UBC Library and Archives

Indian Education Newsletter, Vol. 2, no. 7/8 Indian Education Resources Center 1972-03

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Notice for Google Chrome users:
If you are having trouble viewing or searching the PDF with Google Chrome, please download it here instead.

Item Metadata


67246-ien_1972_03-04.pdf [ 16.14MB ]
JSON: 67246-1.0103183.json
JSON-LD: 67246-1.0103183-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 67246-1.0103183-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 67246-1.0103183-rdf.json
Turtle: 67246-1.0103183-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 67246-1.0103183-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 67246-1.0103183-source.json
Full Text

Full Text

Indian Education 2Newsletter VOLUME # 7 &8  MARCH & APRIL, 1972  INDIAN EDUCATION RESOURCES CENTER HUT 0-12, UNIVERSITY OF B.C., VANCOUVER.  ANNOUNCEMENTS^-^I. E. R. C. The National Conference of Canadian Association for Indian & Eskimo Education is to be hosted by the B. C. Native Indian Teachers Association and the Indian Education Resources Center at Totem Park, University of British Columbia - May 24, 25, 26, 1972. The theme of It'4 Fauxe. the conference will be, INDIAN EDUCATION -  meeting.  At lease ten delegates from each province will be at this Tentative Topics: Adult Education. Teacher and School Administrators. Curriculum. Role of parents. Family Life Education. Indian Education School Committees. Referral Services (welfare, teacher aides, public health nurses etc.) - Society. -  The above topics are to be directed towards:1. The Role of the Indian Parent. 2. The School Drop-out. 3. A co-ordination of effort to implement positive constructive ideas, so that each province will go back to their respective provinces ready to embark on projects or plans of actions.  ** * ** * ** * ** ** **^ ** Last Newsletter - May/June, 1972 issue - to be mailed out first week of June, 1972.  ************ ****** ***** * **** * Change of Addresses - PLEASE, as early as you can - preferrably before September 15, 1972 - NOTIFY US!  ************ Resources Materials Booklet - available on request (see supplemental list of new book arrivals in this Newsletter).  t^t** *^ *1  -2 Indian Education Resources Center -  SUMMER SCHEDULE.  July - Monday to Friday - 9:00 a.m. - 4:30 p.m. August - Monday to Friday - 9:00 a.m. - 4:30 p.m., Up to August 18, 1972. August 21st to September 1, 1972 - Monday, Wednesday, Friday - 9:00 a.m. - 4:30 p.m. - Tuesday & Thursdays - 9:00 a.m. - 12:00 noon.  Due to the volume a6 booko on Loan du/Ling tki.4 pelLiod - NOTE the Iottowing:  -  1. 2 day loans -- 3 books per person. 2. 1 week or more loan -- all books taken - DEPOSIT, is to be left for full value of each book. 3. ALL LATE BOOKS -- $1.00 per day!!!  *********** * * ************* * *^*** ***^ *^*  HOME-SCHOOL CO-ORDINATORS' COURSE - U,B.C. The Home-School Co-ordinators course offered last summer at U.B.C. was on for four weeks beginning on Monday, July 12, 1971 and went on to August 6, 1971. Some of the discussions covered the range of topics listed: 1) Discussion of Role of Parents, teacher, students, etc. 2) Meeting and working closely with professional Resource people. 3) Different kinds of teachers, good, bad etc. 4) Structure of Provincial School System. 5) Indian Affairs responsibility and policies for Indian Education. 6) Special Counselling techniques Meleva Nastiche. 7) Indian students in integrated schools. 8) Establishing communication with parents and teachers. 9) Mental Health. 10) Court work, legal aide, etc. 11) Welfare. Although an interesting range of topics was covered, one of the most important results of the class was that all Home-School Coordinators had a chance to get together and exchange ideas.  3 The Home-School Co-ordinators course was not a credit course, nor was it a required course for becoming a Home-School Co-ordinator. It will be offered again, this summer session.  ************ * * ************ ***^***  EDUCATION 479 - INDIAN EDUCATION The Indian Education course (3 units credit) will be offered again this summer. As in previous years it will include presentations by a variety of Indian people, and an exchange of ideas between teachers from all over British Columbia and other parts of Canada. Auditors are welcome. For further information on registration, contact the Indian Education Resources Center or consult the brochure enclosed with the last Newsletter.  ************ ****** ********* *** *** *** ******* ***** * ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *************** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * THIS ARTICLE IS TAKEN FROM: INDIAN ECHO - A newsletter published by a group of Indians from the Canadian Department of Justice British Columbia Penitentiary Branch, P. O. Box 150, New Westminster, B. C.  INDIAN JOE Indian. Joe comptained to his wi6e that he coutdn't understand the Whiteman' Language. Hid wi6e toed him there was on!y one solution and that was to team the Whitemans' tongue. The IiiAst wand he teamed to say was yez. Proud as a peacock Joe went to town. He was standing by the canner o6 the Lo cat been paAtout when a great big Whiteman came ztaggeiting out o l6 the pub and asked Joe^he wanted a bight. With a big smite Joe said yes and the next thing Joe knew he was getting the beating^hiz ti6e. When Joe got home he toed his wi l6e what happened. H. wi6e then toed him that he would have to team how to say no, which Joe did. The vent' next day Joe was standing in the same spot by the been pa4tout when the same whiteman seen him again, and came oven to Joe and said, - "Hey Indian, you had enough?" by,  Eknie Beattie * **** :: **** *  - 4  -  B. C, NATIVE INDIAN TEACHERS ASSOCIATION APRIL  3, 4, 1972  SEMI ANNUAL CONFERENCE -  The following is a brief summary of the proceedings. A detailed account of the proceedings will be available upon request at a later date. (a) Reports were heard from the Director of the Center; the Chairman of the Center Council. A summary of finances of the IERC., prepared by Phil Moir of the Center for Continuing Education, UBC was viewed and discussed, and adopted. It showed the Year II budget allocations, the amounts spent in each category, and the projected expenditures to the fiscal year end, June 30, 1972. (b) Year III Budget - A rough draft prepared by the Director, the Chairman of the Center Council and Consultant for the Center was discussed and amended. A budget allocation of $2,000.00 was put in by the members for Audio Visual Aids. Student Assistance was upped from a $1,000.00 to $2,000.00, travel was augmented from $6,000.00 to $8,000.00. The Director was charged with the duty of formally submitting the approved Year III Budget and Year II Report, along with Center Council Chairman, to the Regional Superintendent of Education, Department of Indian Affairs, Mr. Ray Hall for the following week. (c) Curriculum Writers Projects: - report by the Director on contents and formats - report by Chairman on proposed plan of printing, and pending arrangements with Provincial Dept'. of Education - Curriculum Division, Victoria. - Copyright to above projects was discussed. Membership voted in favour of BCNITA to hold a blanket copyright on all - not in terms of ownership, but at any time, any writer could have their individual copyright. The blanket arrangement is for convenience of printing the projects in a series.  -  5  -  (cont.) ^ (c) Curriculum Writers Project: - Royalties for above projects were discussed. Membership agreed to three quarters of the royalties going to the writers of, and a quarter of the royalties should go to BCNITA to be put into a revolving fund to encourage future curriculum writers projects. (d) Short Term & Long Term Plans of Actions were discussed: - Massive catch-up program for training of more Indian Teachers. - Extra Curricular orientation program for Indian students - (Elementary transition to Junior High; Senior High transition to Universities) Co-operative funding between the Dept. of Indian Affairs, respective reserves, etc., should be encouraged. - Encouraging or promoting Career Days for Indian students should be spearheaded by the Center. - Developing more curriculum enriched projects (i.e. Documentation of Indian Reserves as a start). - BCNITA Members to become more actively involved in district teacher workshops etc. - Develop family service type Adult Education course outlines. - Audio-visual component of Center to be emphasized in Year III. - War on Language Arts from kindergarten to secondary schools should be spraeheaded by the Center. - Develop some type of travelling kit regarding general Indian Education - (culture, etc.). (e) Policy Development for BCNITA: - travel, room and board expenses. - attendance at general conferences and Center Council meetings. - entering into supplemental contracts outside of the basic operation budget. (f) Election for Fall Conference 1972: - A nominating committee of three was elected (Bob Sterling, Shirley Ned, & Vina Starr). (g) List of Bursaries & Scholarships available to Indian students was looked into. This is to be included in the next newsletter.  F (h) Speakers format or guidelines that all BCNITA Members could refer to, when called upon to act as a resource person regarding Center and BCNITA. Director and Chairman to compile a list of commonly asked questions by teachers, prepare main summary of Center and BCNITA functions, and perhaps ask RAVEN Society to publicize these. (i) The Home-School Co-ordinators met for an hour after the main business meeting, to compare problems, ideas, and to discuss pending summer course. They recommended to Center Council, that they be given a full day for this sort of meeting at the next general conference.  *** * * * * * ******* * **************** ************************* * *** * **^******** * *** **  *  INDIAN EDUCATION FOR B. C. - ADULT EDUCATION ALVIN A, MCKAY - DIRECTOR, IERC, Many aspects of adult life are enriched and re-directed through the services of an adult education program. My purpose in writing down some thoughts on this topic is generated from the serious problem that Indian students are facing (specifically those coming from rural oriented communities into urban centers). In adjusting to their new, alien way of life many weeks, and months, are spent by these students feeling bewildered and lost. Finally, engulfed by their natural defense mechanisms against the tensions and demands of such a forced undirected-transition in life, these students become truants, delinquents, drug and alcohol users, and eventually, school drop-outs and worst of all, social misfits. Parents of students in this situation can be a ready source of encouragement, counselling and guidance. I am generalizing that since a majority of Indian parents are faced with an unstable economic way of life (for a good percentage, a subsistance type of life!), the higher aspirations of academic success of students pursued by parents in a stable economic status, just does not materialize for a major section of the Indian parents. The existing catch-up programs in such matters as economic development, housing, health & welfare, community development, educational programs is only resulting in a very few Indian families finding themselves in a more stable economic way of life. Yet, there  7 are thousands of Indian students in the schools -- all of them future citizens whose parents are trapped in such a state of life referred to earlier. Does it not stand to reason then, that a real effort should be made in helping these parents to better prepare their children for their future school life? To my mind, the potential offered by a practical positive natured adult education program, controlled by such demanding needs as I have outlined, is a ready avenue of alleviating these problem areas. The present program for adult education offered by the Department of Indian Affairs education services is reaching only a limited facet of the Indian parents life. This paper is suggesting that there is a real need amongst Indian parents on reserves to have offered to them information that they can understand about their children, and from this awareness, to begin to make changes, which will eventually ensure that their children are receiving the best chance in getting an education. It is not the intention of this article to enter into controversy with existing adult education programs, but rather to encourage an enriched and a specifically directed program, relevant to the pressing needs of a particular group of parents, who at present are non-effective in their role as parents fostering strong supportive encouragement to children in schools. Such an adult education program as I am suggesting, should heavily emphasize the following areas, since the Indian parents are in a "situation beyond their control" state of affairs in their present lives:-  COURSE OUTLINES SHOULD INVOLVE: 1) Child development - formative years (infancy to age 7); exploratory years (age 8 to 10 years.); pre-teen years (age 10 to age 12 - children becoming aware of themselves regarding their bid for independence); teenage years (years spent in trial and error attempts at independence); adolescent years (adaptations to adult life). 2) Teenage life - emphasis on guidance counselling that parents can start from with reference to the "trial and error" attempt of all teenagers to assume adult life. This area should involve: - Drug - alcohol - tobacco damage to physical, mental and social life. - Dating, health and personal development.  8 - Sex education as opposed to street corner, "birds ant the bees" approach. - Citizenship - encouragement of strong family life, community involvement and Canadian citizenship. - Pre-martial counselling (incidental, short term, long term dating and choosing a life time mate). 3) Choosing A Life Career or Vocation - due to the isolation on reservations, and to the limited scope of livelihood choices presently available to Indians in general, an elaboration of practical, vocational and professional requirements needed in addition to a detailed description of available trades/jobs in the employment field should be a "must" course for informational discussion on all reserves. A majority of secondary students know very little about actual facts in employment opportunities, and are finishing or dropping out of school, knowing even less. Parents who have a basic knowledge in this area can encourage or direct their children into specific areas, rather than a general non-directed approach, as is now taking place. 4) Secondary School & Post Secondary Programming: Very few Indian parents are aware of what the high schools involve. Too many, have the idea that their children have reached high school is an accomplishment. If parents were conversant with the secondary and post secondary programs, their efforts to encourage completion or continuation of studies would be more effective. Many Indian students caught up in the jungle of adjusting to complex urban life, and in fitting into the multi-complex set-up of most secondary schools, are easily mis-led and encouraged to drop-out, and parents have no recourse but to condone their negative approach to life, because they, to, are mystified about a life most of them know very little about. A course outline about the secondary and post-secondary programs - for informational discussion should be offered to every Indian reserve. 5) Home Study Habits - a common concensus of pupil weaknesses attached to Indian students are:- poor daily homework preparation. - incomplete or not turned in assignments. - poor use of school time. - poor classroom participation.  All of these weaknesses result in failure, or poor grades which encourages dropping out, or which keeps alive prejudices and derogatory attitudes on the teacher and pupil parts. Every Indian parent on reserve should have access to such a course outline, ideally at the grade five or six level, and most certainly at the grade seven level at the latest. 6) Use of Time: (clock, days-weeks-months etc.) It is amazing how many students are held back by poor organization and utilization of time. This is more pronounced for the Indian secondary student, because he is not living at home. Aside from the consistency of meal times, most students in this situation, find themselves in a time emphasized way of life without the proper orientation or adjustment, (as compared to a loosely time oriented way of life on the reserve), and so, betimes, time for homework, etc., are neglected. A small rural community has a well defined set of activities - particularly the out of school activities, whereas, an urban community has a multitude of choices, in addition to television. Most Indian students; especially at the grade eight level, never outlive the novelty of this complex choice situation, and all of their life is geared to keeping up with the out of school activities, and all school oriented activities are ignored. Parents who are made aware of this phenomena, can prepare their rural oriented children to avoid being caught in this situation. These suggested course outlines evolved from an analysis of the weaknesses or inappropriateness in the schools, relating to Indian students. These are areas that indirectly enter into the education of the Indian high school student - but definitely_contributes to his success or failure. For parents in a stable economic base of life, these areas are natural phases of parent-child relationship, and hence are taken for granted as being attended to as the child develops and matures. However, due to the unstable low-economic way of life, for Indian parents in general, and also because these Indian high school students are uprooted from their natural home environments, these weakness areas are very pronounced and are then, definite negative forces that foster poor achievement levels and eventually, drop-outs. As previously stated, some action should be embarked upon to counter-act this negative phenomenon for this particular group of parents, and that action should be in the form of Adult Education for Indian Reserves implementing the ideas in the foregoing course outlines.  ** *** *** *** ** * * * ** * * * * ********* ******** ********** ********* *********** ********** ************* ************ ************* ************ ************** *************  - 10 -  CROSS - CULTURAL LEARNER CENTER FRANCES TAIT - UBC - NATIVE INDIAN STUDENT The cross-cultural learner center is a "multi-media, computerassisted information retrieval and problem - solving system providing a learner - centered environment". It has been termed a "learning cafeteria". It's a place where a person can choose what he wants to learn, the way or medium in which he prefers to learn, and the rate at which he progresses toward the learning goal he has set himself. In February, 18 - 20, 1972, I attended a cross-cultural conference in London, Ontario as a representative of the Indian Education Resources Center. At this conference were 2 (two) representatives from each of the four (4) western provinces. We met to learn how the center operated and what information was available and how we could put this information to use at our respective places, e.g. the University of B.C. or a community center. It was also a good opportunity to talk and to get to know the people who operate the "center" and who are responsible for sending the Mobile Unit across Canada. The material made available by CUSO includes slides, movies tape recordings, video-tapes, books and pamphlets of the people of the near East, Africa and Canadian Indians and other people. I was very impressed at all the material available on the Canadian Indian and would recommend to everyone to come and see the Mobile Unit when it arrives in Vancouver at the Public Library (Burrard and Robson Street) for the 2-week, period starting on May 25, 1972. For more information contact me during the day at the Indian Education Resources Center - at 228-4662.  ** ********** * * ************  ***^ *** ***^ * *^*****  CHETWYND ELEMENTARY-SECONDARY SCHOOL CHARLENE BROWN, PHYSICAL EDUCATION & GUIDANCE INSTRUCTRESS In regard to the January issue of the Indian Education Newsletter, you asked for news concerning school programming. In my girls Guidance classes, graded 8 to 11, the Indian children have projects assigned to them. Each can do one or more of the following:  Study the written and spoken Cree Language, Beadwork, or Leatherwork (mocassins, etc). Periodically each has to show me what they have accomplished (craftwork), or are quizzed on various Cree words and their English translation. Since the craftwork and language are beyond my knowledge, the adults who are teaching the students, write me and report every week on how the student is doing. Since this project has only recently begun, any results at this time, are unknown. Also, my grade 9 girls, Indian and non-Indian are studying various aspects of the Cree culture, with Indian girls as leaders of the different groups. (the class is divided into groups of seven.) This project seems to be working out very well. Enclosed you will find a schedule we hope to undertake in April but must wait until the School Board has given their consent. Hopefully, some of the above information will be helpful to you and other teachers.  ** * * * * * * **** ** *  SCHEDULE FOR FIVE INDIAN STUDENTS IN VANCOUVER FROM APRIL 17-22 CHETWYND ELEMENTARY SECONDARY SCHOOL -  April 17: 1. Leave Fort St. John for Vancouver via CP Air on the night flight. 2. Met at Vancouver Airport by Roy Brown. 3. Get settled at Roy Brown's home: Coquitlam & Lorne Brown's home: Delta. April 18: Morning: Tour UBC.^Afternoon: 1. Tour IBM 2. See downtown Vancouver. Night: Rest or can see Vancouver Harbour. April 19: Morning: City Hall (Courthouse) ^Afternoon: 1. B.C. Hydro 2. Stanley Park Night: Chinatown. April 20: Morning: 1. S.F.U.^Afternoon: B.C.I.T. 2. Vocational School^Night: Theatre (Orpheum)  - 12 April 21:; Morning: Montgomery Junior High School in Coquitlam. Afternoon: Planetarium.^Night: B.C. Telephone. April 22: Morning: On their own. ^Afternoon: Tour Gastown. Night: Night flight back to Fort St. John. Roy Brown to take them to airport.  SCHOLARSHIP AND BURSARIES AVAILABLE TO INDIAN STUDENTS The following scholarships and bursaries are specifically available to Indian students. In addition, Indian students are eligible for a great many other scholarships, bursaries and loans which are open to all students. Many awards are open to students from a particular high school or town, or to sons and daughters of members of various unions and professional groups or sons and daughters of employees of various companies. For more information on these awards, contact the college or university concerned, or the Indian Education Resources Center. Scholarshops and bursaries differ in that scholarshops are awarded mainly on the basis of marks, while bursaries also take need into consideration. In addition to the awards listed below, Indian (status or nonstatus) students may apply to the First Citizens Fund for support and decisions are made on each application separately. Department of Indian Affairs The Education Branch of the Department of Indian Affairs offers a variety of scholarships above the regular support. The number of scholarshops varies each year but during the 1971-2 academic year the following were awarded: 2 2 1 4 1  for for for for for  Nursing (RN) University (General) Teacher Training Vocational Training Independent (Private School)  $ $ $ $ $  300 300 300 250 250  each each each  - 13 Awards are based primarily on past academic achievement. Application is made through the local Vocational Counsellor. Bill and Elsie More Indian Bursary A bursary of approximately $400 will be awarded annually to an Indian student (status or non-status) continuing beyond high school on an academic or vocational course. The award is made possible by a Fund established by the family and friends of Reverend Bill More and his wife Elsie, as a tribute to their memory. Reference will be given to those intending to use their training to serve the Indian people of British Columbia. Financial administrative matters are being handled by the Vancouver Foundation. Selection will be made by the British Columbia Native Indian Teachers Association. Margaret Delmage Award The British Columbia Parent-Teacher Federation offers annually the sum of $200 to a son or daughter of a Native Indian of British Columbia who is entering or attending the University of British Columbia or some other university or college of recognized standing within the province, and who shows promise and success in doing studies at the university level. This award is known as the Margaret Delmage Award, and is presented in honor of Mrs. Margaret Delmage as a tribute to her outstanding contribution to parent-teacher work in British Columbia. Applications must be received by the University not later than May 30th. The American Women's Club Bursary (Special) A bursary of $250, gift of the American Women's Club, is available for native Indian women students. The recipient will be selected by the Dean of Women. The Mary G. Fyfe-Smith Memorial Bursary A bursary of $500 the gift of Florence Fyfe-Smith, is offered annually to a Native Indian student attending the University of British Columbia in a full program of studies. It will be awarded to a student who is registered in the School of Social Work or in the Faculty of Education. The award will be made to a student with satisfactory standing who needs financial assistance. The Mungo Martin Award (The British Columbia Indian Arts and Welfare Society Memorial Bursary) A bursary of $100 will be awarded annually by the British Columbia Indian Arts and Welfare Society in memory of those Indian Canadians who gave their lives in a world war. Native Indian applicants must be from the province of British Columbia, and must be planning to enter one of the established universities or colleges in British Columbia,  - 14 or recognized technical school or other training center. The award will be made by the Executive Committee of the British Columbia Indian Arts and Welfare Society. If no application is received from a student entering the first year of university, then the bursary will be awarded to a student enrolled in any of the senior years. Letters of application may be directed: The Honourary Secretary B.C. Indian Arts & Welfare Society c/o The Provincial Museum Victoria, B. C. The Senate Committee on Awards at the University of Victoria - Seaspan International Company Limited Scholarship The Senate Committee on Awards at the University of Victoria does administer one scholarship that is exclusively designed for Indian students. It is known as the Seaspan International Company Limited Scholarship and is valued at $150. It is awarded to a deserving and qualified member of the Indian Community of Vancouver Island, and of the Gulf Islands, the West Coast of the Mainland, or the Queen Charlotte Islands who gained academic success in University Entrance Examinations and enters first year at the University of Victoria. The winner is selected by the Committee on Awards after consultation with the District Superintendent of Indian Schools.  ** ********** ********* *** ******** * *******  MRS. ROSE POINT - BCNITA MEMBER KINDERGARTEN TEACHER - MUSQUEAM RESERVE A child should never be discriminated against because of being dirty in the pre-school-kindergarten years. That child may have a hard enough time getting to school on time as it is. Health in school should be encouraged, but too extreme a treatment of it may stifle the child's creativity. Some children would be too afraid to do anything after being scolded over dirt or untidiness etc. If this is a regular occurrence in class, this young child has been "turned off" towards school for the rest of his or her life. All children have enough to compete with as they are growingup, without having to compete to keep clean.  ****** ******* *********** ******** * *** ********* ********* ********* ********* ********* *********  - 15 -  AQUATIC DEPARTMENT 2911 BANK ROAD KAMLOOPS, B, C. Dear Sir: Thank you for the January, 1972 issue of your Newsletter... Contents of which, have me very excited, and I am looking forward to the next issue. RE: 1. Inservice Programming. 2. Teacher Background Information regarding Indians. We feel we can be of help to you in these areas. We are involved in Sports and Recreation, specializing in Acquatics. Our programs take place in Native Communities throughout British Columbia, during summer months. Our staff is of high calibre...using Team approach. We hold Inservice Programming prior to departure...to insure that Positive Teaching Attitudes, Techniques and Methodology are applied when out in the field. If more of our Aquatic Instructors were from Education Faculties, it would be mose worthwhile for the student teacher. He or she would be faced with a Reverse Integration...living in the Community for as long as the program is in effect. (Programs run in 8 week, 4 week and 2 week, cycles, depending upon the population of the area being served.) The positive teaching techniques, which are the backbone of our programs, would be applicable to any teaching situation... The results for the children involved to-date, have been excellent...a sense of achievement is gained furing summer which carried over to the classroom in the fall. If we could involve student teachers who hold the Aquatic Pre-requisites, required by our Team.. . These students, when faced with an Intregrated Classroom in the future ...would have some background in "Indianness" and would definitely have a greater understanding of the Nature of the Indian Child. These students could perhaps work with us under Professional Development...receiving credits...filling our course study from etc., and be available to us for this type of training, four-eight-two week cycles during July and August. The concept or idea would benefit:^i. The student teacher. ii. The Indian Child or teenager. iii. Our Aquatic Budget...  - 16 as it is difficult to obtain high calibre staff during months of July and August, without retaining them from month of May...on. Should you wish to discuss the idea in depth...I am available at your convenience... Sincerely yours, Barbra Morgan, Co-ordinator.  ************ ******* *** ***^*** ***^***  READINGS^IN^CHILD^DEVELOPMENT HAIMOWITA, M.L. AND HAIMOWITZ, N. R. "WHAT MAKES THEM CREATIVE?" APRIL, 1961 PP. 44 - 45 This reading is concerned with what creativity is and what factors in the child's background encourage its development. Creativity is defined as "The capacity to innovate, to invent, to place elements together in a way never before been placed". This paper tries to show that creativity is not inherited, but is product of environment. Divergent or intuative thinking is more creative than convergent or logical thinking. Creativity is difficult to measure for creative persons are often non-conformists and don't co-operate well with the testing. Many aspects of environment affect creativity. Maslow and Erikson believe that the individual needs a certain amount of basic security before he can risk venturing beyond a social norm. Studies show that a great amount of security stiffles creativity. Freedom from a domineering leader of a family or group seems to encourage creativity. Studies show that many creative people had only one parent during their formative years. Thus, a class will tend to be more creative if the teacher does not dominate it. A marginal man, a person not bound tightly by the customs of a group or society, can be more creative than those bound to a group. He can be more objective in his judgement and ideas because he is not confined by one set of customs, ideas and rules. Creativity is discouraged in a sacred or folk society but favoured in a group which has a favourable attitude toward change.  - 17 It is not one factor but the factors of environment combining basic security, intelligence, freedom and marginality which help encourage creativity. Often the teacher can help to start and encourage creativity.  ************ ************ ***** ***** ***** ***** ******* ******** ******* ********  WHAT NOW? JO ANN ARCH IBALD -  Who's that crouching in the dark corner? Too shy, too afraid to face reality Too small, too awkward, too dark to blend in. Why won't you come out little girl? Are you afraid someone will shout, "Hey little Squaw, go back to the reservation where you belong!" You left your precious home and family this morning filled with doubts and slight chances of hope. Hope that you could learn something in the new public school So you could somehow help all your brothers and sisters Help them experience a better life A life filled with laughter and happiness like your grandparents once knew. Doubts because your friends told you what to expect! Glaring stares from the teacher because you weren't clean and wore wrinkled clothes. Sneering gestures and remarks from the others because you had black hair and wore beaded mocassins. But how could you wear neatly pressed clothes when your mother's fourth-hand iron no longer works? Or how could you wash thoroughly when the water pump is frozen and there is barely enough for drinking and cooking? How could you wear nice new shoes when your father earns just enough money to buy food? Anyway mocassins feel better than those stiff, cramped shoes. Happy thoughts spin through your mind as you think of the first three years at the day-school on the reserve. Familiar brown faces greeted you each day, No one was left out of the games. Everyone was proud of the beautiful beaded necklaces thie mother made. Who cared if your hands and face were a little dirty? You could look forward to each school day because you knew someone cared. Someone thought of you as a person, as a friend.  - 18 Now the only comforting place is this dark, isolated corner. Will anyone smile or say hi to you? Or perhaps they are too busy playing games to notice. Suddenly the little girl's face lights up as she sees someone walk toward her Slowly her eager hand reaches and grasps the extended brown hand. Together they run, clutching each other toward the vast playground. After a few glorious moments they hear the bell ring --What Now?  **** ** **** ****** **** ***^ ****^*** **** RIGHT^ON,^INDIAN A. KELSEY THESE POEMS ARE TAKEN FROM:  THE COYOTE, NEWSLETTER. "POO  -  TAH TOY" -  DAVIS, CALIFORNIA. Right on...Indian—You're truer then you know... No shames and no pretenses.... You're still...right on... You know where you are going.. No more...heretic lies... You're right on....Indian.... They're following you... Tell them when you know..Indian Tell 'em where its at ^ Your whole philosopy of life.. You took and blew their minds.. You're right..on...Indian.... from years past...you're still there They tried to dup you..tried in vain....to show you something else ^ You're where its at....Indian ^* ....they haven't fooled you yet... *  CHICKADEE Chicka..dee...eee...eeee.... Little games for Indians ^ Chicka dee...eee..eee..Now flap your arms.... Chicka dee ^ ee..ee...Their fathers were going to jail... 1907 BIA boarding school....Chicka dee.. because they lost their sons.... The penalty for truancy of Indian children was the detention of the fathers in jail until the children were returned to the boarding school. They lost their sons to the educational system which dehumanized them, and adulterated their Indian values.  ********** * *********************** **** ******************** * ************* *** ****** ** ***** ******** ************ ****** ****** **** **** ******** ******** ********  - 19 BOOKS  IN  RESOURCES  CENTER  The following books are selected from the many available in the Indian Education Resources Center. These or any other books (maximum of 3) may be borrowed free of charge for 2 weeks by teachers, 2 days for students on UBC Campus - possible 1 week for SFU students. There is a fine of 5Q per day, for books overdue. Please use the special book loan form at the end of the Newsletter. ,  To purchase books, send you order to: The First Citizen, Publishing division, Box 760, Station A, Vancouver, B.C. Immediately after the title there is a series of code numbers, letters giving the reading, and interest level, number of pages and category of the book. Approximate reading and interest level is indicated by P - primary grades, I - intermediate grades, JH - Junior High grades, SH Senior High and A - Adults. The number of pages is given by a number following the letter "p". (e.g. 18p means 18 pages) Paperback will be indicated by "pb". If not specified, it is a hardback. The category, or categories, of the book is given by a code number which is explained below. 1. Anthropology, History, Ethnology: a) North America. b) Canada c) British Columbia. 2. Contemporary Indian Information. 3. Indian Education: a) General b) Material for Teachers 4. Curriculum: a) Language Arts: 1) 2) 3) 4)  speech phonics reading writing  b) Social Studies c) Mathematics d) Science e) Art f) Music 5. Adult Education: For example: 4a(3) indicated Curriculum, Language Arts, Reading.  -20BOOKS EXAMPLE:- - Doe, John P. - Eenie Meenie Minie Moe, Gray's Publishing, 1982. JH, SH, 481 p; la, 4b, 4e, 4f. All about 3 mice who ran up the clock and it stops. ($8.95, paperback - pb).  ******** 1. American Indian Historical Society - Textbooks and the American Indian, Indian Historian Press, Inc. 1970. SH-A; 1A; 2; 4a(3);b 254 p; ($4.25). Thirty-two Indian scholars, native historians and Indian students have evaluated more than three hundred books used through the primary grades to high school, in their treatment towards the American Indian. ($4.75) 2. Balch, Glenn - Indian Paint, McGraw-Hill Book Company. 1962. I-JH; 138P; la;4a(3);4b; The story of Little Falcon, an Indian Pinos. His training life, and his Fathers expectations of him, so that one day he will take over as being Chief of the Pinos. ($2.15) 3. Berger, Thomas - Little Big Man, The Dial Press, 1964. JH-A; 437 p; la; 4a(3) A historical novel about life and warfare on the plains from 1852 - 1876. A story not only about the west, but truly of the west, told with wit and lusty humor ^ The Battle of Little Bighorn has never been better described or interpreted in fiction.(9.95) 4.  Bleeker, Sonia - Indians, Goldern Press, New York; I-A, 48 pages; la,b; 4a(3);4b; A series for young readers....Read the fascinating text....then test your knowledge with the list of questions at the end of each book. ($0.60)  5.  Bleeker, Sonia - The Eskimo:Arctic hunters and trappers, Eleventh Printing September, 1971. JH-SH; 155p; lb; 4a(3) 4b; The home of the Eskimo, a place of ice and snow, with long, bitter winters, but through the centuries these strong and brave people have developed ways of making the best of their rigorious surroundings so they can live comfortably and happily. The drawings capture the vitality of these courageous, skillful people who live on the top of the world. ($4.95)  6.  Bleeker, Sonia - The Sioux Indians, William Morrow & Company, New York, 1962. JH-SH; 155p; la; 4a(3) 4b; The Sioux, famous for their warriors and their horsemen, are an unusually interesting American Indian tribe. Their strength being drained by white settlers who began to encroach upon their lands. Through this narrative, enhanced by black-white illustrations, the glory and tragedy of the Sioux comes alive. ($4.95) ,  7. Bleeker, Sonia - The Chippewa Indians, William Morrow & Company, 1955. JR-SH; 153p; ;a' 4a(3) 4b; The Chippewa, followed a life of unvarying seasonal travel: Spirits were powerful in the world of the Chippewas. Read as spirits follow the family of Older Brother, from camp to camp ($4.95)  - 21 8.  Cawston, Vee - Matuk, the Eskimo Boy, The Curtis Publishing Company, 1962 I-JH; 30p; lb; 4a(3) 4b; A narrative with illustrations, of Matuk, a ten year old Eskimo boy who goes out to prove his ability to be a hunter. ($4.50)  9. Clark, Ella E. - Indian Legends of the Pacific Northwest, University of California Press, 1953. JH - A; 207p; la; 4a(3) 4b; This collection of more than one hundred tribal tales are the Indians own stories, told for generations of the mountains, lakes, and rivers, and the creation of the world and the heavens above. It also tells much about the mind of the native American-his belief in spirits, in all nature, his fantasy of the animal people; his concept of right and wrong. ($2.45) 10. Coon. Danny 1970 lc; 2; 4a(3) 4e; A collection and description of paintings by a young Alert Bay Indian boy. His beautiful illustrations of his work add to the originality of his book. ($1.00) 11. Craig, John, No Word fôr Good-bye,,Peter Martin Associates Limited, 1969. Jh - A; 194p; lc; 2; 4a(3); About Ken Warren, a boy of fifteen, who meets an Ojibway Indian boy of the same age. They become friends and he finds out how ignorance and prejudice can hurt people needlessly. No Word for Good-bye is a fastmoving exciting and very real story. ($4.95) 12. Creighton, Luella Bruce - Tecumseh, Printed in Hong Kong. JH - A; 159 p; lb, 4a(3) 4b. In life a hero, in death a legend, Tecumseh, chief of the Shawnee, was the last of the great Indian leaders of Eastern North America. This is the adventure of a noble man trying to rally his divided people against a threat no Indian had successfully resisted before. ($3.25) 13. De Agulo, Jaime - Indian Tales, Hill and Wang, Inc. 1953. 246 p; Jh - A; la; 4a(3) 4b; This book deals with Indian folklore - with tall tales and jokes, ceremonial rituals and poetic allegories, gambling games and hunting adventures. Children will be fascinated by the stories, amused by the humor, delighted by the rhythms of the words. ($2.25) 14, Embry, Margaret - My Name is Lion, Holiday House Inc. 1970. I - SH; 46p; la; 2; 4a(3); Albert, a name the white people game him when they came to take him away from his grandfather, to live in the new bare-looking Bureau of Indian Affairs dorm to go to school. Being a Navajo Indian, his way of life suddenly being limited and restricted he finds himself lonely and confused trying to adjust to this new life. ( $4.95) 15. Freuchen, Pipaluk - Eskimo Boy, Lothrop, Lee & Shepard Co., Inc., 1967. I- SH; 96p; la; 2; 4a(3) 4b; This is the beginning of a modern hero tale that ends happily after recounting the exploits of a brave young Eskimo boy who is forced to grow up in a few hours when he realizes that he has become the Man of the Family. ($4.75)  -2216. Green, Alma - Forbidden Voice, The Hamlyn Publishing Group. JH - A; 157p; lb;2;4a(3); Forbidden Voice, a descendant from a long line of Mohawk chieftains, and the daughter of a Clan mother. She wrote this book for the white man to understand. "Growing up red is not the same as growing up white, for my people - the real people, the red men - think our own thoughts; we have our own magic and our own mysteries. This book is about some of them. ($4.95) 17. Grey Owl - Pilgrims of the Wild, Macmillan Company of Canada Limited, 1968. 282p; JH - A, lb; 4a(3) 4b; In this book Grey Owl describes the change from the life of a trapper to that of a conservationist.($2.95) 18. Grey Owl - The Men of the Last Frontier, Macmillan Co. of Canada Limited, JH - A; 253 p; lb; 4a(3) 4b; This book is written to arouse interest in conservation, its appeal is even more compelling today with the growing concern for the preservation of some part of our ecological heritage. ($2.95) 19. Grey Owl - Tales of an Empty Cabin, Macmillian co. of Canada, 1972. 235 p; JH - A; lb; 4a(3) 4b; The Epic story of the vast North Land of the men- both Indian and white - who have given it its history, of the animals that live and have their being in it, and of the trees and rivers which are its sentinels and highways. 20. Gridley, Marion E. - Indians of Today, I.C.F.P. Inc. 1971. JH - A; 494p; 1 a,b; 2; 4a(3); This fourth edition of Indians of Today salutes the many outstanding Canadian and American Indian Leaders who have made, and continue to make, significant contributions to the lives of their people and to the nation. 21. Hill, Kay - Badger, the Mischief Maker, McClelland and Stewart Limited, 1965; I - JH; 95p; lb; 4a(3) b; An Indian legend of a youth who is confident that he can outwit any Indian or animal. Badgers gay, undomitable spirit and the glimmer of goodness beneath his defiant attitude, make him a character, the reader will not forget. ($5.50) 22. Hill, Kay - Glooscap and His Magic, McClelland and Stewart, 1963. I -JH; 190p; lb; 4a(3); One of the Wabanki Indians legends is of Glooscap, who no man knows when he was born, but born of appalling size and magic powers. Even to this day, the stories the children love best are the stories of Glooscap. ($5.50) 23. Hill, Kay - More Glooscap Stories, McClelland and Stewart Limited. 1970. 178 p; I - JH; lb; 4a(3); More stories of Glooscap who, with his huge size and magic powers, does roaring battle with 'giants and wizards and instructs his wayward Indians and animals how to live wisely and well.  -2324. Hilen, William - Blackwater River (Toa-Thal-Kas) McClelland and Stewart Ltd. JH - A; 170p; lc; 2; 4a(3) 4b; Set in British Columbia's great wilderness area, through which the Blackwater River flows. The book captures its atomosphere so vividly that you can almost smell the frosty brillance of autumn mornings. A book filled with action to be cherished by nature-lovers and sportsmen, by anyone who is concerned with the preservation of our beautiful country. ($6.95) 25. Hofsinde, Robert - Indian Games and Crafts, William Morrow and Company, 1957/ I - SH; 126p; la; 4a(3); In this book, a well known interpreter of Indian life presents detailed instructs on how to make simple game equipment for twelve different games and how to play them just as the Indians did. Also illustrated with 83 pictures and diagrams. 26. Inverarity, Robert Bruce - Art of the Northwest Coast Indians, University of California Press. 1971. 237p; JH - A; lb,c; 2; 4a(3); 4e; Here is the most complete text and general collection of illustrations of Northwest Coast Indian art written in the last twenty years. 27. Jackson, Helen Hunt - A Century of Dishonor, the Early Crusade for Indian Reform, Harper and Row Publishers, Inc. 1965. 335p; JH - A; la; 2; 4a(3) 4b; The book describes Indian maltreatment from the period of the American Revolution, to the treatment of Indians today. It unearths a succession of broken treaties and examples of inhuman treatment of the nations 300,000 Indians. 28. Kroeber, Theodora - The Inland Whale, University of California, 1971. JH - A; 200p; la; 4a(3); This is a selection of stories from the native Indian literature of California. 29. Lane, R. R. - Cultural Relations of the Chilcotin Indians of West Central B.C. University Microfilms Limited, 1970. SH - A; 342p; lc; 2; 4a(3); 30 Leeuue, Adele de - Maria Tallchief, American Ballerina, Garrard Publishing Company, 1971. JH - A, 141p; (4a3). This is the story of the daughter of an Osage Indian who danced her way into the hearts of millions to become America's own prima ballerina. ($4.95) 31. Mahood, Ian, - The Land of Maquinna, Agency Press Limited, 1971. JH - A; 159 p; lb; 4a(3); 4b; A story of tragedy in yesterdays history and a camera record of the splendor available under todays environment for living. ($5.95) 32. Manpower and Immigration - University Career Outlook, 71-72, Information Canada, Ottawa, 1971. JH - A; 100p; lb; 2; 4a(3); This booklet is designed to help you in your choice of studies from the many areas that are open to you.  -2433. Matthews, Major J.S. - Conversations with KHAHTSAHLANO - 1932-1954. SH -A; 443p; lc; 4a(3); 4b; Indian villages and landmarks - Burrard Inlet and Howe Sound - before the white man came. 34. Melzack, Ronald - The day Tuk became a Hunter, McClelland and Stewart, 1971; I - JH; 92p; lb; 4a(3); Here, life and excitement pervade the mysterious Arctic as young Tuk experiences the thrill of killing his first bear. The stories are wonderfully told, embracing all the joys and sorrows of everyday life. Beautifully illustrated. ($4.95) 35. MacEwan, J.W. Grant - Portraits from the Plains, McGraw Hill Company of Canada Jh - A; 287p; lb; 2; 4a(3); For an age infatuated with men of achievement and ability we have been curiously slow in discovering the more extraordinary figures among Canadian Indians. Yet any study of these native people turns up, time and again, men so colorful and exciting as to capture our imagination and command our attention. In his 33 character sketches of fascinating Indian personalities from our past and present. 36. McGaw, Jessie Brewer - Little Elk Hunts Buffalo, Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1961. P - I; 88p; la, 4a(3); Little Elk tells his story in pictographs, man's first written language. The english "translations" is given below each picture, to make an exciting, and easy to-read story. 37. McGaw, Jessie Brewer - Painted Pony Runs Away, Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1958. P - I; 88p; la; 4a(3); Little Elk also tells his story in Indian picture writing of his pony running away, and he being captured by Sioux. ($2.50) 38. McLuhan, T.C. - Touch the Earth, New Press, Toronto, Canada. SH -A; 175p; la; 2; 4a(3); A selection of statements and writings by North American Indians, chosen to illuminate the course of Indian history and the abiding values of Indian Life. 39. MacMillan, Cyrus - Glooskap's Country, Oxford University Press, 1967. I - SH: 273p; lb; 4a(3); These are tales of the supernatural hero of the Micmacs of Eastern Canada, tales that reflect the atmosphere of the land and the dignity and imagination of the people that gave them birth. ($5.75) 40.  Patterson, E. Palmer II - The Canadian Indian: A History since 1500, CollierMacmillan Canada, 1972. SH - A; 197p; lb; 2; 4a(3); 4b;  41 Rasmussen, Knud - Beyond the Hills, World Publishing Company, 1961, I-A, 32p; 4a(s) A collection of Eskimo poems-which are really songs chanted spontaneously to celebrate the hunt or other feats, great sorrow or great happiness, or merely the joy of being alive - deserve a wide audience and an honoured place in the world literature.  -25 42. Reynolds, E. E. - A Book of Grey Owl, Macmillan Company of Canada, Limited. JH - A; 275p; lb; 4a(3); 4b; Pages from the writings of Grey Owl whose fascinating tales of the Canadian wilds have captured the admiration of readers throughout the world. 43. Ruttan, Robert A. - The Adventures of Oolakuk, Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1969. JH-A; 96p; lb; 2; 4a(3); Oolakuk, a twelve-year old Eskimo Boy, who wants to be treated as a grown-up. He is curious and seeks adventure. This book gives a fascinating picture of the modern Eskimo and of some of his problems in adjusting to the modern world. ($5.25) 44. Schwartz, Herbert, T. - Windigo, and other tales of the Ojibways, McClelland and Stewart Limited, 1969. JH - A; 40p; lb; 4a(3); Here are eight legends of the Ojibway, illustrated in the traditional style of the tribe with two colour drawings. 45.  Seymour, Reit - Child of the Navajos, Dodd, Mead and Company, 1971. I-JH; 64p; la; 2; 3; 4a(3); There are many books written of the Indian during the years when white men first settled in the west. But what is it like to be an Indian today? In particular a young Indian boy? This is the story of Jerry Begay, a nine year old Navajo living on the tribes vast reservation in Arizona.  46. Shannon, Terry - Tyee's Totem Pole, Albert Whitman and Company, 1970. I-JH; 48p; lc, 4a (3); 4b,e; A young Kwakiutl Indian boy who is a carver and who proves to be one of the best of his race. ($4.25) -  47. Sheffe, Norman - Canada's Indians, McGraw-Hill Company of Canada, Limited; JH - A; 86p; lb; 2; 3a; 4a(3); ^($2.60) 48. Shorris, Earl - The Death of the Great Spirit, The New American Library of Canada, Limited, 1972. JH - A; 205p; la; 4a(3); 4b; This is the story of a proud, profoundly wise culture, which now seems doomed to extinction. It is the story of the American Indian, who first had his lands wrested away, and now is undergoing the final destruction of his identity. 49. Shumaker, Morris C. - Welfare: Hidden Backlash, McClelland and Stewart Ltd. 1971. SH - A; 207p; lb; 2; 3a; 4a(3); A hard look at the welfare issue in Canada. What it has done to the Indian. What it could do to the rest of Canada. ($10.00) 50. Spencer, Katherine - An Analysis of Navaho Chantway Myths - American Folklore Society, 1971. Sh - A; 240p; la; 2; 4a(3); The present study proposes to explore a portion of Navaho mythology to see what light it throws on the life view and values of the people whose literature it represents. 51. Stember, Sol - Heroes of the American Indian, Fleet Press Corporation, 1971. JH - A; 124p; la; 4a(3); 4b; A look at America's great Indian Warriors and Leaders, their fight to maintain their rights as Indians and their fight to live on their own land.  -2652. Sullivan, George - Jim Thorne. all-round Athlete, Garrard Publishing Co., 1971 I - JH; 93p la; 4a(3); A bibliography of an Indian from the Sauk and Fox tribe of Oklahoma. He was later to become America's greatest athlete. ($3.95) 53. Tomkins, William - Universal American Indian Sign Language, 112p; la; ($2.50) 54. Underhill, Ruth M. - Red Man's Religion, The University of California Press, JH - A; 270p; ;a; 2; 4a(3); Here is the first comprehensive account of the religion of American Indians north of the Rio Grande. This fascinating study concludes with a consideration of Christianity and of religions evolved by the Indians themselves after contact with the white man, including the Ghost Dance and the Peyote Religion. ($9.50) 55. Underhill, Ruth M. - Red Man's America, The Universtiy of Chicago Press, Ltd. 1953. SH - A; 335p; la; 4a(3); This book meets the great need for a comprehensive study of Indian societies from the first Stone Age hunters to the American citizens of today. 56. Washburn, Wilcomb E. - Red Man's Land - White Man's Law, Charles Scribners Sons: New York; JH - A; 245 p; la, 4a(3); 4b; This is the history of the legal status of the American Indians and their land, from the first contact with Europeans. 57. Wherry, Joseph H. - Indian Masks & Myths of the West; Funk & Wagnalls, 1969. JH - A; 252p; la; 2; 4a(3) 4e; Justifiably proud of their heritage, many of them are striving mightily to conserve the best of their culture while guiding their people into the mainstream of American life where their birthright entitles them to the same advantages as other citizens. 58. Whiteford, Andrew Hunter - North American Indian Arts, Western Publishing Co., 1970. JH-A; 154p; la,b; 4a(3); 4e; Arts & Crafts from American & Canadian Indians. Beautifully illustrated. 59. Wissler, Clark - Red Man's Reservations, Collier - Macmillan Ltd, London, 1968. JH - A; 300p; la; 2; 4a(3); 4b; One of the greatest authorites on Indians tells the story of the early reservations and the crisis that came upon the red man when forced to abandon his own customs and adopt those of the white man. 60. Wood, Kerry - The Great Chief, Toronto-Canada;; Jh-A; 160p lb; 4a(3); 4b; In this deeply moving story from Canada's history - a story full of dust and blood and hoof-beats of Indian raids and skirmishes Maskepetoon, Great Chief of Canada's plains lives again. 61. Wuttunee, William - Ruffled Feathers, Bell Books Ltd. 1971. Jh-A; 170p; lb; 2; 4a(3); Ruffled Feathers is an outspoken criticism of the Indians reliance on the reservation system and the outmoded treaties and the feather fakery of the Red Power advocates. XXXXXXXXXX  - 27 -  ORDER FORM NAME ^ ADDRESS ^ PLEASE SEND ME THE FOLLOWING BOOKS: AUTHOR^ 1, ^  2, ^ 3  ,  ^  # 41.41.41.#### ## # ######### ##### ##### #######41.4.*** ####### ####### ######*## ## #######  RETURN ADDRESS: INDIAN EDUCATION RESOURCES CENTER HUT 0-12, UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA VANCOUVER 8, B. C.  TITLE  


Citation Scheme:


Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics



Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            async >
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:


Related Items