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Indian Education Newsletter, Vol. 2, no. 6 Indian Education Resources Center 1972-02

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Indian Education Newsletter VOLUME 2 #6 FEBRUARY, 1972 INDIAN EDUCATION RESOURCES CENTER UNIVERSITY OF B. C., VANCOUVER. ANNOUNCEMENTS An updated resources list of books, pamphlets etc., along with a referral list of films regarding Indian background information, and also a readability list is now in a booklet form which can be ordered. Due to the number of pages involved, this resource booklet will be sent out on request. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * ** Our Indian Education Newsletter is free, and so is sent on re- quest. A number of copies are being returned -- PLEASE let us have yourchange of address. * * * * fe, * * * * * * * * * * Our last issue for this school term will be during the first week of June (a May/June issue), - again, PLEASE let us have your change of address - August, September at latest for September issue of our IERC Newsletter - if you wish to receive the newsletter. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * ** The B. C. Native Indian Teachers Association semi-annual general Conference is being held at U.B.C. - April 3, 4, 5, 1972. Any- one, especially teachers who are out to visit our Center during that weekis welcome to observe. * * * * *** * **** * * * * ** *** *** ** * *** *** * ** * * *** *** * * ****' **** * * * **************************** ************* - 2 - WHEN STRANGERS MEET CHARLIE HOU In the summer of 1969 John Thomas and George Clutesi were invited by Professor Frank Hardwick of the UBC Department of Education to discuss with Social Studies teachers the role played by Indians in B. C.'s history. Their efforts were successful in inspiring a number of graduate and undergraduate teachers to prepare teaching materials showing the place of Indians in our history. It was intended that as many of these studies as possible would be published and distributed to interested teachers who do not have the resources of the UBC library and Provincial Archives at their finger tips. One study has already been published by the Indian Education Resources Center and the Center for Continuing Education. The Helping Hand, based on materials prepared by Sister Mary Paul Howlitt, deals with the help which Interior. Indians gave Alexander MacKenzie on his journey to the Pacific Ocean in 1793. A second study, based on materials prepared by Charles Hou, will soon be published. The theme that runs throughout the study is aptly sum- marized by the title, When Strangers Meet. The first documents show what happened when Europeans traded or lived in a region where a well developed native culture was dominant, and later documents show what happened when the same region dominated by a technologically advanced European culture. It is hoped that by studying these documents students will become more sensitive to the problems faced by minority groups in any society. This study differs from The Helping Hand in several ways. rn the first place, it deals with numerous events spread out over a much longer periof of time. Secondly, a deliberate attempt was made to provide a variety of source materials which an historian would consult before writ- ing his history. Thirdly, the materials are often highly biased and contro- versial in nature so that students cannot accept everything that is said or pictured in the materials, but must evaluate the evidence carefully before drawing any conclusions. Finally, the study is meant not only to show the role that Indians have played in our history but also to teach the students the many critical thinking skills needed in order to evaluate the mass of information directed at them by today's mass media. Professor Hardwick is currently editing a study on the gold rush and plans to expand the series to include the contributions of other minority groups to the rich mosaic of Canadian history. The first study in the expanded series will deal with the contributions of Ukrainians. Adam Kozoak has been responsible for doing the necessary research. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * ** * * * * * * * 3READINGS IN CHILD DEVELOPMENT ROGER C. BARKER "SUCCESS AND FAILURE IN THE CLASSROOM" PROGRESSIVE EDUCATION, 19 (1942) P. 221-224 One of the studies by Lewin and Hoppe tried to answer the question: When does a person experience success and failure? Method: Adult subjects were given simple motor and intellectual tasks. ie: hanging as many rings upon a moving belt as possible. Subjects were observed secretly then interviewed. Hoppe's found success and failure were unrelated to actual achievement of individuals. He concluded that success and failure were independent of actual achievement but was determined by goals, expectations and aspirations set by in- dividuals at a particular time. Study 2: Effects of success and failure on level of aspiration. Hoppe found; 1) Subjects changed level of aspiration if they met with success they set a higher goal. If they met with failure they lowered their goal. 2) Thus, a person could protect himself from continued failure or against easy attainment by setting higher goals. If a child's aspirations are continually set too high, above achievement, he may be subjected to continual failure which could have a disasterous effect on his adjustment and happiness or, if a child places his aspiration below achievement it could result in a lack of ambition and cynicism, which could be serious person- ally and socially. Pressure from society has pushed many beyond ability. The child who experiences failure has set aspirations above level of possible achievement. Those in the upper end of achievement have set aspirations below level of achievement and have thus experienced success. 4School pressures could put off balance the protective mech- anism of level of aspiration. These pressures could arise from social acceptability and require a child to conform to group standards. School can become overwhelming for a middle-class child if success is academic achievement. A child who may be kind, courageous and have certain mechanical abilities may fail in school until he can establish himself with an organization which values his behaviour, non-academic achievement. Sears studied the.effects of chronic failure and success en- forced by many schools. She found the child which had experience in continual success set their aspirations at a realistic level whereas the child who met continual failure had set aspirations with little regard to their achievement level. To avoid off balancing a child's protective mechanism the teacher needs to broaden the basis for evaluating pupils; allow pupils maximum freedom in setting their own goals; reduce to a minimum the prominence of the relative standing of pupils and to reduce dominance of the teacher. This can be avoided if democratic teaching procedures are used, if interests of the child are followed, and group undertakings are an important part of school activities. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * ** * * * * * * COMMENTS FROM INDIAN DAY SCHOOL PUPILS - GRADE 1 - 2 ON BOOKS ON LOAN FROM IERC. I liked the book. I couldn't stop reading it. - Robin Tait. I like the story it is good. I hope you don't give it back. - Mary Davis. 5ENRICHMENT PROGRAM FOR NATIVE INDIAN CHILDREN CRAIGFLOWER ELEMENTARY SCHOOL OVERALL PLAN: A. Objectives of the program. B. The Program: 1. Role of various personnel involved in program. 2. Metholodology: (a) Tutoring. (b) Cultural Activities. 3. Pupil Materials. 4. Timetable and personnel involved in cultural activities. C. Evaluations. D. Teacher References. A. OBJECTIVES OF THE PROGRAM 1. Develop a sense of pride in being an Indian. 2. Encourage local parents from reserve to be involved in the program. 3. Involve all Indian children in this program who are currently attending Craigflower School. 4. Help the child to think positively through success at whatever level he or she works. 5. Involve native Indians from the Adult Institute to act as tutors. 6. Give the pupils the opportunity to identify with adult Indians who have had academic success. 7. Increase teachers' knowledge and awareness of Indian Culture. 8. Employ Indian teacher aide to help develop suitable materials for this program. B. THE PROGRAM 1. Role of the various personnel involved: (a) The Principal - overall co-ordination of program 61. (b) The Learning Assistance Teacher - screening through testing and observation to gain know- ledge of child. - help for both teacher and tutor both in diagnosing academic problems and in remedial methods when such help is required. (c) The Classroom Teacher - allow children to feel successful in class. - provide direction for tutors in academic skills. - provide materials. - suggest methodology. - set academic aims for individual children. - guide and evaluate program with tutor. (d) The Indian Tutors - provide practice for skills or remedial work under teacher's direction. - allow children to feel more worthy as individuals through individual time allotments. - help children improve work habits. - gain some knowledge of children's home background and relate it to the teacher. - encourage interest in Indian Culture. - provide a list of concepts unknown to Indian Children that we take for granted. (e) The Parents from the Reserve - provide a cultural background through such activities as Carving, Indian Legends, Beading, Knitting and Sewing. (f) The Local Indian Teacher-Aide - teach about things Indian. - encourage interest in anything Indian - Build up a library and resource center of things Indian; Legend, books, filmstrips etc. - take children on field trips to provide them with experiences they might not otherwise have. i.e. Provincial Museum (Potlatch Program) Thunderbird Park, Sealand, etc. (g) The Special Counsellor - liaison person between tutors and school and Vocational Counsellor. - hiring and paying of tutors. - be familiar with children's homes and conditions there. 7^ 1.^(h) The Vocational Counsellor - this person is a native Indian at the Adult Institute, and makes the initial contact of students who wish to act as tutors at Craigflower School. He also chairs the special committee on the reserve, who supplies the adults for the cultural activities in the school. (i) The School Nurse - keep in close contact with families on the reserve and provide information to the staff that will en- able them to deal more effectively with the child. 2.^Methodology (a) Tutoring - tutors work with children on individual basis - in classroom situation as much as possible. - tutors come into classrooms to observe Indian stu- dents in class and small group situations - pre- ferably during undirected activities in intermediate grades. - In primary grades tutors could work with group doing seatwork to improve work habits. (This group would include any children needing help, not only Indian children). - Small group situations could be provided for those who may have difficulty communicating. Any dis- cussions would be encouraged. This is particularly important with intermediate children. (b) Cultural Activities (i) In the School: the following activities are carried out by the parents who live on the reserve: carving, Indian legends, knitting sewing and beading. (ii) Field Trips: during the fall term the students visited the Provincial Museum twice to learn more about the Coastal Indians, their social life, dwellings and industries. The Maritime Museum was also visited. (iii) Future Field Trips: these will include Thunder- bird Park, Sealand, taking part in a Potlatch, Craigflower Manor, and Fort Rodd Hill. 3.^Pupil Materials The following have been purchased: Readers: Neepawa Series beading materials, knives for carving, wood, knitting wool and needles, magnetic number and letter boards. ANNOUNCING INDIAN EDUCATION - EDUCATION 479 SUMMER SESSION, 1972^3 UNITS CREDIT THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Instructional techniques for adapting teaching to the needs of Indian students; method of enriching the curriculum by including the cultural background of all students; the course will include some examination of the anthroplogical, sociological and historical background of native Indians with an emphasis on contemporary situations as these relate toteaching. Staff. Instructor: Dr. Art More, Faculty of Education; Indian Education Resources Centre staff; native Indian Resource persons and guest Faculty from other university departments. Course Description: Education 479 is a relatively new course, designed to aid teachers developing the ability to adapt education to the needs of Indian students. A basic assumption in the course is that, while there are many similarities and differences between all individuals children, a permanent educational programme often do not take into account differences, mostly cultural and economic which many Indian children share. The course will be presented by many individuals including Indian teachers and students; representatives of Indian organizations; repre- sentatives of other educational organizations: specialists in anthro- pology, sociology, psychology, language arts, Indian culture, Arts and crafts; and by the course participants. The content is divided into two parts. Part I emphasis background knowledge and includes historical and contemporary backgrounds; atti- tudes toward education by Indian parents, teachers, students and organ- izations: and policies of the provincial Department of Education, Department of Indian Affairs and B.C. Teachers. Part II emphasizes adapting teaching, using community resources, and dealing with poten- tial problem areas. Part. II represents about two-thirds of the course. Information on registration credit - students wishing 3 units of credit for Education 479 must register as extrasessional students; contact Registrar's Office, 228-2418 for registration cards and infor- mation. Registration for Summer Session 1972 closes June 15. Regis- tration for Winter Session 1972-73 closes in mid-September. Credit fee $100. Non-credit - a number of auditors will be accepted into the course; please apply to Dr. More or Education - Extension (228-2181): do not contact the Registrar's Office. Non-credit fee $5. Please write a letter to Dr. More, Faculty of Education, University of B.C. giving information on your present concerns in the area of Native Indian Education including mention of background knowledge of B.C. Indians or active participation in Education of Indian Children. Enrol- ment limited to 80 students. 83. As the cultural activities are expanded more materials will be required, such as cane for basket work, simple looms, wool for weaving, and leather tools for leatherwork. 4. Timetable and Personnel -Involved in Activities TUTORS DAY NAME TIME Monday Miss Linda George 1:00 - 2:00 Tuesday Miss Linda George 1:00 - 2:00 Wednesday Mrs. Alice Dick Mr. Tom Jack 1:00 - 2:00 1:00 - 3:00 Thursday Mr. Tom Jack 1:00 - 3:00 ADULTS^FROM^THE^RESERVE DAY NAME ACTIVITY TIME Tuesday Mr. Hillis Mr. Williams Carving 1:00 - 3:00 Wednesday Mrs. George Legends 2:00 - 3:00 Thursday Mrs. Dick Knitting & Sewing 2:00 - 3:00 Friday Mrs. Morris Miss Dyer Beading 2:00 - 3:00 C. EVALUATION 1. Tutors to be involved and present at parent-teacher interviews. 2. Tutors to give written report on her assessment of child con- cerned at report card time (to be considered by teacher when planning and preparing reports. 3. Tutors to recommend areas of instruction in which child may be lacking. 4. Recommend program be evaluated several times a year (possibly at report time) so change can be made as required. 9C.^5. Teachers to make written report of what each child has done during the current year, and make recommendations for the following year. 6. Booklets of the written reports to be prepared and kept in the office, and then given to the teachers concerned in the following year in order to ensure continuity. D. TEACHER REFERENCES The following materials are in the school and have been found useful in giving the teacher a background that enables him or her to participate more effectively in the program. 1. BCTF Lesson Aids Service: The Coast Salish Tribe of Indians of the Pacific North West. 2. BCTF Lesson Aids Service: Indians of the Northwest Coast. 3. BCTF Lesson Aids Service: The Life of the Coast Salish Indians. 4. Government of B.C. Nootka, B.C. Heritage Series. 5. Government of B.C. Bella Coola, B.C. Heritage Series. 6. C.T. Curteis, Indian Education, The Indian Child's Background. 7. C. Galloway, et al., Orientation, Pre-school and Pre-kindergarten Summer Program for Indian Children. Educational Research Institute of British Columbia. 8. George Clutesi, Son of Raven, Son of Deer. 9. George Clutesi, Potlatch. 10. Anthony Carter, This is Haida. 11. H.P. Corser, Totem Lore of the Alaska Indians. *************** o o ***************** * RETURN ADDRESS FOR NEWSLETTER: INDIAN EDUCATION RESOURCES CENTER HUT 0-12, UNIVERSITY OF B. C. VANCOUVER 8, B. C. Signature(s) removed to protect privacy


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