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Indian Education Newsletter, Vol. 3, no. 5 Indian Education Resources Center 1973-01

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Indian Education Newsletter JANUARY  VOLUME 3 # 5  1973  INDIAN EDUCATION RESOURCES CENTER ROOM 106 - BROCK HALL, U.B,C.  GUIDANCE COUNSELLING AND THE B. C. NATIVE INDIAN STUDENT ALVIN A. MCKAY DIRECTOR - I.E.R.C. Many secondary schools point out that Indian students are fitting into one of these three groupings: 1) Very quiet, reticent, withdrawn - majority of native Indian students are reputed to fall into this category. Lack of oral participation in many subject areas, leads to failure or under achievement. 2) Very loud, show-offish, rebellious - few students are found in this grouping. Unresponsive cases, result in dropping-out and failure. 3) Fits naturally into all phases of education very few students fit into this category. Average to above average achievement. An analytical approach or look at these problem areas present to any "counsellor - educator" such causative factors as, culture shock; lack of identity, loneliness, disorientation, subtle prejudices, wrong programs, insensitive school personnel, limited experiential background etc., etc. My point is - how many schools that find themselves in 1) and 2) situations just simply react by the use of punitive measures? One factor alone - that a majority of Indian students are coming from a totally different cultural mode of life, and that they are being expected to fit naturally into a new cultural way of life indicates that more effort should be made by the schools to help these students relate to their new environment. From personal experience in an integrated learning environment, it was felt that the longer the environment remained strange, unfriendly, and incomprehensible, the further away one drifts from one learning environment. To reach these students at an early stage of the school year, is an investment that can only create a productive student. To be unresponsive to the needs that these native Indians' cannot meet on their own is to produce students who will perpetually feed into groups 1) and 2).  -2 It is hoped that the two articles on Group Counselling, which follow, will be of some help to schools enrolling Indian students.  *** ** *********** ** *****************  SCHOOL DISTRICT #44 - NORTH VANCOUVER  GROUP^COUNSELLING — MELIVA NASTICH Group counselling is in reality a learning process. Research indicates that the group enhances learning and that counselling, as a learning process, is enhanced by the group. Counselling must have structure. This is easily discernable in individual counselling. In group counselling, because of the interaction of the members, the structure which the counsellor provides is not always so easily observed. It is there, nevertheless. In keeping with the dynamics of counselling in general, the group counselling process consists of: 1)  the establishment and maintenance of proper relationship;  2)  an examination of the purpose of each group members; action or behaviour;  3)  revealing to each student the goals he is pursuing, called psychological disclosure; and,  4)  a reorientation and redirection of goals.  1)^DEVELOPING AN EFFECTIVE COUNSELLING RELATIONSHIP requires more than mere good relationships. The counsellor has to establish himself as the leader of the group even though a democratic atmosphere must prevail. Effective group counselling relationship is based on mutual respect. It does not mean that each member may do anything he pleases. Firmness and kindness is necessary in all group counselling, as illustrated by the following incident.  3 Jeff, a fifth grader, attempted to maneuver the counsell6r into a power struggle during each group session. Although the counsellor recognized what Jeff was trying to do and refused to become involved in a fight, it became evident that Jeff's disturbing behaviour would disrupt the entire group. The counsellor asked the group, "Do you see what is going on?" The members pointed out that Jeff wanted to be the boss. His behaviour, they said, disrupted discussion. They indicated their disapproval of his behaviour. The counsellor made it clear that he did not intend to fight with Jeff. But Jeff continued disturbing the sessions. The counsellor then asked Jeff if he were leaving by himself of if he had to be removed. Jeff made no move to leave. The counsellor then insisted, firmly but kindly, that Jeff leave the room with the understanding that he would return when he felt able to participate. Jeff returned to the group after an absence of one session. The change in his behaviour was dramatic, not only in counselling group, but also as reported by the parents, at home and in the classroom. The redirection of Jeff's mistaken goals could not be attributed to this one action alone; the parents had been counselled in a group with other parents, and the teacher attended a teacher's seminar. They all began to understand Jeff's behaviour and what to do about it. The counsellor established himself as a leader of the group and a man of his word. -  2)^The goals which the child is pursuing underly his behaviour. The method of examining, of discovering these goals, can be applied in individual counselling as well as in a group situation. However, the child's goals and movements become more obvious in the interaction with the group members, in contrast to the limited interaction betwen him and the counsellor in individual sessions. Secondly, the counsellor no longer depends exclusively on the student's verbal reports of outside interactions with others. He sees him in action during the session. Often the child acts differently in a group than when alone with the counsellor. Much of the veneer which the child uses as a cover-up may be stripped away in the group. As an appropriate illustration let 'us take Gale, a bright, charming, fourth-grade girl. Most of the teachers were impressed with her; she was aggressive, but she caused no trouble. In Gale's group, and from the same classroom, was Jim who was  4 ... 2)^... a bright boy also, but a disturbing element in the classroom. At the beginning of one group session, with Gale and Jim present, the school principal came into the room. Gale immediately invited him to participate. He accepted, but had to leave to answer a phone call. Gale informed a late arriving group member that the empty chair beside her was reserved for the principal, and he should locate another chair. The group discussion shifted immediately after the principal returned. Gale took the initiative and began subtly to push Jim down, and to put herself in a favourable light. This disturbed Jim, and he began to act up. Whereupon other boys also began to act up. Gale had achieved her goal and could sit back with a feeling of "see how badly they behave and see how good I am." The expression on her face vividly revealed her triumph. The principal indicated his disapproval of the boys by his non-verbal reaction. Gale had given the principal the most adroit "snow job" that could be imagined. The group was well on the way to getting out of hand when the counsellor began to change the course of the session with, "I wonder how many of you know what happened to get the boys started acting up?" The technique which Gale used to push the boys down and build herself up, thus creating classroom disunity, couldn't have been discovered by counselling Jim and Gale individually. It could only be revealed in the group situation. 3) THE GROUP HELPS MORE EFFECTIVELY THAN INDIVIDUAL COUNSELLING TO GAIN INSIGHT AND TO REDIRECT EACH CHILD'S MISTAKEN GOALS. The group facilitates the process of insight. Many would not be able to learn about themselves but for the interaction taking place in the group. The child comes to see himself in others. Thus the psychological disclosures and the interpretations during the group sessions are not only valuable for the child at whom they are directed, but to other members of the group who learn from these disclosures. A sixth grade girl recognized herself when we counselled one of her peers. "I used to be  5 ... 3)^... like that, always helping the teacher, being good and doing the right things, not because I wanted to, but because I would get in good." Mistaken goals and erroneous motives among members of the group are similar enough that each member can see himself in others. It appears that this factor should be considered in selection of group members. In other words, the more similar the group, the stronger the mirror effect. Thus, there is the greatest possibility of learning from each other when members are selected on the basis of their common problems, for example, groups of under achievers, of parents, of teenagers, of dropouts, and the like. 4) THE STATEMENTS AND OPINIONS OF GROUP MEMBERS OFTEN CARRY MORE WEIGHT THAN ANYTHING THE COUNSELLOR TELLS THEM. Group members accept each other more in redirective efforts because they sense the equality which exists among them. Group counselling is in reality a learning process. Research indicated that the group enhances learning and that counselling, as a learning process, is enhanced by the group. Insight is not an end in itself - it is merely a means to an end. It is not often a basis for behavioural change, but always a step in that direction. The end product is reorientation and redirection. The group becomes an agent in bringing about . these changes because of the improved interpersonal relationship in the group, a greater possibility for each group member to see himself as he is, and the realization that his concept of himself and the goals he is pursuing are faulty.  ***** ******* *** ***^*** *^*  SCHOOL DISTRICT #44 - NORTH VANCOUVER  A RATIONALE FOR GPOUP COUNSELLIN( IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL - MELIVA NASTICH Approaches to counselling young children seem to be the topic of much theoretical speculation among counsellors and educators since elementary school guidance has become a reality. In the quest for appropriate guidelines to serve as patterns for counselling the pre-adolescent, counsellor educators and shcool counsellors have displayed interest in the works of Axline (1947a, 1947b, 1955), Klein (1932), Anna Freud (1946, 1949), Allen (1942), and Moustakas ... -6- ...  6  (1959). Recently, however, (Dinkmeyer, 1965) it has been noted that psychotherapeutic models may be inappropriate for work with "normal" children. In light of this, Dinkmeyer has developed a tentative counsellin& theory based upon the teleoanalytical concepts of Adlerian psychology, (Dinkmeyer, 1965, 1968) and developmental theory (Dinkmeyer and Caldwell, in press). Others, most notably Krumboltz (1965, 1966, 1967), have advocated the use of behavioural approaches to child counselling, while Glasser (1965) has demonstrated that his reality therapy has definite possibilities for educational setting. While the models for child counselling remain somewhat tentative, a number of research efforts have been helpful in providing at least minimal guidelines for school counsellors. Several of these have been concerned with the utilization of the group approach to counselling (Gazda, 1962; Harris, Pearl and Trotta, F., 1962; Lodato, F., and Skoloff, M.A., 1963; Marx, Sanford, Redding, James F., and Smith, Leonard J., 1967; Stormer, G. Edward, 1967), and the findings of these investigations seem to suggest that counsellors should give serious consideration to the formation of counselling groups. Some reasons why group counselling may be effective with those who have not yet reached adolescence are presented in this paper. The group counselling process recognizes that most problems are primarily social and interpersonal, and the child must learn to interact effectively within his group. A child's character is expressed through social movement and interaction, and group counselling provides an opportunity to reveal convictions and develop self-understanding. The process also provides the opportunity to see the nature of the child's interaction and have him benefit from the corrective influences and encouragement of the group. Thus counselling proceeds from the assumption that man is an indivisible, social, decision-making being whose actions have a social purpose (Dreikurs and Sonstegrad, 1965). In the group, members can identify with others and understand their own problems by observing the behaviour of others. The process helps the child become aware of and consider the alternatives. The group, then, can become a value forming element. It provides the opportunity to explore problems, opinions, feelings, assumptions, and convictions in an attempt to modify attitudes and the perceptual field. Participation in group activities is a fact of life for the elementary school child (Strang, Ruth, 1958). Much of what is labeled formal education is structured to include numerous group experiences. Children are taught as members of a group, play and, SOO  -7- ...  7 eat in groups, and have their academic progress measured against the efforts of their peers. The fact that groups are inevitable in schools does not mean that each child receives the same benefits from participation in them. The transition from home to school requires that the child, perhaps for the first time in his life, actively seeks approval from peers and teachers. In the years preceding school entrance, he generally received love and understanding within the family constellation; however, acceptance in the school environment is likely to be contingent on what he can offer others in the way of talents, abilities, and skills (Mussen, P.H., Conger, J. J., and Kagan, J., 1963). Children who possess traits considered desirable by teachers and peers are accepted and rewarded in numerous ways; those who do not experience disapproval, rejection, or indifference. Recognition that the problems all children have are basically social gives, group counselling special significance, both for the diagnosis and solution of the child's problems (Dreikurs and Sonstegard, 1965). Since human beings are social beings, they will express their social goals in the interaction of the group process. Group counselling permits the trained counsellor to observe how the child finds his place in the group. It enables him to identify the way in which the child perceives self and others. The way that the child finds his place, interprets, and makes his decisions always reveals his self-concept and his convictions and assumptions about life. This enables the counsellor to use the most powerful in- fluence of all, the peers, to influence the child. The group can be most effective in encouraging and serving as a corrective influence. Group counselling teaches each member to deal with each other as an equal and it becomes a social force in the peer culture. Group counselling is conceived as one approach to providing success and acceptance for all children regardless of their academic competence. Relieved of the responsibility of assigning grades and administering discipline, the counsellor can create a group climate wherein the child is allowed to explore his hopes, values, purposes, and plans in an atmosphere where feedback and reality testing facilitate self-evaluation. The boy who is not outstanding in the classroom or who does not excel in athletics assumes equal status with others in the counselling group. Although he still must seek peer acceptance, • the criteria for earning approval is likely to be quite different from that required of him in other group settings. For example,  ... in a group counselled by one of the authors, one small third grade boy who was identified as an isolate on several socio-metric measures discussed his hamster collection with other children and soon became the center of the group's attention. He was, for the moment at least, important and knowledgeable in the eyes of others. Admittedly, such incidents could conceivably occur in a classroom; yet too often they do not. Group counselling attempts to insure that experiences similar to these will be realities for all children. In addition to providing the growing child with a safe psychological climate group counselling can also be utilized as an approach to assisting children in their mastery of developmental tasks. Developmental tasks provide both long and short range goals for the counselling process. It is assumed from experiences in a variety of school systems that the normal, healthy personality is confronted with some of the following developmental problems or tasks: 1. Learning to value self and to develop a feeling of adequacy. 2.  Learning to belong and develop a mutuality with others.  3.  Learning to manage aggression, frustration.  4.  Learning to become reasonably and responsibily independent.  5.  Learning an appropriate giving-receiving pattern, developing social interest and a willingness to give more than one receives.  6. Learning to be emotionally flexible. 7. Learning to make value judgments. 8.  Learning to get along with peers.  9.  Learning to choose, decide and accept the consequences of one's decision.  10. Learning to develop the capacity to relate to changing social groups and develop a feeling of belonging. 11. Learning appropriate sexual roles, to be a boy or girl.  9 These tasks provide some of the material for the group discussion. The group also provides the opportunity to deal with the tasks in a real social setting. However, the tasks are approached as the children indicate their readiness for the topic. In the give and take of counselling groups, each of these tasks may formulate the central theme of a discussion at one time or another. In fact, it is not uncommon for members of a group to work on several tasks simultaneously. The counsellor, of course, does not structure the discussion so that a given session is devoted to "value formation." Rather, he allows the concept of developmental tasks to serve as an overall guideline for his methods of operation. Stated another way, the eventual "mastery" of a developmental task should be considered a desirable counselling goal rather than as an abstract verbalization interjected into the flow of group discussion. While assistance in the mastery of developmental tasks should provide the counsellor with a major focal point for his counselling sessions, he must also be prepared to deal With the problems and concerns of children. While some may argue that a problem-centered approach to counselling is inappropriate, the discussion of personal concerns eventually becomes a topic in many counselling groups. When a child feels sufficiently safe to verbalize a personal problem, his comments frequently trigger a reaction among other group members. As he presents his concerns, he discovers that others may have similar problems and that he can be helped by listening to their approaches to solutions. In addition, he also learns that he can give as well as receive help (Ohlset, M.M. 1965). Because there are others present, he finds that he may have to wait to speak; yet, he knows that eventually he, too, will receive the total attention of the group. As a result, children begin to develop a "social interest" or a concern for others as well as themselves. To Adlerians, the development of this attitude is a necessary ingredient for a healthy personality anf for effective group counselling. Another important benefit children derive prom participation in group counselling is the development of self-understanding. Pre-adolescents do not possess the resources necessary to evaluate themselves; hence, they must look to others - to peers and adults - to assist them in this process. While self-knowledge can be gained in a one-to-one relationship with a counsellor, group counselling appears to be a much more effective way to accomplish this task. Wrenn* has noted that the adult counsellor is frequently too far removed from the world of the adolescent * Personal communication.  - 1 0... to completely understand him. If this is true, we may also hypothesize that counsellors are even further removed from the world of the young child. In the group situation, all children become potential counsellors; moreover, these "counsellors" are likely to be in closer harmony with a peer's perceptions. Each child is encouraged to discuss important aspects of his life, and beliefs about self are thus placed before a peer court, examined, and frequently modified. Young children enjoy discussions of personalities (Folkes, S.H. and Anthony, E.J., 1965) and will readily engage in this activity in group counselling. Self-learning is also enhanced in group situations through the group potential for providing immediate feedback. The child is more likely to learn about himself if he is able to receive an immediate reaction to his verbalizations. That this is effective in learning has been ably demonstrated by Skinner (1962), Crowder (1963), and Lumsdaine (1960) through their work in the area of programmed instruction. Bach (1954) has noted that his therapy groups frequently engage in advice giving and evaluation of others, and experienced counsellor would probably agree that this also occurs in counselling groups. Seldom does a verbalization fall on untuned ears when numbers of children interact. Group counselling can also provide children with a rehearsal area for newly acquired: or modified behaviours. We have long known that the individual who participates in a small group tends to behave in a manner similar to the way he operates in the classroom, neighborhood, and community. This phenomenon has caused Vinacke (1964) to label the small group a miniature society, and in a similar vein, Bach (1954) has described his therapy groups as micro-communities. The importance of this to the counsellor lies in the fact that the group serves as a mediating function between the child and his larger environment. The roles he learns in the group will serve as the initial roles that he will take into other situations (Shepherd, D.C., (1964). -  SUMMARY In his work young children, the elementary school counsellor for all students because groups are natural to young children and provide certain unique benefits. Group counselling can provide each child with a measure of acceptance, a chance to experience success, a setting in which he can work on and master developmental tasks, and an opportunity to develop self-understanding. The group is a social situation and a small community wherein the child can both give and receive help, gain support and support others. In addition, it provides an optimal learning situation because of the climate and the  ... possibilities for immediate feedback from peers. Although the focus of group counselling with elementary children is developmental in nature, it can provide the counsellor with an effective screening device in which to uncover and hopefully prevent certain problems before they occur. REFERENCES  Allen, F. H. Psychotherapy with Children, New York: Norton, 19 42. .  Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. PerceivinE, Behaving, Becoming. Washington, D.C.: National Education Association, 1962. Axline, Virginia, M. Play Therapy. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1947a. Axline, Virginia, M. Non-directive therapy for poor readers. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 1947b, pp. 11, 61-69. Axline, Virginia, M. Play therapy procedures and results. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 1955, pp. 25, 618-626. Bad', G.S. Intensive Group Psychotherapy. New York: Ronald, 1954. Berelson, B. & Steiner, G. A. Human Behaviour. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1964. Crowder, N. A. On the differences between linear and intrinsic programming. Phi Delta Kappan, XLIV, 1963, pp. 250-254, Dinkmeyer, D. Towards a theory of child counselling at the elementary level. Moravia, New York: Chronicle Guidance Publications, 1963. Dinkmeyet, D. Contributions of teleoanalytic theory and technique to school counselling • Personnel and Guidance Journal, May 1968, Volume #46, #9. Dinkmeyer, D. & Caldwell, E. Developmental counselling & guidance. New York: McGraw-Hill, in press (1970). Dreikurs, R. & Stonstegard, M. Rationale of group counselling. Guidance & Counselling in the Elementary School: Readings in Theory & Practice. New York: Holt, Rinehart, 1968. Folkes, S.H. & Anthony, E.J. Group Psychotherapy. Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1965. Freud, Anna. The Ego & Mechanisms of Defense. New York: International Universities Press, 19 46. Freud, Anna. Nursery School Education: Its uses and Dangers. Child Study, 1949, pp. 35 - 36. Gazda, G. M. Group Counselling with Bright Under achieving Fifth Graders & Their Parents. Paper read at American Personnel & Guidance Association Convention. Chicago, April 1962.  - 12 Glasser, W. Reality Therapy - A New Approach to Psychiatry. York. Harper & Row, 1965.  New  Grams, A. Facilitating Learning & Individual Development: Toward a Theory for Elementary Guidance. St, Paul: Minnesota Dept. of Education, 1966. Harris, P. & Trotta, F. An Experiment with Under achievers. Education, 1962, pp. 82, 347-349. Havighu st, R. J. Human Development & Education. New York: Longmans Green, 1953. Klein,/M. Psychoanalysis of Children. New York: W. W. Morton, 1932.  I  Krumbditz, J. D. Behavioural Counselling: Rationale & Research. Personnel & Guidance Journal, 1965, pp. 44, 383-387. Krumboltz, J. D. (Ed.) Revolution in Counselling: Implications of Behaviour Science. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1966. Krumboltz, J. D. & Hosford, R.E. Behavioural Counselling in the Elementary School. Elementary School Guidance & Counselling Journal, 1967, pp 1, 27-40. Lodato, F. & Sokoloff, M. A. Group Counselling for Slow Learners. Journal of Counselling Psychology, 1963, pp. 10, 95-96. Lippman, H.S. Treatment of the Child in Emotional Conflict. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1962. Lumsdaine, A.A. & Glasser, R. Teaching Machines & Programmed Learning. Washington, D.C.: National Education Association, 1960. Marx, S., Redding, J. F., & Smith, L.J. A Program of Group Counselling in the Elementary School. Elementary School Guidance & Counselling Journal. Volume 2 #1, October 1967. Moustakas, C.E. Psychotherapy with Children - The Living Relationship. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1959. Mussen, P.H., Conger, J.J., & Kagan, J. Child Development & Personality. New York: Harper & Row, 1963. Ohlsen, M.M. Guidance Services in the Modern School. N.Y. Harcourt Brace & World, 1965. Shepherd, C.A. Small Groups, Some Sociological Perspectives. San Francisco: Chandler Publishing Co., 1964. Skinner, B.F. Science of Learning and the Art of Teaching. Harvard Educational Review, 1962, pp. 29, 519-527. Stormer, G. Edward, Milieu Group Counselling in Elementary School Guidance. Elementary School Guidance & Counselling Journal, Volume 1, #3, June 1967. Strang, Ruth. Group Work in Education. N.Y.: Harper & Brothers, 1958. Vinacke, W. E. The Miniature Social Situation. In W. Vinacke et al (Eds.), Dimensions of Social Psychology. Chicago: ScottForesman, 1964. L*** ** ***** * *;*** ** X -13-  •••  - 13-  STUDY SKILLS PROJECTS - INVOLVING THE PENTICTON, LOWER SIMILKArEEN & UPPER SIMILKAMEEN INDIAN BANDS: THEIR PURPOSE FUNCTION & NEED FOR FUTURE FUNDING. DONALD JENKINS — EDUCATION COUNSELLOR: 274 ECKHARDT AVENUE EAST, PENTICTON, B.C. The fall of 1972 saw the inception of a hopeful attempt to solve some of the dilemnas of providing an education for the Native Indian children of the South Okanagan. Some or all of the following problems confront the native student: poor intercultural communication, poor school-home communication, poor or non-existent study conditions (due to housing shortages and the resultant over-crowding), lack of assistance at home, in school work, and lack of parental involvement in the learning process. Our aim in organizing the study skills program was to provide some assistance to the native student in coping with these problems. It was also hoped that this program might provide a launching platform for future educational programs on reserves. The basic structure of the program was as follows: The, community hall on the reserve(s) would be opened twice a week, in the evening, and a study hall would be run by a parent and a tutor. The parent and tutor would maintain an atmosphere conducive to study. Both would also be available to provide assistance if such help were requested. The. role of the parent would be filled on a rotating basis by members of the Education Committee and other interested native adults. Transportation would be provided for any children requiring it. In addition, efforts to involve school teachers in the study skills program would be encouraged. It was hoped that such a program would enrich the native students educational background and offer him additional exposure to often the unfamiliar non-Tndian materials of the schools. .  Our efforts were to be directed for the large part at primary level students. This was to combat the situation described by Mr. George Wilson (Advisor to the Minister of Education on Indian Education) at the Union of B.C. Indian Chiefs Annual Conference in which the native student suffering from languages. deprivation drops behind in school, becoming confused and indifferent and quite difficult to reach. This contention is also supported by the work done by rope laciean in A Review of Indian. Education in Korth Pmerica (Ontario Teachers Federation, Toronto, 1972) on page 25 in a review of the work of the Ahfachhee Day School where he states the following: .  "Primary school programs are crucial in Indian education if the academic achievement of the Indian is to match national levels. Research is beginning to show that learning deficits are cumulative, knowledge must be fitted into a framework. of knowledge previously acquired. An incomplete understanding of the concepts -14-  - 14required of them in later years. For bilingual or non-English speaking children, this problem is complicated by the fact that many acquire only a minimal English vocabulary, which is insufficient to absorb information past the first few years of school. This problem is often hidden from the teacher, for the child has acquired enough English to communicate his needs. Educational programs for Indian children must incorporate a corrective to this problem into their design, and this is best done in the primary grades, before the child drops out." Such a program would enable us to provide individual assistance to any student requesting it. It would also provide for a great deal of parental involvement in the education process. Perhaps the most important opportunity it would provide would be allowing teacher/pupil contact on the reserve in the presence of parents. With these aims in mind the study skills project was set up in Cawston to serve the Lower and Upper Similkameen Indian Bands and in Penticton for the Penticton Indian Band in October. Funds for two months operation were made available by the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. In Cawston, Mr. Roy Guild, a part-time teacher in the Penticton School District, was hired as tutor. Mrs. Hazel SqUakin, Ms. Annie Terbasket, Mr. Francis Squakin and Mr. John Terbasket all participated in the program. Later, Mr. Don Kraft, the instructor for the Canada Manpower sponsored Basic Training and Skills Development program, volunteered his services. In Penticton, Ms. Regina Gabriel, a teacher's aid at Snowdon Elementary in Penticton, was hired as tutor. Mrs. Vera Gabriel acted as the parent-supervisor. A salary of $3/hr. was provided for the twice weekly three hour sessions. It was expected that the parent work voluntarily and his/her wage be used to defray transportation expenses for students and occasional refreshment expenses. The $3/hr wage for the tutor was symbolic. -  The program was assisted by reserve service groups. The Ladies Club in Penticton ordered several magazine subscriptions to be made available at the ball for students. Similar subscriptions were provided by the Recreation Committee in Cawston. The study halls were fairly well attended in both halls (Cawston: 20-25 and Penticton: 10 - 15). Mr. Perrin, principal of Snowdon Elementary in Penticton, expressed satisfaction with the program and a willingness to coordinate teacher participatiOn whenever requested. ^Similar feelings were expressed by Mr. George Tough, principal of Keremeos Elementary School. The program in both locations have continued on a volunteer basis after the funds ran out in December. All inquiries should be directed to Mr. Donald Jenkins.  * * *** ** **** * *** * * ***** ** **** *  - 15-  INDIAN^SCHOOL BOARD^MEMBERS - ROBERT W. STERLING Horace Walkus recently became the first Indian in Bella Coola to win, leyelection, a seat on the Board of School Trustees. His two year term of office will mark. a period of co-operation, and communication by Indian, and non-Indian people of that area, situated in the Ocean Falls district, which sees Ocean Falls in a phase of evacuation. Bella Coola is in the process of re-defining their school district. The fact, that 1 Indianiinvolvement will be assured with the appointment of Mr. Walkus, speaks well for Indian people in that area and shows the degree to which they are taking active participation in natters of educational importance. Our congratulations to all concerned and especially to Mr. Horace Walkus. Mrs. Mary Archachan of Ouilchena was elected recently to the Merritt School Board as the second Indian in the Nicola Valley to serve in that capacity. She joins Wayne Shuter of Lower Nicola who is serving his second year on the board. Both Mary and Wayne represent the rural areas of the Merritt School District. The Indian people of the Nicola Valley can feel justly proud of their participation and concern. It shows the deep concern that Indians throughout the province are taking in that all important involvement in the education of their children, and'we have the feeling that such involvement will be evident throughout the province in the near future.  ******************  B. C. INDIAN ARTS AND WELFARE SOCIETY MUTT FARTIN MEMORIAL AWARDS Applications for awards should be made on forms provided by the Board of Trustees'and may be mailed at any time for consideration at Periodic Meetings of the Board, to the following address: The Board of Trustees Mungo Martin 7:Temorial Award Fund, c/o Mrs. H. Esselmont, Chairman, 3190 Rutledge Street Victoria, D.C. Board Meetings will be held on or about February 15th and August 15th. •••  -16 The subject awards will be made annually from the proceeds of the Hung() Martin Memorial Fund, raised by public subscription under the sponsorship of the B.C. Indian Arts and Welfare Society of Victoria, B.C. to commemorate Mungo Martin, the late Kwakiutl chief, artist, philosopher and carver, who did so much to revive appreciation of Indian art and traditions of the Northwest Coast, winning renown far beyond its boundaries. The Fund is administered by a Board.of Trustees appointed by the said Society for this purpose. Its members serve without remuneration. The Board of Trustees is the sole authority adjudicating awards and its decisions are final. Awards to be made in any amount of amounts in any one year Within the limitations of available funds at the sole discretion of the Trustees. (Awards normally expected to be from $50.00 to $300.00.) The purpose of the awards is to assist people of Indian racial background to further their education, vocational training, skills and competence in arts, handicrafts, and other worthy endeavours. While age and circumstances of cualifying candidates may vary considerably, preference will be given to young people. Candidates for awards must be of Indian racial background and must be domiciled in the Province of British Columbia at the time of application. The recipient of an award may apply for a further award in a subsequent year. It is emphasized that these awards are open not only to those who wish to further their general education of skills, but in particular to those who seek to do creative work to further the artistic heritage of the Indian peoples, whether it be in painting, carving, music, and dance, folklore, or language.  ****************************  TEACHER AIDE^PROGRAM ALVIN A, MCKAY Another enriched, innovative venture relating to Indian Education has been launched. In conjunction with the Indian NomeSchool Co-ordinator, Mr. Saul Terry, Mr. Len Plater, the elementary Supervisor of School District No. 29 (Lillooet), plans for a Teacher Aide Training were implemented. During November - December, 1972, for six weeks of trainingat the Lillooet Schools, twelve native Indians (3 from Bella 2ella, 5 from Williams Lake area, 4 from Lillooet area) were enrolled in an intensified course of assisting teachers, and doing actual work with students in classrooms. A second phase of the training is back to their respective village or town schools (on-the-job--training) for the  - 17 duration of the school year. Those who related positively to this training and wish to continue, will return to Lillooet for a further month of intensive training at the end of this school term. Such a program Has been long over-due. Support as to its value, usefulness and benefits that Indian students are gaining from such a program should be all that is needed to keep this vitally relevent program on-going. This Newsletter would be glad to receive such supporting letters.  **** * *************************  I  C. NATIVE INDIAN STUDENTS INCENTIVE BURSARY ALVIN A. MCKAY & ROBERT W. STERLING  Through the efforts of the Indian Education Resources Center and the B.C. Native Indian Teachers Association, a fund from the First Citizen's Advisory Fund has been set aside for the above bursary. Where primary or initial funding fails to meet the post secondary students financial needs, (or a total lack of funds), this fund will supplement those in need to a maximum of $500.00. - To date, fifty-three applications have been analyzed and screened by the Indian Education Resources Center Director and the Assistant Director. Twenty-six applications have been approved, and twenty-seven pending. Initial benefits, to date, are: 1/ The post Secondary student does not have to use valuable study time in part-time jobs. 2/ The post-secondary student stays in to complete a semester or a year of studies. All inquiries re applications etc., should be directed to: The B.C. Native Indian Teacher's Association, c/o Indian Education Resources Center, Room 106 - Brock Hall U.B.C. - Vancouver 8, B.C. Those Indian students (status or non status) now completing grade 12, should contact their Guidance Counsellors. or write to the above address. -  ************** **** ************  - 18 -  U. B. C. - MUSEUM OF MEN INFORMATION SERVICES, U.B,C, The University of B.C.'s Board of Governors has approved the preliminary design for the University's Museum of Man and has authorized architedt Arthur Erickson to proceed with final drawings. i The Museum, to be located on the site of the former Fort Camp  residence, north of Northwest Drive, will house the University's famed 10,00071-piece collection of Northwest Coast Indian Art, valued at close / to.$10 million, and the Walter and Marianne Koerner masterwork collection of tribal art, probably the most important collection remaining in private hands in North America. Also on display will be an additional 10,000 artifacts which make up important named collections of the Asian, classical and tribal worlds and more than 90,000 items from the prehistoric period of E.C. Indian history, accumulated over 25 years from sites excavated under the direction of Dr. Charles Borden, Professor Emeritus of Archaeology. The Museum is to be partly financed with a $2.5 million grant received last May from the federal government. This was part of a $10 million federal fund established to mark the 100th anniversary of B.C.'s entry in Confederation. The Museum will have both an academic and a public function, with the federal grant paying for the cost of the public areas and additional University financing being provided out of capital funds for the teaching and research areas. Under the terms of the agreement between UBC and the federal government, construction of the Museum must start before April 1 of this year and it must be completed and open to the public before April 1, 1975. The Museum will, be open to the public on a year-round basis, seven days a week. The Museum is to be located 250 feet back from the cliffs above Tower Beach. Extensive analysis of subsoil conditions was undertaken by a firm of geotechnical consultants to ensure that competent subsoil bearing conditions exist to permit construction to proceed. Erosion at the base of the cliff is to be checked by a $250,000 stabilization project authorized by the provincial government, as a result of representations by the NBC Alumni Association and the Vancouver Parks Board.  ... -19- ...  - 19A unique feature of the Museum will be the visible storage of artifacts to permit the Museum to have virtually 100 per cent of its collections on display at all times. Mrs. Audrey Hawthorn, curator of the University's present Museum of Anthropology, which has now been closed until the new Museum is completed because of lack of display space, said Mr. Erickson has produced a unique and exciting design for the New Museum of Man. / "He has achieved exactly what we wanted, a building that is low-key'and which blends right into the landscape. It is a perfect esthetiC response to the environment," she said. Said Mr. Erickson: "Our aim will be to try to convey the idea 4 all those who visit the Museum, and those who study in it, that at one time, on this coast, there was a noble and great response to this land that has never been equalled since." The Museum recreates the setting of an ancient West Coast Indian village with the design concept being dictated by the fact that many of the University's collection of massive totem poles, brought in from remote north coast villages, have to be enclosed in a controlled atmosphere if they are to be preserved. "In attempting to figure out ways to display these poles we realized that the site, because of its magnificent vista, gave us unexpected opportunities to recreate the hind of environment that these poles came from in the first place," Mr. Erickson said. "The old records show that the totem poles stood between the village House and the _each. The Museum is designed to duplicate this setting by placing a large, shallow pond in front of the building." The huge poles inside the building will be placed in such a way that as a visitor walks towards them the pond in front of the Museum will appear to merge with the sea beyond, creating the illusion of an inlet. Around the shores of the exterior pond will be more totem poles from the UBC collection in separate groupings representing the three major cultures of the northwest coast - 7aida, Kwakiutl and Salish. The Haida and Kwakiutl collections, some originals from the Old villages and other magnificent newer works by Haida master carver Mungo Martin, are now located at Totem Pole Park on the campus. The Salish collection will come later. The large Haida communal house in the park will also be moved to the new site and adapted for use as a centre for Indian studies • dances, theatrical performances, carving exhibitions and other activities.  -20Focal point of the Museum will be the high-ceilinged Great Hall housing massive totem poles which now kept in storage, because there are too delicate to be exposed to the elements. Huge glass windows, towering up to 40 feet in height, will permit an unobstructed view and enable the indoor poles to be viewed in virtually natural light. / Leading off the Great Hall will be the gallery that will contain the Walter and Marianne Koerner masterwork collection. The generouS offer on the part of Dr. and Mrs. Koerner to present this collection to the University was instrumental in the decision of the federal government to allocate $2.5 million to the Museum. Dr. Koerner began collecting Northwest Coast art soon after he arrived in B.C. in 1939, after leaving Czechoslovakia. Concentrating only on collecting the rarest and finest pieces, he has scoured B.C. and the rest of the world and repatriated many fine pieces which had been exported. He compares the quality of some of the pieces that he has collected with the work of the finest artists of the Renaissance period. Another feature of the Museum will be a massive carving by well-kriown Haida artist Bill Reid. This will be another gift from Dr. Koerner. The carving will sit on a specially-designed pool inside the Museum and on top of a Second World War gun emplacement, one of three on the Museum site which have been integrated into the Museum design. Other galleries will contain the famed UBC collection of Northwest Coast Indian art that has been built up over the past 25 years by Dr. Harry Hawthorn, Professor of Anthropology at UPC, and his wife, Audrey, curator of UPC's Museum of Anthropology, with the financial assistance of such benefactors ad Dr. H.R. MacMilan, Dr. Walter Koerner and the Leon and Thea Koerner Foundation Part of this collection drew international acclaim in 1969 and 1970 when it was displayed at Man and His World in Montreal. The entire collection is now hidden from view in the basement storage rooms in the UBC Main Library because of the lack of exhibition space. Mr. Erickson said careful consideration was given to the Museum's impact on its surrounding environment throughout the planning stages. "So right from the start, our basic direction was to submerge the building, to bury it, so that it would not block the view." ... -21- ..,  - 21 The result is that the building will be barely visible from Marine Drive. Planted areas and reflecting pools will hide much of the roof to permit the building to merge into the site. "I believe thatIthis is particularly appropriate for a museum containing mainly Indian art and artifacts which in themselves are so concerned with the natural surroundings," he said. , The roof plantings themselves will be of unusual interest because the intention is to use native plants of the types that grew around Indian villages and were used for food and to make baskets and clothing.  ******************************* UNIVERSITY by A. KELSEY ( see last issue)  A SEQUEL, OR CODA, by E.L. BULLEN - P. 0. Box 159, Port Clements, B.C. But Wait, Indian brother, wait ... To be part of the universe, Part of the universal city, Part of the university, Mingling with myriad races, myriad minds, Across the boundaries of time, Enlarged towards humanity and all creation -Is there no gain to compensate for loss? Turn back to thy people, Indian enlarged, Re-discover thy beginnings, and wealth of heritage, These are not lost, but richer still Within the shadows of our common cave. Bring forth thy gifts, And lay them on the campus lawn. Enrich the universal city with treasures only you can bring. And Indian brother, keep the faith of universal brotherhood.  ******************************* ... -22- ...  - 22 -  BCNITA ART CONTEST We would like to encourage you to contact your Secondary Indian students to inform them of an idea which would interest and encourage their artistic talent. `  We would like you to consider this article as the invitation to Indian Secondary students throughout British Columbia to participate in an Art Contest. It will be an informal contest encouraging artistic students to express themselves and display their talented efforts in a relaxed competition with other Indian students in the province. We encourage the art work to be in the form of drawings, or paintings but we are prepared to consider other forms. We ask that the paintings, drawings, etc., be done on any type of surface (canvas, thin board, drawing paper, etc.) and that the smallest acceptable size would be eighteen inches by twenty-two inches. It is not necessary but we encourage the art to have an Indian theme and hopefully a theme representative of the students particular Indian area. Our purpose in this to encourage Indian students to show their skills and to give a province-wide representation of the Indian people through art work. We plan to have this art work displayed in our offices and offices of other Indian Organizations throughout Vancouver. We plan to choose a number of pieces of art work which willbe awarded prizes of up to $50.00. Any art work that we do not use for display will be returned with thanks. Please mail by March 30, 1973 to: Indian Education Resources Center, Room 106 - Brock Hall, U. B. C., Vanc. 8, B.C.  *^* ***************  RETURN ADDRESS: INDIAN EDUCATION RESOURCES CENTER ROOM 106 - BROCK HALL, U.B.C., VANCOUVER 8, B. C.  


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