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Learners and Digital Identity : The Digital Tattoo Project Mitchell, Julie; Underhill, Cindy Nov 15, 2013

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    	  	  Learners	  and	  Digital	  Identity: The	  Digital	  Tattoo	  Project 	   	   	   	   	   	   	           	   Julie	  Mitchell Managing	  Librarian,	  Chapman	  Learning	  Commons University	  of	  British	  Columbia 	   	  Cindy	  Underhill	  Learning	  Resource	  Design	  Strategist University	  of	  British	  Columbia     “This is a preprint of a chapter accepted for publication by Facet Publishing. This extract has been taken from the authorʼs original manuscript and has not been edited.  The definitive version of this piece may be found at: http://www.facetpublishing.co.uk/title.php?id=9436 Facet Publishing, which can be purchased from www.facetpublishing.co.uk .  The authors agree not to update the preprint or replace it with the published version of the chapter.”      “We	  all	  understand	  that	  an	  embarrassing	  photo	  could	  damage	  our	  reputation,	  but	  what	  are	  other,	  less	  obvious	  ways	  we	  might	  do	  so?”	   	   -­‐	  Teacher	  candidate,	  Faculty	  of	  Education,	  UBC. 	  “My	  online	  networks	  all	  have	  very	  different	  values	  -­‐	  friends,	  professional	  colleagues,	  family.	  Managing	  all	  of	  them	  gets	  complicated.” 	   	  -­‐	  Undergraduate	  student,	  UBC. 	  “Now	  that	  I’m	  graduating,	  I	  feel	  the	  pressure	  to	  build	  a	  brand.	  It’s	  depressing.” 	   	  -­‐	  Graduate	  student,	  UBC  1. Introduction:	  Our	  Motivation  Students,	  like	  the	  rest	  of	  us,	  are	  leveraging	  the	  public	  (or	  quasi-­‐public)	  nature	  of	  social	  media	  and	  related	  technologies	  to	  organize	  protests,	  collaborate	  on	  projects,	  document	  and	  share	  experiences,	  voice	  opinions,	  participate	  in	  like-­‐minded	  communities,	  arrange	  social	  functions	  and	  share	  gossip.	  	  Though	  we	  have	  always	  used	  the	  media	  at	  hand	  to	  communicate	  with	  wider	  public	  circles	  than	  we	  typically	  interact	  with,	  the	  process	  usually	  took	  a	  bit	  of	  planning,	  organization	  and	  involved	  more	  than	  a	  single	  individual	  to	  make	  it	  happen.	  	  Today,	  anyone	  with	  a	  smartphone	  and	  an	  internet	  connection	  can	  post	  an	  image	  or	  video	  that	  can	  be	  viewed	  by	  hundreds	  or	  even	  millions,	  if	  public	  attention	  is	  captured.	  It	  is	  not	  uncommon	  for	  an	  aspiring	  musician	  to	  garner	  hundreds	  of	  views	  on	  a	  music	  video	  uploaded	  to	  YouTube,	  an	  art	  student	  to	  get	  hundreds	  of	  comments	  on	  an	  online	  exhibit	  created	  on	  Flickr	  or	  an	  aspiring	  journalist	  to	  get	  picked	  up	  by	  a	  major	  news	  source	  for	  a	  politically	  astute	  tweet	  or	  blog	  post.	  	  These	  are	  average	  people	  with	  individual	  access	  to	  a	  broad	  public	  audience	  via	  the	  free	  social	  media	  tools	  available	  today.  In	  a	  recent	  publication	  dedicated	  to	  themes	  related	  to	  socially	  mediated	  publicness,	  researchers	  Baym	  and	  boyd	  note	  that	  this	  “level	  of	  moderate,	  widespread	  publicness	  is	  unprecedented”	  (2012,	  321)	  and	  brings	  with	  it	  both	  opportunities	  and	  challenges.	  The	  complexity	  of	  the	  multiple	  contexts	  and	  networks	  that	  students	  interact	  with,	  combined	  with	  technology	  that	  allows	  information	  to	  travel	  across	  contexts	  quickly	  and	  easily	  with	  the	  touch	  of	  a	  send	  button,	  requires	  both	  new	  literacies	  and	  new	  skills.	  	  Baym	  and	  boyd	  make	  the	  point	  that	  “understanding	  socially-­‐mediated	  publicness	  is	  an	  ever-­‐shifting	  process	  throughout	  which	  people	  juggle	  blurred	  boundaries,	  multi-­‐layered	  audiences,	  individual	  attributes,	  the	  specifics	  of	  the	  systems	  they	  use,	  and	  the	  contexts	  of	  their	  use”	  (2012,	  320).	  This	  is	  a	  process	  that	  takes	  time	  and,	  like	  any	  developmental	  process,	  involves	  mistakes.	  Mistakes	  that	  were	  once	  an	  expected	  and	  accepted	  part	  of	  the	  process	  of	  learning	  about	  good	  judgement	  which	  occurred	  mostly	  in	  private	  or	  close	  personal	  circles,	  may	  now	  be	  made	  public	  and	  persistent	  as	  long	  as	  they	  remain	  published	  on	  the	  internet,	  either	  intentionally	  or	  inadvertently,	  depending	  on	  the	  user’s	  understanding	  of	  the	  technology.	  Hargittai’s	  (2008)	  research	  on	  skills	  among	  internet	  users	  has	  shown	  that	  people	  differ	  in	  how	  well	  prepared	  they	  are	  to	  manage	  these	  processes	  and	  make	  wise	  choices.	  Real	  choice	  requires	  sufficient	  information,	  skill,	  self-­‐awareness	  and	  time	  for	  learning	  about	  how	  to	  leverage	  the	  technology	  that	  is	  available	  so	  that	  we	  can	  participate	  and	  contribute,	  and	  yet	  preserve	  and	  protect	  the	  aspects	  of	  ourselves	  that	  we	  want	  to	  keep	  private.	  Approaches	  for	  supporting	  the	  development	  these	  capacities	  are	  still	  emerging,	  but	  promising	  on	  this	  front	  are	  Howard	  Rheingold’s	  five	  literacies	  for	  thriving	  online	  which	  include	  attention,	  crap	  detection,	  participation,	  collaboration	  and	  network	  smarts	  (Rheingold,	  2012,	  246-­‐251).	  These	  literacies	  are	  about	  behaviors	  that	  can	  support	  sound	  decision	  making	  when	  it	  comes	  to	  digital	  participation.  At	  the	  University	  of	  British	  Columbia,	  librarians	  recognized	  that	  professional	  staff	  had	  a	  role	  in	  supporting	  the	  development	  of	  digital	  literacy	  as	  students	  were	  grappling	  with	  the	  impact	  of	  their	  online	  participation	  on	  the	  formation	  of	  their	  digital	  identities.	  The	  blurring	  of	  lines	  between	  identities	  as	  student,	  emerging	  professional,	  and	  private	  individual	  meant	  that	  professional	  staff	  needed	  to	  be	  equipped	  to	  mentor	  and	  support	  students	  as	  they	  struggled	  to	  develop	  the	  skills	  they	  needed.	  Indeed,	  according	  to	  the	  2012	  Horizon	  Report	  “[d]igital	  media	  literacy	  continues	  its	  rise	  in	  importance	  as	  a	  key	  skill	  in	  every	  discipline	  and	  profession”	  (Johnson,	  Adams	  and	  Cummins,	  2012,	  6).	  But	  what	  exactly	  are	  those	  skills?	  What	  format	  would	  best	  suit	  the	  fast-­‐paced	  and	  ever	  evolving	  landscape	  of	  the	  themes	  and	  issues	  related	  to	  digital	  identity,	  reputation	  and	  social	  media?	  Where	  were	  we	  going	  to	  start?	  	  	   The	  following	  chapter	  describes	  the	  Digital	  Tattoo	  project	  at	  the	  University	  of	  British	  Columbia	  and	  its	  focus	  on	  supporting	  learners	  to	  make	  informed	  choices	  and	  extend	  their	  digital	  capabilities	  around	  online	  practices,	  safety	  and	  identity.	  We	  will	  provide	  background	  on	  this	  innovative	  project	  and	  describe	  the	  multi-­‐professional	  team	  structure	  that	  drives	  the	  project	  forward.	  We	  will	  discuss	  benefits,	  challenges	  and	  what	  we	  have	  learned	  in	  creating	  and	  sustaining	  this	  dynamic,	  flexible	  learning	  resource.	  Finally,	  we	  will	  address	  project	  outcomes	  and	  future	  directions,	  including	  highlights	  from	  a	  recent	  study	  conducted	  by	  the	  Digital	  Tattoo	  project	  team	  pertaining	  to	  student	  perceptions	  around	  social	  media	  and	  digital	  identity.	  	  Stretching	  the	  boundaries	  of	  traditional	  librarianship,	  the	  project	  emphasizes	  the	  role	  of	  partnership	  between	  learners,	  librarians,	  and	  professional	  staff	  in	  creating	  an	  environment	  for	  ongoing	  innovation	  in	  an	  ever-­‐changing	  digital	  landscape. 2. Our	  Project  2.1	  What	  we	  set	  out	  to	  do  The	  goal	  of	  Digital	  Tattoo	  project	  is	  to	  provide	  support	  for	  students	  to	  develop	  responsible,	  judicious	  and	  analytical	  approaches	  to	  their	  decisions	  regarding	  their	  online	  identities:	  specifically,	  what	  to	  share,	  with	  whom	  and	  how	  best	  to	  participate	  across	  varied	  networks,	  both	  as	  a	  consumer	  and	  as	  a	  creator.	  Comprised	  of	  a	  website,	  workshop	  curriculum	  and	  teaching	  resources,	  the	  project	  aims	  to	  raise	  questions,	  provide	  examples	  and	  highlight	  resources	  to	  encourage	  learners	  to	  think	  about	  their	  presence	  online;	  help	  navigate	  the	  issues	  involved	  in	  shaping	  their	  digital	  identity;	  and	  educate	  learners	  about	  their	  rights	  and	  responsibilities	  as	  digital	  citizens.	  	  The	  idea	  for	  the	  Digital	  Tattoo	  project	  was	  conceived	  in	  2007,	  after	  librarians	  at	  UBC	  recognized	  the	  need	  to	  support	  students	  around	  issues	  of	  digital	  identity.	  The	  Library	  looked	  for	  partners	  to	  develop	  a	  proposal	  for	  a	  project	  and	  in	  2008,	  those	  partners	  formed	  an	  advisory	  committee	  that	  drove	  the	  initial	  development.	  The	  advisory	  committee	  secured	  project	  funding	  through	  UBC’s	  Teaching	  and	  Learning	  Enhancement	  Fund	  and	  hired	  the	  first	  group	  of	  students	  to	  work	  on	  the	  project.	    Underpinning	  the	  Digital	  Tattoo	  project	  are	  notions	  of	  participatory	  culture	  and	  digital	  literacy	  which	  come	  from	  the	  work	  of	  media	  scholar	  Henry	  Jenkins	  (2009)	  and	  critic,	  writer	  and	  teacher	  Howard	  Rheingold	  (2012).	  Specifically,	  each	  of	  these	  experts	  highlight	  the	  importance	  of	  social	  competency,	  understanding	  networks	  and	  how	  they	  operate,	  and	  negotiating	  across	  varied	  contexts	  with	  different	  people,	  who	  have	  different	  values,	  expectations	  and	  spoken	  (or	  more	  often,	  unspoken)	  rules	  of	  conduct.	  This	  is	  much	  more	  complex	  than	  just	  learning	  how	  to	  use	  or	  manage	  a	  particular	  tool	  or	  technology.	  It	  requires	  a	  level	  of	  self-­‐awareness	  and	  reflection	  that	  takes	  time,	  maturity	  and	  experience	  to	  develop.	  As	  explained	  by	  Jenkins	  (2009),	  	  	   Most	  public	  policy	  discussion	  of	  new	  media	  have	  centered	  on	  technologies—tools	  and	  their	  affordances…Our	  goals	  should	  be	  to	  encourage	  youth	  to	  develop	  the	  skills,	  knowledge,	  ethical	  frameworks,	  and	  self-­‐confidence	  needed	  to	  be	  full	  participants	  in	  contemporary	  culture	  (6-­‐7).	  	  While	  an	  emphasis	  on	  developing	  knowledge	  and	  encouraging	  personal	  reflection	  is	  central	  to	  the	  Digital	  Tattoo	  project,	  professional	  staff	  hear	  from	  students	  that	  they	  want	  practical	  information	  and	  something	  they	  can	  easily	  act	  on.	  As	  stated	  by	  Rheingold,	  however,	  “[t]here	  is	  no	  single	  recipe	  for	  a	  mindful	  life	  in	  the	  digital	  mediasphere;	  reflection	  is	  required”	  (2012,	  8).	  	  In	  order	  to	  balance	  the	  need	  for	  both	  reflection	  and	  practical	  guidance,	  the	  Digital	  Tattoo	  website	  themes,	  workshop	  curriculum	  and	  teaching	  resources	  introduce	  questions	  for	  reflection	  and	  discussion	  while	  also	  offering	  opportunities	  to	  take	  action	  that	  encourage	  the	  user	  to	  go	  deeper	  into	  these	  subtle	  and	  critically	  important	  understandings	  and	  address	  their	  practical	  concerns	  related	  to	  their	  own	  use	  of	  digital	  tools	  and	  social	  media.	  Covering	  issues	  such	  as	  cyberbullying,	  geotagging,	  collaborative	  online	  learning,	  copyright	  and	  digital	  identity	  as	  it	  impacts	  career	  prospects,	  the	  topics	  are	  varied	  and	  wide-­‐ranging.	  	   The	  concept	  of	  digital	  permanence	  was	  particularly	  motivating	  for	  the	  project.	  The	  notion	  that	  once	  you	  publish	  something	  online	  it	  is	  difficult,	  if	  not	  impossible,	  to	  remove	  (much	  like	  a	  tattoo)	  resonated	  with	  the	  student	  team	  members.	  And,	  like	  a	  tattoo,	  your	  digital	  identity	  is	  personal,	  even	  though	  it	  is	  shaped	  in	  part	  by	  what	  others	  say	  about	  you.	  A	  broad	  goal	  of	  the	  project	  was	  to	  make	  sure	  that	  visitors	  to	  the	  site	  were	  provided	  with	  the	  information	  and	  resources	  that	  would	  help	  them	  develop	  the	  awareness	  and	  foundational	  skills	  to	  make	  wise	  decisions	  that	  would	  support	  the	  kind	  of	  “digital	  tattoo”	  they	  wanted	  to	  create	  and	  build	  for	  themselves.	  The	  tattoo	  metaphor	  prevailed	  and	  became	  the	  title	  for	  the	  project:	  digitaltattoo.ubc.ca.	    	  	  2.2	  How	  we	  did	  it 2.2.1	  Gather	  the	  right	  people	  and	  expertise  Digital	  Tattoo	  advisory	  committee	  members	  included	  project	  students	  plus	  representatives	  from	  UBC	  Library,	  the	  Centre	  for	  Teaching,	  Learning	  and	  Technology,	  Student	  Development,	  Career	  Services,	  Access	  and	  Diversity	  Services	  and	  the	  Writing	  Centre.	  This	  group	  met	  early	  on	  to	  establish	  a	  direction	  for	  a	  website	  and	  workshop	  curriculum	  around	  five	  basic	  themes:	  social	  networking,	  protecting	  privacy,	  employment,	  new	  opportunities	  for	  learning,	  and	  publishing	  and	  research.	  The	  multi-­‐professional	  nature	  of	  the	  advisory	  committee	  brought	  different	  perspectives	  and	  unique	  expertise	  that	  were	  invaluable	  to	  the	  ongoing	  development	  of	  the	  Digital	  Tattoo	  project.	  At	  the	  same	  time,	  the	  fact	  that	  members	  of	  this	  team	  came	  from	  diverse	  perspectives	  and	  had	  varying	  levels	  of	  engagement	  with	  issues	  around	  digital	  identity,	  made	  it	  important	  to	  establish	  principles	  that	  the	  group	  could	  agree	  on	  and	  would	  guide	  decision	  making.	  	  These	  guiding	  principles	  include:  1. Currency	  and	  relevance	  of	  content	  is	  critical. 2. Students	  are	  in	  the	  best	  position	  to	  identify	  relevant	  content	  themes. 3. There	  is	  no	  single	  “right	  way”	  to	  be	  online.	  Identity	  is	  individual.	  	  However,	  wise	  choices	  require	  informed	  individuals. 4. Well-­‐researched	  information	  provides	  guidance	  for	  wise	  decision	  making. 5. Consistency,	  simplicity	  and	  opportunities	  for	  deeper	  investigation	  allow	  for	  optimum	  user	  experience.  Development	  of	  these	  guiding	  principles	  was	  critical	  for	  decision	  making	  about	  content,	  approach	  to	  workshop	  delivery	  and	  web	  design.	  	  These	  guidelines	  remain	  central	  to	  the	  work	  of	  the	  project	  team	  today	  and	  support	  the	  annual	  orientation	  of	  new	  project	  students.  While	  the	  advisory	  committee	  set	  strategic	  directions	  for	  the	  project,	  development,	  delivery	  and	  ongoing	  maintenance	  of	  resources	  requires	  the	  expertise	  of	  a	  smaller	  multi-­‐professional	  project	  team	  and	  leadership	  from	  student	  staff.	  The	  project	  team	  implementing	  this	  initiative	  currently	  consists	  of	  three	  students	  (both	  graduate	  and	  undergraduate),	  a	  Learning	  Resource	  Design	  Strategist	  (with	  expertise	  in	  learning	  design	  and	  online	  resource	  development),	  a	  librarian	  and	  members	  of	  the	  technical	  team	  from	  UBC’s	  Centre	  for	  Teaching,	  Learning	  and	  Technology.	  This	  group	  provides	  a	  foundation	  of	  expertise	  (both	  technical	  and	  pedagogical)	  which	  are	  necessary	  for	  mentorship,	  guidance	  and	  support	  for	  students	  as	  they	  develop	  their	  research,	  writing,	  networking,	  	  technical	  and	  facilitation	  skills.	  	    2.2.2	  Assemble	  the	  right	  strategies	  and	  tools  To	  support	  the	  guiding	  principles	  established	  by	  the	  advisory	  committee,	  the	  project	  working	  team	  identified	  several	  practical	  strategies	  to	  guide	  website	  development	  and	  curriculum	  creation.	  These	  strategies	  include	  the	  following:	   1. Student	  generated	  content	  to	  ensure	  relevance. 2. Simple,	  re-­‐usable	  learning	  design	  to	  maximize	  flexibility	  and	  facilitate	  reflection,	  understanding	  and	  action. 3. Re-­‐publishing	  strategies	  (such	  as	  RSS,	  embed,	  etc.)	  to	  allow	  for	  publishing	  in	  multiple	  contexts	  and	  keep	  content	  current. 4. Creative	  Commons	  license	  to	  support	  flexible	  re-­‐use. 5. Use	  of	  social	  media	  to	  engage	  conversation. 6. WordPress	  platform	  to	  support	  timely	  editing/publishing. 7. Blogging	  as	  response	  to	  current	  issues	  (i.e.	  news). 8. Accessible	  teaching	  resources	  (hosted	  in	  Slideshare,	  UBCwiki	  and	  YouTube)	  to	  support	  community	  based	  discussion	  and	  workshops.  	  Given	  that	  numerous	  authors	  are	  involved	  in	  creating	  and	  delivering	  content,	  it	  is	  essential	  that	  the	  platforms	  used	  to	  host	  the	  Digital	  Tattoo	  project	  resources	  support	  collaboration.	  The	  platforms,	  which	  include	  UBC	  hosted	  WordPress	  and	  MediaWiki	  installations	  and	  a	  project	  management	  tool	  called	  Active	  Collab,	  are	  relatively	  easy	  to	  learn	  and	  are	  part	  of	  the	  University’s	  technical	  infrastructure,	  ensuring	  that	  training	  and	  support	  are	  well	  integrated.	  This	  contributes	  to	  the	  sustainability	  of	  the	  project	  by	  allowing	  for	  short	  training	  timelines	  and	  ongoing	  technical	  support	  for	  new	  student	  team	  members.	  The	  Digital	  Tattoo	  team	  also	  makes	  use	  of	  the	  social	  web	  to	  host	  our	  resources	  (YouTube	  and	  Slideshare)	  and	  to	  facilitate	  discussion	  or	  comment	  on	  themes	  that	  students	  are	  blogging	  about	  via	  Facebook	  and	  Twitter.	   2.2.3	  Engage	  with	  the	  community  Digital	  Tattoo	  workshops	  are	  delivered	  throughout	  the	  year	  both	  face-­‐to-­‐face	  and	  online,	  related	  to	  the	  themes	  addressed	  on	  the	  website.	  Workshops	  are	  designed	  to	  encourage	  discussion	  and	  exploration	  of	  themes	  around	  digital	  identity	  in	  a	  more	  social	  environment.	  	  Workshop	  requests	  may	  come	  from	  the	  UBC	  community	  or	  from	  schools	  or	  public	  libraries	  province-­‐wide.	  To	  foster	  long-­‐term	  sustainability	  of	  the	  project,	  a	  train-­‐the-­‐trainer	  model	  is	  in	  place	  whereby	  workshops,	  lessons	  plans	  and	  teaching	  resources	  are	  available	  online	  for	  others	  to	  download.	  Digital	  Tattoo	  project	  leads	  will	  often	  go	  into	  the	  community	  to	  deliver	  a	  workshop	  or	  run	  a	  discussion	  group	  on	  a	  theme	  related	  to	  digital	  identity,	  with	  the	  agreement	  that	  a	  delegate	  at	  the	  host	  library	  or	  institution	  attend	  the	  workshop	  to	  learn	  to	  deliver	  future	  sessions	  in	  that	  community	  using	  Digital	  Tattoo	  resources	  and	  adapting	  them	  to	  local	  needs.  The	  Digital	  Tattoo	  project	  has	  now	  been	  in	  place	  for	  five	  years	  and	  it	  continues	  to	  be	  a	  popular	  resource.	  With	  consistent	  annual	  web	  traffic	  of	  over	  20,000	  visitors	  and	  continued	  requests	  for	  workshops	  both	  locally	  and	  nationally,	  the	  website	  and	  workshop	  curriculum	  have	  proved	  to	  be	  an	  important	  resource	  for	  the	  campus	  and	  greater	  community.	  By	  bringing	  together	  a	  diverse,	  multi-­‐professional	  advisory	  committee,	  developing	  a	  clear	  project	  framework,	  honoring	  a	  student-­‐led	  approach	  and	  utilizing	  tools	  to	  facilitate	  collaboration	  among	  the	  project	  team,	  the	  Digital	  Tattoo	  project	  pooled	  campus	  expertise	  on	  digital	  identity	  to	  create	  a	  resource	  to	  extend	  learners	  digital	  capabilities.	   3.	  What	  We	  Learned 3.1	  Mentor	  students	  and	  let	  them	  lead  A	  unique	  feature	  of	  the	  Digital	  Tattoo	  project	  is	  the	  emphasis	  on	  student-­‐generated	  content.	  	  Identified	  by	  the	  advisory	  committee	  at	  the	  outset	  of	  the	  project	  as	  a	  key	  guiding	  principle,	  the	  direction	  students	  provide	  with	  respect	  to	  content	  development	  helps	  us	  to	  stay	  current	  and	  fluid	  in	  the	  development	  of	  our	  resources.	  	  Students	  conduct	  and	  post	  video	  interviews,	  maintain	  and	  update	  the	  website;	  write	  relevant	  and	  timely	  blog	  posts;	  manage	  the	  Digital	  Tattoo	  social	  media	  strategy;	  and	  deliver	  workshops.	  	  These	  activities	  require	  students	  to	  learn	  independently,	  take	  risks,	  stay	  flexible	  and	  rely	  on	  each	  other	  for	  feedback	  and	  support.	  First	  attempts	  at	  some	  of	  these	  activities,	  which	  may	  be	  new	  to	  some	  of	  our	  students,	  may	  not	  always	  be	  successful.	  	  We	  work	  at	  creating	  a	  learning	  environment,	  where	  failure	  is	  expected,	  success	  is	  celebrated	  and	  learning	  from	  each	  other	  is	  encouraged.	  	    Project	  students	  are	  supported	  by	  the	  expertise	  and	  mentorship	  provided	  by	  the	  professional	  staff	  on	  the	  working	  team.	  	  Mentorship	  may	  include	  joint	  examination	  of	  resources,	  discussion	  of	  responsibilities	  as	  a	  content	  creator,	  review	  of	  content	  dealing	  with	  legal	  or	  sensitive	  issues,	  attribution	  for	  embedded	  content,	  and	  understanding	  copyright.	  Broadly,	  students	  are	  informally	  mentored	  in	  the	  development	  of	  skills	  related	  to	  learning	  design,	  research,	  information	  management	  and	  digital	  literacy.	  	  However,	  it	  is	  the	  personal	  knowledge	  and	  experience	  project	  students	  bring	  regarding	  how	  they	  and	  their	  peers	  understand	  and	  learn	  about	  their	  digital	  tattoos	  that	  is	  central	  to	  the	  success	  of	  the	  project.	  In	  creating	  and	  delivering	  workshops,	  for	  example,	  student	  team	  members	  have	  been	  successful	  in	  drawing	  out	  new	  ideas	  from	  their	  peers	  which	  have	  informed	  successful	  strategies	  for	  engaging	  groups	  of	  students	  in	  future	  workshops.	  	  In	  addition,	  student	  staff	  connect	  with	  their	  networks	  asking	  for	  feedback	  on	  the	  website	  and	  leveraging	  those	  networks	  to	  promote	  workshops	  and	  Digital	  Tattoo	  resources	  to	  their	  peers.	  They	  are	  experimenting,	  reflecting,	  generating	  feedback	  and	  applying	  new	  ideas	  to	  future	  experiences	  -­‐	  exactly	  the	  kind	  of	  experiential	  learning	  and	  iterative	  design	  process	  we	  strive	  for	  in	  our	  work.  Clearly,	  the	  student	  directed	  approach	  results	  in	  more	  relevant	  content	  for	  the	  website	  and	  workshops,	  but	  there	  are	  other	  benefits.	  As	  students	  are	  researching	  and	  talking	  about	  issues	  related	  to	  digital	  identity,	  they	  are	  learning	  a	  great	  deal	  about	  their	  own	  digital	  identity.	  As	  noted	  by	  project	  team	  student	  Paul	  Chiang,	  undergraduate	  student	  in	  the	  Faculty	  of	  Arts	  at	  UBC:  Working	  on	  the	  Digital	  Tattoo	  project	  has	  definitely	  instilled	  in	  me	  a	  certain	  kind	  of	  cautiousness	  when	  I,	  say,	  view	  and	  post	  things	  on	  my	  Facebook	  profile.	  Not	  surprising	  when	  most	  of	  the	  top	  stories	  circulating	  the	  internet	  regarding	  digital	  identity	  are	  about	  how	  people	  have,	  using	  social	  media,	  carelessly	  ruined	  their	  own	  lives.	  But	  horror	  stories	  aside,	  I	  am	  also	  beginning	  to	  realize	  just	  how	  powerful	  social	  media	  technology	  can	  be,	  when	  properly	  applied,	  in	  empowering	  not	  just	  the	  user,	  but	  whole	  groups	  of	  people	  with	  a	  common	  goal,	  either	  on	  a	  community	  level,	  a	  national	  level,	  or	  even	  on	  a	  global	  level	  (email	  message	  to	  author,	  2013).  Professional	  staff	  observe	  the	  transformational	  learning	  that	  occurs	  with	  project	  students	  with	  respect	  to	  digital	  identity	  as	  they	  work	  on	  the	  website,	  develop	  reflection	  activities	  and	  deliver	  workshops.	    While	  maintaining	  a	  student-­‐directed	  approach	  is	  a	  fundamental	  value	  of	  the	  Digital	  Tattoo	  project,	  it	  is	  not	  without	  its	  challenges.	  Internships,	  study	  abroad	  opportunities	  and	  competing	  demands	  on	  student	  time	  mean	  that	  trained	  student	  staff	  may	  only	  stay	  on	  the	  team	  for	  an	  academic	  year	  or	  may	  leave	  the	  position	  mid-­‐way	  through	  the	  academic	  term,	  leaving	  the	  professional	  staff	  to	  re-­‐hire	  and	  re-­‐train	  frequently.	  With	  the	  student-­‐directed	  approach	  to	  this	  project	  and	  a	  small	  team,	  such	  transitions	  can	  be	  quite	  disruptive	  to	  workflow,	  website	  content	  management,	  and	  workshop	  commitments.	  	  Another	  challenge	  relates	  to	  support	  and	  mentorship	  of	  project	  students.	  	  To	  do	  this	  well	  requires	  professional	  staff	  to	  be	  skilled	  at	  identifying	  areas	  of	  strength	  and	  need	  on	  the	  project	  working	  team,	  each	  time	  there	  is	  a	  change	  in	  members.	  Depending	  on	  the	  strengths	  or	  gaps	  on	  the	  project	  team	  at	  any	  one	  time,	  we	  may	  need	  to	  shift	  the	  focus	  temporarily	  while	  we	  work	  together	  to	  ensure	  that	  each	  student	  develops	  the	  competencies	  they	  need	  to	  fulfill	  their	  role.	    While	  student	  hires	  come	  to	  the	  position	  with	  a	  strong	  knowledge	  of	  social	  web	  tools	  and	  approaches,	  it	  is	  an	  ongoing	  challenge	  to	  equip	  the	  student	  team	  members	  with	  the	  expertise	  they	  require	  around	  Creative	  Commons	  licensing	  and	  Canadian	  copyright	  guidelines	  in	  order	  to	  work	  on	  the	  website	  and	  update	  teaching	  resources.	  	  While	  a	  strong	  suite	  of	  orientation	  resources	  exists	  for	  new	  project	  students,	  these	  require	  regular	  updating	  due	  to	  the	  ebbs	  and	  flows	  around	  current	  policy	  and	  practice	  (particularly	  related	  to	  copyright),	  version	  updates	  to	  technical	  platforms	  used	  to	  support	  the	  project	  and	  strategies	  adopted	  by	  the	  University	  to	  meet	  the	  demand	  for	  mobile	  friendly	  websites	  and	  resources.	  As	  evident	  from	  the	  range	  of	  changes	  listed,	  we	  would	  not	  be	  effective	  in	  addressing	  these	  without	  the	  range	  of	  expertise	  and	  experience	  that	  a	  multi-­‐professional	  team	  provides.	   3.2	  Collaboration	  is	  a	  commitment	  	    The	  challenges	  that	  exist	  in	  working	  with	  the	  student	  team	  are	  not	  only	  balanced	  by	  the	  benefits	  of	  working	  with	  students,	  but	  also	  with	  the	  benefits	  of	  a	  multi-­‐professional	  team	  environment.	  In	  addition	  to	  the	  student	  team,	  the	  Digital	  Tattoo	  project	  involves	  one	  Learning	  Resource	  Design	  Strategist	  and	  one	  librarian	  in	  the	  professional	  staff	  member	  compliment.	  These	  two	  skill	  sets	  work	  particularly	  well	  for	  the	  Digital	  Tattoo	  project,	  as	  it	  brings	  different	  perspectives	  around	  learning	  design,	  technology,	  content	  organization,	  teaching	  and	  workshop	  delivery,	  student	  staff	  supervision	  and	  information	  architecture.	  Specifically,	  the	  Learning	  Resource	  Design	  Strategist	  was	  instrumental	  in	  developing	  the	  learning	  design	  framework	  for	  the	  project,	  creating	  design	  templates,	  and	  developing	  key	  questions	  to	  support	  the	  students	  work	  to	  create	  the	  content	  modules	  and	  workshop	  curriculum,	  and	  acting	  as	  a	  “technical	  translator”	  between	  the	  applications	  support	  team	  and	  the	  project	  team.	  	  The	  Librarian	  was	  invaluable	  in	  contributing	  expertise	  related	  to	  information	  architecture,	  copyright,	  attribution	  and	  student	  staff	  administration.	  Not	  only	  do	  these	  different	  professional	  perspectives	  and	  expertise	  benefit	  the	  project,	  they	  also	  benefit	  the	  professional	  staff	  members	  involved,	  who	  have	  the	  opportunity	  to	  learn	  from	  each	  other	  as	  each	  person	  brings	  awareness	  of	  issues	  from	  different	  professional	  spheres.	  In	  more	  traditional	  roles,	  librarians	  may	  not	  have	  the	  opportunity	  to	  work	  with	  a	  Learning	  Resource	  Design	  Strategist—however,	  management	  of	  the	  Digital	  Tattoo	  project	  involves	  ongoing	  collaboration	  between	  the	  two	  professionals	  who	  co-­‐lead	  the	  work.	  Through	  this	  collaboration,	  the	  librarian	  is	  exposed	  to	  literature,	  theories,	  ideas	  and	  concepts	  outside	  of	  her	  discipline,	  broadening	  expertise	  and	  expanding	  knowledge	  beyond	  the	  library	  realm.	  Notably,	  as	  the	  project	  has	  progressed	  and	  professional	  staff	  learn	  from	  each	  other,	  the	  demarcation	  of	  roles	  and	  traditional	  boundaries	  lessen.	  The	  focus	  shifts	  away	  from	  the	  specific	  expertise	  that	  each	  professional	  contributes	  to	  the	  project,	  to	  an	  emphasis	  on	  the	  knowledge,	  skills	  and	  resources	  that	  need	  to	  be	  developed	  by	  each	  team	  member	  for	  the	  project	  to	  be	  successful.	  	  	  The	  benefits	  observed	  with	  respect	  to	  librarian	  involvement	  in	  this	  project	  reinforce	  Shumaker’s	  (2012)	  work	  on	  embedded	  librarianship.	  	  As	  Shumaker	  notes,	  as	  the	  librarian’s	  engagement	  with	  the	  team	  progresses:	  	   …the	  embedded	  librarian	  develops	  highly	  customized,	  sophisticated,	  and	  value-­‐added	  contributions	  to	  the	  team—contributions	  that	  sometimes	  go	  far	  beyond	  the	  confines	  of	  traditional	  reference	  work	  and	  that	  some	  might	  be	  surprised	  to	  find	  a	  librarian	  delivering	  (2012,	  23).	  	  In	  any	  given	  day,	  the	  librarian	  project	  co-­‐lead	  for	  Digital	  Tattoo	  may	  be	  asked	  to	  give	  a	  radio	  interview	  about	  digital	  literacy,	  respond	  to	  a	  workshop	  participant	  who	  is	  worried	  about	  a	  ‘racy’	  video	  on	  YouTube	  or	  mentor	  a	  student	  staff	  member	  to	  compose	  blog	  posts	  on	  digital	  identity	  from	  a	  balanced	  perspective.	  	  Contrary	  to	  a	  more	  traditional	  model	  where	  a	  librarian	  may	  wait	  at	  the	  reference	  desk	  to	  be	  asked	  questions,	  the	  librarian	  for	  this	  project	  is	  an	  active	  member	  of	  a	  multi-­‐professional	  team,	  developing	  specialized	  skills	  and	  knowledge	  around	  digital	  identity.	  	  	  There	  is	  a	  wealth	  of	  examples	  in	  the	  literature	  that	  highlight	  librarians	  and	  information	  professionals	  working	  on	  multi-­‐professional	  teams,	  particularly	  with	  respect	  to	  medical	  librarianship	  (i.e.	  Tan	  and	  Maggio,	  2013;	  Lorenzetti	  and	  Rutherford,	  2012;	  Kenefick,	  2011;	  Schwing	  and	  Coldsmith,	  2005).	  There	  is	  also	  much	  written	  on	  the	  benefits	  of	  embedded	  librarianship,	  where	  librarians	  move	  outside	  the	  confines	  of	  the	  library	  to	  join	  a	  specialized	  research	  group	  or	  locate	  services	  within	  a	  particular	  faculty	  or	  department	  (i.e.	  Schulte,	  2012;	  Kvenild	  and	  Calkins,	  2011;	  Drewes	  and	  Hoffman,	  2010;	  Freiburger	  and	  Kramer,	  2009).	  	  In	  the	  case	  of	  the	  Digital	  Tattoo	  project,	  however,	  a	  librarian	  did	  not	  simply	  join	  an	  existing	  group,	  she	  initiated	  the	  project	  and	  brought	  a	  multi-­‐professional	  team	  together	  to	  support	  student	  needs	  around	  digital	  literacy.	  Such	  initiatives	  demonstrate	  a	  shift	  in	  librarianship	  from	  that	  of	  service	  to	  the	  institution,	  to	  a	  leadership	  role	  within	  the	  campus	  community	  in	  identifying	  student	  need	  and	  initiating	  solutions.	  	   While	  the	  benefits	  of	  a	  multi-­‐professional	  team	  environment	  are	  an	  unquestionable	  asset	  to	  the	  project,	  there	  are	  also	  challenges	  encountered	  that	  present	  opportunities	  for	  growth.	  With	  different	  professional	  perspectives,	  may	  come	  differences	  of	  opinion	  on	  how	  to	  proceed	  with	  the	  project.	  Co-­‐supervision	  of	  the	  student	  team	  may	  also	  present	  challenges	  if	  supervision	  styles	  differ	  between	  project	  co-­‐leads.	  	  For	  both	  issues,	  clearly	  communicating	  expectations,	  honouring	  the	  needs	  of	  the	  project	  and	  trusting	  in	  each	  other’s	  abilities	  is	  essential.	  In	  regards	  to	  co-­‐supervision,	  being	  open	  to	  differences	  of	  opinion	  and	  approaches	  between	  professional	  staff	  and	  working	  through	  them	  respectfully	  and	  visibly	  with	  students	  allows	  the	  project	  to	  proceed	  in	  a	  timely	  manner,	  while	  role-­‐modeling	  for	  the	  student	  team	  professional	  strategies	  for	  working	  through	  differences	  of	  opinion.	    Finally,	  while	  collaboration	  is	  a	  key	  to	  the	  success	  of	  the	  project,	  there	  is	  also	  a	  cost	  in	  terms	  of	  staff	  time	  that	  may	  be	  invisible	  from	  a	  budgetary	  perspective.	  Specifically,	  working	  through	  differences	  and	  moving	  forward	  collaboratively	  simply	  takes	  more	  time	  than	  moving	  forward	  on	  a	  project	  independently.	  And	  when	  strategic	  priorities	  may	  differ	  between	  departments	  of	  a	  multi-­‐professional	  team,	  a	  secondary	  layer	  of	  complexity	  is	  added.	  With	  this	  challenge,	  it	  is	  important	  to	  be	  transparent	  to	  senior	  management	  regarding	  the	  ‘cost’	  of	  collaboration	  in	  terms	  of	  time	  and	  accurately	  assigning	  the	  time	  commitment	  required	  on	  a	  project.	  Often,	  senior	  management	  may	  believe	  that	  dividing	  a	  project	  among	  departments	  cuts	  the	  work	  in	  half—in	  reality,	  however,	  the	  collaborative	  element	  takes	  time	  and	  needs	  to	  be	  budgeted	  for	  accordingly.	  	   3.3	  Sustainable	  practices	  are	  essential	    Aside	  from	  the	  student-­‐led	  approach	  and	  multi-­‐professional	  work	  environment,	  a	  unique	  benefit	  and	  challenge	  of	  the	  Digital	  Tattoo	  project	  relates	  to	  the	  content	  itself.	  The	  issue	  of	  digital	  identity	  stretches	  across	  multiple	  fields	  of	  expertise	  and	  evolves	  at	  rate	  that	  can	  make	  it	  difficult	  to	  stay	  well	  informed.	  Developing	  the	  expertise	  to	  create	  and	  deliver	  workshops	  on	  this	  content	  and	  mentor	  students	  on	  updating	  project	  resources,	  stretches	  the	  boundaries	  of	  traditional	  librarianship	  which	  may	  focus	  more	  on	  reference,	  collection	  development	  and	  subject	  liaison	  responsibilities.	  At	  the	  same	  time,	  it	  engages	  skills	  inherent	  in	  more	  traditional	  roles	  such	  as	  current	  awareness	  strategies,	  research	  expertise,	  copyright	  knowledge,	  information	  architecture,	  and	  teaching	  and	  workshop	  delivery.	  By	  applying	  these	  skills,	  knowledge	  around	  digital	  identity	  develops	  through	  ongoing	  engagement	  with	  the	  content.  A	  challenge	  with	  the	  project	  overall—one	  familiar	  in	  the	  library	  profession—is	  information	  management	  and	  organization	  of	  content.	  Whether	  it’s	  maintaining	  current	  web	  content,	  updating	  and	  organizing	  teaching	  resources	  or	  developing	  training	  materials	  for	  students,	  the	  rapid	  rate	  at	  which	  content	  evolves	  combined	  with	  the	  vast	  amount	  of	  content	  on	  the	  topic,	  is	  an	  ongoing	  challenge	  for	  the	  Digital	  Tattoo	  project	  team.	  A	  strategy	  to	  overcome	  this	  challenge	  includes	  clearly	  defining	  the	  project	  scope,	  constant	  assessment	  and	  weeding	  of	  web	  content	  and	  a	  sustainable	  content	  maintenance	  schedule	  that	  accounts	  for	  the	  inherent	  turnover	  in	  the	  student-­‐staff	  team.	    A	  final	  challenge	  with	  the	  project	  is	  simply	  maintaining	  balance	  when	  only	  a	  small	  portion	  of	  each	  professional	  team	  member’s	  time	  is	  assigned	  to	  the	  project.	  The	  size	  and	  scope	  of	  the	  project	  could	  easily	  demand	  full-­‐time	  commitment	  from	  two	  professional	  staff—however,	  as	  with	  many	  projects,	  there	  is	  not	  the	  luxury	  to	  devote	  such	  time.	  With	  approximately	  20%	  of	  each	  staff	  members’	  time	  available	  to	  devote	  to	  the	  Digital	  Tattoo	  project,	  a	  constant	  eye	  to	  sustainability	  is	  required.	  	  Examples	  of	  this	  were	  referred	  to	  earlier	  with	  strategies	  like	  a	  content	  management	  system	  that	  can	  easily	  be	  learned	  by	  new	  student	  staff;	  self-­‐directed	  learning	  resources	  for	  new	  student	  team	  members	  and	  a	  strategy	  of	  hiring	  student	  staff	  who	  can	  work	  well	  independently	  with	  little	  supervision. 4. Making	  a	  Difference	    Analysis	  of	  Digital	  Tattoo	  website	  analytics	  show	  that	  although	  the	  majority	  of	  our	  visitors	  are	  from	  North	  America,	  our	  site	  is	  accessed	  by	  people	  as	  far	  away	  as	  Australia,	  India	  and	  the	  Philippines.	  We	  have	  consistent	  traffic	  on	  the	  site	  of	  more	  than	  20,000	  visitors	  annually,	  more	  than	  4,000	  people	  accessing	  the	  teaching	  resources	  on	  our	  wiki	  and	  over	  12,000	  users	  accessing	  our	  various	  videos	  on	  YouTube.	  From	  such	  statistics,	  we	  know	  that	  people	  are	  using	  our	  resources,	  but	  are	  they	  having	  an	  impact?	  We	  recently	  explored	  this	  question	  in	  our	  work	  with	  UBC’s	  Teacher	  Education	  Program.	    Over	  the	  past	  three	  years,	  project	  leads	  have	  delivered	  workshops	  to	  all	  incoming	  Teacher	  Candidates,	  typically	  over	  500	  students	  each	  year.	  Recently,	  project	  co-­‐leads	  collaborated	  with	  a	  faculty	  member	  in	  Education	  to	  design	  and	  deliver	  an	  online	  survey	  to	  measure	  the	  practices	  of	  teacher	  candidates	  as	  it	  relates	  to	  their	  use	  of	  social	  media	  and	  the	  impact	  of	  the	  Digital	  Tattoo	  workshops	  on	  their	  attitudes.	  In	  September	  2012,	  a	  short	  pre-­‐survey	  was	  delivered	  to	  teacher	  candidates	  students	  prior	  to	  a	  Digital	  Tattoo	  workshop	  and	  a	  post-­‐survey	  was	  delivered	  directly	  after	  the	  workshop.	  The	  pre-­‐survey	  consisted	  of	  eleven	  closed-­‐ended	  questions	  (yes/no	  and	  multiple	  choice)	  and	  one	  open-­‐ended	  question.	  The	  post-­‐survey	  consisted	  of	  eight	  closed-­‐ended	  questions	  (multiple	  choice)	  and	  two	  open-­‐ended	  questions.	  A	  total	  of	  344	  students	  responded	  to	  the	  pre-­‐survey,	  276	  responded	  to	  the	  post-­‐survey,	  and	  a	  positive	  shift	  in	  student	  perceptions	  around	  social	  media	  was	  documented.	  For	  example,	  for	  the	  statement	  “Teachers	  have	  a	  role	  in	  teaching	  students	  about	  the	  use	  of	  social	  media,”	  87%	  of	  students	  agreed	  with	  the	  statement	  on	  the	  pre-­‐survey,	  compared	  with	  91%	  on	  the	  post	  survey,	  an	  increase	  of	  4%.	  Similarly,	  for	  the	  statement	  “Teachers	  have	  a	  role	  in	  shaping	  social	  media	  policy	  for	  the	  profession,”	  84%	  of	  students	  agreed	  with	  this	  statement	  on	  the	  pre-­‐survey,	  compared	  with	  90%	  on	  the	  post	  survey,	  an	  increase	  of	  6%.	  Finally,	  for	  the	  statement	  “It’s	  my	  responsibility	  as	  a	  teacher	  to	  decide	  how	  to	  use	  social	  media	  with	  my	  students,”	  76%	  of	  students	  agreed	  with	  this	  statement	  on	  the	  pre-­‐survey	  compared	  with	  82%	  on	  the	  post	  survey,	  another	  increase	  of	  6%.	  Overall,	  results	  point	  to	  the	  success	  of	  the	  workshops	  in	  shifting	  student	  perceptions	  around	  digital	  identity.	    Such	  assessment	  and	  reporting	  out	  around	  the	  impact	  of	  the	  Digital	  Tattoo	  project	  on	  student	  learning	  is	  particularly	  critical,	  as	  the	  budget	  for	  the	  project	  is	  uncertain	  moving	  forward.	  Being	  able	  to	  clearly	  articulate	  the	  value	  of	  this	  project	  for	  the	  Library,	  the	  University	  and	  the	  students	  it	  serves	  is	  more	  important	  than	  ever	  before.	  At	  the	  time	  the	  project	  was	  conceived,	  there	  was	  a	  dearth	  of	  practical	  resources	  around	  digital	  identity.	  Today,	  there	  are	  countless	  online	  resources	  available	  to	  a	  broad	  range	  of	  audiences:	  youth,	  teachers	  and	  parents.	  How	  can	  the	  Digital	  Tattoo	  project	  remain	  relevant	  and	  current	  given	  the	  changes	  in	  the	  digital	  landscape?	  What	  unique	  value	  does	  the	  site	  and	  workshops	  provide	  that	  other	  resources	  do	  not?	  In	  order	  to	  secure	  ongoing	  funding,	  project	  leads	  will	  need	  to	  answer	  these	  questions	  and	  continue	  to	  demonstrate	  the	  impact	  of	  our	  work	  on	  student’s	  attitudes	  around	  their	  digital	  identities.	    5. Looking	  Ahead	    A	  challenge	  for	  the	  Digital	  Tattoo	  project	  moving	  forward	  is	  the	  tension	  between	  our	  goals	  related	  to	  digital	  literacy	  and	  critical	  thinking	  and	  what	  students	  often	  say	  they	  want—sensational	  stories	  about	  digital	  reputation	  gone	  wrong	  and	  step-­‐by-­‐step	  instructions	  for	  avoiding	  damage	  to	  their	  own.	  For	  example,	  in	  the	  author’s	  survey	  of	  UBC	  teacher	  candidates,	  93%	  of	  those	  who	  participated	  in	  our	  workshop	  agreed	  that	  the	  content	  would	  improve	  their	  abilities	  to	  manage	  their	  online	  identities,	  yet	  many	  wanted	  step-­‐by-­‐step	  advice	  and	  “more	  scary	  stories”	  to	  illustrate	  the	  consequences	  of	  missteps	  and	  misunderstandings	  of	  the	  impact	  of	  networks.	  	  This	  finding	  is	  consistent	  with	  the	  literature	  on	  novice-­‐expert	  skill	  development	  (Bransford,	  2000;	  Dreyfus,	  2004).	  	  Novices	  typically	  rely	  on	  rules,	  guidelines	  and	  facts	  in	  attending	  to	  problems	  or	  new	  learning	  situations.	  	  Experts	  act	  almost	  intuitively,	  drawing	  on	  deep	  and	  connected	  knowledge	  structures	  and	  experiences.	  	  In	  terms	  of	  digital	  identity,	  perhaps	  we	  are	  all	  somewhere	  in	  between	  novice	  and	  expert	  due	  to	  the	  shifting	  landscape	  and	  complex	  technical,	  legal	  and	  privacy	  issues	  that	  arise.	  In	  this	  space	  between,	  we	  learn	  to	  recognize	  patterns	  and	  principles,	  associate	  new	  learning	  with	  what	  we	  already	  know	  and	  practice	  solving	  increasingly	  complex	  problems.	  With	  the	  Digital	  Tattoo	  Project,	  we	  help	  students	  build	  competency	  and	  expertise	  when	  we	  work	  to	  associate	  their	  own	  experiences	  and	  prior	  knowledge	  with	  new	  learning,	  correcting	  misconceptions	  along	  the	  way.	  Opportunities	  to	  dig	  deep	  into	  their	  own	  and	  others’	  stories	  (scary	  and	  hopeful),	  while	  uncovering	  the	  underlying	  principles	  at	  play,	  helps	  to	  lay	  the	  groundwork	  for	  developing	  competence	  and	  expertise.	  	  Tips	  and	  strategies	  are	  useful,	  but	  not	  sufficient	  if	  our	  goal	  is	  to	  encourage	  students	  to	  make	  thoughtful	  and	  informed	  decisions	  about	  their	  own	  digital	  identities.	  	  	  This	  speaks	  to	  the	  importance	  of	  the	  emotional	  hooks	  for	  students	  who	  are	  viewing	  our	  site,	  that	  is,	  that	  they	  want	  to	  recognize	  themselves	  in	  the	  content.	  How	  do	  we	  raise	  provocative	  questions	  that	  stimulate	  interest	  and	  encourage	  personal	  reflection?	  	  How	  might	  we	  effectively	  use	  the	  media	  generated	  	  “worst	  case	  scenarios”	  that	  some	  students	  find	  instructive	  as	  a	  springboard	  for	  critical	  analysis	  and	  discussion	  related	  to	  potential	  impact	  on	  digital	  identity?  Maintaining	  a	  balanced	  approach	  in	  writing	  about	  these	  issues	  is	  also	  an	  ongoing	  challenge	  for	  project	  students	  who	  work	  on	  the	  Digital	  Tattoo	  website.	  We	  need	  to	  continue	  to	  think	  carefully	  about	  how	  to	  best	  support	  our	  project	  students	  who	  are	  authoring	  this	  content	  since	  this	  kind	  of	  work	  requires	  a	  sophisticated	  understanding	  and	  synthesis	  of	  the	  goals	  we	  are	  trying	  to	  achieve.	  One	  strategy	  could	  be	  the	  use	  of	  a	  set	  of	  literacies	  to	  provide	  project	  students	  with	  a	  better	  framework	  for	  developing	  questions	  and	  content.	  As	  mentioned	  in	  the	  introduction,	  Howard	  Rheingold’s	  five	  literacies	  for	  thriving	  online	  (attention,	  crap	  detection,	  participation,	  collaboration	  and	  network	  smarts)	  are	  straightforward	  and	  the	  practical	  considerations	  he	  articulates	  for	  each	  literacy	  could	  provide	  a	  preliminary	  framework	  for	  our	  project	  students	  in	  the	  development	  of	  reflection	  questions	  related	  to	  our	  current	  content	  themes	  (Rheingold,	  2012,	  246).	    As	  we	  continually	  look	  at	  improving	  our	  content	  themes,	  an	  ongoing	  consideration	  is	  current	  perceptions	  of	  students	  around	  their	  digital	  identities.	  While	  today’s	  students	  clearly	  understand	  the	  impact	  of	  a	  misplaced	  photo,	  video	  or	  comment,	  they	  appear	  less	  savvy	  about	  how	  to	  create	  and	  manage	  an	  online	  identity	  to	  promote	  themselves	  via	  e-­‐portfolio,	  blog	  or	  professional	  networking	  site.	  In	  our	  survey	  of	  teacher	  candidates	  at	  UBC,	  for	  example,	  only	  33%	  used	  social	  media	  (LinkedIn	  or	  Facebook)	  for	  professional	  networking.	  The	  project	  team	  is	  also	  aware	  that	  students	  are	  looking	  for	  simple,	  immediate	  solutions	  to	  challenges	  faced	  by	  social	  media	  and	  may	  not	  want	  to	  take	  the	  time	  to	  build	  or	  reshape	  the	  digital	  identity	  they	  aspire	  to.	  It’s	  a	  challenge	  familiar	  to	  librarians	  who	  offer	  information	  literacy	  instruction	  where	  new	  students	  want	  research	  to	  be	  simple,	  easy	  and	  instantaneous—although	  we	  know	  that	  is	  not	  always	  the	  case,	  even	  with	  the	  best	  tools	  on	  hand.	  Similarly,	  the	  Digital	  Tattoo	  project	  teams	  find	  that	  students	  want	  to	  ‘push	  the	  easy	  button’	  when	  it	  comes	  to	  managing	  their	  digital	  identities.	  Students	  have	  reported	  to	  us	  that	  managing	  their	  online	  identities	  and	  contributing	  to	  others’	  identities	  (i.e.	  via	  online	  recommendations	  for	  friends	  and	  colleagues)	  is	  “too	  much	  work”	  so	  they	  opt	  out	  of	  various	  communities	  or	  fall	  back	  to	  communication	  technologies	  that	  they	  understand	  to	  be	  more	  private	  in	  nature	  (i.e.	  text	  messaging)	  and	  therefore	  less	  work	  to	  maintain.	  These	  attitudes	  may	  reflect	  a	  relationship	  with	  technology	  that	  is	  more	  about	  fear	  of	  public	  scrutiny	  than	  community	  building	  or	  contributions	  to	  a	  collective.	  They	  may	  also	  reflect	  a	  lack	  of	  commitment	  to	  digital	  identity	  as	  something	  important	  and	  worthy	  of	  time	  and	  energy.	  	    Students	  are	  just	  beginning	  to	  come	  to	  terms	  with	  the	  notion	  that	  it	  is	  important	  to	  cope	  with	  material	  on	  the	  internet	  that	  we	  may	  be	  embarrassed	  about.	  One	  way	  to	  achieve	  this	  is	  to	  create	  new	  content	  that	  reflects	  our	  current	  selves	  and	  write	  our	  own	  stories	  instead	  of	  falling	  victim	  to	  internet	  history.	  This	  approach	  takes	  time	  and	  thoughtful	  decision	  making,	  which	  runs	  counter	  to	  student	  expectations	  of	  immediacy—shaped	  by	  hours	  of	  participation	  on	  mobile	  communication	  platforms	  and	  social	  media.	  How	  do	  we	  inspire	  students	  to	  invest	  the	  time	  it	  takes	  to	  move	  beyond	  instant	  gratification	  to	  thoughtful	  participation?	  How	  can	  we	  leverage	  the	  Digital	  Tattoo	  project	  to	  build	  a	  stronger	  online	  community	  so	  that	  students	  can	  share	  stories	  and	  resources	  with	  each	  other?	  Answering	  these	  questions	  go	  beyond	  the	  Digital	  Tattoo	  project	  and	  relate	  to	  challenges	  in	  reimagining	  the	  learning	  environment	  at	  universities	  as	  a	  whole.	    6. Conclusion:	  Ongoing	  Engagement	    In	  his	  book	  Net	  Smart:	  How	  to	  Thrive	  Online,	  Rheingold	  makes	  the	  point	  that	  “digital	  literacies	  can	  make	  the	  difference	  between	  being	  empowered	  or	  manipulated,	  serene	  or	  frenetic”	  (2012,	  3).	  	  Involvement	  in	  today’s	  participatory	  culture	  requires	  a	  set	  of	  core	  skills	  and	  cultural	  competencies	  that	  range	  from	  experimentation,	  navigation	  across	  contexts	  and	  sound	  judgment	  to	  a	  sophisticated	  understanding	  of	  networks	  and	  how	  to	  negotiate	  across	  diverse	  communities,	  respecting	  multiple	  perspectives	  and	  synthesizing	  and	  making	  sense	  of	  complex	  interactions	  (Jenkins,	  2009).	  This	  kind	  of	  learning	  is	  best	  supported	  when	  integrated	  thoughtfully	  into	  the	  fabric	  of	  a	  student’s	  life:	  at	  home	  with	  family,	  in	  formal	  courses,	  experimenting	  and	  socializing	  with	  friends	  and	  in	  pursuing	  professional	  and	  amateur	  interests.	  If	  we	  accept	  Jenkins’	  suggestion	  that	  literacy	  in	  the	  21st	  century	  should	  be	  seen	  as	  social	  skills	  and	  competencies	  preparing	  us	  for	  contribution	  in	  diverse	  public	  spaces	  rather	  than	  simply	  personal	  expression	  or	  promotion	  of	  ourselves	  as	  “brands”,	  then	  we	  need	  to	  examine	  what	  this	  means	  in	  the	  context	  of	  our	  classrooms,	  curriculum	  and	  learning	  activities	  and	  ensure	  that	  we	  articulate	  this	  in	  a	  way	  that	  shows	  students	  that	  it	  matters.	  In	  a	  time	  when	  academic	  libraries	  are	  reinventing	  themselves,	  librarians	  in	  particular	  need	  to	  look	  at	  how	  they	  can	  play	  a	  role	  in	  helping	  students	  develop	  these	  digital	  literacy	  skills.	  As	  indicated	  in	  the	  2012	  Horizon	  Report	  “[d]espite	  the	  widespread	  agreement	  on	  the	  importance	  of	  digital	  media	  literacy,	  training	  in	  the	  supporting	  skills	  and	  techniques	  is	  rare	  in	  teacher	  education	  and	  non-­‐existent	  in	  the	  preparation	  of	  most	  university	  faculty”	  (Johnson,	  Adams	  and	  Cummins,	  2012,	  6).	  At	  the	  University	  of	  British	  Columbia,	  students,	  librarians	  and	  professional	  staff	  are	  taking	  the	  lead	  on	  this	  front	  through	  the	  Digital	  Tattoo	  project,	  working	  collaboratively	  to	  help	  students	  develop	  the	  skills	  they	  require	  to	  face	  today’s	  rich	  and	  complex	  digital	  environment.	       	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  References  Baym,	  N.	  K.	  and	  boyd,	  d.	  (2012)	  Socially	  Mediated	  Publicness:	  an	  introduction.	  Journal	  of	  	  Broadcasting	  &	  Electronic	  Media,	  56	  (3),	  320-­‐329.	  	  Bransford,	  J.	  (2000).	  How	  People	  Learn:	  brain,	  mind,	  experience,	  and	  school.	  Washington,	  D.C:	  	  National	  Academy	  Press.	  	  Drewes,	  K.	  and	  Hoffman,	  N.	  (2010).	  Academic	  embedded	  librarianship:	  an	  introduction.	  	  Public	  Services	  Quarterly,	  6(2),	  75-­‐82.	  	  Dreyfus,	  S.	  E.	  (2004).	  The	  Five-­‐Stage	  Model	  of	  Adult	  Skill	  Acquisition.	  Bulletin	  of	  Science,	  	  Technology	  &	  Society,	  24(3),	  177-­‐181	  	  Freiburger,	  G.	  and	  Kramer,	  S.	  (2009).	  Embedded	  Librarians:	  one	  library's	  model	  for	  	  decentralized	  service.	  Journal	  of	  the	  Medical	  Library	  Association:	  JMLA,	  97(2),	  139-­‐142.	  	  Hargittai,	  E.	  (2008)	  The	  Role	  of	  Expertise	  in	  Navigating	  Links	  of	  Influence.	  In	  Turow,	  J.	  and	  	  Tsui,	  L.	  (eds),	  The	  Hyperlinked	  Society,	  University	  of	  Michigan	  Press.	  	  	  Jenkins,	  H.	  (2009)	  Confronting	  the	  Challenges	  of	  Participatory	  Culture:	  media	  education	  for	  	  the	  21st	  century,	  MIT	  Press.	  	  	   	   	  	   	   	  	   	  	   	  	   	   	  Johnson,	  L.,	  Adams,	  S.	  and	  Cummins,	  M.	  (2012)	  The	  NMC	  Horizon	  Report:	  2012	  higher	  	  education	  edition,	  The	  New	  Media	  Consortium.	  	  Kenefick,	  C.	  (2011).	  The	  Case	  for	  Embedded	  Hospital	  Librarianship.	  Journal	  of	  Hospital	  	  Librarianship,	  11(2),	  195-­‐199.	  	  Kvenild,	  C.	  and	  Calkins,	  K.	  (2011).	  Embedded	  Librarians:	  moving	  beyond	  one-­‐shot	  instruction.	  	  Chicago:	  Association	  of	  College	  and	  Research	  Libraries.	  	  	  Lorenzetti,	  D.	  L.	  and	  Rutherford,	  G.	  (2012).	  Information	  Professionals'	  Participation	  in	  	  Interdisciplinary	  Research:	  a	  preliminary	  study	  of	  factors	  affecting	  successful	  collaborations.	  Health	  Information	  &	  Libraries	  Journal,	  29(4),	  274-­‐284.	  	   	  	  Rheingold,	  H.	  (2012)	  Net	  Smart:	  how	  to	  thrive	  online,	  MIT	  Press.	  	  Schulte,	  S.	  J.	  (2012).	  Embedded	  academic	  librarianship:	  A	  review	  of	  the	  literature.	  Evidence	  	  Based	  Library	  and	  Information	  Practice,	  7(4),	  122-­‐138.	  	  Schwing,	  L.	  J.	  and	  Coldsmith,	  E.	  E.	  (2005).	  Librarians	  as	  hidden	  gems	  in	  a	  clinical	  team.	  	  Medical	  Reference	  Services	  Quarterly,	  24(1),	  29-­‐39.	  	  Shumaker,	  D.	  (2012).	  The	  Embedded	  Librarian:	  innovative	  strategies	  for	  	  taking	  knowledge	  where	  it's	  needed.	  Medford,	  New	  Jersey:	  Information	  Today,	  Inc.	  	  Tan,	  M.	  C.	  and	  Maggio,	  L.	  A.	  (2013).	  Expert	  Searcher,	  Teacher,	  Content	  Manager,	  and	  Patient	  	  Advocate:	  an	  exploratory	  study	  of	  clinical	  librarian	  roles.	  Journal	  of	  the	  Medical	  Library	  Association:	  JMLA,	  101(1),	  63.	  	     

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