d)?a?healthy?and?ecologically?balanced?environment;?(e)? equal?access?to?means?of?communication,?the?State?media,?transportation?facilities,?and?the?natural?resources?of?the?country;?(f)? the?establishment?of?a?sewage?system?of?a?reasonably?adequate?standard?on?every?inhabited?island;?(g)? the?establishment?of?an?electricity?system?of?a?reasonably?adequate?standard?on?every?inhabited?island?that?is?commensurate?to?that?island.?ARTICLE 43  (a)? Everyone?has?the?right?to?administrative?action?that?is?lawful,?procedurally?fair,?and?expeditious.?(b)?Everyone?whose?rights?have?been?adversely?affected?by?administrative?action?has?the?right?to?be?given?written?reasons.?(c)?Where?the?rights?of?a?person,?a?group?or?community?has?been?adversely?affected?by?administrative?action,?every?such?person,?group?or?every?person?who?may?be?directly?affected?by?such?action?has?the?right?to?submit?the?matter?to?court.?  178? UBC Press 2012ARTICLE 65. APPLICATION TO COURT TO OBTAIN A REMEDY Anyone?whose?rights?or?freedoms,?as?guaranteed?by?this?Chapter,?have?been?infringed?or?denied?may?apply?to?a?court?to?obtain?a?just?remedy.? ARTICLE 67. RESPONSIBILITIES AND DUTIES The?exercise?and?enjoyment?of?fundamental?rights?and?freedoms?is?inseparable?from?the?performance?of?responsibilities?and?duties,?and?it?is?the?responsibility?of?every?citizen:?...?(h)? to?preserve?and?protect?the?natural?environment,?biodiversity,?resources?and?beauty?of?the?country?and?to?abstain?from?all?forms?of?pollution?and?ecological?degradation;????ARTICLE 68 When?interpreting?and?applying?the?rights?and?freedoms?contained?within?this?Chapter,?a?court?or?tribunal?shall?promote?the?values?that?underlie?an?open?and?democratic?society?based?on?human?dignity,?equality?and?freedom,?and?shall?consider?international?treaties?to?which?the?Maldives?is?a?party.? ARTICLE 189 (a)? There?shall?be?a?Human?Rights?Commission?of?the?Maldives.?(b)?The?Human?Rights?Commission?is?an?independent?and?impartial?institution.?It?shall?promote?respect?for?human?rights?impartially?without?favour?and?prejudice.?(c)? The?Human?Rights?Commission?shall?function?as?provided?by?the?statute?governing?the?Human?Rights?Commission.?Such?statute?shall?specify?the?responsibilities,?powers,?mandate,?qualifications,?and?ethical?standards?of?members.? ARTICLE 192  (a)? The?Human?Rights?Commission?s?responsibilities?and?powers?shall?include?the?following:?1.? to?promote?respect?for?human?rights;?2.? to?promote?the?protection,?development?and?attainment?of?human?rights;?3.? to?monitor?and?assess?the?observance?of?human?rights.?(b)?The?Human?Rights?Commission?shall?have?the?following?functions?and?powers,?as?regulated?by?law:?1.? to?investigate?and?to?report?on?the?observance?of?human?rights;?2.? to?take?steps?to?secure?appropriate?redress?where?human?rights?have?been?violated;?3.? to?carry?out?research,?and?to?educate?the?public;?4.? to?exercise?such?additional?powers?and?functions?prescribed?by?law.? 179? UBC Press 2012Chapter?XI:?State?of?Emergency?ARTICLE 253 In?the?event?of?natural?disaster,?dangerous?epidemic?disease,?war,?threat?to?national?security,?or?threatened?foreign?aggression,?the?President?may?declare?a?state?of?emergency?in?all?or?part?of?the?country?for?a?period?not?exceeding?thirty?days.? ARTICLE 254 The?declaration?of?a?state?of?emergency?shall?specify?the?reasons?for?the?declaration?of?an?emergency,?and?include?measures?to?deal?with?the?emergency,?which?may?include?the?temporary?suspension?of?the?operation?of?laws?and?infringement?of?certain?fundamental?rights?and?freedoms?guaranteed?by?this?Constitution?in?Chapter?2.? ARTICLE 255 (a)?Measures?adopted?in?an?emergency?shall?not?contravene?this?Article.?(b)?Measures?adopted?in?an?emergency?shall?not?restrict?the?following?rights?and?freedoms?contained?in?the?following?Articles?of?this?Constitution:?1.? Article?21?(right?to?life);?2.? Article?25?(no?slavery?or?forced?labour);?3.? Article?27?(freedom?of?expression);?4.? Article?28?(freedom?of?the?media);?5.? Article?42?(fair?and?transparent?hearings);?6.? Article?48?(b)?(rights?on?arrest?or?detention);?7.? Article?51?(rights?of?the?accused);?8.? Article?52?(confessions?and?illegal?evidence);?9.? Article?53?(assistance?of?legal?counsel);?10.?Article?54?(no?degrading?treatment?or?torture);?11.?Article?55?(no?imprisonment?for?nonfulfilment?of?contractual?obligation);?12.?Article?57?(humane?treatment?of?arrested?or?detained?persons);?13.?Article?59?(retrospective?legislation);?14.?Article?60?(prohibition?of?double?jeopardy);?15.?Article?62?(retention?of?other?rights);?16.?Article?64?(non?compliance?with?unlawful?orders).?? 180? UBC Press 2012(c)? Any?infringement?of?rights?and?freedoms?under?this?Constitution?and?the?law?shall?be?only?to?the?extent?strictly?required?by?the?emergency.?(d)?Measures?adopted?in?an?emergency?shall?be?consistent?with?the?obligations?of?the?Maldives?under?international?law?applicable?to?states?of?emergency.?Source: http://www.maldivesinfo.gov.mv/home/upload/downloads/Compilation.pdf  181? UBC Press 2012Ma  li (1992)Preamble?The?Sovereign?people?of?Mali?...?undertake?to?assure?the?amelioration?of?the?quality?of?life,?the?protection?of?the?environment?and?cultural?heritage?...?Title?I:?The?Rights?and?Duties?of?the?Human?Person?ARTICLE 15  Every?person?has?the?right?to?a?healthy?environment.?The?protection,?defense?and?promotion?of?the?environment?are?an?obligation?for?all?and?for?the?State.?Title?VI:?Interaction?Between?the?Cabinet?and?National?Assembly?ARTICLE 70  ??Law?shall?establish?regulations?concerning:???? civic?rights?and?fundamental?guaranties?provided?to?citizens?so?they?may?exercise?their?public?liberties,?constraints?imposed?by?the?n?themselves?and?their?possessions;?National?Defense?oTitle?VII:?The?Judiciary?ARTICLE 81 The?judicial?power?is?independent?of?the?executive?and?legislative?powers.?It?shall?be?exercised?by?the?Supreme?Court?and?the?other?Courts?and?Tribunals.?The?power?of?the?judiciary?is?the?guardian?of?the?liberties?defined?by?this?Constitution.?I y?this?Constitution.?t?guards?the?rights?and?liberties?defined?bTitle?IX:?The?Constitutional?Court?ARTICLE 85 The?Constitutional?Court?is?the?judge?of?the?constitutionality?of?the?laws?and?it?shall?guarantee?the?fundamental?laws?of?the?individual?and?public?liberties.?It?is?the?regulating?body?of?the?functioning?of?the?institutions?and?the?activity?of?the?Public?Powers.?Source: http://confinder.richmond.edu/admin/docs/Mali.pdf  182? UBC Press 2012Malta (1964)  Chapter?2:?Declaration?of?Principles?SECTION 9. [ENVIRONMENT, HISTORY, ARTS] The?State?shall?safeguard?the?landscape?and?the?historical?and?artistic?patrimony?of?the?Nation.??SECTION 21. [APPLICATION OF THE PRINCIPLES CONTAINED IN THIS CHAPTER]  The?provisions?of?this?Chapter?shall?not?be?enforceable?in?any?court,?but?the?principles?therein?contained?are?nevertheless?fundamental?to?the?governance?of?the?country?and?it?shall?be?the?aim?of?the?State?to?apply?these?principles?in?making?laws.?Source: http://www.legal-malta.com/law/constitution.htm  183? UBC Press 2012Mauritania (1991) Preamble?With?its?spiritual?values?and?influence?of?its?civilization,?it?also?proclaims?solemnly,?his?attachment?to?Islam?and?the?principles?of?democracy?as?they?have?been?defined?by?the?Universal?Declaration?of?Human?Rights?of?10?December?1948?and?the?African?Charter?on?Human?and?Peoples?Rights?of?28?June?1981?and?in?other?international?conventions?to?which?Mauritania?has?signed.??Source: http://www.chr.up.ac.za/index.php/documents-by-country-database/mauritania.html  184? UBC Press 2012M 992,?amended?in?1999) exico (1First?Title?Chapter?1:?Individual?Guarantees?ARTICLE 4  ...?Every?person?has?the?right?to?live?in?an?environment?adequate?for?his?development?and?wellbeing.?...?[Added?to?Article?4?on?28?June,?1999]? ARTICLE 17 No?person?may?take?the?law?into?his?or?her?own?hands?or?resort?to?violence?in?the?enforcement?of?his?or?her?rights.?Every?person?has?the?right?to?have?quick,?complete?and?impartial?justice?by?courts,?which?shall?be?open?for?the?administration?of?justice?at?such?times?and?under?such?conditions?as?established?by?law.?The?courts??services?shall?be?gratuitous?and?all?judicial?costs?are,?therefore,?prohibited.?  ARTICLE 25 The?State?is?responsible?for?the?direction?of?the?national?development,?and?ensuring?that?it?is?complete?and?sustainable?...?Economic?enterprises?of?the?social?and?economic?sectors?will?be?supported?and?encouraged?under?criteria?of?social?equality?and?productivity,?subject?to?the?methods?dictated?by?the?public?interest?and?the?use?to?the?general?benefit,?of?all?productive?resources?ensuring?both?their?conservation?and?the?environment.?[Amended?in?1999]? ARTICLE 27 The?Nation?shall?at?all?times?have?the?right?to?impose?on?private?property?such?limitations?as?the?public?interest?may?demand,?as?well?as?the?right?to?regulate?the?utilization?of?natural?resources?which?are?susceptible?of?appropriation,?in?order?to?ensure?a?more?equitable?distribution?of?public?wealth,?look?after?their?conservation,?achieve?a?more?balanced?development?of?the?country?and?improvement?of?life?for?the?rural?and?urban?populations.?Consequently,?necessary?measures?shall?be?taken?to?organize?human?settlements?and?establish?adequate?provisions,?uses,?reserves,?and?end?uses?of?lands,?waters,?and?forests?with?the?purpose?of?carrying?out?public?works?and?planning?and?regulating?their?construction,?conservation,?improvement,?and?growth?of?centers?of?population;?to?preserve?and?restore?ecological?balance;?to?divide?up?large?estates;?to?manage,?consistent?with?the?terms?of?the?applicable?regulations?and?law,?the?organization?and?collective?functioning?of?common?public?lands?and?communities;?to?secure?the?development?of?small?rural?property;?to?encourage?agriculture,?ranching,?forestry,?and?various?economic?activities?in?the?rural?setting;?and?to?prevent?the?destruction?of?natural?resources,?and?to?protect?property?from?damage?to?the?detriment?of?society.?? 185? UBC Press 2012Third?Title?Chapter?IV:?Judicial?Power?ARTICLE 102  B.? The?Congress?of?the?Union?and?the?legislatures?of?the?federal?entities,?within?the?ambit?of?their?respective?competences,?shall?establish?organs?to?safeguard?the?human?rights?guaranteed?by?the?Mexican?juridical?order,?which?shall?acquaint?themselves?with?all?complaints?against?the?acts?or?omissions?of?an?administrative?nature?committed?by?any?public?authority?or?official,?with?the?exception?of?those?of?the?Judicial?Power?of?the?Federation,?that?violate?these?rights.?The?organs?referred?to?in?the?preceding?paragraph?shall?formulate?non?binding?public?recommendations?and?denunciations?and?complaints?before?the?respective?authorities.??These?organs?shall?not?be?competent?in?any?electoral,?labor,?or?jurisdictional?matters.?The?organ?to?be?established?by?the?Congress?of?the?Union?shall?be?known?as?the?National?Commission?on?Human?Rights,?which?shall?be?autonomous?in?its?management?and?budget,?juridical?personality,?and?its?possessions.?????ARTICLE 103 The?Federal?Courts?shall?resolve?all?controversies?that?arise:?I.?? From?acts?of?the?authority?that?violate?individual?guarantees.? ARTICLE 107 All?controversies?referred?to?in?Article?103?shall?be?subject?to?procedures?and?forms?of?the?juridical?order?determined?by?law,?in?accordance?with?the?following?bases:?I.??A?trial?for?judicial?relief?(amparo)?shall?always?be?held?at?the?instance?of?the?injured?party.?II.?The?judgment?shall?always?be?such?that?it?affects?only?private?individuals,?being?limited?to?affording?them?redress?and?protection?in?the?particular?case?to?which?the?complainant?refers?without?making?any?general?declaration?as?to?the?law?or?act?on?which?the?complaint?is?based.???Source: (Spanish) http://www.diputados.gob.mx/LeyesBiblio/pdf/1.pdf  186? UBC Press 2012Micronesia (1978) Preamble?With?this?Constitution,?we?affirm?our?common?wish?to?live?together?in?peace?and?harmony,?to?preserve?the?heritage?of?the?past,?and?to?protect?the?promise?of?the?future.??...?Our?islands?sustain?us?...?Article?XIII:?General?Provisions?SECTION 2 Radioactive,?toxic?chemical,?or?other?harmful?substances?may?not?be?tested,?stored,?used,?or?disposed?of?within?the?jurisdiction?of?the?Federated?States?of?Micronesia?without?the?express?approval?of?the?national?government?of?the?Federated?States?of?Micronesia.?Source: http://fsmlaw.org./fsm/constitution/constitution.htm  187? UBC Press 2012Mo 994) ldova (1Preamble?We,?the?Parliamentary?representatives?of?the?people?of?Moldova,???CONSCIOUS?of?our?responsibility?and?duties?towards?the?past,?present,?and?future?generations?...??Herewith?adopt?for?our?country?this?Constitution,?and?proclaim?it?to?be?the?supreme?law?of?our?society?and?state.?Tit d?Duties?le?II:?Fundamental?Rights,?Freedoms,?anChapter?II:?Fundamental?Rights?and?Freedoms?ARTICLE 20. FREE ACCESS TO JUSTICE (1)?Any?individual?person?shall?be?entitled?to?obtain?effective?reparation?from?the?part?of?competent?courts?of?law?against?actions?infringing?upon?his/her?legitimate?rights,?freedoms?and?interests.?(2)?No?law?may?restrict?the?access?to?justice.? ARTICLE 37. THE RIGHT TO LIVE IN A HEALTHY ENVIRONMENT (1)? Every?human?being?has?the?right?to?live?in?an?environment?that?is?ecologically?safe?for?life?and?health,?to?obtain?healthy?food?products?and?safe?household?goods.??(2)? The?State?guarantees?every?citizen?the?right?of?free?access?to?truthful?information?regarding?the?state?of?the?natural?environment,?the?living?and?working?conditions,?and?the?quality?of?food?products?and?household?goods.??(3)?Non?disclosure?or?falsification?of?information?regarding?factors?detrimental?to?human?health?constitute?offenses?punishable?by?law.??(4)? Private?individuals?and?legal?entities?shall?be?held?responsible?before?the?law?for?any?damages?they?may?cause?to?personal?health?and?property?due?to?an?ecological?offense.? ARTICLE 46. THE RIGHT TO PRIVATE PROPERTY AND ITS PROTECTION (5)? The?right?of?private?property?carries?with?it?the?duty?to?observe?the?rules?regarding?the?protection?of?the?environment,?the?maintenance?of?good?neighbourly?relations?and?the?observance?of?all?the?other?duties?that?have?to?be?fulfilled?by?owners?of?private?property?under?the?law.??ARTICLE 54. RESTRICTION ON THE EXERCISE OF CERTAIN RIGHTS OR FREEDOMS (1)? In?the?Republic?of?Moldova?no?law?may?be?adopted?which?might?curtail?or?restrict?the?fundamental?rights?and?liberties?of?the?person?and?citizen.?(2)? The?pursuit?of?the?rights?and?freedoms?may?not?be?subdued?to?other?restrictions?unless?for?those?provided?for?by?the?law,?which?are?in?compliance?with?the?unanimously?recognized?norms?of?the?international?law?and?are?requested?in?such? 188? UBC Press 2012cases?as:?the?defence?of?national?security,?territorial?integrity,?economic?welfare?of?the?State,?public?order,?with?the?view?to?prevent?the?mass?revolt?and?felonies,?protect?other?persons??rights,?liberties?and?dignity,?impede?the?disclosure?of?confidential?information?or?guarantee?the?power?and?impartiality?of?justice.?(3)? The?provisions?under?paragraph?(2)?shall?not?allow?the?restrictions?of?the?rights?sanctioned?in?Articles?20?24.?(4)? The?restriction?enforced?must?be?proportional?to?the?situation?that?caused?it?and?may?not?affect?the?existence?of?that?right?or?liberty.?Tit eedoms,?and?Duties?le?II:?Fundamental?Rights,?FrChapter?III:?Fundamental?Duties?ARTICLE 59. PROTECTION OF ENVIRONMENT AND PUBLIC MONUMENTS It?is?the?duty?of?every?citizen?to?protect?the?natural?environment,?and?to?preserve?and?p ments.?rotect?the?country?s?historical?and?cultural?sites?and?monuTitle?IV:?National?Economy?and?Public?Finance?ARTICLE 126. THE ECONOMY (2)? The?state?must?ensure?...?(f)? the?restoration?and?protection?of?the?environment?and?the?...?maintenance?of?ecological?balance;?Title?VI:?Revision?of?the?Constitution?ARTICLE 142. LIMITS OF REVISION (1)? The?provisions?regarding?the?sovereignty,?independence?and?unity?of?the?State,?as?well?as?those?regarding?the?permanent?neutrality?of?the?State?may?be?revised?only?by?referendum?based?on?a?majority?vote?of?the?registered?voting?citizens.?(2)?No?revision?shall?be?performed,?if?it?implies?the?infringement?of?fundamental?rights?and?freedoms?of?citizens,?or?their?guarantees.?(3)? The?Constitution?may?not?be?revised?under?a?state?of?national?emergency,?martial?law?or?war.?Source: http://confinder.richmond.edu/admin/docs/moldova3.pdf  189? UBC Press 2012Mongolia (1992) Chapter?One:?Sovereignty?of?Mongolia?ARTICLE 6  (1)? The?land,?its?subsoil,?forests,?water,?fauna,?and?flora?and?other?natural?resources?are?subject?to?national?sovereignty?and?state?protection.?...??(4)? The?State?has?the?right?to?hold?landowners?responsible?regarding?the?manner?the?land?is?used,?to?exchange?or?take?it?over?with?compensation?on?the?grounds?of?special?public?need,?or?confiscate?the?land?if?it?is?used?in?a?manner?adverse?to?the?health?of??protection,?or?national?security.?the?population,?the?interests?of?environmentalChapter?Two:?Human?Rights?and?Freedoms?ARTICLE 16 The?citizens?of?Mongolia?shall?enjoy?the?following?fundamental?rights?and?freedoms:?1)? ? The?right?to?life?...?2)? ?The?right?to?healthy?and?safe?environment?and?to?be?protected?against?environmental?pollution?and?ecological?imbalance.?...?14)?? The?right?to?appeal?to?the?court?for?protection?if?one?considers?the?rights?or?freedoms?spelt?out?by?the?Mongolian?law?or?an?international?treaty?to?have?been?violated;? ARTICLE 17  (2)? It?is?a?sacred?duty?for?every?citizen?to?work,?protect?his?or?her?health,?bring?up?and?educate?his?or?her?children?and?to?protect?nature?and?the?environment.? ARTICLE 19 (1)? The?State?is?responsible?to?the?citizens?for?the?creation?of?economic,?social,?legal,?and?other?guarantees?ensuring?human?rights?and?freedoms,?for?the?prevention?of?violations?of?human?rights?and?freedoms,?and?restoration?of?infringed?rights.?(2)? In?case?of?a?state?of?emergency?or?war,?the?human?rights?and?freedoms?as?defined?by?the?Constitution?and?other?laws?are?subject?to?limitation?only?by?a?law.?Such?a?law?may?not?affect?the?right?to?life,?the?freedom?of?thought,?conscience,?and?religion,?as?well?as?the?right?not?to?be?subjected?to?torture?or?inhuman?and?cruel?treatment.?(3)? In?exercising?one?s?rights?and?freedoms,?one?may?not?infringe?the?national?security?or?ublic?order.?rights?and?freedoms?of?others?or?violate?pChapter?Five:?The?Constitutional?Court?ARTICLE 66  (1)? The?Constitutional?Court?examines?and?settles?constitutional?disputes?at?the?request?of?the?National?Parliament,?the?President,?the?Prime?Minister,?the?Supreme?Court,? 190? UBC Press 2012and?the?Prosecutor?General,?or?on?its?own?initiative?on?the?basis?of?petitions?and?information?received?from?citizens.?Source: http://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/mg00000_.html  191? UBC Press 2012Montenegro (2007) Preamble?Stemming?from:?The?conviction?that?the?state?is?responsible?for?the?preservation?of?nature,?sound?environment,?sustainable?development,?balanced?development?of?all?its?regions?and?ice;?the?establishment?of?social?justPart?One:?Basic?Provisions?ARTICLE 16 The?law,?in?accordance?with?the?Constitution,?shall?regulate:?1)? the?manner?of?exercise?of?human?rights?and?liberties,?when?this?is?necessary?for?their?exercise;?2)? the?manner?of?exercise?of?the?special?minPa Liberties?ority?rights;???rt?Two:?Human?Rights?and?Section?1:?Common?Provisions?ARTICLE 20 Everyone?shall?have?the?right?to?legal?remedy?against?the?decision?ruling?on?the?right?or?legally?based?interest?thereof.? ARTICLE 21 Everyone?shall?have?the?right?to?legal?aid.?Legal?aid?shall?be?provided?by?the?bar,?as?an?independent?and?autonomous?profession,?and?by?other?services.?Legal?aid?may?be?provided?free?of?charge,?in?accordance?with?the?law.? ARTICLE 23 Everyone?shall?have?the?right?to?a?sound?environment.?Everyone?shall?have?the?right?to?receive?timely?and?full?information?about?the?status?of?the?environment,?to?influence?the?decision?making?regarding?the?issues?of?importance?for?the?environment,?and?to?legal?protection?of?these?rights.?Everyone,?the?state?in?particular,?shall?be?bound?to?preserve?and?improve?the?environment.?  192? UBC Press 2012ARTICLE 24 Guaranteed?human?rights?and?freedoms?may?be?limited?only?by?the?law,?within?the?scope?permitted?by?the?Constitution?and?to?such?an?extent?which?is?necessary?to?meet?the?purpose?for?which?the?limitation?is?allowed,?in?an?open?and?democratic?society.?Limitations?shall?not?be?introduced?for?other?purposes?except?for?those?for?which?they?have?been?provided?for.? ARTICLE 25 During?the?proclaimed?state?of?war?or?emergency,?the?exercise?of?certain?human?rights?and?freedoms?may?be?limited,?to?the?necessary?extent.?The?limitations?shall?not?be?introduced?on?the?grounds?of?sex,?nationality,?race,?religion,?language,?ethnic?or?social?origin,?political?or?other?beliefs,?financial?standing?or?any?other?personal?feature.?There?shall?be?no?limitations?imposed?on?the?rights?to:?life,?legal?remedy?and?legal?aid;?dignity?and?respect?of?a?person;?fair?and?public?trial?and?the?principle?of?legality;?presumption?of?innocence;?defense;?compensation?of?damage?for?illegal?or?ungrounded?deprivation?of?liberty?and?ungrounded?conviction;?freedom?of?thought,?conscience?and?religion;?entry?into?marriage.?There?shall?be?no?abolishment?of?the?prohibition?of:?inflicting?or?encouraging?hatred?or?intolerance;?discrimination;?trial?and?conviction?twice?for?one?and?the?same?criminal?offence?(ne?bis?in?idem);?forced?assimilation.?Measures?of?limitation?may?be?in?effect?at?the?most?for?the?duration?of?the?state?of?war?or?emergency.?Part?Two:?Human?Rights?and?Liberties?Section?4:?Economic,?Social,?and?Cultural?Rights?and?Liberties?ARTICLE 59 Freedom?of?entrepreneurship?shall?be?guaranteed.?Freedom?of?entrepreneurship?may?be?limited?only?if?so?necessary?in?order?to?protect?the?health?of?the?people,?environment,?natural?resources,?cultural?heritage,?or?security?and?defense?of?Montenegro.? ARTICLE 78 Everyone?shall?be?obliged?to?preserve?natural?and?cultural?heritage?of?general?interest.?T ritage.?he?state?shall?protect?the?natural?and?cultural?hePart?Two:?Human?Rights?and?Liberties?Section?6:?Protector?of?Human?Rights?and?Liberties? 193? UBC Press 2012ARTICLE 81 The?protector?of?human?rights?and?liberties?of?Montenegro?shall?be?independent?and?autonomous?authority?that?takes?measures?to?protect?human?rights?and?liberties.?The?protector?of?human?rights?and?liberties?shall?exercise?duties?on?the?basis?of?the?Constitution,?the?law?and?the?confirmed?international?agreements,?observing?also?the?principles?of?justice?and?fairness.?The?protector?of?human?rights?and?liberties?shall?be?appointed?for?the?period?of?six?years?and?can?be?dismissed?in?cases?envisaged?by?the?law.?Source: http://www.legislationline.org/documents/section/constitutions/country/57 194? UBC Press 2012 195Morocco (2011) Title?II?Fundamental?Rights?and?Freedoms?ARTICLE 31 The?State,?public?institutions,?and?territorial?communities,?are?open?to?the?mobilization?of?all?available?means?to?facilitate?the?access?of?all?citizens?to?the?conditions?that?permit?their?enjoyment?of?the?rights:???? of?access?to?water?and?to?a?healthy?environment;?? to?sustainable?development.? ARTICLE 35 The?right?to?property?is?guaranteed.?The?law?may?limit?the?extent?and?exercise?of?this?right?if?required?for?the?economic?and?social?development?of?the?nation.?Property?cannot?be?expropriated?except?in?accordance?with?the?law.?The?State?guarantees?free?enterprise?and?free?competition.?It?seeks?the?realization?of?sustainable?human?development?that?achieves?social?justice,?preserves?natural?rights?of?future?generations.?resources,?and?protects?the?Title?VII?Judicial?Powers?ARTICLE 117 The?judge?is?in?charge?of?the?protection?of?the?rights?and?freedoms?of?persons?and?groups,?according?to?the?law.? ARTICLE 118 The?right?of?access?to?justice?is?guaranteed?for?all?persons?seeking?to?protect?their?rights?and?legally?protected?interests.? Source: http://www.parlement.ma/fe/_textesdebase1.php?filename=201108181122510? UBC Press 2012Mozambique (1990) Part?I:?Basic?Principles?Chapter?IV:?Economic?and?Social?Organization?ARTICLE 37 The?State?shall?promote?efforts?to?guarantee?the?ecological?balance?and?the?conservation?and?preservation?of?the?environment?for?the?betterment?of?the?quality?of?life?of?its?citizens.???ARTICLE 38 Through?the?participation?of?citizens?and?the?efficient?use?of?human?and?material?resources,?the?objective?of?State?economic?policy?shall?be?to?lay?the?fundamental?bases?for?development,?to?improve?the?living?conditions?of?the?people,?to?strengthen?the?sovereignty?of?the?State,?and?to?consolidate?national?unity.?ts,?Duties,?and?Freedoms?Part?II:?Fundamental?RighChapter?I:?General?Principles?ARTICLE 72 All?citizens?shall?have?the?right?to?live?in,?and?the?duty?to?defend,?a?balanced?natural?environment.?Chapter?II:?Rights,?Duties,?Freedoms?ARTICLE 81 All?citizens?may?contest?acts?that?violate?their?rights?recognized?under?the?Constitution?and?other?laws.????ARTICLE 82 All?citizens?shall?have?the?right?of?recourse?to?the?courts?against?any?act?which?violates?thei .?r?rights?recognized?by?the?Constitution?and?the?lawChapter?IV:?Guarantees?of?Rights?and?Freedoms?ARTICLE 96 1.? Individual?rights?and?freedoms?shall?be?guaranteed?by?the?State?and?shall?be?exercised?within?the?framework?of?the?Constitution?and?the?law.??2.? The?exercise?of?rights?and?freedoms?may?only?be?limited?where?the?public?order?or?individual?rights,?freedoms?and?guarantees?are?endangered,?or?where?force?is?used?or?threatened.? 196? UBC Press 2012 ARTICLE 106 1.? Individual?freedoms?and?guarantees?may?only?be?temporarily?limited?or?suspended?in?the?event?of?declaration?of?a?state?of?war,?a?state?of?siege,?or?a?state?of?emergency.??2.? A?state?of?siege?or?state?of?emergency?may?not?exceed?six?months?and?any?extension?must?be?made?in?the?terms?of?the?law.??3.? The?law?shall?define?rules?for?a?state?of?war,?a?state?of?siege?and?a?state?of?emergency?and?shall?establish?judicial?guarantees?to?protect?the?rights?of?citizens?which?are?to?be?safeguarded.?Part?III:?Organs?of?State?Chapter?VI:?The?Courts?Section?1:?General?Principles?1.? It?shall?be?the?function?of?the?courts?to?guarantee?and?strengthen?the?rule?of?law?as?an?instrument?of?legal?stability?to?guarantee?respect?for?the?laws,?to?safeguard?the?rights?and?freedoms?of?citizens,?as?well?as?the?juridical?interests?of?other?legal?entities.?2.? The?courts?shall?educate?citizens?in?the?voluntary?and?conscious?observance?of?laws,?thus?establishing?a?just?and?harmonious?social?community.??3.? The?courts?shall?punish?violations?of?the?legal?order?and?shall?adjudicate?disputes?in?accordance?with?the?law.?Source: http://aceproject.org/regions-en/eisa/MZ/Constitution%20of%20Mozambique% 201990.pdf/view?set_language=en  197? UBC Press 2012Myanmar (2008) Chapter?I:?Basic?Principles?of?the?Union?ARTICLE 45 The?Union?shall?protect?and?preserve?the?natural?environment.?Chapter?VIII:?Citizenship,?Fundamental?Rights?and?Duties?of?the?Citizen?ARTICLE 390 Every?citizen?has?the?duty?to?assist?the?Union?with?the?following?duties:?...?(6)??environmental?conservation?Source: http://aceproject.org/ero-en/regions/asia/MM/Myanmar-Constitution-2010/view 198? UBC Press 2012Namibia (1990) Chapter?X:?The?Ombudsman?ARTICLE 91 The?functions?of?the?Ombudsman?shall?be?defined?and?prescribed?by?an?Act?of?Parliament?and?shall?include?the?following:?...?c)? the?duty?to?investigate?complaints?concerning?the?over?utilization?of?living?natural?resources,?the?irrational?exploitation?of?non?renewable?resources,?the?degradation?and?destruction?of?ecosystems?and?failure?to?protect?the?beauty?and?character?of?Namibia;?Chapter?11:?Principles?of?State?Policy?ARTICLE 95. [PROMOTION OF THE WELFARE OF THE PEOPLE] The?State?shall?actively?promote?and?maintain?the?welfare?of?the?people?by?adopting,?inter?alia,?policies?aimed?at?the?following:?...?(l)? ?maintenance?of?ecosystems,?essential?ecological?processes?and?biological?diversity?of?Namibia?and?utilization?of?living?natural?resources?on?a?sustainable?basis?for?the?benefit?of?all?Namibians,?both?present?and?future;?in?particular,?the?Government?shall?provide?measures?against?the?dumping?or?recycling?of?foreign?nuclear?and?toxic?waste?on?Namibian?territory.? ARTICLE 101. [APPLICATION OF THE PRINCIPLES CONTAINED IN THIS CHAPTER] The?principles?of?state?policy?contained?in?this?chapter?shall?not?of?and?by?themselves?be?legally?enforceable?by?any?Court,?but?shall?nevertheless?guide?the?Government?in?making?and?applying?laws?to?give?effect?to?the?fundamental?objectives?of?the?said?principles.?The?Courts?are?entitled?to?have?regard?to?the?said?principles?in?interpreting?any?laws?based?on?them.?Source: http://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/wa00t___.html 199? UBC Press 2012Nepal (2006) Part?3:?Fundamental?Rights??16. RIGHT REGARDING ENVIRONMENT AND HEALTH  (1)? Every?person?shall?have?the?right?to?live?in?clean?environment.?(2)? Every?citizen?shall?have?the?right?to?get?basic?health?service?free?of?cost?from?the?State?as?provided?for?in?the?law.? 32. RIGHT TO CONSTITUTIONAL REMEDY  The?right?to?proceed?in?the?manner?set?forth?in?Article?107?for?the?enforcement?of?the?rights?conferred?in?this?part?is?guaranteed.?Part?4:?Responsibilities,?Directive?Principles?and?Policies?of?the?State??33. THE STATE SHALL HAVE THE FOLLOWING RESPONSIBILITIES: ...  (g)?To?follow?a?policy?of?protecting?and?promoting?national?industries?and?resources.?...??(o)?To?use?existing?natural?resources?including?water?resources?of?the?country?for?the?interest?of?the?nation.? 35. STATE POLICIES (5)?The?State?shall?make?necessary?arrangements?to?maintain?clean?environment.?The?State?shall?give?priority?to?the?protection?of?the?environment,?and?also?to?the?prevention?to?its?further?damage?due?to?physical?development?activities?by?increasing?the?awareness?of?the?general?public?about?environmental?cleanliness,?and?the?State?shall?also?make?arrangements?for?the?special?protection?of?the?environment?and?the?rare?wildlife.?Provision?shall?be?made?for?the?protection?of?the?forest,?vegetation?and?biodiversity,?its?sustainable?use?and?for?equitable?distribution?of?the?benefit?derived?from?it.? 36. QUESTIONS NOT TO BE RAISED IN COURTS  (1)?No?questions?shall?be?raised?in?any?court?as?to?whether?provisions?contained?in?this?Part?are?implemented?or?not.?(2)?The?State?shall?mobilize?or?cause?to?be?mobilized?the?required?resources?for?the?implementation?of?the?principles?and?policies?contained?in?this?Part.? 200? UBC Press 2012Part?10:?Judiciary?107. JURISDICTION OF THE SUPREME COURT  (1)?Any?Nepali?citizen?may?file?a?petition?in?the?Supreme?Court?to?have?any?law?or?any?part?thereof?declared?void?on?the?ground?of?inconsistency?with?this?Constitution?because?it?imposes?an?unreasonable?restriction?on?the?enjoyment?of?the?fundamental?rights?conferred?by?this?Constitution?or?on?any?other?ground,?and?extraordinary?power?shall?rest?with?the?Supreme?Court?to?declare?that?law?as?void?either?ab?initio?or?from?the?date?of?its?decision?if?it?appears?that?the?law?in?question?is?inconsistent?with?the?Constitution.?(2)? The?Supreme?Court?shall,?for?the?enforcement?of?the?fundamental?rights?conferred?by?this?Constitution,?for?the?enforcement?of?any?other?legal?right?for?which?no?other?remedy?has?been?provided?or?for?which?the?remedy?even?though?provided?appears?to?be?inadequate?or?ineffective,?or?for?the?settlement?of?any?constitutional?or?legal?question?involved?in?any?dispute?of?public?interest?or?concern,?have?the?extraordinary?power?to?issue?necessary?and?appropriate?orders?to?enforce?such?rights?or?settle?the?dispute.?For?these?purposes,?the?Supreme?Court?may,?with?a?view?to?imparting?full?justice?and?providing?the?appropriate?remedy,?issue?appropriate?orders?and?writs?including?the?writs?of?habeas?corpus,?mandamus,?certiorari,?prohibition?and?quo?warranto.?Part?15:?National?Human?Rights?Commission?132. FUNCTIONS, DUTIES AND POWER OF THE NATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION  (1)? It?shall?be?the?duty?of?the?National?Human?Rights?Commission?to?ensure?the?respect,?protection?and?promotion?of?the?human?rights?and?its?effective?implementation.?(2)? In?order?to?perform?the?duty?referred?to?in?clause?(1)?above,?the?Commission?may?carry?out?the?following?functions:?(a)? to?conduct?inquiries?into,?investigations?of,?and?recommendation?for?action?against?the?perpetrator,?on?the?matters?of?violation?or?abetment?of?human?rights?of?a?person?or?a?group?of?persons,?upon?a?petition?or?complaint?presented?to?the?Commission?by?the?victim?himself?or?herself?or?any?person?on?his/her?behalf?or?upon?information?received?from?any?source,?or?on?its?own?initiative,?(b)? to?forward?a?recommendation?to?the?concerned?authority?for?taking?departmental?action?against?the?authority,?who?has?the?duty?or?responsibility?to?prevent?the?violations?of?the?human?rights,?failed?to?perform?such?duty?or?responsibility?or?show?recklessness?or?negligence?in?performing?his/her?duty,? 201? UBC Press 2012(c)? to?make?recommendation?to?lodge?a?petition?in?the?court,?if?necessary,?in?accordance?with?the?law?against?the?person?who?has?violated?human?rights,?(d)? to?work?jointly?and?in?a?coordinated?manner?with?the?civil?society?to?enhance?awareness?on?human?rights,?(e)? to?forward?a?recommendation?to?the?concerned?authority?for?taking?departmental?action?or?imposing?punishment?against?the?violators?of?human?rights,?mentioning?clear?reason?and?basis?thereof,?(f)? to?review?prevailing?laws?relating?to?human?rights?in?a?periodic?basis?and?to?recommend?the?Government?of?Nepal?for?necessary?reforms?and?amendment?thereto,?(g)? to?recommend?with?reasons?to?the?Government?of?Nepal?to?become?a?party?to?any?international?treaties?and?instruments?on?human?rights,?if?it?is?required?to?do?so,?and?to?monitor?the?implementation?of?the?international?treaties?and?instruments?of?human?rights?to?which?Nepal?is?a?Party?and?if?found?not?being?implemented,?forward?recommendations?to?the?Government?of?Nepal?for?effective?implementation?of?such?instruments,?(h)? to?publicize?the?names?of?the?official,?person?or?bodies?not?following?or?implementing?the?recommendations?and?directions?furnished?by?the?National?Human?Rights?Commission?regarding?the?violations?of?human?rights?in?accordance?with?law,?and?to?record?them?as?human?right?violators.?(3)? The?National?Human?Rights?Commission?in?performing?its?functions?and?duties?may?use?the?following?powers:?(i)? exercise?the?same?powers?as?the?court?has?in?requiring?any?person?to?appear?before?the?Commission?for?recording?his/her?statement?and?information?or?examining?them,?receiving?and?examining?evidence,?ordering?for?the?production?of?any?physical?proof,?(j)? enter,?without?prior?notice,?in?case?the?Commission?has?received?the?information?by?any?source?that?the?incidents?of?the?violation?of?human?rights?is?occurred?or?going?to?be?occurred,?into?any?person?or?their?residence?or?office,?conduct?search?and?seize?any?documents?and?evidences?relating?to?human?rights?violations?thereon,?(k)? enter?any?government?premises?or?other?places,?without?prior?notice,?in?case?the?Commission?has?received?information?that?violation?of?human?rights?of?a?person?is?happening?thereon?and?immediate?action?is?required,?to?provide?rescue,? 202? UBC Press 2012(l)? order?for?the?compensation,?in?accordance?with?law,?to?the?victims?of?human?rights?violations,?(m)??exercise?or?cause?to?be?exercised?other?power?and?abide?its?duties????????as?prescribed?by?law.?(4)?Notwithstanding?anything?contained?in?this?Article,?the?National?Human?Rights?Commission?shall?not?have?its?jurisdiction?on?any?matter?which?falls?within?the?jurisdiction?of?the?Army?Act.?Provided?that?nothing?shall?be?a?bar?to?proceedings?in??of?human?rights?and?humanitarian?laws.?respect?to?the?cases?of?violationPart?19:?Emergency?Power?ARTICLE 143. EMERGENCY POWER  (1)? If?a?grave?crisis?arises?in?regard?to?the?sovereignty?or?integrity?of?Nepal?or?the?security?of?any?part?thereof,?whether?by?war,?external?invasion,?armed?rebellion?or?extreme?economic?disarray,?the?Council?of?Minister?of?the?Government?of?Nepal?may,?by?Proclamation,?declare?or?Order?a?state?of?emergency?to?be?enforced?in?any?specified?part?or?the?whole?of?Nepal.???(7)?During?the?time?of?the?Proclamation?or?Order?of?the?State?of?Emergency?made?by?the?Council?of?Ministers?of?the?Government?of?Nepal,?pursuant?to?clause?(1),?the?fundamental?rights?provided?in?Part?3?may?be?suspended?so?long?as?the?Proclamation?or?Order?is?in?operation.?Provided?that?Articles?13,?14,?16,?17,?18,?20,?21,?22,?23,?26,?29,?30?and?31,?and?the?rights?to?constitutional?remedy?and?habeas?corpus?relating?to?such?Articles?shall?not?be?suspended.?(8)? In?circumstances?where?any?Article?of?this?Constitution?is?suspended?pursuant?to?clause?(7)?above,?no?petition?may?be?made?in?any?court?of?law,?nor?any?question?be?raised?for?the?enforcement?of?the?fundamental?rights?conferred?by?such?Article.?(9)? If,?during?the?continuance?of?a?Proclamation?or?Order?pursuant?to?clause?(1),?any?damage?is?inflicted?upon?any?person?by?an?act?of?any?official?done?in?contravention?of?law?or?in?bad?faith,?the?affected?person?may,?within?three?months?from?the?date?of?termination?of?the?Proclamation?or?Order,?file?a?petition?for?compensation?for?the?said?damage,?and?if?the?court?finds?the?claim?valid,?it?shall?cause?the?compensation?to?be?delivered.?Source: http://www.worldstatesmen.org/Nepal_Interim_Constitution2007.pdf 203? UBC Press 2012Netherlands (1983)  Chapter?1:?Fundamental?Rights?ARTICLE 17 No?one?may?be?prevented?against?his?will?from?being?heard?by?the?courts?to?which?he?is?entitled?to?apply?under?the?law.? ARTICLE 21 It?shall?be?the?concern?of?the?authorities?to?keep?the?country?habitable?and?to?protect?and?improve?the?environment.??Chapter?5:?Legislation?and?Administration?Section?2:?Miscellaneous?Provisions?ARTICLE 103 (1)? The?cases?in?which?a?state?of?emergency,?as?defined?by?Act?of?Parliament,?may?be?declared?by?Royal?Decree?in?order?to?maintain?internal?or?external?security?shall?be?specified?by?Act?of?Parliament.?The?consequences?of?such?a?declaration?shall?be?governed?by?Act?of?Parliament.?(2)? Such?a?declaration?may?depart?from?the?provisions?of?the?Constitution?relating?to?the?powers?of?the?executive?bodies?of?the?provinces,?municipalities,?and?water?control?boards,?the?basic?rights?laid?down?in?Article?6,?insofar?as?the?exercise?of?the?right?contained?in?this?article?other?than?in?buildings?and?enclosed?places?is?concerned,?Articles?7,?8,?9,?12(2),?13?and?113(1)?and?(3).?Chapter?6:?The?Administration?of?Justice?ARTICLE 120 The?constitutionality?of?Acts?of?Parliament?and?treaties?shall?not?be?reviewed?by?the?courts.?Source: http://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/nl00000_.html 204? UBC Press 2012Nicaragua (1986)  Title?IV:?Rights,?Duties?and?Guarantees?of?the?Nicaraguan?People?Chapter?I:?Individual?Rights?ARTICLE 45 Persons?whose?constitutional?rights?have?been?violated?or?are?in?danger?of?being?violated?have?the?right?to?present?the?writ?of?habeas?corpus?or?of?amparo,?depending?on?the? nd?in?accordance?with?the?Law?of?Amparo.??circumstances?of?the?case?aChapter?III:?Social?Rights?ARTICLE 60 Nicaraguans?have?the?right?to?live?in?a?healthy?environment.?It?is?the?obligation?of?the?S urces.?tate?to?preserve,?conserve,?and?recover?the?environment?and?the?natural?resoTit Land?Reform,?and?Public?Finances?le?VI:?National?Economy,?Chapter?I:?National?Economy?ARTICLE 102 The?natural?resources?are?national?patrimony.?The?preservation?of?the?environment?and?the?conservation,?development,?and?rational?exploitation?of?the?natural?resources?are?responsibilities?of?the?state;?the?State?may?formalize?contracts?for?the?rational?exp ?when?required?by?the?national?interest.??loitation?of?these?resourcesChapter?II:?Land?Reform?ARTICLE 106 The?land?reform?is?the?fundamental?instrument?for?the?democratization?of?ownership?and?the?just?distribution?of?land;?it?is?a?means?constituting?an?essential?part?for?the?global?promotion?and?strategy?of?ecological?reconstruction?and?the?sustainable?economic?development?of?the?country.?The?land?reform?shall?take?into?account?the?socially?necessary?man?land?relationship???Title?VIII:?The?Organization?of?the?State?Chapter?V:?Judicial?Branch?ARTICLE 160 The?administration?of?justice?guarantees?the?principle?of?legality;?it?protects?and?safeguards?human?rights?through?the?application?of?the?law?in?cases?and?proceedings?falling?within?its?jurisdiction.? 205? UBC Press 2012 ARTICLE 164 The?Supreme?Court?of?Justice?has?the?following?functions:???3.? To?consider?and?determine?amparo?proceedings?brought?for?violations?of?the?rights?established?in?the?Constitution?in?accordance?with?the?Law?of?Amparo?4.? To?consider?and?determine?applications?for?the?judicial?review?of?the?constitutionality?of?laws???Title?X:?Supremacy?of?the?Constitution,?Its?Reform,?and?Constitutional?Laws?Chapter?I:?Of?the?Political?Constitution?ARTICLE 185 The?President?of?the?Republic,?in?the?Council?of?Ministers,?can?decree,?for?the?totality?or?for?part?of?the?national?territory?and?for?a?given?time?subject?to?extension,?the?suspension?of?rights?and?guarantees?when?the?security?of?the?nation,?the?economic?conditions,?or?some?national?catastrophe?demand?it.?The?Law?of?Emergency?shall?regulate?its?modalities.? ARTICLE 186 The?President?of?the?Republic?may?not?suspend?the?rights?and?guarantees?established?in?Articles?23;?24;?25,?no.?3;?26,?no.?3;?27;?29;?33,?nos.?2.1?(final?part),?3?and?5;?34,?except?nos.?2?and?8;?35;?36;?37;?38;?39;?40;?41;?42;?43;?44;?46;?47;?48;?50;?51;?56;?57;?58;?59;?60;?61;?62;?63;?64;?65;?67;?68,?first?section;?69;?70;?71;?72;?73;?74;?75;?76;?77;?78;?79;?80;?81;?82;?84;?85;?87;?89;?90?and?91.?Chapter?II:?Constitutional?Control?ARTICLE 187 An?application?for?judicial?review?of?any?law,?decree?or?regulation?that?is?inconsistent?with?the?Political?Constitution?may?be?brought?by?any?citizen.? ARTICLE 188 The?writ?of?Amparo?may?be?used?to?challenge?any?provision,?act?or?resolution?and?more?generally?any?act?or?omission?of?any?official?or?authority?or?one?of?the?agents?of?the?latter?who?is?violating?or?trying?to?violate?the?rights?and?guarantees?affirmed?in?the?Political?Constitution.? ARTICLE 190 The?Law?of?Amparo?shall?regulate?the?remedies?established?in?this?Chapter.?  206? UBC Press 2012Source: http://pdba.georgetown.edu/Constitutions/Nica/nica05.html  207? UBC Press 2012Niger (1996)?  Title?II:?On?Rights?and?Duties?of?the?Human?Person??ARTICLE 27 Each?person?has?the?right?to?a?healthy?environment.?The?State?shall?be?charged?with?protecting?the?environment.?Everyone?is?obligated?to?preserve?and?improve?the?environment?where?he/she?lives.?The?stockpiling,?handling?and?evacuation?of?toxic?wastes,?whether?pollutants?from?factories?or?from?other?industrial?or?artisanal?organizations?situated?in?the?national?territory,?are?regulated?by?law.?The?transit,?importation,?stocking,?burial,?dumping?on?the?national?territory?of?toxic?wastes?or?foreign?pollutants?as?well?as?any?agreement?concerning?it?constitutes?a?crime?against?the?Nation?punishable?by?law.??ARTICLE 33  A?National?Commission?shall?supervise?the?promotion?and?the?effectiveness?of?the?above?declared?rights?and?liberties,?if?necessary,?in?accordance?with?the?international?agreements?to?which?Niger?is?a?signatory.?Title?V:?On?the?Relationship?Between?the?Executive?and?Legislative?Powers? ARTICLE 81 The?law?establishes?the?regulations?concerning:??? citizenship,?civic?rights?and?the?fundamental?guarantees?granted?to?f?their?public?liberties???citizens?for?the?exercise?oTitle?VI:?The?Judicial?Power?Section?I:?The?Constitutional?Court?ARTICLE 104 The?Constitutional?Court?consists?of?seven?(7)?members?of?at?least?forty?(40)?years?of?age.?The?Court?consists?of:?...??? a?representative?of?the?Associations?of?Defense?of?Human?Rights?recognized?for?his?expertise?in?public?law?  208? UBC Press 2012ARTICLE 113 Any?person?who?is?party?to?a?lawsuit?may?invoke?the?unconstitutionality?of?a?law?before?any?jurisdiction?by?means?of?exception.?The?jurisdiction?must?stay?proceedings?until?the?decision?of?the?Constitutional?Court,?a?decision?which?must?be?given?within?thirty?(30)?days.?A?provision?declared?unconstitutional?on?the?basis?of?the?paragraph?above?is?null?and?void?as?of?right.??Source: http://www.chr.up.ac.za/index.php/documents-by-country-database/niger.html 209? UBC Press 2012Nigeria (1999) Chapter?I:?General?Provisions?Part?II:?Powers?of?the?Federal?Republic?of?Nigeria?ARTICLE 6  (1)? The?judicial?powers?of?the?Federation?shall?be?vested?in?the?courts?to?which?this?section?relates,?being?courts?established?for?the?Federation.?(6)? The?judicial?powers?vested?in?accordance?with?the?foregoing?provisions?of?this?section:?...?(c)? shall?not,?except?as?otherwise?provided?by?this?Constitution,?extend?to?any?issue?or?question?as?to?whether?any?act?of?omission?by?any?authority?or?person?or?as?to?whether?any?law?or?any?judicial?decision?is?in?conformity?with?the?Fundamental?Objectives?and?Directive?Principles?of?State?Policy?set?out?in?Chapter?II?of?this?Constitution;?Chapter?II:?Fundamental?Objectives?and?Directive?Principles?of?State?Policy?ARTICLE 20. ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES The?State?shall?protect?and?improve?the?environment?and?safeguard?the?water,?air?and?land,?forest?and?wild?life?of?Nigeria.? Source: http://www.nigeria-law.org/ConstitutionOfTheFederalRepublicOfNigeria.htm  210? UBC Press 2012No 8) rth Korea (199Chapter?3:?Culture?ARTICLE 57 The?State?shall?adopt?measures?to?protect?the?environment?in?preference?to?production,?preserve?and?promote?the?natural?environment,?and?prevent?environmental?pollution?so?as?to?provide?the?people?with?a?hygienic?environment?and?working?conditions.?Source: http://www.novexcn.com/dprk_constitution_98.html  211? UBC Press 2012Norway (1992) E.?General?Provisions?ARTICLE 110(B) Every?person?has?a?right?to?an?environment?that?is?conducive?to?health?and?to?natural?surroundings?whose?productivity?and?diversity?are?preserved.?Natural?resources?should?be?made?use?of?on?the?basis?of?comprehensive?long?term?considerations?whereby?this?right?will?be?safeguarded?for?future?generations?as?well.?In?order?to?safeguard?their?right?in?accordance?with?the?foregoing?paragraph,?citizens?are?entitled?to?be?informed?of?the?state?of?the?natural?environment?and?of?the?effects?of?any?encroachments?on?nature?that?are?planned?or?commenced.?The?State?authorities?shall?issue?further?provisions?for?the?implementation?of?these?principles.? ARTICLE 110(C) It?is?the?responsibility?of?the?authorities?of?the?State?to?respect?and?ensure?human?rights.?Specific?provisions?for?the?implementation?of?treaties?thereon?shall?be?determined?by?law.??Source: http://www.stortinget.no/en/In-English/About-the-Storting/The-Constitution/The-Constitution/  212? UBC Press 2012Oman (1996) Chapter?Two:?The?Principles?Guiding?the?State?s?Policies?ARTICLE 12. SOCIAL PRINCIPLES The?social?principles?are?...?The?State?cares?for?public?health?and?for?the?prevention?and?treatment?of?diseases?and?epidemics.?It?endeavours?to?provide?health?care?for?every?citizen?and?to?encourage?the?establishment?of?private?hospitals,?clinics?and?other?medical?institutions?under?State?supervision?and?in?accordance?with?the?rules?laid?down?by?Law.?It?also?works?d?prevent?pollution.?to?conserve?and?protect?the?environment?anChapter?Three:?Public?Rights?and?Duties?ARTICLE 25. RIGHT TO LITIGATION The?right?to?litigation?is?sacrosanct?and?guaranteed?to?all?people.?The?Law?defines?the?procedures?and?circumstances?required?for?exercising?this?right?and?the?State?guarantees,?as?far?as?possible,?that?the?judicial?authorities?will?reconcile?the?litigants?and?settle?cases?promptly.?Source: http://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/mu00000_.html 213? UBC Press 2012lau (1981) Article?VI:?Responsibilities?of?the?National?Government?PaThe?national?government?shall?take?positive?action?to?attain?these?national?objectives?and?implement?these?national?policies:???? conservation?of?a?beautiful,?healthful?and?resourceful?natural?environment;?...?Article?XIII:?General?Provisions?SECTION 6 Harmful?substances?such?as?nuclear,?chemical?gas,?or?biological?weapons?intended?for?use?in?warfare,?nuclear?power?plants,?and?waste?materials?therefrom,?shall?not?be?used,?tested,?stored?or?disposed?of?within?territorial?jurisdiction?of?Palau?without?the?express?approval?of?not?less?than?three?fourths?(3/4)?of?the?votes?cast?in?a?referendum?submitted?on?this?specific?question.?Source: http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/category,LEGAL,,,PLW,3ae6b53f8,0.html 214? UBC Press 2012Panama (1983) Title?III:?Individual?and?Social?Rights?and?Duties?Chapter?1:?Fundamental?Guarantees?ARTICLE 17 The?authorities?of?the?republic?are?established?for?the?purposes?...?of?ensuring?the?effectiveness?of?individual?and?social?rights?and?duties,?and?of?observing?and?enforcing?the?Constitution?and?the?Law.?The?rights?and?guarantees?recognized?by?this?Constitution?must?be?considered?as?minimum?standards?that?do?not?exclude?others?which?are?related?to?fundamental?rights?and?the?dignity?of?the?individual.? ARTICLE 54 Every?person?against?whom?a?public?servant?shall?issue?a?mandatory?order?or?an?injunction?violating?the?rights?and?guarantees?established?by?this?Constitution,?shall?have?the?right?of?the?order?being?revoked?upon?his/her?petition?or?the?petition?of?any?other?person.?The?writ?for?protection?of?constitutional?guarantee?(amparo?de?garantias?constitucionales)?to?which?this?Article?refers,?shall?be?subject?to?summary?proceedings?and?the?cognizance?of?Courts?of?Law.? ARTICLE 55 In?case?of?foreign?war?or?internal?disturbance?that?threatens?peace?or?public?order,?all,?or?a?part,?of?the?Republic?may?be?declared?in?a?State?of?Emergency,?and?the?guarantee?of?Articles?21,?22,?23,?26,?27,?29,?37,?38,?and?44?of?this?Constitution?may?be?temporarily?suspended,?partially?or?totally.??Chapter?6:?Health,?Social?Security?and?Social?Welfare?ARTICLE 110 In?matters?of?health,?the?State?is?primarily?obliged?to?develop?the?following?activities,?integrating?the?functions?of?prevention,?cure?and?rehabilitation?in?the:?1.? Establishment?of?a?national?policy?of?food?and?nutrition,?ensuring?optimal?nutritional?conditions?for?the?entire?population,?by?promoting?the?availability,?consumption?and?biological?benefit?of?suitable?food;?2.? Training?of?individuals?and?social?groups?by?means?of?educational?actions?concerning?individual?and?collective?rights?and?responsibilities,?with?respect?to?personal?and?environmental?health;?...? 215? UBC Press 20124.?Combating?of?contagious?diseases?through?environmental?health,?development?of?potable?water?availability,?and?adopting?methods?of?immunization,?prophylaxis,?and?treatment?to?be?provided?dividually?to?all?the?population;?...?collectively?and?inChapter?7:?The?Ecology?ARTICLE 118 The?State?has?the?fundamental?obligation?to?guarantee?that?its?population?lives?in?a?healthy?environment,?free?of?contamination?(pollution),?and?where?air,?water,?and?foodstuffs?satisfy?the?requirements?for?proper?development?of?human?life.?? ARTICLE 119 The?State,?and?all?the?inhabitants?of?the?national?territory,?have?the?obligation?of?promoting?economic?and?social?development?that?prevents?environmental?contamination,?maintains?ecological?balance,?and?avoids?the?destruction?of?ecosystems.?? ARTICLE 120 The?State?shall?regulate,?supervise,?and?apply,?at?the?proper?time,?the?measures?necessary?to?guarantee?rational?use?of,?and?benefit?from,?land,?river?and?sea?life,?as?well?as?forests,?lands?and?waters,?to?avoid?their?misuse,?and?to?ensure?their?preservation,?renewal,?and?permanence.? ARTICLE 121 Benefits?gained?from?non?renewable?natural?resources?shall?be?regulated?by?law,?to?avo ?abuses?that?could?result.?id?social,?economic?and?environmentalChapter?9:?Office?of?the?Ombudsman?ARTICLE 129 The?Office?of?the?Ombudsman?monitors?the?protection?of?the?fundamental?rights?and?guarantees?recognized?in?this?Constitution?as?well?as?of?those?which?are?provided?for?by?international?human?rights?conventions?and?the?law?through?the?non?judicial?control?of?the?facts,?acts,?and?omissions?of?public?servants?and?providers?of?public?services?and?makes?sure?that?they?are?observed.?Title?VII:?The?Administration?of?Justice?Chapter?1:?The?Judicial?Branch?ARTICLE 206 Among?the?constitutional?and?legal?functions?of?the?Supreme?Court?of?Justice?shall?be?the?following:?? 216? UBC Press 20121.? To?guard?the?integrity?of?the?Constitution.?For?this?purpose,?and?after?hearing?the?opinion?of?the?Attorney?General?of?the?Nation?or?the?Solicitor?General?of?the?Administration,?the?Court?in?plenary?session?shall?try?and?rule?on?cases?concerning?the?unconstitutionality?of?laws,?decrees,?decisions,?resolutions?and?other?acts?that?for?reason?of?form?or?substance?are?challenged?before?it,?by?any?person.?When?during?the?proceedings?of?a?case,?the?public?official?entrusted?with?the?Administration?of?Justice?considers,?or?it?is?observed?by?one?of?the?parties,?that?the?legal?or?regulatory?provision?applicable?to?the?case?is?unconstitutional,?he/she?shall?submit?the?question?to?the?cognizance?of?the?Court?in?plenary?session,?and?shall?order?a?continuance?of?the?case,?until?the?question?of?constitutionality?is?decided.???2.???Persons?affected?by?the?act,?resolution,?order?or?decision?in?question?may?resort?to?administrative?litigation;?and?any?natural?or?juridical?person?domiciled?in?the?country?may?exercise?popular?action.?Title?X:?National?Economy?ARTICLE 296 Hunting,?fishing,?and?exploitation?of?forests?shall?be?regulated?by?law,?with?special?care?in?protecting?and?conserving?the?flora?and?fauna?of?the?country.?Source: (Spanish) http://pdba.georgetown.edu/constitutions/panama/panama.html 217? UBC Press 2012Papua New Guinea (1975) Preamble?National?Goals?and?Directive?Principles?4. NATURAL RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENT We?declare?our?fourth?goal?to?be?for?Papua?New?Guinea?s?natural?resources?and?environment?to?be?conserved?and?used?for?the?collective?benefit?of?us?all,?and?be?replenished?for?the?benefit?of?future?generations.?We?accordingly?call?for???(1)?wise?use?to?be?made?of?our?natural?resources?and?the?environment?in?and?on?the?land?or?seabed,?in?the?sea,?under?the?land,?and?in?the?air,?in?the?interests?of?our?development?and?in?trust?for?future?generations;?and?(2)??the?conservation?and?replenishment,?for?the?benefit?of?ourselves?and?posterity,?of?the?environment?and?its?sacred,?scenic,?and?historical?qualities;?and?(3)??all?necessary?steps?to?be?taken?to?give?adequate?protection?to?our?valued?birds,?animals,?fish,?insects,?plants?and?trees.?? ? ?Basic?Social?Obligations?We?hereby?declare?that?all?persons?in?our?country?have?the?following?basic?obligations?to?themselves?and?their?descendants,?to?each?other,?and?to?the?Nation:?...?(d)? ?to?protect?Papua?New?Guinea?and?to?safeguard?the?national?wealth,?resources?and?environment?in?the?interests?not?only?of?the?present?generation?but?also?of?future?generations.?...?Source: http://www.paclii.org/pg/legis/consol_act/cotisopng534/  218? UBC Press 2012Paraguay (1992) Part?I:?About?Basic?Principles,?Rights,?Duties,?and?Guarantees?Title?II:?Rights,?Guarantees?and?DutChapter?I:?About?Life?and?the?Environment?ies?Section?I:?About?Life?ARTICLE 6. QUALITY OF LIFE (1)? The?State?will?promote?the?quality?of?life?through?plans?and?policies?that?are?focused?on?conditioning?factors,?such?as?extreme?poverty?and?impediments?stemming?from?disability?or?age.?(2)? The?State?will?also?promote?research?on?population?factors?and?their?links?with?socio?economic?development,?the?preservation?of?the?environment?and?the?quality?of?life?of?the?people.? Section?II:?About?the?Environment?ARTICLE 7. ABOUT THE RIGHT TO A HEALTHY ENVIRONMENT (1)? Everyone?has?the?right?to?live?in?a?healthy,?ecologically?balanced?environment.??(2)? The?preservation,?recovery,?and?improvement?of?the?environment,?as?well?as?efforts?to?reconcile?these?goals?with?comprehensive?human?development,?are?priority?objectives?of?social?interests.?The?respective?laws?and?government?policies?will?seek?to?meet?these?objectives.??ARTICLE 8. ABOUT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION (1)? Those?activities?that?are?likely?to?cause?environmental?changes?will?be?regulated?by?law.?The?law?may?also?restrict?or?prohibit?those?activities?that?are?considered?hazardous.?(2)? The?manufacturing,?assembly,?import,?commerce,?possession?or?use?of?nuclear,?chemical,?or?biological?weapons,?as?well?as?the?introduction?of?toxic?waste?into?the?country?are?hereby?prohibited.?The?law?may?be?extended?to?other?hazardous?elements.?It?will?also?regulate?the?trafficking?of?genetic?resources?and?related?technologies?to?protect?national?interests.?(3)? The?law?will?define?and?establish?sanctions?for?ecological?crimes.?Any?damage?to?the?environment?will?entail?an?obligation?to?restore?and?to?pay?for?damages.? 219? UBC Press 2012Chapter?II:?About?Freedom?ARTICLE 16. ABOUT DEFENSE IN COURT Everyone?has?the?inalienable?right?to?defend?himself?and?his?rights?in?court.?Everyone?has?the?right?to?have?his?case?heard?by?competent,?independent,?and?impartial?judges?and?courts.? ARTICLE 38. ABOUT THE RIGHT TO DEFEND COMMON INTERESTS Everyone?has?the?right,?either?individually?or?within?a?group,?to?demand?that?public?officials?adopt?measures?to?defend?the?environment,?the?preservation?of?the?habitat,?public?health,?national?cultural?heritage,?the?interests?of?consumers,?and?other?areas?that,?because?of?their?legal?nature,?pertain?to?the?community?and?are?related?to?the?quality?of?life?and?to?property?belonging?to?the?community.? ARTICLE 39. ABOUT THE RIGHT TO JUST, ADEQUATE INDEMNIFICATION Everyone?has?the?right?to?just,?adequate?indemnification?for?damage?or?prejudice?he?may?hav ns?by?the?State.?The?law?will?regulate?this?right.?e?sustained?as?a?result?of?actioChapter?III:?About?Equality?ARTICLE 47. ABOUT GUARANTEES FOR EQUALITY The?State?will?guarantee?every?inhabitant?of?the?Republic:?...?4)? Equal?opportunities?to?participate?in?the?benefits?of?nature,?in?material?assets,?and?in?culture.?Chapter?XII:?Constitutional?Guarantees?ARTICLE 131. ABOUT GUARANTEES The?guarantees?established?in?this?chapter,?which?will?be?regulated?by?law,?are?designed?to?enforce?the?rights?contained?in?this?Constitution.? ARTICLE 132. ABOUT UNCONSTITUTIONALITY The?Supreme?Court?of?Justice?has?the?power?to?declare?any?legal?provision?or?decision?by?the?courts?unconstitutional,?within?the?manner?and?scope?establishd?by?this?Constitution?and?the?law.? ARTICLE 134. ABOUT AMPARO Anyone?who?considers?himself?seriously?affected?by?a?clearly?illegitimate?act?or?omission?of?an?individual?or?government?official,?or?who?may?be?in?imminent?danger?that?the?rights?and?guarantees?of?this?Constitution?or?the?laws?may?be?curtailed,?and?who?in?light?of?the?urgency?of?the?matter?cannot?seek?remedy?through?regular?legal?channels,?may?file?a?petition?for?amparo?before?a?competent?judge.?Proceedings?will? 220? UBC Press 2012be?brief,?summary,?and?free?of?charge,?and?will?include?actions?in?those?cases?established?by?the?law.?The?judge?is?empowered?to?safeguard?rights?and?guarantees,?or?immediately?restore?the?legal?situation?that?existed?prior?to?the?violation.?...?A?petition?for?amparo?cannot?be?filed?in?relation?to?a?case?that?is?already?being?heard?by?the?courts,?against?actions?taken?by?judicial?organizations,?or?in?the?process?of?discussion,?approval,?and?promulgation?of?the?laws.?The?law?will?regulate?the?respective?proceedings.?Court?rulings?in?amparo?cases?will?not?be?final.?Part?II:?About?the?Political?Organization?of?the?Republic?Title?II:?About?the?OrganizationChapter?IV:?Other?State?Organizations??and?Structure?of?the?State?Section?I:?The?Public?Defender?ARTICLE 276. ABOUT THE PUBLIC DEFENDER The?Public?Defender?is?a?congressional?commissioner?charged?with?defending?human?rights,?channeling?popular?complaints,?and?with?protecting?community?interests.?In?no?case?will?he?perform?any?judicial?or?executive?function.? ARTICLE 279. ABOUT HIS DUTIES AND POWERS The?Public?Defender?has?the?following?duties?and?powers:?1)? To?receive?and?investigate?reports?or?complaints?of?human?rights?violations,?as?well?as?other?actions?as?established?by?this?Constitution?and?the?law;?2)? To?obtain?information?from?officials?at?all?levels,?including?police?and?security?organizations?in?general,?without?any?kind?of?restrictions,?so?that?he?may?adequately?discharge?his?functions.?He?will?have?access?to?places?where?human?rights?violations?have?been?reported.?He?may?also?act?ex?officio;?3)? To?publicly?criticize?behavior?or?actions?that?are?contrary?to?human?rights;?4)? To?submit?an?annual?report?on?his?activities?to?the?two?chambers?of?Congress;?5)? To?prepare?and?to?communicate?reports?on?the?status?of?those?human?rights?that,?in?his?opinion,?require?urgent?public?attention;?and?6)?Other?duties?and?powers?established?by?law.? 221? UBC Press 2012Source: http://pdba.georgetown.edu/constitutions/paraguay/para1992.html 222? UBC Press 2012Peru (1993) Title?I:?The?Individual?and?Society?Chapter?I:?Fundamental?Rights?of?the?Person??ARTICLE 2 Every?person?has?the?right?...?(22)? To?peace,?tranquility,?the?enjoyment?of?leisure?time,?and?to?rest,?as?well?as?to?enjoy?a?harmonious?environment?adequate?ife.?for?the?development?of?lTitle?III:?The?Economic?System?Chapter?III:?The?Environment?and?Natural?Resources?ARTICLE 66 Natural?resources,?renewable?and?non?renewable,?are?the?patrimony?of?the?Nation.?The?State?is?sovereign?in?their?utilization.??The?conditions?of?their?use?and?specific?allotments?are?determined?by?organic?law.?The?concession?of?natural?resources?grants?their?title?holders?an?unencumbered?right?subject?to?the?said?legal?regulations.? ARTICLE 67 The?State?determines?national?environmental?policy.?It?promotes?the?sustainable?use?of?its?natural?resources.? ARTICLE 68 The?State?is?obligated?to?promote?the?preservation?of?biological?diversity?and?of?natural?protected?areas.? ARTICLE 69 T nia?with?adequate?legislation.?he?State?promotes?the?sustainable?development?of?AmazoTitle?IV:?The?Institutional?Structure?of?the?State?Chapter?VII:?The?State?of?Exception?ARTICLE 137  In?agreement?with?the?Council?of?Ministers,?the?President?of?the?Republic?can?decree,?for?a?specific?period,?across?the?entire?national?territory?or?in?part?of?it,?and?giving?an?accounting?to?Congress?or?its?Standing?Committee,?states?of?exception?mentioned?in?this?article,?namely:? 223? UBC Press 2012 1.?? State?of?emergency?in?case?of?a?disturbance?of?the?peace?or?of?the?internal?order,?catastrophe,?or?grave?circumstances?affecting?the?life?of?the?nation.?In?this?eventuality,?the?exercise?of?constitutional?rights?may?be?restricted?or?suspended?as?they?relate?to?personal?freedom?and?security,?the?inviolability?of?the?home,?and?the?freedom?of?assembly?and?movement?in?the?territory?included?in?clauses?(9),?(11)?and?(12)?of?Article?2?and?in?clause?(24),?section?(f)?of?the?same?article.?Under?no?circumstances?can?anyone?be?exiled.?The?period?of?emergency?may?not?exceed?60?days.?Its?extension??requires?a?new?decree.??Chapter?XI:?The?Ombudsman?ARTICLE 161 The?office?of?the?Ombudsman?is?autonomous.?The?public?organs?are?obliged?to?cooperate?with?the?Ombudsman?s?Office?when?the?latter?requires?it.??? ARTICLE 162 It?is?the?duty?of?the?Ombudsman?to?defend?the?constitutional?and?fundamental?rights?of?individuals?and?the?community?and?to?oversee?the?performance?of?the?duties?of?the?State?a rvices?to?the?citizenry.???dministration?and?the?delivery?of?public?seTitle?V:?Constitutional?Guarantees?ARTICLE 200  The?following?are?constitutional?guarantees:?...?2.? The?Action?of?Amparo?that?may?be?filed?against?the?commission?or?omission?by?any?authority,?functionary,?or?peson?of?an?act?that?injures?or?threatens?the?other?rights?recognized?by?the?Constitution,?with?the?exception?of?those?identified?in?the?following?paragraph.?It?cannot?be?filed?against?legal?rules?or?judicial?decisions?resulting?from?normal?judicial?proceedings.?...?4.? The?Action?of?Unconstitutionality?which?may?be?filed?against?norms?that?have?the?rank?of?law:?laws,?legislative?decrees,?urgency?decrees,?treaties,?congressional?rules?of?procedure,?regional?regulations?of?a?general?nature,?and?municipal?ordinances?which?violate?either?the?formal?or?substantial?provisions?of?the?Constitution.?5.? The?Popular?Action?which?may?be?filed?to?prevent?violations?of?the?Constitution?and?the?law?by?regulations,?administrative?rules?and?resolutions,?and?decrees?of?a?general?nature?regardless?of?the? 224? UBC Press 2012authority?from?which?they?emanate.?6.? Action?of?Compliance?which?may?be?filed?against?any?authority?or?functionary?unwilling?to?comply?with?a?legal?norm?or?an?administrative?act,?without?prejudice?to?the?liability?established?by?the?law.?...??The?exercise?of?the?actions?of?Habeas?Corpus?and?Amparo?is?not?suspended?during?the?emergency?situations?to?which?Article?137?of?the?Constitution?refers.?When?actions?of?this?nature?are?filed?with?respect?to?restricted?or?suspended?rights,?the?competent?judicial?organ?examines?the?reasonableness?and?the?proportionality?of?the?restriction.?The?judge?is?not?competent?to?question?the?declaration?of?the?state?of?emergency?or?siege.? ARTICLE 201 The?Constitutional?Court?is?the?organ?that?oversees?adherence?to?the?Constitution.?It?is?autonomous?and?independent.? ARTICLE 202 The?Constitutional?Court?has?the?following?responsibilities:?1.? To?adjudicate,?as?the?unique?instance,?actions?of?unconstitutionality.?2.? To?adjudicate,?as?the?court?of?last?resort,?decisions?denying?habeas?corpus,?amparo,?habeas?data,?or?an?executory?order.? ARTICLE 205 Whoever?feels?injured?in?his?constitutionally?recognized?rights?may,?after?the?exhaustion?of?all?domestic?remedies,?appeal?to?international?tribunals?or?bodies?established?under?treaties?or?agreements?to?which?Peru?is?a?party.?Source: http://pdba.georgetown.edu/Constitutions/Peru/per93reforms05.html 225? UBC Press 2012Philippines (1987) Article?II:?Declaration?of?Principles?and?State?Policies?SECTION 16 The?State?shall?protect?and?advance?the?right?of?the?people?to?a?balanced?and?healthful?eco ythm?and?harmony?of?nature.?logy?in?accord?with?the?rhArticle?III:?Bill?of?Rights?SECTION 11 Free?access?to?the?courts?and?quasi?judicial?bodies?and?adequate?legal?assistance?shall?not?be?d overty.?enied?to?any?person?by?reason?of?pArticle?VIII:?Judicial?Department?SECTION 5 The?Supreme?Court?shall?have?the?following?powers:?...?(5)?Promulgate?rules?concerning?the?protection?and?enforcement?of?constitutional?rights,?pleading,?practice,?and?procedure?in?all?courts,?the?admission?to?the?practice?of?law,?the?integrated?bar,?and?legal?assistance?to?the?under?privileged.?Such?rules?shall?provide?a?simplified?and?inexpensive?procedure?for?the?speedy?disposition?of?cases,?shall?be?uniform?for?all?courts?of?the?same?grade,?and?shall?not?diminish,?increase,?or?modify?substantive?rights.?Rules?of?procedure?of?special?courts?and?quasi?judicial?bodies?shall?remain?me?Court.?effective?unless?disapproved?by?the?SupreArticle?XII:?National?Economy?and?Patrimony?SECTION 2  ...?The?State?shall?protect?the?nation?s?marine?wealth?in?its?archipelagic?waters,?territorial?sea,?and?exclusive?economic?zone.?...? SECTION 3  ...?Taking?into?account?the?requirements?of?conservation,?ecology,?and?development,?and?subject?to?the?requirements?of?agrarian?reform,?the?Congress?shall?determine,?by?law,?the?size?of?lands?of?the?public?domain?which?may?be?acquired,?developed,?held,?or?leased?and?the?conditions?therefor.? SECTION 4  The?Congress?shall,?as?soon?as?possible,?determine?by?law?the?specific?limits?of?forest?lands?and?national?parks,?marking?clearly?their?boundaries?on?the?ground.?Thereafter,?such?forest?lands?and?national?parks?shall?be?conserved?and?may?not?be?increased?nor? 226? UBC Press 2012diminished,?except?by?law.?The?Congress?shall?provide,?for?such?period?as?it?may?determine,?measures?to?prohibit?logging?in?endangered?forests?and?watershed?areas.? SECTION 7  The?State?shall?protect?the?rights?of?subsistence?fishermen,?especially?of?local?communities?to?the?preferential?use?of?the?communal?marine?and?fishing?resources,?both?inla develop,?and?conserve?such?resources.?nd?and?offshore?...?The?State?shall?also?protect,?Article?XIII:?Social?Justice?and?Human?Rights?SECTION 1 The?Congress?shall?give?highest?priority?to?the?enactment?of?measures?that?protect?and?enhance?the?right?of?all?the?people?to?human?dignity,?reduce?social,?economic,?and?political?inequalities,?and?remove?cultural?inequities?by?equitably?diffusing?wealth?and?political?power?for?the?common?good.?To?this?end,?the?State?shall?regulate?the?acquisition,?ownership,?use,?and?disposition?of?property?and?its?increments.? SECTION 17 (1)? There?is?hereby?created?an?independent?office?called?the?Commission?on?Human?Rights.??? SECTION 18 The?Commission?on?Human?Rights?shall?have?the?following?powers?and?functions:?(1)? Investigate,?on?its?own,?or?on?complaint?by?any?party,?all?forms?of?human?rights?violations?involving?civil?and?political?rights;?(2)?Adopt?its?operational?guidelines?and?rules?of?procedure,?and?cite?for?contempt?for?violations?thereof?in?accordance?with?the?Rules?of?Court;?(3)? Provide?appropriate?legal?measures?for?the?protection?of?human?rights?of?all?persons?within?the?Philippines,?as?well?as?Filipinos?residing?abroad,?and?provide?for?preventive?measures?and?legal?aid?services?to?the?under?privileged?whose?human?rights?have?been?violated?or?need?protection;?(4)??Exercise?visitorial?powers?over?jails,?prisons,?or?detention?facilities;?(5)??Establish?a?continuing?program?of?research,?education,?and?information?to?enhance?respect?for?the?primacy?of?human?rights;?(6)? Recommend?to?Congress?effective?measures?to?promote?human?rights?and?to?provide?for?compensation?to?victims?of?violations?of?human?rights,?or?their?families;? 227? UBC Press 2012(7)?Monitor?the?Philippine?Government?s?compliance?with?international?treaty?obligations?on?human?rights;?(8)?Grant?immunity?from?prosecution?to?any?person?whose?testimony?or?whose?possession?of?documents?or?other?evidence?is?necessary?or?convenient?to?determine?the?truth?in?any?investigation?conducted?by?it?or?under?its?authority;?(9)? Request?the?assistance?of?any?department,?bureau,?office,?or?agency?in?the?performance?of?its?functions;?(10)?Appoint?its?officers?and?employees?in?accordance?with?law;?and?(11)?Perform?such?other?duties?and?functions?as?may?be?provided?by?????law.? SECTION 19 The?Congress?may?provide?for?other?cases?of?violations?of?human?rights?that?should?fall?with ion,?taking?into?account?its?recommendations.?in?the?authority?of?the?CommissArticle?XVI:?General?Provisions?SECTION 9 The?State?shall?protect?consumers?from?trade?malpractices?and?from?substandard?or?hazardous?products.?Source: http://www.comelec.gov.ph/laws/constitution/toc.html 228? UBC Press 2012Poland (1997) Chapter?I:?The?Republic?ARTICLE 5 The?Republic?of?Poland?shall?safeguard?the?independence?and?integrity?of?its?territory?and?ensure?the?freedoms?and?rights?of?persons?and?citizens,?the?security?of?the?citizens,?safeguard?the?national?heritage?and?shall?ensure?the?protection?of?the?natural?environment?pursuant?to?the?principles?of?sustainable?development.?Chapter?II:?Freedoms,?Rights,?and?Duties?of?Persons?and?Citizens?General?Principles?ARTICLE 31  (3)?Any?limitation?upon?the?exercise?of?constitutional?freedoms?and?rights?may?be?imposed?only?by?statute,?and?only?when?necessary?in?a?democratic?state?for?the?protection?of?its?security?or?public?order,?or?to?protect?the?natural?environment,?health?or?public?morals,?or?the?freedoms?and?rights?of?other?persons.?Such?limitations?shall?not?violate?the?essence?of?freedoms?and?rights.? Economic,?Social,?and?Cultural?Freedoms?and?Rights?ARTICLE 68  (1)? Everyone?has?the?right?to?health?protection.?...?(4)? Public?authorities?shall?combat?epidemic?illnesses?and?prevent?the?negative?health?consequences?of?degradation?of?the?environment.? ARTICLE 74 (1)? Public?authorities?shall?pursue?policies?ensuring?the?ecological?safety?of?current?and?future?generations.?(2)? Protection?of?the?environment?shall?be?the?duty?of?public?authorities.?(3)? Everyone?shall?have?the?right?to?be?informed?of?the?quality?and?protection?of?the?environment.?(4)? Public?authorities?shall?support?the?activities?of?citizens?to?protect?and?improve?the?quality?of?the?environment.? Means?for?the?Defense?of?Freedom?and?Rights?ARTICLE 77 (1)? Everyone?shall?have?the?right?to?compensation?for?any?harm?done?to?him?by?any?action?of?an?organ?of?public?authority?contrary?to?law.?(2)? Statutes?shall?not?bar?the?recourse?by?any?person?to?the?courts?in?pursuit?of?claims?alleging?infringement?of?freedoms?or?rights.?  229? UBC Press 2012ARTICLE 79 (1)? In?accordance?with?principles?specified?by?statute,?everyone?whose?constitutional?freedoms?or?rights?have?been?infringed,?shall?have?the?right?to?appeal?to?the?Constitutional?Tribunal?for?its?judgment?on?the?conformity?to?the?Constitution?of?a?statute?or?another?normative?act?upon?which?basis?a?court?or?organ?of?public?administration?has?made?a?final?decision?on?his?freedoms?or?rights?or?on?his?obligations?specified?in?the?Constitution.? ARTICLE 80 In?accordance?with?principles?specified?by?statute,?everyone?shall?have?the?right?to?apply?to?the?Commissioner?for?Citizens??Rights?for?assistance?in?protection?of?his?freedoms?or?rights?infringed?by?organs?of?public?authority.? ARTICLE 81 The?rights?specified?in?Article?65,?paras.?4?and?5,?Article?66,?Article?69,?Article?71?and?Articles?74?76,?may?be?asserted?subject?to?limitations?specified?by?statute.? Duties?ARTICLE 86 Everyone?shall?care?for?the?quality?of?the?environment?and?shall?be?held?responsible?for?cau e?specified?by?law.?sing?its?degradation.?The?principles?of?such?responsibility?shall?bChapter?IX:?Organs?of?State?Control?and?for?Defence?of?Rights?ARTICLE 208  (1)? The?Commissioner?for?Citizens??Rights?shall?safeguard?the?freedoms?and?rights?of?persons?and?citizens?specified?in?the?Constitution?and?other?normative?acts.?(2)? The?scope?and?mode?of?work?of?the?Commissioner?for?Citizens??Rights?shall?be?specified?by?statute.?Chapter?XI:?Extraordinary?Measures?ARTICLE 228 (1)? In?situations?of?particular?danger,?if?ordinary?constitutional?measures?are?inadequate,?any?of?the?following?appropriate?extraordinary?measures?may?be?introduced:?martial?law,?a?state?of?emergency?or?a?state?of?natural?disaster.?(2)? Extraordinary?measures?may?be?introduced?only?by?regulation,?issued?upon?the?basis?of?statute,?and?which?shall?additionally?require?to?be?publicized.?(3)? The?principles?for?activity?by?organs?of?public?authority?as?well?as?the?degree?to?which?the?freedoms?and?rights?of?persons?and?citizens?may?be?subject?to?limitation?for?the?duration?of?a?period?requiring?any?extraordinary?measures?shall?be?established?by?statute.? 230? UBC Press 2012(4)?A?statute?may?specify?the?principles,?scope?and?manner?of?compensating?for?loss?of?property?resulting?from?limitation?of?the?freedoms?and?rights?of?persons?and?citizens?during?a?period?requiring?introduction?of?extraordinary?measures.??ARTICLE 233 (1)? The?statute?specifying?the?scope?of?limitation?of?the?freedoms?and?rights?of?persons?and?citizens?in?times?of?martial?law?and?states?of?emergency?shall?not?limit?the?freedoms?and?rights?specified?in?Article?30?(the?dignity?of?the?person),?Article?34?and?Article?36?(citizenship),?Article?38?(protection?of?life),?Article?39,?Article?40,?Article?41,?para.4?(humane?treatment),?Article?42?(ascription?of?criminal?responsibility),?Article?45?(access?to?a?court),?Article?47?(personal?rights),?Article?53?(conscience?and?religion),?Article?63?(petitions),?as?well?as?Article?48?and?Article?72?(family?and?children).?(2)? Limitation?of?the?freedoms?and?rights?of?persons?and?citizens?only?by?reason?of?race,?gender,?language,?faith?or?lack?of?it,?social?origin,?ancestry?or?property?shall?be?prohibited.?(3)? The?statute?specifying?the?scope?of?limitations?of?the?freedoms?and?rights?of?persons?and?citizens?during?states?of?natural?disasters?may?limit?the?freedoms?and?rights?specified?in?Article?22?(freedom?of?economic?activity),?Article?41,?paras.?1,?3?and?5?(personal?freedom),?Article?50?(inviolability?of?the?home),?Article?52,?para.?1?(freedom?of?movement?and?sojourn?on?the?territory?of?the?Republic?of?Poland),?Article?59,?para.?3?(the?right?to?strike),?Article?64?(the?right?of?ownership),?Article?65,?para.?1?(freedom?to?work),?Article?66,?para.?1?(the?right?to?safe?and?hygienic?conditions?of?work)?as?well?as?Article?66,?para.?2?(the?right?to?rest).?Source: http://www.sejm.gov.pl/prawo/konst/angielski/kon1.htm  231? UBC Press 2012Portugal (1976) Fundamental?Principles?ARTICLE 9. FUNDAMENTAL RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE STATE The?fundamental?responsibilities?of?the?State?shall?be:?...?d)? To?promote?the?people?s?well?being?and?quality?of?life?and?real?equality?between?the?Portuguese,?as?well?as?the?effective?implementation?of?economic,?social,?cultural?and?environmental?rights?by?means?of?the?transformation?and?modernisation?of?economic?and?social?structures;?e)? To?protect?and?enhance?the?Portuguese?people?s?cultural?heritage,?defend?nature?and?the?environment,?preserve?natural?resources??planning;?...?and?ensure?proper?town?and?countryPart?I:?Fundamental?Rights?and?Duties?Section?I:?General?Principles?ARTICLE 18. LEGAL FORCE 1.? The?constitutional?provisions?relating?to?rights,?freedoms?and?guarantees?shall?be?directly?applicable?to,?and?binding?on,?both?public?and?private?bodies.?2.? Rights,?freedoms?and?guarantees?may?be?restricted?by?law?in?only?those?cases?expressly?provided?for?in?this?Constitution;?restrictions?shall?be?limited?to?the?extent?necessary?to?safeguard?other?rights?or?interests?protected?by?this?Constitution.?3.? Laws?restricting?rights,?freedoms?and?guarantees?shall?be?general?and?abstract?in?character,?shall?not?have?retroactive?effect?and?shall?not?limit,?in?extent?or?scope,?the?essential?content?of?the?constitutional?provisions.? ARTICLE 19. SUSPENSION OF THE EXERCISE OF RIGHTS 1.? The?organs?with?supreme?authority?shall?not,?jointly?or?separately,?suspend?the?exercise?of?rights,?freedoms?and?guarantees,?except?where?a?state?of?siege?or?a?state?of?emergency?has?been?declared?in?the?manner?laid?down?by?this?Constitution.?2.? A?state?of?siege?or?a?state?of?emergency?may?be?declared?in?all?or?any?part?of?the?national?territory,?but?only?in?the?event?of?actual?or?imminent?aggression?by?foreign?forces,?of?serious?threat?to,?or?disturbance?of,?the?democratic?constitutional?order?or?of?a?public?disaster.?3.? A?state?of?emergency?may?be?declared?where?the?circumstances?mentioned?in?paragraph?2?are?of?a?less?serious?nature;?it?shall?at?the?most?give?rise?to?the?suspension?of?some?of?the?rights,?freedoms?and?guarantees?that?are?capable?of?suspension.? 232? UBC Press 20124.? When?the?choice?is?made?between?a?state?of?siege?and?a?state?of?emergency,?the?principle?of?proportionality?shall?be?respected?in?making?the?decision?in?favour?of?one?or?other?state?and?in?giving?effect?to?that?decision;?in?particular,?the?extent?of?application,?the?duration?and?the?measures?provided?for?shall?be?limited?to?those?strictly?necessary?for?the?prompt?restoration?of?the?constitutional?normality.?5.? A?declaration?of?a?state?of?siege?or?a?state?of?emergency?shall?be?based?on?properly?substantiated?grounds,?and?shall?specify?those?rights,?freedoms?and?guarantees,?the?exercise?of?which?is?to?be?suspended;?it?shall?be?in?force?for?a?period?of?not?more?than?15?days?or,?where?the?declaration?results?from?a?declaration?of?war,?for?the?period?laid?down?by?law,?but?it?may?from?time?to?time?be?renewed?subject?to?the?same?time?limits.?6.? A?declaration?of?a?state?of?emergency?or?a?state?of?siege?shall?in?no?case?affect?the?rights?to?life,?personal?integrity?and?identity,?civil?capacity,?and?citizenship,?of?the?person,?the?non?retroactivity?of?criminal?law,?the?defence?rights?of?accused?persons?and?the?freedom?of?conscience?and?religion.?7.? A?declaration?of?a?state?of?siege?or?a?state?of?emergency?may?affect?constitutional?normality?only?within?the?limits?set?out?in?this?Constitution?and?in?law;?in?particular,?it?may?not?affect?the?enforcement?of?the?constitutional?provisions?with?respect?to?the?powers?and?operation?of?the?organs?with?supreme?authority?and?the?organs?of?self?government?of?the?autonomous?regions,?nor?the?rights?and?immunities?of?their?members.?8.? A?declaration?of?a?state?of?siege?or?a?state?of?emergency?shall?vest?the?authorities?with?the?powers?to?take?the?action?necessary?and?appropriate?for?the?prompt?restoration?of?the?constitutional?normality.? ARTICLE 20. ACCESS TO LAW AND EFFECTIVE JUDICIAL PROTECTION 1.? Everyone?is?guaranteed?access?to?law?and?to?the?courts?in?order?to?defend?his?or?her?rights?and?legally?protected?interests;?justice?shall?not?be?denied?to?a?person?for?lack?of?financial?resources.?2.? Everyone?has?the?right,?in?accordance?with?the?law,?to?legal?advice?and?information,?as?well?as?to?legal?aid,?and?the?right?to?be?assisted?by?a?lawyer?before?any?authority.?3.? The?law?shall?provide?for?the?definition?and?proper?safeguarding?of?the?secrecy?of?the?investigation?in?the?criminal?proceedings.?4.? Everyone?shall?have?the?right?to?have?a?cause?which?affects?him?determined?in?a?fair?trial?within?a?reasonable?time.?5.? In?order?to?defend?personal?rights,?liberties?and?guarantees,?the?law?shall?provide?citizens?with?legal?procedures?that?are?characterised?by?swiftness?and?priority,?so?that?there?is?effective?and?timely?protection?against?threats?or?violations?of?these?rights.? ARTICLE 23. OMBUDSMAN 1.? Citizens?may?present?complaints?concerning?acts?or?omissions?on?the?part?of?public?bodies?to?the?Ombudsman,?who?shall?undertake?a?review,?without?power?of? 233? UBC Press 2012decision,?and?shall?make?such?recommendations?to?the?competent?organs?as?are?necessary?to?prevent?or?make?good?injustice.?2.? The?actions?of?the?Ombudsman?shall?be?independent?of?any?acts?of?grace?or?legal?remedies?provided?for?in?this?Constitution?or?the?law.?3.? The?office?of?the?Ombudsman?shall?be?an?independent?organ;?the?Warden?of?Justice?shall?be?appointed?by?the?Assembly?of?the?Republic,?for?a?term?established?by?law.?4.? The?organs?and?personnel?of?the?Public?Service?shall?co?operate?with?the?Ombudsman?in?the?discharge?of?the?Ombudsman?s?responsibilities.?Section?II:?Rights,?Freedoms,?and?Guarantees?Chapter?II:?Rights,?Freedoms?and?Guarantees?Concerning?Participation?in?Politics?ARTICLE 52. RIGHT TO PETITION AND RIGHT TO POPULAR ACTION 3.? Everyone?shall?be?granted?the?right?of?actio?popularis,?to?include?the?right?to?apply?for?the?appropriate?compensation?for?an?aggrieved?party?or?parties,?in?such?cases?and?under?such?terms?as?the?law?may?determine,?either?personally?or?via?associations?that?purport?to?defend?the?interests?in?question.?The?said?right?shall?particularly?be?exercised?in?order?to:?a)? Promote?the?prevention,?cessation?or?judicial?prosecution?of?offences?against?public?health,?consumer?rights,?the?quality?of?life?or?the?preservation?of?the?environment?and?the?cultural?heritage;?b)? Safeguard?the?property?of?the?state,?the?autonomous?regions?and?local?authorities.?Section?III:?Economic,?Social,Chapter?II:?Social?Rights?and?Duties??and?Cultural?Rights?and?Duties?ARTICLE 64. HEALTH 1.? Everyone?has?the?right?to?have?his?or?her?health?safeguarded?and?the?duty?to?defend?and?foster?it.??2.? The?right?to?the?safeguarding?of?health?shall?be?met?by:??a.? A?national?health?service?available?to?all?and?free?of?charge?to?the?extent?that?the?economic?and?social?conditions?of?citizens?require;?b.? The?creation?of?economic,?social,?cultural?and?environmental?conditions?that?guarantee,?specifically,?the?protection?of?children,?the?young?and?the?old;?the?systematic?improvement?of?living?and?working?conditions;?the?promotion?of?physical?fitness?and?sports?in?schools?and?among?the?people;?the?development?of?health?education?for?the?people?and?practices?of?healthy?living.?? 234? UBC Press 2012ARTICLE 66. ENVIRONMENT AND QUALITY OF LIFE 1.? Everyone?has?the?right?to?a?healthy?and?ecologically?balanced?human?environment?and?the?duty?to?defend?it.?2.? In?order?to?ensure?enjoyment?of?the?right?to?the?environment?within?an?overall?framework?of?sustainable?development,?acting?via?appropriate?bodies?and?with?the?involvement?and?participation?of?citizens,?the?state?shall?be?charged?with:?a)? Preventing?and?controlling?pollution?and?its?effects?and?the?harmful?forms?of?erosion;?b)? Conducting?and?promoting?town?and?country?planning?with?a?view?to?a?correct?location?of?activities,?balanced?social?and?economic?development?and?the?enhancement?of?the?landscape;?c)? Creating?and?developing?natural?and?recreational?reserves?and?parks?and?classifying?and?protecting?landscapes?and?places,?in?such?a?way?as?to?guarantee?the?conservation?of?nature?and?the?preservation?of?cultural?values?and?assets?that?are?of?historic?or?artistic?interest;?d)? Promoting?the?rational?use?of?natural?resources,?while?safeguarding?their?ability?to?renew?themselves?and?maintain?ecological?stability,?with?respect?for?the?principle?of?inter?generational?solidarity;?e)? Acting?in?cooperation?with?local?authorities,?promoting?the?environmental?quality?of?rural?settlements?and?urban?life,?particularly?on?the?architectural?level?and?as?regards?the?protection?of?historic?zones;?f)? Promoting?the?integration?of?environmental?objectives?into?the?various?policies?of?a?sectoral?nature;?g)? Promoting?environmental?education?and?respect?for?environmental?values;?h)? Ensuring?that?tax?policy?renders?development?compatible?with?the?nt?and?the?quality?of?life.?protection?of?the?environmePart?II:?Economic?Organization?Section?I:?General?Principles?ARTICLE 81. PRIMARY DUTIES OF THE STATE In?economic?and?social?matters?the?primary?duties?of?the?State?are:?...? 235? UBC Press 2012m)?To?adopt?a?national?policy?for?energy?that?is?in?keeping?with?conservation?of?natural?resources?and?a?balanced?ecology,?while?promoting?international?co?operation?in?this?field.??n)? To?adopt?a?national?water?policy,?with?rational?use,?planning?and?management?of?water?resources.??Section?II:?Planning?ARTICLE 90. PLANNING OBJECTIVES The?objectives?of?the?plans?for?economic?and?social?development?shall?be?the?promotion?of?economic?growth,?harmonious?and?integrated?development?of?the?sectors?and?the?regions,?a?just?division?of?the?national?product?among?individuals?and?among?the?regions,?coordination?of?economic?policy?with?social,?educational?and?cultural?policies,?protection?of?rural?life,?conservation?of?the?ecological?equilibrium,?and?the?protection?of?t uguese?people.?he?environment?and?the?quality?of?life?of?the?PortPart?III:?Organization?of?Political?Power?Section?V:?The?Courts?Chapter?I:?General?Principles?ARTICLE 202 1.? The?courts?are?the?organs?with?supreme?authority?that?have?the?power?to?administer?justice?in?the?name?of?the?people.?2.? In?administering?justice,?the?courts?are?under?a?duty?to?safeguard?the?rights?and?interests?of?citizens?that?are?legally?protected,?to?punish?breaches?of?democratic?legality?and?to?resolve?public?and?private?disputes.?Source: http://app.parlamento.pt/site_antigo/ingles/cons_leg/Constitution_VII_revisao_definitive. pdf 236? UBC Press 2012Qatar (2003) Chapter?II:?The?Basic?Pillars?of?the?Society?ARTICLE 29 Natural?wealth?and?resources?are?the?property?of?the?State.?It?shall?preserve?these?and?maintain?an?optimal?utilisation?from?them?in?accordance?with?the?provisions?of?the?law.? ARTICLE 33 The?State?shall?work?to?protect?the?environment?and?ecological?balance?so?as?to?achieve?com ?for?the?generations?to?come.?prehensive?and?sustainable?developmentChapter?IV:?Organization?of?Authorities?Part?V:?Judicial?Authority?ARTICLE 135 Litigation?is?a?right?secured?and?preserved?for?the?people.?The?law?shall?define?procedures?and?situations?of?practising?this?right.? ARTICLE 140 The?law?shall?define?the?judicial?agency?that?is?authorised?to?settle?disputes?related?to?constitutional?validity?of?laws?and?regulations;?define?its?authority,?and?means?of?appeal?and?regulations?that?should?be?followed?before?this?agency.?The?law?shall?also?define?the?effect?of?a?sentence?declaring?an?act?as?unconstitutional.?Source: http://www.qatarembassy.net/constitution.asp  237? UBC Press 2012Romania (2003)  Tit Freedoms,?and?Duties?le?II:?Fundamental?Rights,?Chapter?I:?Common?Provisions?ARTICLE 21. FREE ACCESS TO JUSTICE (1)? Every?person?is?entitled?to?bring?cases?before?the?courts?for?the?defence?of?his?legitimate?rights,?liberties?and?interests.?(2)? The?exercise?of?this?right?shall?not?be?restricted?by?any?law.?(3)?All?parties?shall?be?entitled?to?a?fair?trial?and?a?solution?of?their?cases?within?a?reasonable?term.?(4)? ?free?of?charge.?Administrative?special?jurisdiction?is?optional?andChapter?II:?Fundamental?Rights?and?Freedoms?ARTICLE 35. RIGHT TO A HEALTHY ENVIRONMENT (1)? The?State?recognizes?the?right?of?every?person?to?a?healthy,?well?preserved?and?balanced?environment.?(2)? The?State?shall?provide?the?legislative?framework?for?the?exercise?of?such?right.?(3)?Natural?and?legal?persons?have?a?duty?to?protect?and?improve?the?environment.??ARTICLE 44. RIGHT TO PRIVATE PROPERTY (7)? The?right?to?own?property?implies?an?obligation?to?comply?with?duties?relating?to?environmental?protection?and?ensuring?good?neighborliness,?as?well?as?of?other?duties?incumbent?upon?the?property?owner,?in?accordance?with?the?law?or?tradition.??ARTICLE 53. RESTRICTION ON THE EXERCISE OF CERTAIN RIGHTS OR FREEDOMS (1)??The?exercise?of?certain?rights?or?freedoms?may?only?be?restricted?by?law,?and?only?if?necessary,?as?the?case?may?be,?for:?the?defence?of?national?security,?of?public?order,?health,?or?morals,?of?the?citizens??rights?and?freedoms;?conducting?a?criminal?investigation;?preventing?the?consequences?of?a?natural?calamity,?disaster,?or?an?extremely?severe?catastrophe.?(2)??Such?restriction?shall?only?be?ordered?if?necessary?in?a?democratic?society.?The?measure?shall?be?proportional?to?the?situation?having?caused?it,?applied?without?g?on?the?existence?of?such?right?or?freedom.?discrimination,?and?without?infringinChapter?IV:?Advocate?of?the?People?ARTICLE 58. APPOINTMENT AND ROLE (1)? The?Advocate?of?the?People?shall?be?appointed?for?a?term?of?office?of?5?years,?in?order?to?defend?the?natural?persons??rights?and?freedoms.?The?Advocate?of?the?People?s?deputies?shall?be?specialized?per?fields?of?activity.? 238? UBC Press 2012(2)? The?Advocate?of?the?People?and?his/her?deputies?shall?not?perform?any?other?public?or?private?office,?except?for?teaching?positions?in?higher?education.?(3)? The?organization?and?functioning?of?the?Advocate?of?the?People?institution?shall?be?regulated?by?an?organic?law.?  ARTICLE 59. EXERCISE OF POWERS (1)? The?Advocate?of?the?People?shall?exercise?his?powers?ex?officio?or?at?the?request?of?persons?aggrieved?in?their?rights?and?freedoms,?within?the?limits?established?by?law.?(2)? It?is?binding?upon?the?public?authorities?to?give?the?Advocate?of?the?People?the?necessary?support?in?the?exercise?of?his?powers.?  ARTICLE 60. REPORT BEFORE PARLIAMENT The?Advocate?of?the?People?shall?report?before?the?two?Parliament?Chambers,?annually?or?at?the?request?thereof.?The?reports?my?contain?recommendations?on?legislation?or?m ?the?citizens??rights?and?freedoms.?easures?of?any?other?nature?for?the?defence?ofTitle?IV:?Economy?and?Public?Finance?ARTICLE 135.2  The?state?is?expected?to?secure:?...?(d)? the?exploitation?of?natural?resources?in?accordance?with?the?national?interest?(e)? the?restoration?and?protection?of?the?environment,?as?well?as?the?preservation?of?ecological?balance;?...?Source: http://www.cdep.ro/pls/dic/site.page?id=371 239? UBC Press 2012Russian Federation (1993) Preamble?...?proceeding?from?a?sense?of?responsibility?for?our?Fatherland?before?the?present?and?future?generations?...?Chapter?I:?The?Foundations?of?the?Constitutional?Order?ARTICLE 9 The?land?and?other?natural?resources?shall?be?used?and?protected?in?the?Russian?Federation?as?the?basis?of?the?life?and?activity?of?the?peoples?living?on?their?respective?territories.??Chapter?II:?Rights?and?Freedoms?of?Man?and?Citizen?ARTICLE 18 The?rights?and?freedoms?of?man?and?citizen?shall?be?directly?operative.?They?determine?the?essence,?meaning?and?implementation?of?laws,?the?activities?of?the?legislative?and?executive?authorities,?local?self?government?and?shall?be?ensured?by?the?administration?of?justice.? ARTICLE 36 1.? Citizens?and?their?associations?shall?have?the?right?to?have?land?in?their?private?ownership.??2.? The?possession,?use?and?management?of?the?land?and?other?natural?resources?shall?be?freely?exercised?by?their?owners?provided?this?does?not?cause?damage?to?the?environment?or?infringe?upon?the?rights?and?interests?of?other?persons.??ARTICLE 42 Everyone?shall?have?the?right?to?a?favorable?environment,?reliable?information?about?its?condition?and?to?compensation?for?the?damage?caused?to?his?or?her?health?or?property?by?violations?of?environmental?laws.? ARTICLE 46 1.? Everyone?shall?be?guaranteed?judicial?protection?of?his?rights?and?freedoms.?2.? Decisions?and?actions?(or?inaction)?of?bodies?of?state?authority?and?local?self?government,?public?associations?and?officials?may?be?appealed?against?in?court.?3.? Everyone?shall?have?the?right?to?appeal,?according?to?international?treaties?of?the?Russian?Federation,?to?international?bodies?for?the?protection?of?human?rights?and?freedoms,?if?all?the?existing?internal?state?means?of?legal?protection?have?been?exhausted.? 240? UBC Press 2012ARTICLE 48 1.? Everyone?shall?be?guaranteed?the?right?to?qualified?legal?assistance.?In?cases?envisaged?by?law?the?legal?assistance?shall?be?free.?...? ARTICLE 55 1.? The?listing?in?the?Constitution?of?the?Russian?Federation?of?the?fundamental?rights?and?freedoms?shall?not?be?interpreted?as?a?rejection?or?derogation?of?other?universally?recognized?human?rights?and?freedoms.?2.? In?the?Russian?Federation?no?laws?shall?be?adopted?cancelling?or?derogating?human?rights?and?freedoms.?3.? The?rights?and?freedoms?of?man?and?citizen?may?be?limited?by?the?federal?law?only?to?such?an?extent?to?which?it?is?necessary?for?the?protection?of?the?fundamental?principles?of?the?constitutional?system,?morality,?health,?the?rights?and?lawful?interests?of?other?people,?for?ensuring?defence?of?the?country?and?security?of?the?State.? ARTICLE 56 1.? In?conditions?of?a?state?of?emergency?in?order?to?ensure?the?safety?of?citizens?and?the?protection?of?the?constitutional?system?and?in?accordance?with?the?federal?constitutional?law?certain?limitations?may?be?placed?on?human?rights?and?freedoms?with?the?establishment?of?their?framework?and?time?period.?2.? A?state?of?emergency?may?be?introduced?in?the?whole?territory?of?the?Russian?Federation?and?in?its?certain?parts?in?case?there?are?circumstances?and?according?to?the?rules?fixed?by?the?federal?constitutional?law.?3.? The?rights?and?freedoms?envisaged?in?Articles?20,?21,?23?(the?first?part),?24,?28,?34?(the?first?part),?40?(the?first?part),?46?54?of?the?Constitution?of?the?Russian?Federation,?shall?not?be?liable?to?limitations.? ARTICLE 58  Everyone?shall?be?obliged?to?preserve?nature?and?the?environment,?and?to?treat?natural?resources?with?care.?Chapter?7:?Judicial?Power?ARTICLE 125 4.? The?Constitution?Court?of?the?Russian?Federation,?upon?complaints?about?violations?of?constitutional?rights?and?freedoms?of?citizens?and?upon?court?requests?shall?check,?according?to?the?rules?fixed?by?the?federal?law,?the?constitutional?of?a?law?applied?or?subject?to?be?applied?in?a?concrete?case.?Source: http://www.constitution.ru/en/10003000-01.htm  241? UBC Press 2012Rwanda?(2003) Title?II:?Fundamental?Rights?of?the?Person?and?the?Rights?and?Duties?of?the?Citizen?Chapter?I:?Fundamental?Human?Rights??ARTICLE 43 In?the?exercise?of?rights?and?enjoyment?of?freedoms,?every?person?shall?only?be?subjected?to?the?limitations?set?by?the?law?in?order?to?ensure?the?recognition?and?respect?of?others??rights?and?freedoms,?good?morals,?public?order?and?social?welfare?which?characterize?a?democratic?society.? ARTICLE 44 The?judiciary?as?the?guardian?of?rights?and?freedoms?of?the?public?ensures?respect?ther ?law.?eof?in?accordance?with?procedures?determined?byChapter?II:?The?Rights?and?Duties?of?the?Citizen?ARTICLE 49 Every?citizen?is?entitled?to?a?healthy?and?satisfying?environment.?Every?person?has?the?duty?to?protect,?safeguard?and?promote?the?environment.?The?State?shall?protect?the?environment.?The?law?determines?the?modalities?for?protecting,?safeguarding,?and?promoting?the?environment.?Title?VIII:?Special?Commissions?and?Organs?Chapter?II:?The?National?Commission?for?Human?Rights?ARTICLE 177 The?National?Commission?for?Human?Rights?shall?be?an?independent?national?institution.?Its?responsibilities?shall?include?the?following:??? educating?and?mobilizing?the?population?on?matters?relating?to?human?rights;??? examining?the?violations?of?human?rights?committed?on?Rwandan?territory?by?State?organs,?public?officials?using?their?duties?as?cover,?by?organizations?and?by?individuals;??? carrying?out?investigations?of?human?rights?abuses?in?Rwanda?and?filing?complaints?in?respect?thereof?with?the?competent?courts;??? preparing?and?disseminating?an?annual?and?other?reports?as?may?be?necessary?on?the?situation?of?human?rights?in?Rwanda;? 242? UBC Press 2012?The?National?Commission?for?Human?Rights?submits?each?year?its?program?and?activity?report?to?the?Parliament?and?provides?copies?thereof?to?such?State?organs?as?may?be?determined?by?a?law.?Source: http://www.chr.up.ac.za/index.php/documents-by-country-database/rwanda.html 243? UBC Press 2012San Marino (1974)6 Declaration?of?Citizen?Rights?The?Republic?protects?the?historic?and?artistic?heritage?and?the?natural?environment.                                                 6?The?Constitution?of?San?Marino?is?distributed?over?a?number?of?legislative?instruments?of?which?the?most?significant?are?the?Statutes?of?1600?and?the?Declaration?of?Citizen?Rights?of?1974,?amended?in?2002.? 244? UBC Press 2012S )?ao Tome and Principe?(1990Part?I:?Principles?and?Objectives?ARTICLE 10. PRIME OBJECTIVES OF THE STATE Prime?objectives?of?the?state?are:?...?c)? Preserve?the?harmonious?balance?of?nature?and?of?the?environment.?Part?II:?Fundamental?Rights?and?Social?Order?Title?I:?General?Principles?ARTICLE 17. SCOPE AND MEANING OF RIGHTS 1.? The?rights?consecrated?in?this?Constitution?do?not?exclude?any?which?might?be?foreseen?in?laws?or?rules?of?international?law??? ARTICLE 18. RESTRICTION AND SUSPENSION 1.? The?exercise?of?fundamental?rights?only?can?be?restricted?in?cases?foreseen?in?the?Constitution?and?suspended?during?the?validity?of?a?state?of?siege?or?state?of?emergency?declared?in?the?terms?of?the?Constitution?and?of?the?law.?2.? No?restriction?or?suspension?of?rights?may?be?established?for?longer?than?is?strictly?necessary.? ARTICLE 20. ACCESS TO THE COURTS Every?citizen?has?the?right?of?resorting?to?the?courts?against?acts?which?violate?his?rights?recognized?by?the?Constitution?and?by?the?law,?justice?not?being?deniable?for?insufficiency?of?economic?means.? ARTICLE 21. OBLIGATIONS AND LIMITS TO RIGHTS The?citizens?have?obligations?with?respect?to?society?and?the?State,?not?being?able?to?exercise?their?rights?through?violation?of?the?rights?of?other?citizens,?and?not?respecting?the?just?demands?of?morality,?of?public?order,?and?of?national?independence?defined?in?the?law.?Title?III:?Social?Rights?and?Economic,?Social,?and?Cultural?Order?ARTICLE 49. HOUSING AND ENVIRONMENT  1.? All?have?the?right?to?housing?and?to?a?healthy?environment?and?the?duty?to?defend?it.??? 245? UBC Press 2012ARTICLE 50. RIGHT TO HEALTH CARE 2.? In?accordance?with?the?National?System?of?Health,?it?is?incumbent?upon?the?State?to?promote?the?Public?Health?which?has?as?objectives?the?physical?and?mental?well?being?of?the?population?and?their?balanced?fitting?into?the?socio?ecological?environment?in?which?they?live.?Part?III:?Organization?of?Political?Power?Title?V:?The?Courts?ARTICLE 103. JURISDICTIONAL FUNCTION 1.? The?courts?are?sovereign?organs?with?competence?to?administer?justice?in?the?name?of?the?people.?2.? In?the?administration?of?justice?it?is?incumbent?upon?the?courts?to?assure?the?defense?of?the?legally?protected?rights?of?the?citizens,?to?settle?public?and?private?conflicts?of?interest?and?to?repress?the?violation?of?the?laws.? ARTICLE 107. PARTICIPATION OF THE PEOPLE The?law?presupposes?and?stimulates?appropriate?forms?of?popular?participation?in?the?administration?of?justice.?Source: (Portuguese) http://www.parlamento.st/  246? UBC Press 2012udi Arabia (1992) Chapter?V:?Rights?and?Duties?SaARTICLE 32. ENVIRONMENT, NATURE The?state?works?for?the?preservation,?protection,?and?improvement?of?the?environment,?and?for?the?prevention?of?pollution.? ARTICLE 43. ROYAL COURTS The?King?s?Court?and?that?of?the?Crown?Prince?shall?be?open?to?all?citizens?and?to?anyone?who?has?a?complaint?or?a?plea?against?an?injustice.?Every?individual?shall?have?a?right?to?address?the?public?authorities?in?all?matters?affecting?him.?Source: http://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/sa00000_.html 247? UBC Press 2012Senegal (2001) Title?II:?The?Public?Freedoms?and?Freedoms?of?the?Human?Person?Economic?and?Social?and?Collective?Rights?ARTICLE 8 The?government?of?Senegal?guarantees?to?all?citizens?the?fundamental?individual?liberties,?economic?and?social?rights,?as?well?as?collective?rights.?These?liberties?and?rights?include:????? the?right?to?a?healthy?environment????These?freedoms?and?these?rights?are?exercised?within?the?conditions?provided?by?the?law.?Title?VII:?Relations?Between?the?Legislative?Power?and?the?Executive?Power?ARTICLE 67 The?National?Assembly?holds?the?legislative?power.?It?alone?votes?the?law.?The?law?establishes?the?rules?concerning:??? civil?rights?and?the?fundamental?guarantees?accorded?to?citizens?for?the?exercise?of?public?freedoms;??? ARTICLE 70 The?declaration?of?war?is?authorized?by?the?National?Assembly.?The?rights?and?duties?of?citizens,?during?the?war?or?in?case?of?invasion?or?attack?of?the?national?territory?by?forces?f of?an?organic?law.?rom?the?exterior,?are?the?object?Title?VIII:?Judicial?Power?ARTICLE 91 The?judicial?power?is?the?guardian?of?the?rights?and?freedoms?defined?by?the?Constitution?and?the?law.?Source: http://www.chr.up.ac.za/index.php/documents-by-country-database/senegal.html 248? UBC Press 2012Serbia (2006) Pa ts?and?Freedoms?rt?II:?Human?and?Minority?RighSection?1:?Fundamental?Principles?ARTICLE 18. DIRECT IMPLEMENTATION OF GUARANTEED RIGHTS Human?and?minority?rights?guaranteed?by?the?Constitution?shall?be?implemented?directly.?The?Constitution?shall?guarantee,?and?as?such,?directly?implement?human?and?minority?rights?guaranteed?by?the?generally?accepted?rules?of?international?law,?ratified?international?treaties?and?laws.?The?law?may?prescribe?the?manner?of?exercising?these?rights?only?if?explicitly?stipulated?in?the?Constitution?or?necessary?to?exercise?a?specific?right?owing?to?its?nature,?whereby?the?law?may?not?under?any?circumstances?influence?the?substance?of?the?relevant?guaranteed?right.?Provisions?on?human?and?minority?rights?shall?be?interpreted?to?the?benefit?of?promoting?values?of?a?democratic?society,?pursuant?to?valid?international?standards?in?human?and?minority?rights,?as?well?as?the?practice?of?international?institutions?which?supervise?their?implementation.? ARTICLE 20. RESTRICTION OF HUMAN AND MINORITY RIGHTS Human?and?minority?rights?guaranteed?by?the?Constitution?may?be?restricted?by?the?law?if?the?Constitution?permits?such?restriction?and?for?the?purpose?allowed?by?the?Constitution,?to?the?extent?necessary?to?meet?the?constitutional?purpose?of?restriction?in?a?democratic?society?and?without?encroaching?upon?the?substance?of?the?relevant?guaranteed?right.?Attained?level?of?human?and?minority?rights?may?not?be?lowered.?When?restricting?human?and?minority?rights,?all?state?bodies,?particularly?the?courts,?shall?be?obliged?to?consider?the?substance?of?the?restricted?right,?pertinence?of?restriction,?nature?and?extent?of?restriction,?relation?of?restriction?and?its?purpose?and?possibility?to?achieve?the?purpose?of?the?restriction?with?less?restrictive?means.? ARTICLE 22. PROTECTION OF HUMAN AND MINORITY RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS Everyone?shall?have?the?right?to?judicial?protection?when?any?of?their?human?or?minority?rights?guaranteed?by?the?Constitution?have?been?violated?or?denied,?they?shall?also?have?the?right?to?elimination?of?consequences?arising?from?the?violation.?The?citizens?shall?have?the?right?to?address?international?institutions?in?order?to?protect?their?freedoms?and?rights?guaranteed?by?the?Constitution.? ARTICLE 36. RIGHT TO EQUAL PROTECTION OF RIGHTS AND LEGAL REMEDY Equal?protection?of?rights?before?courts?and?other?state?bodies,?entities?exercising?public?powers?and?bodies?of?the?autonomous?province?or?local?self?government?shall?be?guaranteed.? 249? UBC Press 2012Everyone?shall?have?the?right?to?an?appeal?or?other?legal?remedy?against?any?decision?on?his?rights,?obligations?or?lawful?interests.?Section?2:?Human?Rights?and?Freedoms?ARTICLE 74. HEALTHY ENVIRONMENT Everyone?shall?have?the?right?to?healthy?environment?and?the?right?to?timely?and?full?information?about?the?state?of?environment.?Everyone,?especially?the?Republic?of?Serbia?and?autonomous?provinces,?shall?be?accountable?for?the?protection?of?environment.?E ent.?veryone?shall?be?obliged?to?preserve?and?improve?the?environmPart?III:?The?Economic?System?and?Public?Finances?Section?1:?Economic?System??ARTICLE 83. FREEDOM OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP Entrepreneurship?shall?be?permitted.?Entrepreneurship?may?be?restricted?by?the?Law,?for?the?purpose?of?protection?of?people?s?health,?environment?and?natural?goods?and?security?of?the?Republic?of?Serbia.? ARTICLE 88. LAND Utilisation?and?management?of?agricultural?land,?forest?land?and?municipal?building?land?on?private?assets?shall?be?permitted.?The?Law?may?restrict?the?models?of?utilisation?and?management,?that?is?stipulate?terms?of?utilisation?and?management,?in?order?to?eliminate?the?danger?of?causing?damage?to?environment?or?prevent?violation?of?rights?and?legally?based?interests?of?other?persons.? ARTICLE 89. PROTECTION OF HERITAGE Everyone?shall?be?obliged?to?protect?natural?rarities?and?scientific,?cultural?and?historic??in?accordance?with?the?Law.?heritage,?as?well?as?goods?of?public?interestPa overnment?rt?V:?Organization?of?GSection?5:?Civic?Defender?ARTICLE 138 The?Civic?Defender?shall?be?the?independent?state?body?who?shall?protect?citizens??rights?and?monitor?the?work?of?public?administration?bodies,?the?body?in?charge?of?legal?protection?of?proprietary?rights?and?interests?of?the?Republic?of?Serbia,?as?well?as?other?bodies?and?organisations,?companies?and?institutions?to?which?public?powers?have?been?delegated.? 250? UBC Press 2012The?Civic?Defender?shall?not?be?authorised?to?monitor?the?work?of?the?National?Assembly,?President?of?the?Republic,?Government,?Constitutional?Court,?courts?and?Public?Prosecutor?s?Offices.?The?Civic?Defender?shall?be?elected?and?dismissed?by?the?National?Assembly,?in?accordance?with?the?Constitution?and?Law.?The?Civic?Defender?shall?account?for?his/her?work?to?the?National?Assembly.?The?Civic?Defender?shall?enjoy?immunity?as?a?deputy.?The?National?Assembly?shall?decide?on?the?immunity?of?the?Civic?Defender.?The?Law?on?the?Civic?Defender?shall?be?enacted.?Source: http://www.srbija.gov.rs/cinjenice_o_srbiji/ustav.php?change_lang=en 251? UBC Press 2012Seychelles (1993) Preamble??We,?the?people?of?Seychelles,?GRATEFUL?to?Almighty?God?that?we?inhabit?one?of?the?most?beautiful?countries?in?the?world;?EVER?MINDFUL?of?the?uniqueness?and?fragility?of?Seychelles;????SOLEMNLY?DECLARING?our?unswaying?commitment,?during?this?our?Third?Republic,?to???help?preserve?a?safe,?healthy?and?functioning?environment?for?ourselves?and?y.????for?posteritChapter?III?Part?I:?Seychelloise?Charter?of?Human?Rights?and?Freedoms?ARTICLE 38. RIGHT TO SAFE ENVIRONMENT  The?State?recognises?the?right?of?every?person?to?live?in?and?enjoy?a?clean,?healthy?and?ecologically?balanced?environment?and?with?a?view?to?ensuring?the?effective?realisation?of?this?right?the?State?undertakes:?(a)? to?take?measures?to?promote?the?protection,?preservation?and?improvement?of?the?environment;?(b)? to?ensure?a?sustainable?socioeconomic?development?of?Seychelles?by?a?judicious?use?and?management?of?the?resources?of?Seychelles;?(c)? to?promote?public?awareness?of?the?need?to?protect,?preserve?and?ent.?improve?the?environmPart?II:?Fundamental?Duties?ARTICLE 40. FUNDAMENTAL DUTIES  It?shall?be?the?duty?of?every?citizen?of?Seychelles??...?(e)? to?protect,?preserve?and?improve?thPart?III:?State?of?Emergency?and?Savings?e?environment.?ARTICLE 41. DECLARATION OF STATE OF EMERGENCY 1.? The?President?may,?where?the?President?has?reason?to?believe?that??(a)? a?grave?threat?to?national?security?or?public?order?has?arisen?or?is?imminent;?or?(b)? a?grave?civil?emergency?has?arisen?or?is?imminent?in?Seychelles?or?in?any?part?of?Seychelles,?? 252? UBC Press 2012by?a?Proclamation?published?in?the?Gazette,?declare?that?a?state?of?emergency?exists?in?Seychelles?or?that?part?of?Seychelles,?as?the?case?may?be.? ARTICLE 43. RESTRICTIONS OF RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS DURING A PERIOD OF PUBLIC EMERGENCY 1.? This?Article?shall?apply?during?any?period?of?public?emergency.?2.? Notwithstanding?this?Chapter?but?subject?to?clause?(3),?a?law?may?provide?for?the?taking?during?a?period?of?public?emergency?of?such?measures?as?are?strictly?required?to?meet?the?exigencies?of?the?situation.?3.? A?law?referred?to?in?clause?(2)?shall?not?provide?for?the?taking?of?measures?that?are?rticles?15,?16,?17,?18(3),?19(2)?to?(6)?and?(11),?21?and?27.?inconsistent?with?APart?IV:?Remedies?ARTICLE 46. REMEDIES FOR INFRINGEMENT OF THE CHARTER 1.? A?person?who?claims?that?a?provision?of?this?Charter?has?been?or?is?likely?to?be?contravened?in?relation?to?the?person?by?any?law,?act?or?omission?may,?subject?to?this?Article,?apply?to?the?Constitutional?Court?for?redress.?2.? An?application?under?clause?(1)?may,?where?the?Constitutional?Court?is?satisfied?that?the?person?whose?right?or?freedom?has?been?or?is?likely?to?be?contravened?is?unable?to?do?so,?be?made?by?another?person?acting?on?behalf?of?that?person,?with?or?without?that?person?s?authority.?3.? The?Constitutional?Court?may?decline?to?entertain?an?application?under?clause?(1)?where?the?court?is?satisfied?that?the?applicant?has?obtained?redress?for?the?contravention?under?any?law?and?where?the?applicant?has?obtained?redress?in?the?Constitutional?Court?for?any?matter?for?which?an?application?may?be?made?under?clause?(1),?a?court?shall?not?entertain?any?application?for?redress?for?such?matter?except?on?appeal?from?a?decision?of?such?court.?4.? Where?the?Constitutional?Court?on?an?application?under?clause?(1)?is?satisfied?that?adequate?means?of?redress?for?the?contravention?alleged?are?or?have?been?available?to?the?person?concerned?in?any?other?court?under?any?other?law,?the?Court?may?hear?the?application?or?transfer?the?application?to?the?appropriate?court?for?grant?of?redress?in?accordance?with?law.?5.? Upon?hearing?of?an?application?under?clause?(1)?the?Constitutional?Court?may??(a)? declare?any?act?or?Omission?which?is?the?subject?of?the?application?to?be?a?contravention?of?the?Charter;?(b)?declare?any?law?or?the?provision?of?any?law?which?contravenes?the?Charter?void;?(c)? make?such?declaration?or?order,?issue?such?writ?and?give?such?directions?as?it?may?consider?appropriate?for?the?purpose?of?enforcing?or?securing?the?enforcement?of?the?Charter?and?disposing?of?all?the?issues?relating?to?the?application;? 253? UBC Press 2012(d)?award?any?damages?for?the?purpose?of?compensating?the?person?concerned?for?any?damages?suffered;?(e)?make?such?additional?order?under?this?Constitution?or?as?may?be?prescribed?by?law.?6.? Where?the?Constitutional?Court?makes?a?declaration?under?clause?(5)(b)?the?Court?shall,?subject?to?any?decision?in?appeal?therefrom,?send?a?copy?of?the?declaration?to?the?President?and?the?Speaker.?7.? Where?in?the?course?of?any?proceedings?in?any?court,?other?than?the?Constitutional?Court?or?the?Court?of?Appeal,?a?question?arises?with?regard?to?whether?there?has?been?or?is?likely?to?be?a?contravention?of?the?Charter,?the?court?shall,?if?it?is?satisfied?that?the?question?is?not?frivolous?or?vexatious?or?has?already?been?the?subject?of?a?decision?of?the?Constitutional?Court?or?the?Court?of?Appeal,?immediately?adjourn?the?proceedings?and?refer?the?question?for?determination?by?the?Constitutional?Court.?8.? Where?in?an?application?under?clause?(1)?or?where?a?matter?is?referred?to?the?Constitutional?Court?under?clause?(7),?the?person?alleging?the?contravention?or?risk?of?contravention?establishes?a?prima?facie?case,?the?burden?of?proving?that?there?has?not?been?a?contravention?or?risk?of?contravention?shall,?where?the?allegation?is?against?the?State,?be?on?the?State.?9.? The?court?in?which?the?question?referred?to?in?clause?(7)?arose?shall?dispose?of?the?case?in?accordance?with?the?decision?of?the?Constitutional?Court,?or?if?that?decision?is?the?subject?of?an?appeal?to?the?Court?of?Appeal,?in?accordance?with?the?decision?of?the?Court?of?Appeal.?10.?The?Chief?Justice?may?make?rules?for?the?purpose?of?this?Article?with?respect?to?the?practice?and?procedure?of?the?Constitutional?Court?in?relation?to?the?jurisdiction?and?power?conferred?upon?it?by?or?under?this?Article,?including?rules?with?respect?to?the?reference?may?be?made?or?brought.?time?within?which?an?application?or?a?Part?IV:?Principles?of?Interpretation?ARTICLE 47. SCOPE OF EXCEPTIONS Where?a?right?or?freedom?contained?in?this?Charter?is?subject?to?any?limitation,?restriction?or?qualification,?that?limitation,?restriction?or?qualification??(a)? shall?have?no?wider?effect?than?is?strictly?necessary?in?the?circumstances;?and?(b)? shall?not?be?applied?for?any?purpose?other?than?that?for?which?it?.?has?been?prescribedChapter?X:?Ombudsman?ARTICLE 143. OMBUDSMAN 1.? There?shall?be?an?Ombudsman?who?shall?be?appointed?by?the?President?from?candidates?proposed?by?the?Constitutional?Appointments?Authority.??? 254? UBC Press 20125 with?regard?to?the?Ombudsman.?.? Schedule?5?shall?have?effect?Schedule?5.?Ombudsman?1.? Subject?to?this?Schedule,?the?Ombudsman?may?(a)? investigate?an?action?taken?by?a?public?authority?or?the?President,?Minister,?officer?or?member?of?the?public?authority,?being?action?taken?in?the?exercise?of?the?administrative?functions?of?the?public?authority?in?the?circumstances?specified?in?subparagraph?(2);?(b)? investigate?an?allegation?of?fraud?or?corruption?in?connection?with?the?exercise?by?a?person?of?a?function?of?a?public?authority;?(c)? assist?an?individual?complainant?in?respect?of?legal?proceedings?in?relation?to?a?contravention?of?the?provisions?of?the?Charter;?(d)?with?leave?of?the?Court?hearing?proceedings?relating?to?a?contravention?of?the?provisions?of?the?Charter,?become?a?party?to?the?proceedings;?(e)? initiate?proceedings?relating?to?the?constitutionality?of?a?law?or?of?the?provisions?of?a?law.?Source: http://www.ecs.sc/resources/Constitution_.pdf 255? UBC Press 2012Slovak Republic (1992,?amended?in?2001) Title?One?Section?One:?General?Provisions?ARTICLE 4 Raw?materials,?underground?water,?natural?and?thermal?springs?and?streams?are?the?property?of?the?Slovak?Republic.? ARTICLE 11 International?instruments?on?human?rights?and?freedoms?ratified?by?the?Slovak?Republic?and?promulgated?under?statutory?requirements?shall?take?precedence?over?national?laws?provided?that?the?international?treaties?and?agreements?guarantee?greater?constitutional?rights?and?freedoms.? ARTICLE 13 (1)?No?obligations?shall?be?imposed?on?individuals?unless?such?obligations?are?in?accordance?with?the?law?and?respect?fundamental?rights?and?freedoms.?(2)? Limitation?of?fundamental?rights?and?freedoms?shall?be?imposed?only?under?the?conditions?set?forth?in?this?Constitution.?(3)? Restrictions?of?constitutional?rights?and?freedoms?shall?be?applied?equally?and?consistently?in?all?similar?cases.?(4)?When?imposing?restrictions?on?constitutional?rights?and?freedoms,?respect?must?be?given?to?the?essence?and?meaning?of?these?rights?and?freedoms?and?such?restrictions?shall?be?used?only?for?specifically?defined?purposes.?Title?Two:?Fundamental?Rights?and?Freedoms?Section?Two:?Basic?Human?Rights?and?Freedoms?ARTICLE 20 (1)? Everyone?has?the?right?to?own?property?...??(3)?Ownership?includes?obligations.?Property?may?not?be?used?to?cause?injury?to?another?person?or?in?contradiction?to?the?other?public?interests?protected?by?law.?The?exercise?of?ownership?must?not?be?detrimental?to?human?health,?wildlife,?cultural?monuments,?or?the?environment?beyond?the?standards?set?by?law.? ARTICLE 23 (1)? Freedom?of?movement?and?residence?shall?be?guaranteed.?(2)? Everyone?residing?legally?in?the?Slovak?Republic?has?the?right?to?leave?the?country.? 256? UBC Press 2012(3)? Freedoms?defined?in?sections?(1)?and?(2)?of?this?Article?may?be?limited?by?law?only?if?such?limits?are?necessary?in?order?to?protect?national?security,?public?order,?the?health,?rights?and?freedoms?of?other?people,?or?in?order?to?protect?the?environment?in?designated?areas.??Section?Six:?Environmental?Rights?and?Cultural?Heritage?ARTICLE 44 (1)? Everyone?has?the?right?to?a?favourable?environment.?(2)? Everyone?is?obliged?to?protect?and?enhance?the?environment?and?the?cultural?heritage.?(3)?No?one?must?endanger?or?damage?the?environment,?natural?resources,?and?the?cultural?heritage?beyond?the?extent?established?by?law.?(4)? The?State?shall?be?responsible?for?the?economical?use?of?natural?resources,?an?ecological?balance?and?an?effective?environmental?policy?and?safeguarding?the?protection?of?certain?kinds?of?plants?and?wildlife.???ARTICLE 45  Everyone?has?the?right?to?timely?and?complete?information?about?the?state?of?the?environment?and?the?causes?and?consequences?of?its?condition.?Section?Seven:?Right?to?Judicial?and?Other?Legal?Protection?ARTICLE 46 (1)? Every?person?may?claim?his?or?her?right?by?procedures?established?by?law?at?an?independent?and?impartial?court?of?law?or?other?public?authority?of?the?Slovak?Republic?in?cases?specified?by?law.?(2)?Any?person?who?claims?to?have?been?denied?his?or?her?rights?through?a?decision?made?by?a?public?authority?may?turn?to?a?court?of?law?to?have?the?legality?of?the?decision?reviewed,?unless?otherwise?provided?by?law.?The?review?of?decisions?in?matters?of?fundamental?rights?and?freedoms?shall?not?be?excluded?from?the?jurisdiction?of?courts?of?law.?(3)? Every?person?shall?have?the?right?to?recover?damages?for?a?loss?caused?by?an?unlawful?decision?of?the?court,?a?governmental?or?public?authority?or?by?improper?official?procedure.?(4)?Details?and?terms?of?the?judicial?and?other?legal?protection?shall?be?regulated?by?law.?Section?Eight:?Common?Provisions?for?Titles?One?and?Two?ARTICLE 51 (1)? The?rights?referred?to?in?Article?35,?Article?36,?Article?37,?paragraph?4,?Articles?38?to?42,?and?Articles?44?to?46?of?this?Constitution?may?be?claimed?only?within?the?confines?of?the?laws?implementing?these?provisions.? 257? UBC Press 2012Title?Seven:?Judicial?Power?Section?One:?The?Constitutional?Court?of?the?Slovak?Republic?ARTICLE 127 (1)? The?Constitutional?Court?decides?on?complaints?by?natural?persons?or?legal?entities?alleging?a?violation?of?their?basic?rights?and?freedoms,?or?of?their?basic?rights?and?freedoms?resulting?from?an?international?treaty?ratified?by?the?Slovak?Republic?and?promulgated?in?a?manner?laid?down?by?law,?unless?another?court?is?competent?to?make?a?determination?on?the?protection?of?these?rights?and?freedoms.?(2)? If?the?Constitutional?Court?grants?the?complaint,?it?shall?state?in?its?decision?that?the?disputed?final?decision,?measure,?or?other?act?violated?the?rights?or?freedoms?pursuant?to?paragraph?1,?and?shall?annul?such?decision,?measure,?or?other?act.?If?the?violation?of?rights?or?freedoms?pursuant?to?paragraph?1?has?arisen?due?to?the?inactivity?of?the?other?party,?the?Constitutional?Court?may?order?it?to?act?on?the?issue.?The?Constitutional?Court?may?at?the?same?time?return?the?case?for?reconsideration,?prohibit?further?violations?of?basic?rights?and?freedoms?or?human?rights?and?fundamental?freedoms?resulting?from?an?international?treaty?ratified?by?the?Slovak?Republic?and?promulgated?in?a?manner?laid?down?by?law,?or,?if?possible,?order?the?restoration?of?the?situation?which?existed?prior?to?the?violation.?(3)? The?Constitutional?Court?may?in?its?decision?on?the?merits?award?an?appropriate?financial?compensation?to?the?person?whose?rights?pursuant?to?paragraph?1?were?violated.?(4)? Liability?of?the?party?that?violated?the?rights?or?freedoms?pursuant?to?paragraph?1,?for?damage?or?other?harm,?is?not?affected?by?the?decision?of?the?Constitutional?Court.? ARTICLE 130  (3)??The?Constitutional?Court?may?commence?proceedings?upon?the?information?presented?by?an?individual?or?a?corporation?claiming?to?have?rights?violated.?Source: http://www.vop.gov.sk/en/legal_basis/constitution.html  258? UBC Press 2012Slovenia (1991) Title?II:?Human?Rights?and?Fundamental?Freedoms?ARTICLE 15. EXERCISE AND LIMITATION OF RIGHTS Human?rights?and?fundamental?freedoms?shall?be?exercised?directly?on?the?basis?of?the?Constitution.??The?manner?in?which?human?rights?and?fundamental?freedoms?are?exercised?may?be?regulated?by?law?whenever?the?Constitution?so?provides?or?where?this?is?necessary?due?to?the?particular?nature?of?an?individual?right?or?freedom.??Human?rights?and?fundamental?freedoms?shall?be?limited?only?by?the?rights?of?others?and?in?such?cases?as?are?provided?by?this?Constitution.??Judicial?protection?of?human?rights?and?fundamental?freedoms,?and?the?right?to?obtain?redress?for?the?violation?of?such?rights?and?freedoms,?shall?be?guaranteed.??No?human?right?or?fundamental?freedom?regulated?by?legal?acts?in?force?in?Slovenia?may?be?restricted?on?the?grounds?that?this?Constitution?does?not?recognise?that?right?or?freedom?or?recognises?it?to?a?lesser?extent.?? ARTICLE 16. TEMPORARY SUSPENSION AND RESTRICTION OF RIGHTS Human?rights?and?fundamental?freedoms?provided?by?this?Constitution?may?exceptionally?be?temporarily?suspended?or?restricted?during?a?war?and?state?of?emergency.?Human?rights?and?fundamental?freedoms?may?be?suspended?or?restricted?only?for?the?duration?of?the?war?or?state?of?emergency,?but?only?to?the?extent?required?by?such?circumstances?and?inasmuch?as?the?measures?adopted?do?not?create?inequality?based?solely?on?race,?national?origin,?sex,?language,?religion,?political?or?other?conviction,?material?standing,?birth,?education,?social?status?or?any?other?personal?circumstance.??The?provision?of?the?preceding?paragraph?does?not?allow?any?temporary?suspension?or?restriction?of?the?rights?provided?by?Articles?17,?18,?21,?27,?28,?29?and?41.?? ARTICLE 23. RIGHT TO JUDICIAL PROTECTION Everyone?has?the?right?to?have?any?decision?regarding?his?rights,?duties?and?any?charges?brought?against?him?made?without?undue?delay?by?an?independent,?impartial?court?constituted?by?law.??Only?a?judge?duly?appointed?pursuant?to?rules?previously?established?by?law?and?by?judicial?regulations?may?judge?such?an?individual.? ARTICLE 25. RIGHT TO LEGAL REMEDIES Everyone?shall?be?guaranteed?the?right?to?appeal?or?to?any?other?legal?remedy?against?the?decisions?of?courts?and?other?state?authorities,?local?community?authorities?and?bearers?of?public?authority?by?which?his?rights,?duties?or?legal?interests?are?determined.??  259? UBC Press 2012ARTICLE 26. RIGHT TO COMPENSATION Everyone?has?the?right?to?compensation?for?damage?caused?through?unlawful?actions?in?connection?with?the?performance?of?any?function?or?other?activity?by?a?person?or?body?performing?such?function?or?activity?under?state?authority,?local?community?authority?or?as?a?bearer?of?public?authority.??Any?person?suffering?damage?has?the?right?to?demand,?in?accordance?with?the?law,??body?that?has?caused?damage.??compensation?also?directly?from?the?person?orTitle?III:?Economic?and?Social?Relations?ARTICLE 67. PROPERTY The?manner?in?which?property?is?acquired?and?enjoyed?shall?be?established?by?law?so?as?to?ensure?its?economic,?social?and?environmental?function.? ARTICLE 72. HEALTHY LIVING ENVIRONMENT (1)? Each?person?shall?have?the?right?in?accordance?with?the?law?to?a?healthy?environment?in?which?to?live.?(2)? The?State?shall?be?responsible?for?such?an?environment.?To?this?end,?the?conditions?and?the?manner?in?which?economic?and?other?activities?shall?take?place?shall?be?regulated?by?law.?(3)? The?conditions?under?which?any?person?damaging?the?environment?shall?be?obliged?to?make?compensation?shall?be?determined?by?law.?(4)? The?protection?of?animals?from?cruelty?shall?be?regulated?by?law.??ARTICLE 73. PROTECTION OF NATURAL AND CULTURAL HERITAGE Everyone?is?obliged?in?accordance?with?the?law?to?protect?natural?sites?of?special?interest,?rarities?and?cultural?monuments.??The?state?and?local?communities?shall?promote?the?preservation?of?the?natural?and?cultural?heritage.?Title?VII:?Constitutionality?and?Legality?ARTICLE 157. JUDICIAL REVIEW OF ADMINISTRATIVE ACTS A?court?having?jurisdiction?to?review?administrative?acts?decides?the?legality?of?final?individual?acts?with?which?state?authorities,?local?community?authorities?and?bearers?of?public?authority?decide?the?rights?or?obligations?and?legal?entitlements?of?individuals?and?organisations,?if?other?legal?protection?is?not?provided?by?law?for?a?particular?matter.??If?other?legal?protection?is?not?provided,?the?court?having?jurisdiction?to?review?administrative?acts?also?decides?on?the?legality?of?individual?actions?and?acts?which?intrude?upon?the?constitutional?rights?of?the?individual.??  260? UBC Press 2012ARTICLE 159. OMBUDSMAN FOR HUMAN RIGHTS AND FUNDAMENTAL FREEDOMS In?order?to?protect?human?rights?and?fundamental?freedoms?in?relation?to?state?authorities,?local?self?government?authorities?and?bearers?of?public?authority,?the?office?of?the?ombudsman?for?the?rights?of?citizens?shall?be?established?by?law.??Special?ombudsmen?for?the?rights?of?citizens?may?also?be?established?by?law?for?particular?fields.?Title?VIII:?The?Constitutional?Court?ARTICLE 162. PROCEEDINGS BEFORE THE CONSTITUTIONAL COURT Proceedings?before?the?Constitutional?Court?shall?be?regulated?by?law.??The?law?determines?who?may?require?the?initiation?of?proceedings?before?the?Constitutional?Court.?Anyone?who?demonstrates?legal?interest?may?request?the?initiation?of?proceedings?before?the?Constitutional?Court.??The?Constitutional?Court?decides?by?a?majority?vote?of?all?its?judges?unless?otherwise?provided?for?individual?cases?by?the?Constitution?or?law.?The?Constitutional?Court?may?decide?whether?to?initiate?proceedings?following?a?constitutional?complaint?with?fewer?judges?as?provided?by?law.?Source: http://www.us-rs.si/en/index.php?sv_path=3583,3519,3520 261? UBC Press 2012Somalia (2004)7 Transitional?Federal?Charter?Chapter?I:?Sovereignty?and?Territory?ARTICLE 4. INTERPRETATION OF THE CHARTER 2.? A?person?may?bring?an?action?in?the?Supreme?Court?for?a?declaration?that?any?Law?or?action?of?the?state?is?inconsistent?with,?or?is?in?contravention?of?this?Charter.?3.? ine?all?such?applications?on?a?priority?basis.?The?Supreme?Court?shall?determChapter?XI:?Land?and?Property?ARTICLE 67. NATURAL RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION 1.? The?natural?resources?of?the?country?such?as?the?minerals,?water,?flora?and?fauna?shall?be?public?property?and?a?law?shall?be?enacted?which?defines?the?manner?of?exploitation?for?the?common?good.??2.? The?Transitional?Federal?Government?shall?give?priority?to?the?protection,?conservation,?and?preservation?of?the?environment?against?anything?that?may?cause?harm?to?the?natural?biodiversity?and?ecosystem.??3.? Every?person?in?the?Somali?Republic?shall?have?a?duty?to?safeguard?and?enhance?the?environment?and?participate?in?the?development,?execution,?management,?conservation?and?protection?of?the?natural?resources?and?environment.??4.? The?Transitional?Federal?Government?shall?adopt?urgent?measures?to?clean?up?the?hazardous?waste?dumped?on?and?off?shores?of?the?Somali?Republic.?Compensation?shall?be?demanded?of?those?found?liable?for?such?crimes.??5.? The?Transitional?Federal?Government?shall?take?urgent?steps?to?reverse?the?trend?in?desertification,?deforestation,?environmental?degradation,?illegal?charcoal?burning?and?export?of?endangered?wildlife?species.??Source: http://www.chr.up.ac.za/index.php/documents-by-country-database/somalia.html                                                  7?There?is?currently?no?Constitution?in?force?in?Somalia.?However,?a?Transitional?Federal?Charter?was?established?in?February?2004?and?is?expected?to?serve?as?the?basis?for?a?future?constitution?in?Somalia.? 262? UBC Press 2012South Africa (1996) Chapter?2:?Bill?of?Rights?7. RIGHTS 1.? This?Bill?of?Rights?is?a?cornerstone?of?democracy?in?South?Africa.?It?enshrines?the?rights?of?all?people?in?our?country?and?affirms?the?democratic?values?of?human?dignity,?equality?and?freedom.?2.? The?state?must?respect,?protect,?promote?and?fulfill?the?rights?in?the?Bill?of?Rights.?3.? The?rights?in?the?Bill?of?Rights?are?subject?to?the?limitations?contained?or?referred?to?in?section?36,?or?elsewhere?in?the?Bill.? 24. ENVIRONMENT Everyone?has?the?right:?(a)? to?an?environment?that?is?not?harmful?to?their?health?or?well?being;?and?(b)? to?have?the?environment?protected,?for?the?benefit?of?present?and?future?generations,?through?reasonable?legislative?and?other?measures?that??(i)? ? prevent?pollution?and?ecological?degradation;?(ii)? promote?conservation;?and?(iii)? secure?ecologically?sustainable?development?and?use?of?natural?resources?while?promoting?justifiable?economic?and?social?development.? 27. HEALTH CARE, FOOD, WATER, AND SOCIAL SECURITY (1)? Everyone?has?the?right?to?have?access?to????(b)? sufficient?food?and?water????(2)? The?state?must?take?reasonable?legislative?and?other?measures,?within?its?available?resources,?to?achieve?the?progressive?realization?of?each?of?these?rights.? 33. JUST ADMINISTRATIVE ACTION 1.? Everyone?has?the?right?to?administrative?action?that?is?lawful,?reasonable?and?procedurally?fair.?2.? Everyone?whose?rights?have?been?adversely?affected?by?administrative?action?has?the?right?to?be?given?written?reasons.?3.? National?legislation?must?be?enacted?to?give?effect?to?these?rights,?and?must:?a)? provide?for?the?review?of?administrative?action?by?a?court?or,?where?appropriate,?an?independent?and?impartial?tribunal;? 263? UBC Press 2012b)? impose?a?duty?on?the?state?to?give?effect?to?the?rights?in?subsections?(1)?and?(2);?and?c)? promote?an?efficient?administration.? 34. ACCESS TO COURTS Everyone?has?the?right?to?have?any?dispute?that?can?be?resolved?by?the?application?of?law?decided?in?a?fair?public?hearing?before?a?court?or,?where?appropriate,?another?independent?and?impartial?tribunal?or?forum.? 36. LIMITATION OF RIGHTS (1)??The?rights?in?the?Bill?of?Rights?may?be?limited?only?in?terms?of?law?of?general?application?to?the?extent?that?the?limit?is?reasonable?and?justifiable?in?an?open?and?democratic?society?based?on?human?dignity,?equality?and?freedom,?taking?into?account?all?relevant?factors,?including?? a)? the?nature?of?the?right;?? b)? the?importance?of?the?purpose?of?the?limitation;?? c)? the?nature?and?extent?of?the?limitation;?? d)? the?relation?between?the?limitation?and?the?purpose;?and?? e)? less?restrictive?means?to?achieve?the?purpose.?(2)??Except?as?provided?in?subsection?(1)?or?in?any?other?provision?of?the?Constitution,?no?law?may?limit?any?right?entrenched?in?the?Bill?of?Rights.? 37. STATES OF EMERGENCY 1.? A?state?of?emergency?may?be?declared?only?in?terms?of?an?Act?of?Parliament,?and?only?when?? ?a)? the?life?of?the?nation?is?threatened?by?war,?invasion,?general?insurrection,?disorder,?natural?disaster?or?other?public?emergency;?and?b)? the?declaration?is?necessary?to?restore?peace?and?order.???4.? Any?legislation?enacted?in?consequence?of?a?declaration?of?a?state?of?emergency?may?derogate?from?the?Bill?of?Rights?only?to?the?extent?that?a)? the?derogation?is?strictly?required?by?the?emergency;?and?b)? the?legislation?i)? ?is?consistent?with?the?Republic?s?obligations?under?international?law?applicable?to?states?of?emergency;?ii)? ? conforms?to?subsection?(5);?and?iii)??is?published?in?the?national?Government?Gazette?as?soon?as? 264? UBC Press 2012reasonably?possible?after?being?enacted.?5.? No?Act?of?Parliament?that?authorizes?a?declaration?of?a?state?of?emergency?and?no?legislation?enacted?or?other?action?taken?in?consequence?of?a?declaration?may?permit?or?authorise?a)? indemnifying?the?state,?or?any?person,?in?respect?of?any?unlawful?act;?b)? any?derogation?from?this?section;?or?c)? any?derogation?from?a?section?mentioned?in?column?1?of?the?Table?of?Non?Derogable?Rights,?to?the?extent?indicated?opposite?that?section?in?column?3?of?the?Table?[sections?9,?10,?11,?12,?13,?28,?and?35].? 38. ENFORCEMENT OF RIGHTS Anyone?listed?in?this?section?has?the?right?to?approach?a?competent?court,?alleging?that?a?right?in?the?Bill?of?Rights?has?been?infringed?or?threatened,?and?the?court?may?grant?appropriate?relief,?including?a?declaration?of?rights.?The?persons?who?may?approach?a?court?are:?a)? anyone?acting?in?their?own?interest;?b)? anyone?acting?on?behalf?of?another?person?who?cannot?act?in?their?own?name;?c)? anyone?acting?as?a?member?of,?or?in?the?interest?of,?a?group?or?class?of?persons;?d)? anyone?acting?in?the?public?interest;?and??e)? an?association?acting?in?the?interest?of?its?members.?  39. INTERPRETATION OF BILL OF RIGHTS 1.? When?interpreting?the?Bill?of?Rights,?a?court,?tribunal?or?forum?a)? must?promote?the?values?that?underlie?an?open?and?democratic?society?based?on?human?dignity,?equality?and?freedom;?b)? must?consider?international?law;?and?c)? may?consider?foreign?law.?2.? When?interpreting?any?legislation,?and?when?developing?the?common?law?or?customary?law,?every?court,?tribunal?or?forum?must?promote?the?spirit,?purport?and?objects?of?the?Bill?of?Rights.?3.? The?Bill?of?Rights?does?not?deny?the?existence?of?any?other?rights?or?freedoms?that?are?recognised?or?conferred?by?common?law,?customary?law?or?legislation,?to?the?extent?that?they?are?consistent?with?the?Bill.?  265? UBC Press 2012Chapter?7:?Local?Government?152. OBJECTS OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT 1.? The?objects?of?local?government?are:?...?(c)? to?promote?social?an?economic?development;?(d)? to?promote?a?safe?and?healthy?environment?(e)? to?encourage?the?involvement?of?communities?and?community?organisations?in?the?matters?of?local?government.??2.? A?municipality?must?strive,?within?its?financial?and?administrative?capacity,?to?achieve?the?objects?set?out?in?subsection?(1).??Chapter?9:?State?Institutions?Supporting?Constitutional?Democracy?184. FUNCTIONS OF SOUTH AFRICAN HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION 1.? The?South?African?Human?Rights?Commission?must?a)? promote?respect?for?human?rights?and?a?culture?of?human?rights;?b)? promote?the?protection,?development?and?attainment?of?human?rights;?and?c)? monitor?and?assess?the?observance?of?human?rights?in?the?Republic.?2.? The?South?African?Human?Rights?Commission?has?the?powers,?as?regulated?by?national?legislation,?necessary?to?perform?its?functions,?including?the?power?a)? to?investigate?and?to?report?on?the?observance?of?human?rights;?b)? to?take?steps?to?secure?appropriate?redress?where?human?rights?have?been?violated;?c)? to?carry?out?research;?and??d)? to?educate.?3.? Each?year,?the?South?African?Human?Rights?Commission?must?require?relevant?organs?of?state?to?provide?the?Commission?with?information?on?the?measures?that?they?have?taken?towards?the?realisation?of?the?rights?in?the?Bill?of?Rights?concerning?housing,?health?care,?food,?water,?social?security,?education?and?the?environment.?4.? The?South?African?Human?Rights?Commission?has?the?additional?powers?and?functions?prescribed?by?national?legislation.?Source: http://www.info.gov.za/documents/constitution/1996/index.htm  266? UBC Press 2012South Korea (1987)  Chapter?III:?Rights?and?Duties?of?Citizens?ARTICLE 35 1.? All?citizens?have?the?right?to?a?healthy?and?pleasant?environment.?The?State?and?all?citizens?shall?endeavor?to?protect?the?environment.?2.? The?substance?of?the?environmental?right?is?determined?by?law.?3.? The?State?endeavors?to?ensure?comfortable?housing?for?all?citizens?through?housing?development?policies?and?the?like.???ARTICLE 37    1.? Freedoms?and?rights?of?citizens?shall?not?be?neglected?on?the?grounds?that?they?are?not?enumerated?in?the?Constitution.?2.? The?freedoms?and?rights?of?citizens?may?be?restricted?by?Act?only?when?necessary?for?national?security,?the?maintenance?of?law?and?order?or?for?public?welfare.?Even?when?such?restriction?is?imposed,?no?essential?aspect?of?the?freedom?or?right?shall?be?violated.?Chapter?VI:?The?Constitutional?Court?ARTICLE 111  1.? The?Constitutional?Court?shall?have?jurisdiction?over?the?following?matters:?1.? The?constitutionality?of?a?law?upon?the?request?of?the?courts;?2.? Impeachment;?3.? Dissolution?of?a?political?party;?4.? Competence?disputes?between?State?agencies,?between?State?agencies?and?local?governments,?and?between?local?governments;?and?5.? Constitutional?complChapter?IX:?The?Economy?aint?as?prescribed?by?Act.8?ARTICLE 120 (2)? The?land?and?natural?resources?are?protected?by?the?State,?and?the?State?establishes?a?plan?necessary?for?their?balanced?development?and?utilization.?                                                 8?South?Korea?s?Constitutional?Court?Act?establishes?a?procedure?whereby?citizens?can?file?petitions?with?the?court?when?their?rights?have?allegedly?been?infringed?by?unconstitutional?state?action?and?they?have?exhausted?all?available?legal?remedies.?Ginsburg,?T.?2003.?Judicial?Review?in?New?Democracies:?Constitutional?Courts?in?Asian?Cases,?206?46.?Cambridge:?Cambridge?University?Press.? 267? UBC Press 2012Spain (1978) Tit ?Duties?le?I:?Fundamental?Rights?andChapter?II:?Rights?and?Freedoms?Division?1:?Fundamental?Rights?and?Public?Freedoms?ARTICLE 24  (1)?All?persons?have?the?right?to?the?effective?protection?of?the?judges?and?courts?in?the?exercise?of?their?rights?and?legitimate?interests,?and?in?no?case?may?there?be?a?lack?of?defense.???Chapter?III:?Guiding?Principles?of?Economic?and?Social?Policy?ARTICLE 45  (1)? Everyone?has?the?right?to?enjoy?an?environment?suitable?for?the?development?of?the?person,?as?well?as?the?duty?to?preserve?it.?(2)? The?public?authorities?shall?concern?themselves?with?the?rational?use?of?all?natural?resources?for?the?purpose?of?protecting?and?improving?the?quality?of?life?and?protecting?and?restoring?the?environment,?by?relying?on?an?indispensable?collective?solidarity.? ?(3)? For?those?who?violate?the?provisions?of?the?foregoing?paragraph,?criminal?or?administrative?sanctions,?as?applicable,?shall?be?established?and?they?shall?be?obliged?to?repair?the?damage?caused.?Chapter?IV:?Guarantee?of?Fundamental?Rights?and?Freedoms?ARTICLE 53 (1)? The?rights?and?liberties?recognized?in?the?second?chapter?of?the?present?Title?are?binding?on?all?public?authorities.?Only?by?law,?which?in?every?case?must?respect?their?essential?content,?could?the?exercise?of?such?rights?and?liberties?be?regulated,?and?they?shall?be?protected?in?accordance?with?the?provisions?of?Article?161(1)(b).??(2)?Any?citizen?may?make?a?claim?to?the?liberties?and?rights?recognized?in?Article?14?and?the?first?Section?of?the?Second?Chapter?before?the?regular?courts?through?a?preferential?and?summary?procedure?and,?when?appropriate,?by?launching?an?individual?appeal?for?constitutional?protection?(recurso?de?amparo)?to?the?Constitutional?Court.?This?latter?procedure?shall?be?applicable?to?conscientious?objection?as?recognized?in?Article?30.?(3)? Recognition,?respect?and?protection?of?the?principles?recognized?in?Chapter?III?shall?guide?legislation,?judicial?practice?and?actions?by?the?public?authorities.?They?may?only?be?invoked?before?the?ordinary?courts?in?accordance?with?the?legal?provisions?implementing?them.?  268? UBC Press 2012ARTICLE 54 An?organic?law?shall?regulate?the?institution?of?the?Defender?of?the?People?as?the?High?Commissioner?of?the?Parliament,?appointed?for?the?protection?of?the?rights?contained?in?this?Title,?for?which?purpose?he?may?supervise?the?activity?of?the?administration,?informing?the?Parliament?of?it.?Chapter?V:?Suspension?of?Rights?and?Liberties?ARTICLE 55 (1)? The?rights?recognized?in?Articles?17,?18(2)?and?(3),?19,?20(1)(a)?and?(d)?and?(5),?21,?28(2),?and?Article?37(2)?may?be?suspended?when?a?state?of?emergency?or?siege?is?declared?under?the?terms?provided?in?the?Constitution.?Article?17(3)?is?exempted?from?that?which?was?established?previously?in?the?event?of?the?declaration?of?a?state?of?emergency.?(2)?An?organic?law?may?determine?the?manner?and?the?cases?in?which,?in?an?individual?manner?and?with?the?necessary?judicial?intervention?and?adequate?parliamentary?control,?the?rights?recognized?in?Article?17(2)?and?18(2)?and?(3)?may?be?suspended?for?certain?persons?with?respect?to?investigations?having?to?do?with?the?activities?of?armed?bands?or?terrorist?elements.?The?unwarranted?or?abusive?utilization?of?the?powers?recognized?in?said?organic?law?will?result?in?criminal?responsibility?as?a?violation?of?the?rights?and?liberties?recognized?by?the?laws.?Source: http://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/sp00000_.html  269? UBC Press 2012Sri Lanka (1978) Chapter?VI:?Directive?Principles?of?State?Policy?and?Fundamental?Duties?ARTICLE 27. DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (14)? The?State?shall?protect,?preserve?and?improve?the?environment?for?the?benefit?of?the?community.? ARTICLE 28. FUNDAMENTAL DUTIES The?exercise?and?enjoyment?of?rights?and?freedoms?is?inseparable?from?the?performance?of?duties?and?obligations,?and?accordingly?it?is?the?duty?of?every?person?in?Sri?Lanka?...?(f)? to?protect?nature?and?conserve?its?riches.??ARTICLE 29. PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY AND FUNDAMENTAL DUTIES NOT JUSTICIABLE The?provisions?of?this?Chapter?do?not?confer?or?impose?legal?rights?or?obligations,?and?are?not?enforceable?in?any?court?or?tribunal.?No?question?of?inconsistency?with?such?provisions?shall?be?raised?in?any?court?or?tribunal.?Source: http://www.priu.gov.lk/Cons/1978Constitution/Index.html 270? UBC Press 2012Sudan (2005)9 Interim?National?Constitution?of?the?Republic?of?Sudan,?200Pa ding?Principles?5?rt?I:?The?State,?the?Constitution?and?GuiChapter?II:?Guiding?Principles?and?Directives?11. ENVIRONMENT AND NATURAL RESOURCES (1)? The?people?of?the?Sudan?shall?have?the?right?to?a?clean?and?diverse?environment;?the?State?and?the?citizens?have?the?duty?to?preserve?and?promote?the?country?s?biodiversity.?(2)? The?State?shall?not?pursue?any?policy,?or?take?or?permit?any?action,?which?may?adversely?effect?the?existence?of?any?species?of?animal?or?vegetative?life,?their?natural?or?adopted?habitat.?(3)? The?State?shall?promote,?through?legislation,?sustainable?utilization?of?natural?resources?and?best?practices?with?respect?to?their?management.? 22. SAVING Unless?this?Constitution?otherwise?provides,?or?a?duly?enacted?law?guarantees?the?rights?and?liberties?described?in?this?Chapter,?the?provisions?contained?in?this?Chapter?are?not?by?themselves?enforceable?in?a?court?of?law;?however,?the?principles?expressed?herein?are?basic?to?governance?and?the?State?is?duty?bound?to?be?guided?by?them,?especially?in?making?laws;??Chapter?III:?Duties?of?the?Citizen?23. DUTIES OF THE CITIZEN (2)? In?particular?every?citizen?shall:?...?(h)?preserve?the?natural?Part?II:?The?Bill?of?Rights?environment?35. RIGHT TO LITIGATION (1)? The?right?to?litigate?shall?be?guaranteed?for?all?persons?and?no?one?shall?be?denied?the?right?to?sue;??(2)? Everyone?has?the?right?to?have?any?dispute,?that?can?be?resolved?by?the?application?of?law,?decided?in?a?fair?public?hearing?before?a?court?of?law?or,?where?appropriate,?before?any?other?independent?and?impartial?tribunal?or?forum?specified?by?law?or?agreement.?                                                 9?The?Interim?National?Constitution?of?the?Republic?of?the?Sudan?was?adopted?July?6,?2005.?South?Sudan?now?has?its?own?constitution.? 271? UBC Press 2012 48. SANCTITY OF RIGHTS No?derogation?from?the?rights?and?freedoms?enshrined?in?this?Bill?shall?be?made?except?in?accordance?with?the?provisions?of?this?Constitution?and?only?with?the?approval?of?the?National?Legislature.?This?Bill?of?human?rights?and?fundamental?freedoms?shall?be?upheld,?protected,?applied?and?enforced?by?the?Constitutional?Court?and?other?competent?courts;?the?Human?Rights?Commission?shall?monitor?its?application?and?enforcement.??Part?III:?The?National?Executive?Chapter?II:?The?Presidency?61. CONTESTING ACTS OF THE PRESIDENT  Any?person?aggrieved?by?an?act?of?the?President?of?the?Republic?or?of?the?Institution?of?the?Presidency,?may?contest?such?act:??(a)? Before?the?Constitutional?Court,?if?the?alleged?act?involves?a?violation?of?this?Constitution,?the?Bill?of?Rights,?the?decentralized?system?of?government,?or?the?Comprehensive?Peace?Agreement,??(b)?Before?the?competent?court?of?law?if?the?allegation?is?on?other?legal?grounds;?...?Chapter?IV:?The?National?Council?of?Ministers?78. CONTESTING MINISTERIAL ACTS  An?aggrieved?person?may?contest?an?act?of?the?National?Council?of?Ministers?or?a?National?Minister:??(a)? Before?the?Constitutional?Court?if?the?alleged?act?involves?a?violation?of?this?Constitution,?the?Bill?of?Rights,?the?decentralized?system?of?government?or?the?Comprehensive?Peace?Agreement,??(b)?Before?the?competent?authority?or?court?of?law?if?the?allegation?is?on?other?legal?grounds.?Pa ce?rt?V:?The?National?Institutions?of?JustiChapter?III:?Public?Attorneys?and?Advocacy?134. ADVOCACY  (1)? The?profession?of?advocacy?shall?promote,?protect?and?advance?the?fundamental?rights?of?citizens.?Advocates?shall?serve?to?fend?off?injustice,?defend?the?legal?rights?and?interests?of?their?clients,?seek?conciliation?between?adversaries?and?render?legal?aid?for?the?needy?according?to?law;?? 272? UBC Press 2012 273(2)? The?law?shall?regulate?the?profession?of?advocacy;??Part?VII:?Independent?National?Institutions?and?Commissions?142. HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION  (1)?A?Human?Rights?Commission?Act?shall?be?promulgated;?it?shall,?among?other?the?Commission;??things,?specify?the?powers,?procedures?and?terms?of?service?of?Part?XIII:?State?of?Emergency?and?Declaration?of?War?211. POWERS OF THE PRESIDENT IN THE STATE OF EMERGENCY  The?President?of?the?Republic,?with?the?consent?of?the?First?Vice?President,?may?during?the?state?of?emergency?take,?by?virtue?of?law?or?exceptional?order,?any?measures?that?shall?not?derogate?from?the?provisions?of?this?Constitution?and?the?Comprehensive?Peace?Agreement?except?as?may?be?provided?herein:??(a)? to?suspend?part,?or?all,?of?the?Bill?of?Rights?of?this?Constitution.?However,?there?shall?not?be?infringement?on?the?right?to?life,?freedom?from?slavery,?torture,?the?right?of?non?discrimination?on?basis?of?race,?sex?or?religious?creed,?the?right?in?litigation?or?the?presumption?of?innocence?and?legal?representation?Source: http://Www.Sudantribune.Com/Img/Pdf/20050316_Sudan_Draft_Constitutional _Text.Pdf ? UBC Press 2012South Sudan (2011) Transitional?Constitution?of?the?Republic?of?South?Sudan,?2011?Preamble?We,?the?People?of?South?Sudan,???Conscious?of?the?need?to?manage?our?natural?resources?sustainably?and?efficiently?for?the?benefit?of?the?present?and?future?generations?and?to?eradicate?poverty?and?attain?the?Millennium?Development?Goals;???Do?hereby,?through?this?Southern?Sudan?Legislative?Assembly,?amend?the?Interim?Constitution?of?Southern?Sudan,?2005,?which?shall?be?adopted?and?hereafter?referred?to?as?the??Transitional?Constitution?of?the?Republic?of?South?Sudan,?2011,??and?shall?be?the?supreme?law?by?which?the?independent?and?sovereign?South?Sudan?shall?be?governed?during?the?Transitional?Period,?and?undertake?to?abide?by,?respect?and?defend?it.??Part?Two:?Bill?of?Rights??Nature?of?the?Bill?of?Rights??ARTICLE 9  (1)? The?Bill?of?Rights?is?a?covenant?among?the?people?of?South?Sudan?and?between??them?and?their?government?at?every?level?and?a?commitment?to?respect?and?promote?human?rights?and?fundamental?freedoms?enshrined?in?this?Constitution;?it?is?the?cornerstone?of?social?justice,?equality?and?democracy.???(2)? The?rights?and?freedoms?of?individuals?and?groups?enshrined?in?this?Bill?shall?be?respected,?upheld?and?promoted?by?all?organs?and?agencies?of?Government?and?by?all?persons.??(3)?All?rights?and?freedoms?enshrined?in?international?human?rights?treaties,?covenants?and?instruments?ratified?or?acceded?to?by?the?Republic?of?South?Sudan?shall?be?an?integral?part?of?this?Bill.???(4)? This?Bill?of?Rights?shall?be?upheld?by?the?Supreme?Court?and?other?competent?courts?ts?Commission.??and?monitored?by?the?Human?RighSanctity?of?Rights?and?Freedoms??ARTICLE 10  Subject?to?Article?189?herein,?no?derogation?from?the?rights?and?freedoms?enshrined?in??this?Bill?shall?be?made.?The?Bill?of?Rights?shall?be?upheld,?protected?and?applied?by?the?Supreme?Court?and?other?competent?courts;?the?Human?Rights?Commission?shall?monitor?its?application?in?accordance?with?this?Constitution?and?the?law.? 274? UBC Press 2012Pa es?and?Guiding?Principles??rt?Three:?Fundamental?ObjectivChapter?I:?Objectives?and?Principles??Guiding?Objectives?and?Principles??ARTICLE 35 (1)?All?levels?of?government?and?their?organs,?institutions?and?citizens?shall?be?guided??by?the?objectives?and?principles?contained?in?this?Chapter.??(2)? This?Constitution?shall?be?interpreted?and?applied?to?advance?the?individual?dignity?and?address?the?particular?needs?of?the?people?by?dedicating?public?resources?and?focusing?attention?on?the?provision?of?gainful?employment?for?the?people,?and?improving?their?lives?by?building?roads,?schools,?airports,?community?institutions,?hospitals,?providing?clean?water,?food?security,?electric?power?and?telecommunication?services?to?every?part?of?the?country.? Economic?Objectives?ARTICLE 37  (2)?All?levels?of?government?shall:???(b)?protect?and?ensure?the?sustainable?management?and?utilization?of?natural?resources?including?land,?water,?petroleum,?minerals,?fauna?and?flora?for?the?benefit?of?the?people;?...? The?Environment??ARTICLE 41  (1)? ?Every?person?or?community?shall?have?the?right?to?a?clean?and?healthy?environment.??(2)??Every?person?shall?have?the?obligation?to?protect?the?environment?for?the?benefit?of?present?and?future?generations.???(3)??Every?person?shall?have?the?right?to?have?the?environment?protected?for?the?benefit?of?present?and?future?generations,?through?appropriate?legislative?action?and?other?measures?that:??(a)? prevent?pollution?and?ecological?degradation;??(b)?promote?conservation;?and??(c)? secure?ecologically?sustainable?development?and?use?of?natural?resources?while?promoting?rational?economic?and?social?development?so?as?to?protect?genetic?stability?and?biodiversity.??(4)?All?levels?of?government?shall?promote?energy?policies?that?will?ensure?that?the?basic?needs?of?the?people?are?met?while?protecting?and?preserving?the?environment.?? 275? UBC Press 2012  Chapter?2:?Citizenship?and?Nationality?Duties?of?the?Citizen??ARTICLE 46 (1)? It?shall?be?the?duty?of?every?citizen?to?uphold?and?abide?by?this?Constitution?and?respect?the?laws?of?South?Sudan.???(2)? Every?citizen?shall?in?particular:?...?(h)?protect?the?environment?and?conserve?natural?resources;?...?Pa al?Government?and?Traditional?Authority?rt?Eleven:?The?States,?LocChapter?I:?Local?Government?ARTICLE 165  (6)? The?objects?of?local?government?shall?be?to:????(j)? involve?communities?in?decisions?relating?to?the?exploitation?of?natural?resources?in?their?areas?and?promote?a?safe?and?healthy?environment;???Chapter?III:?Petroleum?and?Gas?Development?and?Management?Guiding?Principles?for?Petroleum?and?Gas?Development?and?Management??ARTICLE 172  (2)? Petroleum?and?gas?development?and?management?shall?be?guided?by?the?following?principles:?...?(i)? protecting?the?environment?and?biodiversity;???(m)?safeguarding?interests?of?future?generations;???(n)?ensuring?accountability?for?violations?of?human?rights?and?degradation?to?the?environment?caused?by?petroleum?and?gas?related?operations;?and??(o)? ensuring?restoration?of?land?and?resources?affected?by?development?and?management.?? 276? UBC Press 2012 277Source: http://www.pachodo.org/attachments/2074_The%20Transitional%20Constitution%20of% 20the%20Republic%20of%20South%20Sudan%202011.pdf? UBC Press 2012Suriname (1987) Chapter?III:?Social?Goals?ARTICLE 6  The?social?objectives?of?the?State?shall?aim?at:????(g)? creating?and?improving?the?conditions?necessary?for?the?protection?of?nature?and?for?the?preservation?of?the?ecological?balance.?Chapter?V:?Basic?Rights,?Individual?Rights,?and?Freedoms?ARTICLE 12  (1)? Everyone?has?the?right?to?legal?assistance?before?the?courts?(2)? s?with?regard?to?legal?aid?for?the?financially?weak.?The?law?shall?provide?regulationChapter?XV:?The?Legal?System?Fourth?Section:?The?Constitutional?Court?ARTICLE 144 (1)? There?shall?be?a?Constitutional?Court?which?is?an?independent?body?composed?of?a?President,?Vice?President?and?three?members,?who?as?well?as?the?three?deputy?members?shall?be?appointed?for?a?period?of?five?years?at?the?recommendation?of?the?National?Assembly.?(2)? The?tasks?of?the?Constitutional?Court?shall?be:?(a)? to?verify?the?purport?of?Acts?or?parts?thereof?against?the?Constitution,?and?against?applicable?agreements?concluded?with?other?states?and?with?international?organizations;?(b)? to?assess?the?consistency?of?decisions?of?government?institutions?with?one?or?more?of?the?constituional?rights?mentioned?in?Chapter?V.?(3)? In?case?the?Constitutional?Court?decides?that?a?contradiction?exists?with?one?or?more?provisions?of?the?Constitution?or?an?agreement?as?referred?to?in?paragraph?2?sub?a,?the?Act?or?parts?thereof,?or?those?decisions?of?the?government?institutions?shall?not?be?considered?binding.?(4)? Further?rules?and?regulations?concerning?the?composition,?the?organization?and?procedures?of?the?Court,?as?well?as?the?legal?consequences?of?the?decisions?of?the?Constitutional?Court,?shall?be?determined?by?law.?Source: http://pdba.georgetown.edu/Constitutions/Suriname/english.html  278? UBC Press 2012Swaziland (2005) Chapter?V:?Directive?Principles?of?State?Policy?and?Duties?of?the?Citizen?SECTION 56. GENERAL OBJECTIVES (1)?The?Directive?Principles?of?State?Policy?contained?in?this?Chapter?shall?guide?all?organs?and?agencies?of?the?State,?citizens,?organizations?and?other?bodies?and?persons?in?applying?or?interpreting?this?Constitution?or?any?other?law?and?in?taking?and?implementing?any?policy?decisions?for?the?establishment?of?a?just,?free?and?democratic?society.?(2)?The?Prime?Minister?shall?report?to?Parliament?at?least?once?a?year?on?all?the?steps?taken?to?ensure?the?realization?of?the?Directive?Principles?contained?in?this?Chapter.?(3)?The?provisions?of?sections?57?to?63?inclusive?are?not?enforceable?in?any?court?or?tribunal.? SECTION 60. SOCIAL OBJECTIVES (11)?The?State?shall?endeavour?to?preserve?and?protect?places?of?historical?interest?and????artifacts?and?the?environment.? SECTION 63. DUTIES OF THE CITIZEN The?exercise?and?enjoyment?of?rights?and?freedoms?is?inseparable?from?the?performance?of?duties?and?obligations,?and?accordingly,?it?shall?be?the?duty?of?every?citizen?to???(i)? protect?and?safeguard?the?environment.?Chapter?XII:?Land,?Minerals,?Water?and?Environment?SECTION 210. DECLARATION OF LAND, MINERALS AND WATER AS NATIONAL RESOURCES (1)? Subject?to?the?provisions?of?this?Constitution?or?any?other?law,?land,?minerals?and?water?are?national?resources.?(2)? In?the?interests?of?the?present?and?future?generations,?the?State?shall?protect?and?make?rational?use?of?its?land,?mineral?and?water?resources?as?well?as?its?fauna?and?flora,?and?shall?take?appropriate?measures?to?conserve?and?improve?the?environment.? SECTION 215. WATER There?shall?be?no?private?right?of?property?in?any?water?found?naturally?in?Swaziland.? SECTION 216. ENVIRONMENT (1)? Every?person?shall?promote?the?protection?of?the?environment?for?the?present?and?future?generations.?(2)?Urbanisation?or?industrialization?shall?be?undertaken?with?due?respect?for?the?environment.? 279? UBC Press 2012(3)? The?Government?shall?ensure?a?holistic?and?comprehensive?approach?to?environmental?legislation?and?shall?put?in?place?an?appropriate?environmental?regulatory?framework.?Source: http://www.chr.up.ac.za/index.php/documents-by-country-database/swaziland.html 280? UBC Press 2012Sweden (1987)10  Instrument?of?Government?Chapter?1:?Basic?Principles?of?the?Form?of?Government?ARTICLE 2 ...?The?personal,?economic?and?cultural?welfare?of?the?private?person?shall?be?fundamental?aims?of?public?activity.?In?particular,?it?shall?be?incumbent?upon?the?public?institutions?to?secure?the?right?to?health,?employment,?housing?and?education,?and?to?promote?social?care?and?social?security.??The?public?institutions?shall?promote?sustainable?development?leading?to?a?good??environment?for?present?and?future?generations.?Chapter?2:?Fundamental?Rights?and?Freedoms?ARTICLE 18 The?property?of?every?citizen?shall?be?so?guaranteed?that?none?may?be?compelled?by?expropriation?or?other?such?disposition?to?surrender?property?to?the?public?institutions?or?to?a?private?subject,?or?tolerate?restriction?by?the?public?institutions?of?the?use?of?land?or?buildings,?other?than?where?necessary?to?satisfy?pressing?public?interests.??A?person?who?is?compelled?to?surrender?property?by?expropriation?or?other?such?disposition?shall?be?guaranteed?compensation?for?his?loss.?Such?compensation?shall?also?be?guaranteed?to?a?person?whose?use?of?land?or?buildings?is?restricted?by?the?public?institutions?in?such?a?manner?that?ongoing?land?use?in?the?affected?part?of?the?property?is?substantially?impaired,?or?injury?results?which?is?significant?in?relation?to?the?value?of?that?part?of?the?property.?Compensation?shall?be?determined?according?to?principles?laid?down?in?law.?There?shall?be?access?for?all?to?the?natural?environment?in?accordance?with?the?right?of?public?access,?notwithstanding?the?above?provisions.?Chapter?11:?Administration?of?Justice?and?General?Administration?ARTICLE 14 If?a?court?or?other?public?body?finds?that?a?provision?conflicts?with?a?rule?of?fundamental?law?or?other?superior?statute,?or?finds?that?a?procedure?laid?down?in?law?has?been?disregarded?in?any?important?respect?when?the?provision?was?made,?the?provision?                                                 10?The?Constitution?consists?of?four?fundamental?laws:?the?Instrument?of?Government,?the?Act?of?Succession,?the?Freedom?of?the?Press?Act?and?the?Fundamental?Law?on?Freedom?of?Expression.?The?Instrument?of?Government?contains?the?most?important?rules?regarding?the?organization?of?Swedish?society?and?the?major?constitutional?principles.? 281? UBC Press 2012shall?not?be?applied.?If?the?provision?has?been?approved?by?the?Riksdag?or?by?the?Government,?however,?it?shall?be?waived?only?if?the?error?is?manifest.?Source: http://www.riksdagen.se/templates/R_Page____6357.aspx  282? UBC Press 2012Switzerland (1971,?amended?in?1999)11 Preamble?The?Swiss?People?and?Cantons???are?conscious?of?our?common?achievements?and?our?r erations;????esponsibility?towards?future?genTitle?I:?General?Provisions?ARTICLE 2. PURPOSE (1)? The?Swiss?Federation?protects?the?liberty?and?rights?of?the?people?and?safeguards?the?independence?and?security?of?the?country.?(2)? It?promotes?common?welfare,?sustainable?development,?inner?cohesion,?and?cultural?diversity?of?the?country.?(3)? It?ensures?the?highest?possible?degree?of?equal?opportunities?for?all?citizens.?(4)? It?strives?to?safeguard?the?long?term?preservation?of?natural?resources?and?to?rder.?promote?a?just?and?peaceful?international?oTitle?II:?Basic,?Civil,?and?Social?Rights?Chapter?I:?Basic?Rights?ARTICLE 29. GENERAL PROCEDURAL GUARANTEES (1)? In?judicial?and?administrative?proceedings,?every?person?has?the?right?to?equal?and?fair?treatment?as?well?as?adjudication?within?reasonable?time.?(2)? The?parties?have?the?right?to?be?heard.?(3)? Every?person?lacking?the?necessary?means?has?the?right?to?free?legal?assistance,?provided?the?case?does?not?seem?to?lack?any?merit.?To?the?extent?necessary?for?the?l?counsel.?protection?of?one?s?rights,?the?person?also?has?the?right?to?free?legaTitle?III:?The?Confederation,?Cantons?and?Municipalities?Chapter?2:?Security,?National?and?Civil?Defense?Section?4:?Environment?and?Zoning?ARTICLE 73. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT The?Federation?and?the?Cantons?shall?strive?to?establish?a?sustainable?equilibrium?between?nature,?in?particular?its?capacity?to?renew?itself,?and?its?use?by?man.??                                                 11?The?Swiss?Constitution?of?1874?governed,?with?extensive?amendments,?until?a?new?constitution?was?drafted?in?the?late?1990s.?Provisions?related?to?the?environment?began?appearing?in?the?Swiss?Constitution?of?1874?in?1971.? 283? UBC Press 2012ARTICLE 74. PROTECTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT (1)?The?Federation?shall?legislate?on?the?protection?of?humans?and?the?natural?environment?against?damaging?and?harmful?influences.?(2)?It?shall?ensure?that?such?influences?are?avoided.?The?polluters?shall?pay?for?the?costs?of?avoidance?and?removal.?(3)?The?federal?regulations?shall?be?implemented?by?the?Cantons,?insofar?as?the?law?does?not?reserve?this?for?the?Federation.??ARTICLE 75. ZONING (1)?The?Federation?shall?establish?principles?on?zoning.?Zoning?falls?to?the?Cantons,?and?shall?serve?to?achieve?an?appropriate?and?moderate?use?of?the?land?and?its?ordered?inhabitation.?(2)?The?Federation?shall?encourage?and?coordinate?the?efforts?of?the?Cantons,?and?shall?collaborate?with?them.?(3)?In?fulfilling?their?tasks,?the?Federation?and?the?Cantons?shall?take?the?needs?of?zoning?into?account.? ARTICLE 76. WATER (1)?Within?the?limits?of?its?powers,?the?Federation?shall?ensure?the?moderate?use?and?the?protection?of?water?resources,?and?fight?against?harmful?effects?of?water.?(2)?It?shall?establish?principles?on?the?preservation?and?use?of?water?reserves,?on?the?use?of?water?for?the?production?of?energy?and?for?cooling?purposes,?and?on?other?interventions?into?the?water?cycle.?(3)?It?shall?legislate?on?water?protection,?on?securing?sufficient?residual?water,?on?hydraulic?engineering,?on?the?safety?of?dams?and?on?interventions?to?influence?precipitation.?(4)?The?Cantons?shall?dispose?of?their?water?resources.?Within?the?limits?of?federal?law,?they?may?levy?dues?for?water?use.?The?Federation?shall?have?the?right?to?use?water?for?its?traffic?enterprises;?it?shall?pay?dues?and?compensation?for?this.?(5)?On?rights?concerning?international?water?resources?and?dues?connected?with?them,?the?Federation?shall?decide?in?consultation?with?the?Cantons?concerned.?If?the?Cantons?concerned?cannot?agree?on?rights?to?intercantonal?water?reserves,?the?Federation?shall?decide.?(6)?In?fulfilling?its?tasks,?the?Federation?shall?take?into?account?the?interests?of?the?Cantons?from?which?the?water?originates.??ARTICLE 77. FORESTS (1)? The?Federation?shall?ensure?that?forests?may?fulfill?their?protective,?economic?and?social?functions.?(2)? It?shall?establish?principles?for?the?protection?of?forests.?(3)? It?shall?encourage?measures?for?the?conservation?of?forests.?? 284? UBC Press 2012ARTICLE 78. NATURE AND CULTURAL HERITAGE (1)? The?protection?of?nature?and?cultural?heritage?is?a?cantonal?matter.?(2)? In?fulfilling?its?tasks,?the?Federation?shall?take?into?account?the?objectives?of?the?protection?of?nature?and?cultural?heritage.?It?shall?protect?scenery,?localities,?historical?sites,?and?natural?and?cultural?monuments;?it?shall?preserve?them?untouched?if?public?interest?so?requires.?(3)? It?may?support?efforts?towards?the?protection?of?nature?and?cultural?heritage,?and?may,?by?contract?or?by?expropriation,?acquire?or?secure?objects?of?national?importance.?(4)? It?shall?legislate?on?the?protection?of?animal?and?plant?life,?and?on?the?preservation?of?their?natural?environment?and?diversity.?It?shall?protect?endangered?species?from?extinction.?(5)?Moors?and?marshland?of?special?beauty?and?national?importance?shall?be?protected.?No?installations?may?be?built?on?them,?and?no?alterations?of?any?kind?may?be?made?to?the?land.?An?exception?is?made?for?installations?serving?to?ensure?their?protection?or?continuation?of?existing?agricultural?use.??ARTICLE 79. FISHERY AND HUNTING The?Federation?shall?establish?principles?on?the?exercise?of?fishery?and?hunting,?in?particular?to?preserve?diversity?of?fish,?game,?and?birds.??ARTICLE 80. PROTECTION OF ANIMALS (1)? The?Federation?shall?legislate?on?the?protection?of?animals.?(2)? It?shall?regulate?in?particular:?a.? the?keeping?and?care?of?animals;?b.? experiments?and?intervention?on?live?animals;?c.? the?use?of?animals;?d.? the?importation?of?animals?and?animal?products;?e.? trade?in?animals?and?transportation?of?animals;?f.? the?slaughter?of?animals.?(3)? The?federal?regulations?shall?be?implemented?by?the?Cantons,?insofar?as?the?statute?does?not?reserve?this?for?the?Federation.??Section?5:?Public?Works?and?Transportation?ARTICLE 84. ALPINE TRANSIT (1)? The?Federation?shall?protect?the?alpine?regions?from?the?negative?effects?of?transit?traffic.?It?shall?limit?the?nuisance?caused?by?such?traffic?to?a?level?which?is?not?harmful?to?persons,?animals,?or?plants,?or?their?environment.?(2)? Transalpine?freight?in?border?to?border?transit?is?to?be?transported?by?rail.?The?Federal?Government?takes?the?necessary?measures.?Exceptions?are?permitted?only?if?they?are?inevitable.?They?have?to?be?specified?by?law.? 285? UBC Press 2012(3)? The?transit?route?capacity?in?the?alpine?area?may?not?be?increased.?Excluded?from?this?restriction?are?by?pass?roads,?which?relieve?localities?of?the?transit?traffic.? ARTICLE 85. CHARGE ON HEAVY GOODS TRAFFIC (1)? The?Federation?may?levy?a?duty?on?the?heavy?goods?traffic?dependent?on?motor?power?or?consumption,?as?far?as?the?heavy?traffic?causes?costs?for?the?public,?which?are?not?covered?by?other?services?or?duties.?(2)?Net?proceeds?of?the?duty?are?used?for?the?covering?of?costs?in?connection?with?road?traffic.?(3)? The?Cantons?have?a?share?in?the?net?proceeds.?The?shares?are?calculated?by?considering?the?special?effects?of?the?duty?on?mountainous?and?peripheral?areas.? ARTICLE 86. FUELS CONSUMPTION TAX AND OTHER TRAFFIC CHARGES (1)? The?Federation?may?levy?a?consumption?tax?on?hydrocarbon?fuels.?(2)? The?Federation?levies?a?duty?for?the?use?of?the?national?highways?by?motor?vehicles?and?trailers,?which?are?not?subordinated?to?the?heavy?traffic?delivery.???? ARTICLE 88. FOOTPATHS AND HIKING TRAILS (1)? The?Federation?establishes?principles?on?networks?of?footpaths?and?hiking?trails.?(2)? The?Federation?may?support?measures?of?the?Cantons?to?establish?and?keep?such?networks,?and?to?coordinate?them.? Section?6:?Energy?and?Communication?ARTICLE 89. ENERGY POLICY (1)?Within?their?powers,?the?Federation?and?the?Cantons?shall?strive?to?ensure?a?sufficient,?diversified,?reliable,?and?economical?energy?supply?compatible?with?the?protection?of?the?environment,?and?the?economical?and?efficient?use?of?energy.?(2)? The?Federation?establishes?principles?on?the?use?of?domestic?and?renewable?energies?and?on?economical?and?rational?energy?consumption.?(3)? The?Confederation?legislates?on?the?use?of?energy?for?buildings,?vehicles?and?appliances.?It?promotes?the?development?of?energy?techniques,?particularly?in?the?fields?of?energy?saving?and?renewable?energy.?...? Section?7:?Economy?ARTICLE 104. AGRICULTURE (3)? It?shall?conceive?the?measures?in?such?a?way?that?agriculture?may?fulfill?its?multiple?functions.?Its?powers?and?tasks?shall?particularly?be?the?following:?a.? It?shall?complement?agricultural?revenues?by?direct?payments,?to?secure?a?fair?and?adequate?remuneration?for?the?services?rendered,?provided?that?compliance?with?ecological?requirements?is?proven;? 286? UBC Press 2012b.? It?shall?promote,?by?way?of?economic?incentives,?forms?of?production?which?are?particularly?close?to?nature?and?friendly?to?the?environment?and?the?animals;?c.? It?shall?legislate?on?the?declaration?of?origin,?quality,?production?and?processing?methods?for?foodstuffs;?d.? It?shall?protect?the?environment?against?pollution?due?to?excessive?use?of?fertilizers,?chemicals?and?other?auxiliary?substances;?...?ARTICLE 120. GENE TECHNOLOGY IN THE NON-HUMAN FIELD (1)? Persons?and?their?environment?shall?be?protected?against?abuse?of?gene?technology.?(2)? The?Federation?shall?legislate?on?the?use?of?the?reproductive?and?genetic?material?of?animals,?plants,?and?other?organisms.?In?doing?so,?it?shall?take?into?account?the?dignity?of?creation?and?the?security?of?man,?animal?and?environment,?and?shall?protect?the?genetic?diversity?of?animal?and?vegetal?species.?Source: http://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/sz00000_.html#A002_ 287? UBC Press 2012S 3) yrian Arab Republic (197Part?2:?Economic?Principles?ARTICLE 14   The?law?regulates?ownership,?which?is?of?three?kinds:??(1)? Public?ownership?includes?natural?resources,?public?utilities,?and?nationalized?installations?and?establishments,?as?well?as?installations?and?establishments?set?up?by?the?state.?The?state?undertakes?to?exploit?and?to?supervise?the?administration?of?this?property?in?the?interest?of?the?entire?people.?It?is?the?duty?of?the?citizens?to?protect?this?property.????Source: http://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/sy00000_.html 288? UBC Press 2012Tajikistan (1994) Preamble?We,?the?People?of?Tajikistan????Realizing?our?debt?and?our?responsibility?to?the?past,?present,?and?future?generations???Adopt?and?announce?this?constitution.?Chapter?1:?Foundations?of?the?Constitutional?System?ARTICLE 13 The?land,?its?resources,?water,?the?atmosphere,?flora,?fauna,?and?other?natural?resources?are?the?exclusive?property?of?the?state,?and?the?government?guarantees?their?effective?utilization?in?the?interests?of?the?people.?Chapter?2:?Rights,?Freedoms,?and?Basic?Duties?of?the?Person?and?Citizen?ARTICLE 19 Every?person?is?guaranteed?judicial?protection.?Every?person?has?the?right?to?demand?review?of?her?or?his?case?by?a?competent?and?non?partisan?court.?Without?lawful?grounds,?no?one?may?be?subjected?to?detainment,?arrest,?or?deportation.?From?the?moment?of?detainment,?a?person?has?the?right?to?employ?the?services?of?a?lawyer.? ARTICLE 38 Everyone?has?the?right?to?protection?of?health.?Everyone?within?the?framework?determined?by?law?enjoys?free?medical?assistance?in?the?State?healthcare?establishments.?The?State?adopts?measures?to?improve?the?environment,?develop?mass?athletics,?physical?culture,?and?tourism.??Other?forms?of?medical?assistance?to?be?provided?are?determined?by?law.? ARTICLE 44 Eve o?protect?nature?and?historic?and?cultural?monuments.?ryone?is?obligated?tChapter?8:?Courts?ARTICLE 92 Legal?assistance?is?guaranteed?at?all?stages?of?investigation?and?court?proceeding.?The?organization?of?and?work?procedures?of?the?bar?and?other?forms?of?legal?assistance?to?be?provided?are?determined?by?constitutional?law.?Source: http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/untc/unpan003670.htm 289? UBC Press 2012Tanzania (1977) Part?II:?Fundamental?Objectives?and?Directive?Principles?of?State?Policy?ARTICLE 7 (1)?Notwithstanding?the?provisions?of?sub?article?(2),?it?shall?be?the?duty?and?responsibility?of?the?Government,?all?its?organs?and?all?persons?or?authorities?exercising?executive,?legislative?or?judicial?functions?to?take?cognizance?of,?observe?and?apply?the?provisions?of?this?Part?of?this?Chapter.?(2)? The?provisions?of?this?Part?of?this?Chapter?are?not?enforceable?by?any?court.?No?court?shall?be?competent?to?determine?the?question?whether?or?not?any?action?or?omission?by?any?person?or?any?court,?or?any?law?or?judgment?complies?with?the?provisions?of?this?Part?of?this?Chapter.? ARTICLE 9 The?state?authority?and?all?its?agencies?are?obliged?to?direct?their?policies?and?programs?toward?ensuring?????(c)? that?public?affairs?are?conducted?in?such?a?way?as?to?ensure?that?the?national?resources?and?heritage?are?harnessed,?preserved,?and????applied?for?the?common?goodPart?III:?Basic?Rights?and?Duties?ARTICLE 27 (1)? Everyone?has?the?responsibility?of?conserving?the?natural?resources?of?the?United?Republic,?property?under?the?care?of?the?State?and?all?properties?collectively?owned?by?the?people,?and?also?to?respect?the?property?of?others.??(2)? Everyone?is?expected?to?protect?with?care?properties?under?care?of?the?State,?and?of?collective?nature,?to?combat?all?forms?of?destruction,?and?to?participate?in?the?economic?development?of?the?country?in?an?orderly?manner?as?if?they?are?the?future?decision?makers?of?their?nation.?Source: http://www.chr.up.ac.za/undp/domestic/docs/c_Tanzania.pdf 290? UBC Press 2012Thailand (2007)12 Chapter?III:?Rights?and?Liberties?of?Thai?People?Part?1:?General?Provisions?SECTION 27 Rights?and?liberties?recognised?by?this?Constitution?explicitly,?by?implication?or?by?decisions?of?the?Constitutional?Court?shall?be?protected?and?directly?binding?on?the?National?Assembly,?the?Council?of?Ministers,?the?Courts,?the?Constitutional?organisations?and?all?State?organs?in?enacting,?applying?and?interpreting?laws.? SECTION 28 A?person?can?invoke?human?dignity?or?exercise?his?rights?and?liberties?in?so?far?as?it?is?not?in?violation?of?rights?and?liberties?of?other?persons?or?contrary?to?this?Constitution?or?good?morals.?A?person?whose?rights?and?liberties?recognised?by?this?Constitution?are?violated?can?invoke?the?provisions?of?this?Constitution?to?bring?a?lawsuit?or?to?defend?himself?in?the?Courts.?A?person?may?bring?a?lawsuit?against?the?State?directly?so?as?to?act?in?compliance?with?the?provisions?in?this?Chapter.?If?there?is?a?law?enforcing?the?exercise?of?any?right?and?liberty?as?recognised?by?this?Constitution,?the?exercising?of?that?right?and?liberty?shall?be?in?accordance?with?such?law.?A?person?shall?have?the?right?to?be?enhanced,?supported?and?assisted?by?the?State?in?exercising?of?right?under?this?Chapter.? SECTION 29 The?restriction?of?such?rights?and?liberties?as?recognised?by?the?Constitution?shall?not?be?imposed?on?a?person?except?by?virtue?of?the?law?specifically?enacted?for?the?purpose?determined?by?this?Constitution?and?only?to?the?extent?of?necessity?and?provided?that?it?shall?not?affect?the?essential?substances?of?such?rights?and?liberties.?The?law?under?paragraph?one?shall?be?of?general?application?and?shall?not?be?intended?to?apply?to?any?particular?case?or?person;?provided?that?the?provision?of?the?Constitution?authorising?its?enactment?shall?also?be?mentioned?therein.?The?provisions?of?paragraph?one?and?paragraph?two?shall?apply?mutatis?mutandis?to?rules?or?regulations?issued?by?virtue?of?the?law.?                                                 12?The?Thai?Constitution?was?abrogated?by?a?military?junta/coup?in?2006.?There?was?an?Interim?Constitution?stating?that?all?rights?under?old?Constitution?would?be?upheld.?In?2007,?a?new?Constitution?was?proposed?and?passed?a?public?referendum.? 291? UBC Press 2012Part?5:?Right?in?Property?SECTION 41 The?property?right?of?a?person?is?protected.?The?extent?and?the?restriction?of?such?right?shall?be?in?accordance?with?the?provisions?of?law.?Succession?is?protected.??The?right?of?succession?of?a?person?shall?be?in?accordance?with?the?provisions?of?law.?? SECTION 42 The?expropriation?of?immovable?property?shall?not?be?made?except?by?virtue?of?the?law?specifically?enacted?for?the?purpose?of?public?utilities,?necessary?national?defense,?exploitation?of?national?resources,?town?and?country?planning,?promotion?and?preservation?of?quality?of?the?environment,?agricultural?or?industrial?development,?land?reforms,?or?other?public?interests,?and?fair?compensation?shall?be?paid?in?due?time?to?the?owner?thereof?as?well?as?to?all?persons?having?the?rights?thereof,?who?suffer?loss?by?such?exp .???ropriation,?as?provided?by?lawPart?6:?Occupational?Rights?SECTION 43 A?person?shall?enjoy?the?freedom?to?engage?in?an?enterprise?or?an?occupation?and?to?undertake?a?fair?and?free?competition.?The?restriction?on?such?liberties?under?paragraph?one?shall?not?be?imposed?except?by?virtue?of?the?law?specifically?enacted?for?...?preserving?natural?resources?or?the?environment,????Part?10:?Right?To?Receive?Information?and?Freedom?of?Petition?SECTION 56 A?person?shall?have?the?right?to?receive?information,?explanation?and?justification?from?a?government?agency,?state?agency,?state?enterprise?or?local?government?organization?before?permission?is?given?for?implementation?of?any?project?or?activity?which?may?affect?the?quality?of?environment,?health,?and?sanitary?conditions,?quality?of?life?or?other?material?of?interest?to?him?or?her?or?a?local?community?and?shall?have?the?right?to?exp h?matters?to?agencies?concerned?for?consideration.??ress?his?or?her?opinion?on?sucPart?12:?Community?Rights?SECTION 66 Persons?assembling?so?as?to?be?a?traditional?community?shall?have?the?right?to?conserve?or?restore?their?customs,?local?knowledge,?arts?or?good?culture?of?their?community?and?of?the?nation?and?participate?in?management,?maintenance,?preservation?and?exploitation?of?natural?resources,?the?environment?and?biological?diversity?in?a?balanced?and?sustainable?fashion.?  292? UBC Press 2012SECTION 67 The?right?of?a?person?to?participate?with?state?and?communities?in?the?preservation?and?exploitation?of?natural?resources?and?biological?diversity?and?in?the?protection,?promotion?and?preservation?of?the?quality?of?environment?for?usual?and?consistent?survival?in?the?environment?which?is?not?hazardous?to?his?or?her?health?and?sanitary?conditions,?welfare?or?quality?of?life,?shall?be?protected?appropriately.??Any?project?or?activity?that?may?seriously?affect?the?quality?of?environment?shall?not?be?permitted,?unless?its?impacts?on?the?quality?of?environment?and?on?the?health?of?the?people?in?the?communities?have?been?studied?and?evaluated?and?consultation?with?the?public?and?interested?parties?have?been?organized,?and?opinions?of?an?independent?organization,?consisting?of?representatives?from?private?environmental?and?health?organizations?and?from?higher?education?institutions?providing?studies?in?the?field?of?environment,?natural?resources?or?health,?have?been?obtained?prior?to?the?operation?of?such?project?or?activity.??The?right?of?a?community?to?sue?a?government?agency,?state?agency,?state?enterprise,?local?government?organization?or?other?state?authority?which?has?the?jurisdiction?to?all?be?protected.??perform?the?duties?under?this?section?shChapter?IV:?Duties?of?Thai?People??SECTION 73 Every?person?shall?have?a?duty?to?serve?in?the?armed?forces,?render?assistance?in?providing?public?calamity?prevention?and?rehabilitation,?pay?taxes,?render?assistance?to?the?official?service,?receive?education?and?training,?protect,?preserve?and?pass?on?the?national?arts?and?culture?and?local?wisdom?