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Don't class me in antiquities! : giving voice to Native American materials Webster, Kelly; Doyle, Ann M. 2008

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III. INNOVATIVE PRACTICES Don't Class Me in Antiquities! Giving Voice to Native American Materials Kelly Webster and Ann Doyle Introduction Kelly Webster, Monographs Cataloger at the 0 'Neill Library at Boston College, and Ann Doyle, Branch Librarian for Xwi7~wa Library at the University of British Columbia's First Nations House of Learning, share a conversation about some of the issues related to the cata-loging and classification of American Indian materials, and give an overview of some alter-native practices. KW: Have you ever noticed how American Indians are treated in Library of Con-gress cataloging? In both obvious and subtle ways, American Indians are treated as a rem-nant of the past. Although there have been some positive changes recently, such as the efforts being made to work with tribes to establish the preferred form of tribal names, there is still bias and problematic treatment of Native topics in the Library of Congress classification schedules and subject headings. The E schedules in LC classification are a dumping ground for all things Indian. Medicine, education, psychology? You won't find material on those topics in the R, L or BF schedules if it involves Native Americans, because historic practice segregated us into a historic people. We are still here, though, and people working in library services to Native peoples are finding established practice a barrier to information access and promoting use of the library. AD: We face similar issues here in Canada. Cataloging practices not only fail to pro-vide access for Aboriginal students and others using the academic libraries, they obscure an increasingly rich interdisciplinary literature and constitute a significant barrier to use of the public libraries. Years ago, as a library school student in 1980, I did a collection analysis of three special collections of Aboriginal materials. It turned out that although the local public library was comparatively well-stocked, the Aboriginal staff at the neigh-borhood Native Resource Center still felt that it was a poor collection. At the time, the bricks and mortar of this barrier to the public library collection were not clear to me. In retrospect, I see that the lack of appropriate description and classification were significant blocks to access for Aboriginal people. The student paper concluded with the Guidelines 189 1 9 0  III. I N N O VA T IV E P R A C T I CE S f o r  the E v a l u a t i o n  a n d  Selection o f  I n d i a n  M a t e r i a l s  f o r  A d u l t s  f r o m  t h e  A L A  A d u l t  S e r ­v i c e s  D i v i s i o n  S u b c o m m i t t e e  o n  I n d i a n  M a t e r i a l s . 1 T h o s e  c r i t e r i a  w r i t t e n  i n  19 7 1 s t i l l  h o l d  t r u e  t o d a y !  T h e  g u i d e l i n e s  i n c l u d e d  q u e s t i o n s  s u c h  as, "Are t h e  c o n t r i b u t i o n s  o f  A m e r i c a n  I n d i a n  c u l t u r e  t o  W e s t e r n  c i v i l i z a t i o n  g i v e n  r i g h t f u l  a n d  a c c u r a t e  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ?  Is A m e r i c a n  I n d i a n  c u l t u r e  e v a l u a t e d  i n  t e r m s  o f  i t s  o w n  v a l u e s  a n d  a t t i t u d e s  r a t h e r  t h a n  i n  t e r m s  o f  t h o s e  o f  a n o t h e r  c u l t u r e ? " A n o t h e r  c o n s i d e r a t i o n  m e n t i o n e d  was t h e  e f f e c t  o f  t h e  m a t e ­r i a l  o n  a N a t i v e  p e r s o n ' s  s e l f - i m a g e .  A l o n g  w i t h  s e l e c t i o n  g u i d e l i n e s  w e  c a n  u s e  a c a t a ­l o g i n g  p e r s p e c t i v e  t o  a s k  o u r s e l v e s ,  " H o w  d o e s  t h e  l a n g u a g e  o f  c a t a l o g i n g  c o n t r i b u t e  ( o r  n o t )  t o  t h e  m e e t i n g  t h e s e  e v a l u a t i o n  r e q u i r e m e n t s ? "  K W :  I n  l i b r a r y  s c h o o l  we d i d n ' t t o u c h  o n  a n y  i s s u e s  r e l a t e d  t o  t h i s ,  b u t  r i g h t  b e f o r e  I g r a d u a t e d ,  I c a m e  u p o n  t h e  w o r k  o f  S a n d y  B e r m a n  a n d  g o t  m y  eyes o p e n e d .  H i s  w r i t ­i n g  a b o u t  r a c i s m  a n d  e t h n o c e n t r i s m  i n  L i b r a r y  o f  C o n g r e s s  s u b j e c t  h e a d i n g s  g o t  m e  t h i n k i n g  a b o u t  h o w  N a t i v e  t o p i c s  a r e  r e f l e c t e d  i n  L C S H .  T h e n  I s t a r t e d  m y  f i r s t  p r o f e s ­s i o n a l  j o b  a n d  c a t a l o g e d  m y  first b o o k  a b o u t  A m e r i c a n  I n d i a n s . I t u r n e d  t o  t h e  E s c h e d ­u l e  a n d  saw, " P r e - C o l u m b i a n  A m e r i c a . T h e  I n d i a n s . " I t h o u g h t  a t  first t h a t  w a s  w h e r e  all b o o k s  o n  I n d i a n s  w e n t :  i n  t h e  h i s t o r i c a l  s e c t i o n .  I r e m e m b e r  m y  c h e e k s  a c t u a l l y  b u r n e d  as I t h o u g h t  a b o u t  h a v i n g  t o  f o l l o w  t h a t  p r a c t i c e .  I w a s  u s e d  t o  t h a t  k i n d  o f  i g n o r a n c e  o u t  i n  t h e  w o r l d ,  b u t  t h e  t h o u g Q t  o f  h a v i n g  t o  p e r p e t u a t e  i t  i n  m y  j o b  as a c a t a l o g e r  f e l t  t e r r i b l e .  E v e n t u a l l y  I f o u n d  t h a t  m y  b o o k  w o u l d  g o  i n  t h e  n e x t  s e c t i o n  o f  t h e  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  t a b l e , I n d i a n s  o f  N o r t h  A m e r i c a , b u t  t h a t  d r e w  m y  a t t e n t i o n  t o  t h e  s u b t l e  i m p l i c a t i o n s ) n L C  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  a n d  i t s  t r e a t m e n t  o f  I n d i a n s .  W h a t  is s i g n i f i e d  b y  t h e  p l a c e m e n t  o f  V I n d i a n s  o f  N o r t h  A m e r i c a  a f t e r  P r e - C o l u m b i a n  A m e r i c a n  a n d  b e f o r e  D i s c o v e r Y-_ o f  A m e r ­ica? T h e  u s e  o f  t h a t  p r o b l e m a t i c  l a s t  p h r a s e  i m p l i e s  t h e  I n d i a n s  w e r e  e i t h e r  g o n e  b y  t h e  s t a r t  o f  A m e r i c a n  h i s t o r y ,  o r  j u s t  d i d n ' t m a t t e r  e n o u g h  t o  b e  c o u n t e d  as p a r t  o f  i t . S h o r t l y  a f t e r w a r d , I a t t e n d e d  m y  first A m e r i c a n  I n d i a n  L i b r a r y  A s s o c i a t i o n  m e e t i n g .  O n e  o f  t h e  a g e n d a  t o p i c s  w a s  a d i s c u s s i o n  o f  a m e m o  S a n d y  B e r m a n  h a d  s e n t  t o  A I L A , r e g a r d i n g  s e v e r a l  p o s s i b l e  c h a n g e s  t o  L C S H . 2 T h e  s u g g e s t i o n s  i n c l u d e d  c h a n g e s  t o  t h e  u m b r e l l a  h e a d i n g  I n d i a n s  o f  N o r t h  A m e r i c a , c o r r e c t i n g  s p e c i f i c  t r i b a l  n a m e s ,  a n d  t h e  p r o p o s a l  o f  a s u b j e c t  h e a d i n g  t h e n  u s e d  a t  H e n n e p i n  C o u n t y  L i b r a r y :  NA T I VE AM E RI C A N  H O L O C A U S T ( 1 4 9 2 - 1 9 0 0 ) . , T h e  i d e a s  w e r e  w e l l  r e c e i v e d ,  b u t  u n f o r t u n a t e l y  n e v e r  a c t e d  o n  u n t i l  n o w .  S i n c e  t h e n , I ' v e  t r i e d  t o  l e a r n  all I c a n  a b o u t  t h e  i s s u e s  a n d  w h a t  c a n  b e  d o n e  t o  r e m e d y  s o m e  o f  t h e  p r o b l e m s . S o m e  E x a m p l e s  o f  H o w  S t a n d a r d  P r a c t i c e  I s  P r o b l e m a t i c  A D :  T h e r e  is a g r o w i n g  i n t e r n a t i o n a l  b o d y  o f  w o r k  b y  LIS s c h o l a r s  a n d  p r a c t i t i o n ­ers t h a t  t a l k s  a b o u t  t h a t  f e e l i n g  y o u  h a d  o f  y o u r  c h e e k s  b u r n i n g .  L i b r a r y a n d  A r c h i v e s  C a n a d a  c o m p l e t e d  a n  A b o r i g i n a l  c o m m u n i t y  c o n s u l t a t i o n  p r o c e s s  i n  2 0 0 3 .  I t s  r e p o r t  r e c ­o m m e n d e d  t h a t  d e f i c i e n c i e s  i n  s u b j e c t  h e a d i n g s  a n d  c a t a l o g i n g  p r a c t i c e s  b e  g i v e n p r i o r ­i t y c i t i n g  t h e  f o l l o w i n g  r a t i o n a l e :  " T h e r e  is a n e e d  t o  r e - t e a c h  t h e  ' e x p e r t s , '  s u c h  as c a t a l o g u e r s , a b o u t  t h e  t e r m s  u s e d  t o  d e s c r i b e  A b o r i g i n a l  p e o p l e s . I s s u e s  o f  r a c i s m  a n d  i g n o r a n c e  a r e  r a i s e d  b y  p r e s e n t  c a t a l o g u i n g  s t a n d a r d s  a n d  t e r m i n o l o g y . " 3 D o n ' t  Class M e  i n  A n t i q u i t i e s !  ( W e b s t e r  a n d  D o y l e ) 191 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  s y s t e m s  c a r r y  s y s t e m i c  b i a s e s ;  t h e y  r e f l e c t  t h e  v a l u e s  a n d  p e r s p e c t i v e s  o f  t h e i r  m a k e r s .  I n  t h e  case o f  N a t i v e  A m e r i c a n / A b o r i g i n a l  t o p i c s ,  t h e  LIS l i t e r a t u r e  c i t e s  t h e  f o l l o w i n g  i s s u e s  as p r o b l e m a t i c  i n  m a i n s t r e a m  l i b r a r y  c a t a l o g i n g  p r a c t i c e s :  m a r g i n a l ­i z a t i o n ;  h i s t o r i c i z a t i o n ;  o m i s s i o n ;  l a c k  o f  s p e c i f i c i t y ;  f a i l u r e  t o  o r g a n i z e  m a t e r i a l s  i n  e f f e c t i v e  w a y s ;  l a c k  o f  r e l e v a n c e ;  a n d  l a c k  o f  r e c o g n i t i o n  o f  t h e  s o v e r e i g n t y  o f  A m e r i c a n  I n d i a n  n a t i o n s .  I n a c c u r a t e  a n d  i n a p p r o p r i a t e  s u b j e c t  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  a l s o  a f f e c t s  r e f e r e n c e  s e r v i c e s  b e c a u s e  i t  l i m i t s  b o t h  t h e  e f f i c i e n c y  a n d  a c c u r a c y  o f  i n f o r m a t i o n  r e t r i e v a l ,  a n d  t h e r e b y  e r o d e s  t h e  q u a l i t y  o f  s e r v i c e s  t o  p a t r o n s . 4 T h e  t r e a t m e n t  o f  A b o r i g i n a l  p e o p l e  i n  L C  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  is a g r e a t  b a r r i e r  t o  e f f e c t i v e  access. H o p e  O l s o n ' s  The Power to N a m e  c i t e s  G i l l i a n  R o s e ' s  s p a t i a l  m e t a p h o r s  o f  t h e  g h e t t o  a n d  t h e  d i a s p o r a  t o  d e s c r i b e  a f u n d a m e n t a l  d y n a m i c  o f  m a r g i n a l i z e d  g r o u p s  a n d  t o p i c s .  T h e  g h e t t o  i s o l a t e s  b y  c o n c e n t r a t i n g  i n  a s i n g l e  a r e a  a n d  t h e  d i a s p o r a  s c a t t e r s  w i t h i n  a h o m o g e n e o u s  m a s s  so t h e r e  is n o  i d e n t i f i a b l e  e x i s t e n c e .  L i b r a r y  c a t a l o g s  r e p l i ­c a t e  t h i s  d y n a m i c  b y  g h e t t o i z i n g  I n d i g e n o u s  p e o p l e s  i n  N o r t h  A m e r i c a  i n  a s i n g l e  a r e a  o f  t h e  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  s c h e d u l e ,  r e g a r d l e s s  o f  d i s c i p l i n e . S u b j e c t  h e a d i n g s  t h a t  a r e  e i t h e r  t o o  g e n e r a l  o r  n o n e x i s t e n t  d i a s p o r i z e  I n d i g e n o u s  t o p i c s  t h r o u g h o u t  a W e s t e r n  k n o w l e d g e  t a x ­o n o m y .  O v e r  t h i r t y - f i v e  y e a r s  a g o ,  T h o m a s  Y e n - R a n  Yeh's c a r e f u l  a n a l y s i s  o f  t h e  L C  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  i d e n t i f i e d  m a n y  o f  t h e s e  p r o b l e m s .  F o r  e x a m p l e ,  h e  c i t e s  t h e  s e g r e g a t i o n  o f  t h e  A m e r i c a n  I n d i a n  f r o m  t h e  class f o r  t h e  H i s t o r y  o f  A m e r i c a ,  a n d  t h e  c o m p l e t e  e x c l u ­s i o n  o f  t h e  A m e r i c a n  I n d i a n  f r o m  t h e  l o c a l  h i s t o r y  s c h e d u l e  [ F l - 9 7 5 ] .  H e  n o t e s  t h a t  t h e  l a s t  d a t e  i n  t h e  s c h e d u l e  f o r  A m e r i c a n  I n d i a n  h i s t o r y  is £ 8 3 . 8 9 5 ,  " C h i p p e w a  W a r ,  1 8 9 8 , "  w h i c h  s u g g e s t s  t h a t  A m e r i c a n  I n d i a n s  d o  n o t  live i n  t h e  t w e n t i e t h  c e n t u r y ,  b u t  as K e l l y  says, i n  A n t i q u i t i e s . Yeh's s u g g e s t e d  c o r r e c t i o n s  e l i c i t e d  a d i s m i s s i v e  r e s p o n s e  f r o m  t h e  L i b r a r y  o f  C o n g r e s s :  " I t  is q u i t e  c l e a r  f r o m  t h e  t a b l e s  t h e m s e l v e s  t h a t  t h e  i n t e n t i o n  o f  t h e  c r e a t o r s  o f  t h e  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  was t o  t r e a t  t h e  m o d e r n  I n d i a n s  as r e m n a n t s  o f  a v a s t  g r o u p  o f  p e o p l e s  w h o  o n c e  p o p u l a t e d  t h e  e n t i r e  N e w  W o r l d  l o n g  b e f o r e  t h e  a r r i v a l  o f  t h e  E u r o ­p e a n s . T h i s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n  o f  t h e  I n d i a n s  is s t i l l  v a l i d  t o d a y ,  i t  s e e m s  t o  us. " 5 T h i s  e x a m p l e  o f  t h o s e  i n  p o w e r  d e f i n i n g  h o w  k n o w l e d g e  o f  d i f f e r e n t  g r o u p s  is m a d e  a c c e s s i ­b l e  m i g h t  b e  d i s m i s s e d  as a p r o d u c t  o f  t h a t  t i m e ,  b u t  t h e  p r o b l e m a t i c  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  Yeh h i g h l i g h t e d  h a s  y e t  t o  b e  c h a n g e d . K W :  T h e  p r a c t i c e  o f  c l a s s i f y i n g  all t h i n g s  N a t i v e  A m e r i c a n  i n  t h e  E s c h e d u l e  is p r o b l e m a t i c  n o  m a t t e r  w h a t  k i n d  o f  c o l l e c t i n g  is b e i n g  o r g a n i z e d ,  f o r  t h e  r e a s o n s  A n n  d e s c r i b e s .  I t s  l i m i t a t i o n s  a r e  e s p e c i a l l y  o b v i o u s  w h e n  w o r k i n g  w i t h  a c o l l e c t i o n  t h a t  is h e a v y  o n  m a t e r i a l s  a b o u t  N a t i v e  A m e r i c a n s ,  w h e t h e r  i t  is a t r i b a l  l i b r a r y  o r  a s p e c i a l  c o l ­l e c t i o n  i n  a n o t h e r  t y p e  o f  l i b r a r y .  O n c e  I d i d  s o m e  c a t a l o g i n g  a t  L i t t l e  B i g  H o r n  C o l l e g e  o n  t h e  C r o w  r e s e r v a t i o n ,  a n d  o f  c o u r s e  t h e r e  w a s  a l o t  o f  m a t e r i a l  s h e l v e d  a t  E 9 9 . C 9 2 .  I f  t h e  b o o k  w e r e  a b o u t  C r o w  m e d i c i n e ,  y o u ' d f i n d  i t  t h e r e  s q u e e z e d  i n  w i t h  C r o w  h i s ­t o r y  a n d  C r o w  a r t  a n d  C r o w  p h i l o s o p h y ,  i n s t e a d  o f  i n  t h e  R s c h e d u l e .  T h o s e  s h e l v e s  w e r e  so c r o w d e d  t h a t  i t  w a s  d i f f i c u l t  t o  l o c a t e  a n y t h i n g .  A f t e r  I ' d  c o m p l e t e d  m y  w o r k  t h e r e , I f o u n d  t h a t  s o m e o n e  h a d  d r a w n  u p  a n  a l t e r n a t e  s c h e m e  s p e c i f i c a l l y  f o r  t h a t  l i b r a r y  t h a t  w o u l d  a l l o w  f o r  t h e  d i s p e r s a l  o f  C r o w  m a t e r i a l s  t h r o u g h o u t  t h e  r a n g e  o f  L C  class n u m ­b e r s ;  f o r  e x a m p l e ,  C r o w  e d u c a t i o n  w o u l d  b e  c l a s s e d  w i t h  o t h e r  w o r k s  a b o u t  e d u c a t i o n  a n d  C r o w  a r t  w i t h  w o r k s  a b o u t  a r t , a n d  so f o r t h .  I w i s h  I h a d  s e e n  t h a t  w h e n  I s t a r t e d , 192 I l l .  INNOVATIV E PRACTI CES b u t  i t  d i d  m a k e  i t  c l e a r  t o  m e  t h a t  l i b r a r i e s  n e e d  m o r e  t h a n  j u s t  a n  a l t e r n a t e  s c h e m e  t o  i m p r o v e  a c c e s s  t h r o u g h  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n - t h e y  a l s o  n e e d  s t a f f  t r a i n e d  t o  u s e  i t  a n d  k e e p  i t  V u p d a t e d ,  a n d  t h e  s t a f f  t i m e  t o  a d a p t  a l m o s t  a l l  t h e  r e c o r d s  r e c e i v e d  t h r o u g h  c o p y  c a t a ­l o g i n g .  B o t h  o f  t h i n g s  a r e  l u x u r i e s  t h a t  e v e n  l a r g e  l i b r a r i e s  d o n ' t  o f t e n  h a v e .  A D :  T h e  f a i l u r e  o f  m a i n s t r e a m  s u b j e c t  h e a d i n g s  t o  d e s c r i b e  e v e n  s u c h  b a s i c s  as A b o ­r i g i n a l  N a t i o n s  c o m e s  u p  r e g u l a r l y  a t  t h e  X w i 7 x w a  L i b r a r y .  T h e  u n i v e r s i t y  w h e r e  I w o r k  is l o c a t e d  o n  t h e  t r a d i t i o n a l ,  u n c e d e d  l a n d s  o f  t h e  M u s q u e a m  N a t i o n .  M u s q u e a m  e l d e r s  a r e  a n  i n t e g r a l  p a r t  o f  t h e  u n i v e r s i t y ;  t h e y  p r o v i d e  s u p p o r t  f o r  s t u d e n t  a n d  s t a f f  s e r v i c e s ,  c o n s u l t  o n  p r o t o c o l ,  s e r v e  as l a n g u a g e  i n s t r u c t o r s ,  a n d  f r e q u e n t l y  o p e n  c a m p u s  e v e n t s  a n d  c e r e m o n i e s .  M u s q u e a m  l e a d e r s  s e r v e  o n  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  b o d i e s ,  s u c h  as t h e  u n i v e r ­s i t y  s e n a t e .  W h e n  t h e  M u s q u e a m  p e o p l e  c o m e  to t h e  l i b r a r y  a n d  a s k ,  " W h e r e  a r e  t h e  l i b r a r y  m a t e r i a l s  o n  M u s q u e a m ?  W h e r e  a r e  a l l  t h e  m a t e r i a l s  w r i t t e n  b y  t h e  a n t h r o p o l o ­g i s t s ,  a n d  t h e  l i n g u i s t s ,  a n d  t h e  h i s t o r i a n s  o n  o u r  p e o p l e ? "  I h a v e  t o  r e p l y ,  " T h e r e  is n o  w o r d  f o r  M u s q u e a m  i n  t h e  l i b r a r y  w o r l d ,  t h e r e  is n o  s e c t i o n  o n  t h e  u n i v e r s i t y  l i b r a r y  s h e l v e s  f o r  M u s q u e a m . "  M u s q u e a m  is s u b s u m e d  a n d  e r a s e d  u n d e r  C O A S T  SALISH I N D I ­A N S ,  a g e n e r i c  h e a d i n g  t h a t  a l s o  s w a l l o w s  o t h e r  F i r s t  N a t i o n s  i n  t h e  a r e a .  T h e s e  e x a m p l e s  a r e  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  o f  t h e  m a i n s t r e a m  c a t a l o g i n g  t r e a t m e n t  o f  F i r s t  N a t i o n s  p e o p l e  a n d  t o p ­i c s  i n  t h e  l o w e r  m a i n l a n d  o f  B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a  w h e r e  I l i v e ,  a n d  f o r  m a n y  o t h e r  p a r t s  o f  t h e  c o u n t r y .  T h e  X w i 7 x w a  L i b r a r y  c a t a l o g i n g  p r a c t i c e ,  h o w e v e r ,  is a n  e x c e p t i o n  i n  t h a t  i t  a i m s  t o  a c c u r a t e l y  r e p r e s e n t  n a m e s  o f  F i r s t  N a t i o n s ,  A b o r i g i n a l  p e o p l e ,  p l a c e s ,  a n d  c o n ­c e p t s .  A t  X w i 7 x w a ,  M u s q u e a m  is n a m e d  a n d  d o e s  h a v e  a p l a c e  o n  t h e  s h e l v e s .  T h e  l i b r a r y  u s e s  t h e  s t a n d a r d  M A R C  r e c o r d  f i e l d s  t o  c a r r y  v a r i a n t  p e r s o n a l  n a m e s :  f o r  e x a m p l e ,  u s i n g  b o t h  D e g o n w a d o n t i  a n d  B e t h  B r a n t  f o r  t h e  T y e n d i n a g a  M o h a w k  w r i t e r .  T h e  U n i v e r s i t y  o f  B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a  h a s  p r o v i d e d  c o r e  f u n d i n g  f o r  t h e  l i b r a r y ' s c o n t i n u e d  w o r k  i n  t h i s  a r e a ,  a n d  s u p p o r t s  a n  A b o r i g i n a l  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  s c h e m e .  T h e r e  is a b u r g e o n i n g  i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y  l i t e r a t u r e  p r o d u c e d  b y  F i r s t  N a t i o n s / A b o ­r i g i n a l  s c h o l a r s  w h o  a r e  d e s i g n i n g  a n d  c o n d u c t i n g  r e s e a r c h ,  as w e l l  as p u b l i s h i n g .  A t  t h e  s a m e  t i m e ,  g o v e r n m e n t s  a t  all l e v e l s  a r e  f u n d i n g  r e s e a r c h  t h a t  s e e k s  t o  a d d r e s s  s o c i o ­e c o n o m i c  c o n d i t i o n s  o f  A b o r i g i n a l  p e o p l e ,  w h i c h  p r o d u c e s  a n o t h e r  b o d y  o f  i n t e r d i s c i ­p l i n a r y  l i t e r a t u r e  r a n g i n g  f r o m  h e a l t h  t o  e d u c a t i o n  t o  r e s o u r c e  d e v e l o p m e n t  a n d  c o m m e r c e .  T h e  o n g o i n g  t r e a t y  n e g o t i a t i o n s  a n d  c l a i m s  p r o c e s s e s  a l s o  p r o d u c e  a b o d y  o f  a s s o c i a t e d  l i t e r a t u r e s .  O f  c o u r s e ,  m a n y  s e c t o r s  a r e  a l s o  i n t e r e s t e d  i n  h o w  A b o r i g i n a l  k n o w  l ­e d g e s  o f  l o c a l  e n v i r o n m e n t s  a n d  A b o r i g i n a l  v i e w s  o f  t h e  w o r l d  c a n  e n r i c h  t h e i r  e n d e a v ­o r s .  T h e r e  is a k n o w l e d g e  s e c t o r  d e d i c a t e d  t o  m i n i n g  A b o r i g i n a l  k n o w l e d g e s ,  s u c h  as t r a d i t i o n a l  u s e  a n d  e n v i r o n m e n t a l  k n o w l e d g e .  F r o m  A b o r i g i n a l  p e r s p e c t i v e s ,  t h e r e  is a s t r o n g  r e p a t r i a t i o n  i m p e t u s  t h a t  s e e k s  to r e c l a i m  A b o r i g i n a l  p r o p e r t y  i n  a l l  f o r m s ,  i n c l u d ­i n g  i n t e l l e c t u a l  p r o p e r t y  a n d  c u l t u r a l  p r o p e r t y ,  a n d  t o  a c c e s s  k n o w l e d g e  p r o d u c e d  b y  A b o r i g i n a l  p e o p l e  a n d  r e l e v a n t  t o  A b o r i g i n a l  i n t e r e s t s  t h a t  is h e l d  i n  p u b l i c  i n s t i t u t i o n s  a n d  r e p o s i t o r i e s .  T h e r e  is a p r e s s i n g  n e e d  f o r  d e s i g n  a n d  d e v e l o p m e n t  o f  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  t o o l s ,  i n c l u d i n g  a c c u r a t e ,  r e l e v a n t  s u b j e c t  d e s c r i p t i o n ,  t h a t  g i v e  v o i c e  t o  t h i s  r a p i d l y  e x p a n d i n g  u n i v e r s e  o f  A b o r i g i n a l  m a t e r i a l s .  K W :  A n o t h e r  e x a m p l e  o f  h o w  i n a p p r o p r i a t e  t e r m i n o l o g y  a f f e c t s  a c c e s s  t h a t  c o m e s  i m m e d i a t e l y  t o  m i n d  is t h e  L C  s u b j e c t  h e a d i n g  I N D I A N S  O F  N O R T H  AMERI C A - R E L O C A ­T I O N ,  w h i c h  w a s  c h a n g e d  f r o m  t h e  e a r l i e r  h e a d i n g ,  I N D I A N S O F  N O R T H  A M E R I C A -D o n ' t  Class M e i n  A n t i q u i t i e s !  ( W e b s t e r  a n d  D o y l e )  193 R E M O V A L .  I s u p p o s e  t h e  c h a n g e  was m a d e  t o  b r i n g  t h e  h e a d i n g  i n t o  l i n e  w i t h  p a t t e r n s  f o r  o t h e r  g r o u p s ,  b u t  i t  feels l i k e  a s l a p  i n  t h e  face, f r a n k l y .  A l l  t h e  p a i n  a n d  b e t r a y a l  a n d  d e a t h  t h a t  w e n t  a l o n g  w i t h  t h e  f o r c e d  r e m o v a l  o f  t r i b e s  is j u s t  n o t  r e f l e c t e d  i n  t h e  t e r m  " r e l o c a t i o n . " T h i s  i m p e d e s  access b e c a u s e  a p a t r o n  d o i n g  r e s e a r c h  i n  t h i s  a r e a ,  e s p e c i a l l y  a N a t i v e  p a t r o n ,  m i g h t  n o t  t h i n k  t o  a s s o c i a t e  t h i s  t e r m  w i t h  t h e  a c t u a l  e v e n t s .  I t ' s  o n e  o f  t h e  m a n y  ways t h a t  t h e  l i b r a r y  c a n  c o m e  a c r o s s  as a w h i t e  i n s t i t u t i o n ,  a d d i n g  a n o t h e r  b a r r i e r  t o  p r o m o t i n g  i t s  use i n  N a t i v e  c o m m u n i t i e s . T h e n  t h e r e  a r e  g l a r i n g  o m i s s i o n s  f r o m  L C S H  o f  t e r m s  a n d  c o n c e p t s  s u c h  as F i r s t  N a t i o n s ,  U r b a n  I n d i a n s ,  a n d  F e d e r a l  I n d i a n  Law. A C h a n g e  Is G o i n g  t o  C o m e  . . .  S o m e  E x a m p l e s  o f  A l t e r n a t i v e  P r a c t i c e  F o r t u n a t e l y ,  t h e r e  a r e  m a n y  o r g a n i z a t i o n s  a n d  p e o p l e  a r o u n d  t h e  w o r l d  w o r k i n g  t o  d e v e l o p  a n d  p u t  i n t o  p r a c t i c e  a l t e r n a t i v e  ways o f  o r g a n i z i n g  a n d  p r o v i d i n g  access t o  I n d i g e n o u s  w o r k s  i n  t h e i r  c o l l e c t i o n s , s o m e  o f  w h i c h  we w i l l  d e s c r i b e  b e l o w .  T h e r e  a r e  also e f f o r t s  t o  h e l p  i m p r o v e  s t a n d a r d  p r a c t i c e .  F o r  i n s t a n c e ,  t h e  A m e r i c a n  I n d i a n  L i b r a r y  A s s o c i a t i o n  r e c e n t l y  e s t a b l i s h e d  a S u b j e c t  Access a n d  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  C o m m i t t e e  w h i c h  p l a n s  t o  s u b m i t  p r o p o s a l s  f o r  n e w  L C S H  t e r m s  t h r o u g h  t h e  S u b j e c t  A u t h o r i t y  C o o p e r ­a t i v e  P r o g r a m  ( S A C O ) ,  w h i c h  allows l i b r a r i e s  t o  s u b m i t  s u b j e c t  h e a d i n g s  a n d  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  n u m b e r s  t o  t h e  L i b r a r y  o f  C o n g r e s s . W e  a r e  g r a t e f u l  f o r  t h e  m a n y  t h e s a u r u s  p r o j e c t s  u n d e r w a y  t h a t  c a n  g u i d e  us i n  t h i s  w o r k . 6 A u s t r a l i a  A b o r i g i n a l  Thesaurus: T h e  N a t i o n a l  L i b r a r y  o f  A u s t r a l i a  is d _ e v e l o p i n g  t h i s  t o o l  t o  i m p r o v e  access t o  A b o r i g i n a l  a n d  T o r r e s  S t r a i t  I s l a n d e r  w o r k s .  As H e a t h e r  M o o r c r o f t ,  o n e  o f  t h e  c o m p i l e r s ,  s t a t e s  o n  t h e  p r o j e c t  w e b  s i t e ,  " I t  is i m p o r t a n t  t h a t  t h e  I n d i g e n o u s  v o i c e s  o f  A u s t r a l i a  a r e  h e a r d  a n d  felt t h r o u g h  p r o p e r  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  i n  c a t a l o g u e s .  I t  is ve r y  i m p o r t a n t  t h a t  we as t h e s a u r u s  m a k e r s  a r e  i m a g i n a t i v e  a n d  c r e a t i v e  a n d  d o  n o t  r e l y  w h o l l y  o n  t h e  l i t e r a t u r e  i t s e l f  b e c a u s e  so m u c h  has b e e n  w r i t t e n  A B O U T  A b o r i g i n a l  p e o ­p l e , a n d  n o t  so m u c h  BY A b o r i g i n a l  p e o p l e ,  b u t  t h i s  is c h a n g i n g .  T h i s  m e a n s  t h a t  we n e e d  t o  f i n d  t h e  ' r i g h t '  w o r d s  i n  o t h e r  w a y s . " 7 N e w  Z e a l a n d  M a o r i  S u b j e c t  H e a d i n g s :  T h e  M a o r i  S u b j e c t  H e a d i n g s  g r e w  o u t  a r e s e a r c h  p r o j e c t  o n  t h e  i n f o r m a t i o n  n e e d s  o f  M a o r i  p e o p l e  w h i c h  f o u n d  t h a t  s u b j e c t  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  o f  M a o r i  t o p i c s  was i n a p p r o p r i a t e  a n d  l i b r a r y  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  a n d  a r r a n g e m e n t  w e r e  n o t  u n d e r s t o o d . T h e  M a o r i  s u b j e c t  h e a d i n g s  a i m  t o  p r o v i d e  i m p r o v e d  access t o  t h e  M a o r i  b o d y  o f  k n o w l ­e d g e  h e l d  i n  p u b l i c  i n s t i t u t i o n s  f o r  M a o r i  p e o p l e .  Canada B r i a n  D e e r  Classification Scheme: < h t t p : / / w w w . l i b r a r y . u b c . c a / x w i 7 x w a / d e e r . p d f >  T h e  B r i a n  D e e r  s y s t e m  o f  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  was d e v e l o p e d  b y  a K a h n a w a k e  L i b r a r i a n  f o r  t h e  194 I l l .  I N N O V A T I V E  P R A C T I C ES N a t i o n a l  I n d i a n  B r o t h e r h o o d /  A s s e m b l y  o f  F i r s t  N a t i o n s .  G e n e  J o s e p h ,  G i t x s a n  D a k e l h ,  t h e  f o u n d i n g  l i b r a r i a n  ( 1 9 9 3 )  o f  t h e  X w i 7 x w a  L i b r a r y  a t  t h e  U n i v e r s i t y  o f  B r i t i s h  C o l u m ­b i a ,  s e l e c t e d  t h i s  I n d i g e n o u s  s c h e m e  f o r  t h e  c o l l e c t i o n ,  r e c o g n i z i n g  t h a t  t h e  f u t u r e  o f  a n e w  l i b r a r y ,  i n c l u d i n g  t h e  d e v e l o p m e n t  o f  i t s  c o l l e c t i o n s  a n d  t h e  q u a l i t y  o f  i t s  s e r v i c e s ,  d e p e n d s  o n  t h e  o r g a n i z a t i o n  o f  t h e  k n o w l e d g e  a n d  t h e  w a y s  i n  w h i c h  i t  is n a m e d .  A t  t h e  X w i 7 x w a  L i b r a r y ,  t h e  k n o w l e d g e  o r g a n i z a t i o n  a i m s  t o  b e  c o n g r u e n t  w i t h  a n d  t o  r e i n ­f o r c e  I n d i g e n o u s  w o r l d v i e w s  a n d  e x p e r i e n c e  i n  s u p p o r t  o f  a m a n d a t e  t o  m a k e  t h e  u n i ­v e r s i t y ' s  v a s t  r e s o u r c e s  m o r e  a c c e s s i b l e  t o  A b o r i g i n a l  p e o p l e s .  B r i a n  D e e r  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  h a s  b e e n  u s e d  b y  s e v e r a l  A b o r i g i n a l  l i b r a r i e s  i n  B . C . ,  i n c l u d i n g  t h e  U n i o n  o f B C  I n d i a n  C h i e f s  a n d  t h e  E n '  o w  k i n  C e n t e r .  B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a  First N a t i o n s  Names: < h t t p : /  / w w w . l i b r a r y .  u b c . c a / x w i 7 x w a / b c f n .  p d f >  T h e  X w i 7 x w a  L i b r a r y  m a i n t a i n s  a n d  c o n t i n u e s  t o  d e v e l o p  a n  a u t h o r i t y  l i s t  o f  F i r s t  N a t i o n s  i n  t h e  p r o v i n c e  o f  B . C .  T h e  a u t h o r i t y  l i s t  is u s e d  i n  c a t a l o g i n g  m a t e r i a l s  h e l d  b y  t h e  l i b r a r y ,  as w e l l  as i n  p r o v i d i n g  t r a i n i n g  i n  I n d i g e n o u s  i n f o r m a t i o n  l i t e r a c y  s k i l l s  f o r  s t u d e n t s  a n d  l i b r a r y  s t a f f .  T h e  l i b r a r y  s t r i v e s  t o  r e f l e c t  c u r r e n t  F i r s t  N a t i o n s ' u s e  o f  n a m e s  a n d  s p e l l i n g . L i b r a r y  a n d  A r c h i v e s  Canada ( L A C ) :  F o l l o w i n g  a c o n s u l t a t i o n  w i t h  t h e  A b o r i g i n a l  c o m m u n i t y ,  L A C  n o t e d  c o n c e r n s  r a i s e d  a b o u t  c a t a l o g i n g  p r a c t i c e s  a n d  p r o p o s e d  a p h a s e d  r e v i e w  o f  i t s  C a n a d i a n  S u b j e c t  H e a d i n g s  i d e n t i f y i n g  A b o r i g i n a l  p e o p l e s  a n d  t h e i r  c u l ­t u r e s .  As a f i r s t  s t e p ,  t h e y  a r e  c u r r e n t l y  c o n s i d e r i n g  r e v i s i n g  h e a d i n g s  c o n t a i n i n g  t h e  t e r m  " I n d i a n s "  t o  p r e f e r  t h e  m o r e  s p e c i f i c  n a m e s  o f  A b o r i g i n a l  g r o u p s  o r  n a t i o n s .  First N a t i o n s  House o f  L e a r n i n g  Thesaurus: T h e  L i b r a r y  o f  C o n g r e s s  h a s  a u t h o r i z e d  t h e  d e v e l o p m e n t  o f  t h e  F i r s t  N a t i o n s  H o u s e  o f  L e a r n i n g  T h e s a u r u s .  T h e  t h e s a u r u s  o f  F i r s t  N a t i o n s / A b o r i g i n a l  s u b j e c t  v o c a b u l a r y  w i l l  e x p a n d  o n  t h e  e x i s t i n g  5 , 5 0 0  F i r s t  N a t i o n s / A b o r i g i n a l  s u b j e c t  h e a d i n g s  i n  u s e  a t  X w i 7 x w a  L i b r a r y  u s i n g  c u l t u r a l  w a r r a n t  i n  a d d i t i o n  t o  l i t e r a r y  w a r r a n t  a n d  c o n s u l t a t i o n  as s o u r c e s  f o r  v o c a b u l a r y .  U n i t e d  States D e w e y  Classification a t  the A m e r i c a n  I n d i a n  Resource Center ( A I R C ) ,  C i t y  o f  H u n t ­i n g t o n  P a r k  i n  Los A n g e l e s  C o u n t y ,  C a l i f o r n i a :  T h i s  c o l l e c t i o n  m a k e s  u s e  o f  D e w e y  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  t h a t  h a s  b e e n  a d a p t e d  t o  m o r e  a d e q u a t e l y  o r g a n i z e  m a t e r i a l s  a b o u t  A m e r i ­c a n  I n d i a n s .  M a n y  m a t e r i a l s  h a v e  b e e n  r e c l a s s i f i e d  t o  f a v o r  t h e  s u b j e c t  a r e a  o v e r  t h e  A m e r ­i c a n  I n d i a n  a s p e c t ,  so t h a t  m a t e r i a l s  c o u l d  b e  s p r e a d  t h r o u g h o u t  t h e  c o l l e c t i o n  a n d  n o t  c r o w d e d  i n t o  t h e  9 7 0  r a n g e .  Luiseno C u l t u r e  B a n k : T h i s  d a t a b a s e ,  w h i c h  c o l l e c t s  L u i s e n o  a r t i f a c t s  a n d  i n f o r m a ­t i o n  g a t h e r e d  f r o m  m u s e u m s ,  l i b r a r i e s ,  a n d  p r i v a t e  c o l l e c t i o n s ,  uses a h y b r i d  s c h e m e  t h a t  a p p l i e s  c a t e g o r i e s  d e r i v e d  f r o m  t h e  e l d e r s  t o  a u g m e n t  L C S H . M a s h a n t u c k e t  Pequot Thesaurus Project: C h e r y l  M e t o y e r ,  c u r r e n t l y  a p r o f e s s o r  a t  t h e  U n i v e r s i t y  o f W a s h i n g t o n  I n f o r m a t i o n  S c h o o l  a n d  C h i e f  A c a d e m i c  A f f a i r s  O f f i c e r  f o r  t h e  M a s h a n t u c k e t  P e q u o t  T r i b a l  N a t i o n ,  h a s  w o r k e d  w i t h  m a n y  t r i b e s  t o  h e l p  d e v e l o p  t h e i r  l i b r a r i e s  a n d  a r c h i v e s .  S h e  is l e a d i n g  a r e s e a r c h  p r o j e c t  t o  d e v e l o p  t h i s  t h e s a u r u s  f o r  i m p r o v e d  a c c e s s  t o  c o l l e c t i o n s  a t  t h e  t r i b e ' s  r e s e a r c h  l i b r a r y  a n d  a r c h i v e s .  D o n ' t  Class M e  i n  A n t i q u i t i e s !  ( W e b s t e r  a n d  D o y l e )  195 N a t i o n a l  I n d i a n  L a w  L i b r a r y  ( N I L L )  Thesaurus: N I L L  uses a l o c a l l y  d e v e l o p e d  t h e ­s a u r u s  i n  a d d i t i o n  t o  L i b r a r y  o f  C o n g r e s s  S u b j e c t  H e a d i n g s  f o r  i t s  c o l l e c t i o n  o f  f e d e r a l  I n d i a n  l a w  a n d  t r i b a l  l a w  m a t e r i a l s .  I t  is a p a r t i c u l a r l y  w e l l - d e v e l o p e d  t o o l ,  w i t h  s c o p e  n o t e s ,  d e t a i l e d  g u i d e l i n e s ,  a n d  s u b d i v i s i o n s .  N a t i o n a l  N a t i v e  A m e r i c a n  Thesaurus: University o f  C a l i f o r n i a ,  Berkeley: J o h n  D .  Berry, t h e  N a t i v e  A m e r i c a n  S t u d i e s  L i b r a r i a n ,  h a s  b e e n  d e v e l o p i n g  t h i s  t h e s a u r u s  f o r  u s e  w i t h  t h e  N a t i o n a l  N a t i v e  A m e r i c a n  B i b l i o g r a p h i c  D a t a b a s e .  T h e  t h e s a u r u s  p r o j e c t  f o l l o w s  i n  t h e  f o o t s t e p s  o f  t h e  w e l l - d e v e l o p e d  C h i c a n o  T h e s a u r u s ,  t h e  first e d i t i o n  o f  w h i c h  w a s  p r o d u c e d  a t  t h e  U n i v e r s i t y  o f  C a l i f o r n i a  i n  1 9 7 9 .  N a t i v e  A m e r i c a n  E d u c a t i o n a l  Services ( N A E S )  P u b l i c  Policy a n d  T r i b a l  Research C e n ­ter a n d  A r c h i v e s  S u b j e c t  Index: N A E S ,  l o c a t e d  i n  C h i c a g o ,  h a s  a n o n - c i r c u l a t i n g  c o l l e c ­t i o n  o f  o v e r  1 0 , 0 0 0  m a t e r i a l s  i n  a v a r i e t y  o f  f o r m a t s  f o c u s i n g  o n  t h e  d e v e l o p m e n t  o f  N a t i v e  A m e r i c a n  c o m m u n i t i e s  i n  t h e  2 0 t h  c e n t u r y .  I t s  c o l l e c t i o n  is b e i n g  r e c a t a l o g e d  u s i n g  t h i s  h o m e g r o w n ,  t r i b a l l y  c e n t e r e d  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  s y s t e m  d e v e l o p e d  b y  i t s  f a c u l t y  a n d  d r i v e n  b y  t h e  a w a r e n e s s  t h a t  a s y s t e m  r e f l e c t i n g  a N a t i v e  p e r s p e c t i v e  w a s  r e q u i r e d  t o  m e e t  p a t r o n  n e e d s .  C o n c l u s i o n  A c c u r a t e  a n d  c u l t u r a l l y  a p p r o p r i a t e  c a t a l o g i n g  o f  N a t i v e  A m e r i c a n  / I n d i g e n o u s  m a t e ­r i a l s  is n o t  j u s t  a N a t i v e  A m e r i c a n  i s s u e ,  b u t  a n a t i o n a l  a n d  i n t e r n a t i o n a l  i s s u e .  It is c r i t ­ical f o r  t h e  s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n  e f f o r t s  o f  I n d i g e n o u s  p e o p l e  t o  h a v e  i n t e l l e c t u a l  access t o  c o l l e c t i o n s  o f  m a t e r i a l s  d o c u m e n t i n g  t h e i r / o u r  h i s t o r i e s ,  c u l t u r e s ,  a n d  l a n g u a g e s  h e l d  i n  l i b r a r i e s .  T h i s  d o c u m e n t a r y  h e r i t a g e  m a y  b e  s e e n  as t h e  c u l t u r a l  a n d  i n t e l l e c t u a l  p r o p ­e r t y  o f  N a t i v e  A m e r i c a n s  b a r r i c a d e d  b e h i n d  c u r r e n t  c a t a l o g i n g  p r a c t i c e .  I t  is a l s o  c r i t i c a l  i n  t e r m s  o f  access t o  n e w  k n o w l e d g e ,  e m e r g e n t  s c h o l a r s h i p ,  a n d  c o n t e m p o r a r y  w o r k s .  T h e  l a c k  o f  a c c u r a t e  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  a n d  a c c e s s  a f f e c t s  n o t  o n l y  t h e  e d u c a t i o n  o f  N a t i v e  A m e r i c a n  c h i l d r e n  b u t  t h e  e d u c a t i o n  o f  all c h i l d r e n  a n d  c i t i z e n s .  T h e  s p r e a d  o f  p r o b l e m ­a t i c  c a t a l o g i n g  r e c o r d s  p e r p e t u a t e s  s t e r e o t y p e s  a n d  i n a c c u r a c i e s .  M o r e o v e r ,  t h e  u b i q u i ­t o u s  b i b l i o g r a p h i c  u t i l i t i e s  a n d  i n t e r n a t i o n a l  u s e  o f  L C  a n d  D D C  t r a n s m i t  t h e s e  r e c o r d s  w o r l d w i d e .  T h e s e  a r e  s i g n i f i c a n t  c o n c e r n s  f o r  c a t a l o g e r s ,  l i b r a r i a n s ,  a n d  e d u c a t o r s ,  a n d  t h e y  w a r r a n t  o u r  v i g i l a n t  a t t e n t i o n .  N o t e s  1. A S D  N e w s l e t t e r ,  vol. 8, n o . 3 ,  S p r i n g  19 7 1. T h e  A d u l t  Services D i v i s i o n  (ASD) s u b s e q u e n t l y  d e v e l ­o p e d  i n t o  t h e  ALA R e f e r e n c e  a n d  U s e r  Services A s s o c i a t i o n . 2. S a n f o r d  B e r m a n ,  " W h e n  t h e  s u b j e c t  is I n d i a n ." A m e r i c a n  I n d i a n  L i b r a r i e s  N e w s l e t t e r  18, n o . 2 ( W i n ­t e r  1 9 9 5 ) .  A v a i l a b l e :  < h t t p : / / w w w . n a t i v e c u l r u r e l i n k s . c o m / a i l a n e w s W 9 5 _ L C i n d i a n s . h t m l > .  3. L i b r a r y  a n d  A r c h i v e s  C a n a d a .  R e p o r t  a n d  R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s  o f  t h e  C o n s u l t a t i o n  on A b o r i g i n a l  Resources a n d  Services. O t t a w a :  M i n i s t e r  o f  P u b l i c  W o r k s  a n d  G o v e r n m e n t  S e r v i c e s  C a n a d a ,  2 0 0 4 ,  2 3 .  4. See: B e r m a n ,  C a l l i o u ,  C a r t e r ,  L a w s o n ,  Lee , L i n c o l n , M a r t e n s ,  M o o r c r o f t ,  T o m r e n ,  Szekely, Yeh, a n d  Young. 196 I l l .  I N N O V A T I V E  P R A C T I C E S 5. T h o m a s  Y e n - R a n  Yeh , " T h e  T r e a t m e n t  o f  t h e  A m e r i c a n  I n d i a n  in t h e  L i b r a r y  o f  C o n g r e s s  E - F  S c h e d ­ule. " L i b r a r y  Resources & T e c h n i c a l  Services 15 , n o .  2 ( S p r i n g  1971): 129. 6 . T h e  A m e r i c a n  I n d i a n  L i b r a r y  A s s o c i a t i o n ' s S u b j e c t  Access a n d  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  C o m m i t t e e  is c o m p i l ­i n g  a m o r e  c o m p l e t e  l i s t  o f  t h e s e  p r o j e c t s .  Please c o n t a c t  Kelly W e b s t e r  t h r o u g h  AILA i f  y o u  k n o w  o f  e x a m ­ples t o  a d d .  7. N a t i o n a l  L i b r a r y  o f  A u s t r a l i a .  T h e  A b o r i g i n a l  Thesaurus. F i r s t  R o u n d t a b l e  o n  L i b r a r y  a n d  A r c h i v e s  C o l l e c t i o n s  a n d  S e r v i c e s  o f  R e l e v a n c e  t o  A b o r i g i n a l  a n d  T o r r e s  S t r a i t  I s l a n d e r  P e o p l e .  S t a t e  L i b r a r y  o f  S o u t h  A u s t r a l i a ,  A d e l a i d e ,  4 M a y  1995. A v a i l a b l e :  < h t t p : / / w w w . n l a . g o v . a u / n i a c ! l i b s / t h e s a u r u s . h t m b  (accessed 0 8  D e c e m b e r  2 0 0 6 ) . S e l e c t e d  F u r t h e r  R e a d i n g  L i s t e d  b e l o w  a r e  r e s o u r c e s  t h a t  i n c l u d e  d i s c u s s i o n  o f  c a t a l o g i n g  I n d i g e n o u s  m a t e r i ­als, a n d  t h e  w o r k s  c i t e d  i n  t h i s  a r t i c l e .  F o r  m o r e  g e n e r a l  r e s o u r c e s  see t h e  b i b l i o g r a p h y  L i b r a r y  Services to I n d i g e n o u s  Populations: V i e w p o i n t s  & Resources ( C h i c a g o :  O f f i c e  f o r  L i t e r a c y  a n d  O u t r e a c h  S e r v i c e s ,  A m e r i c a n  L i b r a r y  A s s o c i a t i o n ,  2 0 0 5 ) .  B y r n e ,  Alex, A l a n a  G a r w o o d , H e a t h e r  M o o r c r o f t  a n d  A l a n  B a r n e s , c a m p s .  (1995). A b o r i g i n a l  a n d  Torres S t r a i t  I s l a n d e r  Protocols f o r  L i b r a r i e s , A r c h i v e s  a n d  I n f o r m a t i o n  Services. D e a k i n , A . C . T .  A u s t r a l i a n  L i b r a r y  a n d  I n f o r m a t i o n  A s s o c i a t i o n . A v a i l a b l e : < h t t p : / / w w w . n t u . e d u . a u ! l i b r a r y / p r o t o c o l . h t m b  (accessed 0 8  D e c e m b e r  2 0 0 6 ) .  C a l l i o u ,  S h a r i l y n .  (1992) . " S u n r i s e : a c t i v i s m  a n d  s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n  in first n a t i o n s  e d u c a t i o n  1972 - 1 9 9 8 . "  I n  A b o r i g i n a l  S e l f - G o v e r n m e n t  i n  C a n a d a :  C u r r e n t  Trends a n d  Issues. 2 n d  ed. S a s k a t o o n :  P u r i c h .  C a r t e r ,  N a n c y  C a r o l .  ( W i n t e r  2 0 0 2 ) .  " A m e r i c a n  I n d i a n s  a n d  l a w  l i b r a r i e s :  a c k n o w l e d g i n g  t h e  t h i r d  s o v e r ­e i g n . " L a w  L i b r a r y  j o u r n a l ? : 7 - 2 6 .  D o y l e ,  A n n .  ( 2 0 0 6 ) .  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U n p u b l i s h e d  M U S  T h e s i s . V a n c o u v e r :  U n i v e r s i t y  o f  B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a .  Lee, D e b o r a h  E. (2001) . " A b o r i g i n a l  s t u d e n t s  i n  C a n a d a :  a case s t u d y  o f  t h e i r  a c a d e m i c  i n f o r m a t i o n  n e e d s  a n d  l i b r a r y  use. " J o u r n a l  o f  L i b r a r y  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  3 3 ( 3 / 4 ) :  2 5 9 - 9 2 . L i b r a r y  a n d  A r c h i v e s  C a n a d a .  ( 2 0 0 4 ) .  R e p o r t  a n d  R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s  o f  t h e  C o n s u l t a t i o n  on A b o r i g i n a l  Re s ource s a n d  Services. O t t a w a :  M i n i s t e r  o f  P u b l i c  W o r k s  a n d  G o v e r n m e n t  S e r v i c e s  C a n a d a . L i n c o l n ,  T a m a r a .  ( 2 0 0 3 ) . " C u l t u r a l  r e a s s e r t i o n  o f  Alaska N a t i v e  l a n g u a g e s  a n d  c u l t u r e s : l i b r a r i e s '  r e s p o n s e s . 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