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Canadian University Publishing in a Digital Age : a symposium held under the auspices of the G13 Provosts… Crema, Leonora; Dodds, Ted; Milroy, Peter; Stewart, Walter May 13, 2010

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 ?Canadian?University?Publishing?in?a?Digital?Age?A?Symposium?Held?under?the?Auspices?of?the?G13?Provosts?March?21?22,?2010?University?of?British?Columbia??Report?on?the?Proceedings???prepared?by?Leonora?Crema,?Ted?Dodds,?Peter?Milroy,?Walter?Stewart???EXECUTIVE?SUMMARY??These?are?transformative?times?for?Canadian?scholarly?publishing?and?for?scholarly?communication?around?the?globe.???For?decades,?control?of?the?scholarly?record?has?been?outsourced?to?large?commercial?publishers,?and?not?actively?managed?by?academy.?Today?new?opportunities?have?emerged?to?increase?access?to?new?knowledge?with?less?need?to?rely?on?models?that?demand?exclusive?distribution?rights.?Technologies?for?creating,?teaching?and?disseminating?scholarship?are?evolving?rapidly;?they?are?accessible,?relatively?low?cost,?highly?scalable,?and?easy?to?use.?Meanwhile,?economic?models?that?support?university?press?publishing?have?become?unsustainable;?library?collection?budgets?are?strained;?and?the?university?community?must?develop?new?funding?approaches?to?monograph?publishing?which?remains?central?in?many?humanities?and?social?sciences?disciplines.??Open?Access?mandates?for?publicly?funded?research?are?emerging?but?are?not?well?integrated?in?the?academy,?nor?have?the?costs?and?skill?sets?for?their?implementation?been?fully?considered.?Intellectual?property?and?copyright?legislation?for?digital?material?is?unclear.?Faculty?tenure?and?rewards?systems?are?being?impacted?by?all?of?these?factors.? Current?academic?publishing?models?have?served?the?historic?needs?of?scholars?for?dissemination?and?exchange?of?knowledge,?but?are?not?addressing?demands?on?universities?to?be?more?closely?connected?to?innovation?across?society?and?in?the?economy.?Governments?are?increasingly?demanding?that?universities?make?a?clear?and?immediate?difference;?as?a?consequence,?there?is?an?imperative?for?universities?to?improve?the?flow?of?ideas?to?the?wider?society.?New?academic?publishing?models?must?increasingly?respond?to?these?demands.???Ultimately,?the?size?and?scope?of?these?challenges?are?greater?than?any?one?institution?can?address.?Canada?s?universities?need?to?take?ownership?of?these?issues?and?act,?individually?and?collectively,? 1  to?reassert?control?over?how?their?intellectual?capital?is?managed,?and?to?maximize?its?accessibility?and?impact?while?assuring?that?quality?is?maintained.??A?symposium?entitled?Canadian?University?Publishing?in?a?Digital?Age,?held?at?the?UBC?Vancouver?campus?on?March?21?22,?2010?brought?together?54?invited?participants???provosts,?press?directors,?IT?leaders,?university?librarians,?faculty?and?others???to?explore?new?models?of?scholarly?publishing?emerging?in?Canada?and?the?US.?The?symposium?was?intended?as?a?first?step?toward?developing?a?national?vision?for?scholarly?communication?and?a?concrete?action?plan?for?transforming?Canadian?academic?publishing.?? See?http://blogs.ubc.ca/universitypublishing/?for?the?complete?symposium?program,?speaker?presentations?and?transcripts.??Recommendations?from?the?symposium?confirmed?the?need?for?coordinated?action?at?local,?national?and?international?levels.??Attendees?were?unanimous?in?the?need?to?sustain?momentum?from?the?event?through?a?collective?approach.??This?could?include?as?potential?next?steps:??1) Establish?a?national?task?force?or?working?group?to?be?appointed?and?led?by?the?country?s?provosts.?It?would?chart?an?initial?course?of?action?to?create?a?Canadian?university?publishing?strategy,?including?concrete?outcomes?and?projects?to?be?launched?in?2010.?Membership?should?include?the?campus?constituencies?noted?above???provosts,?presses,?libraries,?IT,?faculty?and?researchers???along?with?other?stakeholders?and?organizations1?invested?in?these?issues.?Its?first?task?would?be?to?define?the?process,?communication?channels?and?timelines.?It?should?also?assess?public?policy,?specifically:?what?do?governments?and?citizens?outside?the?academy?want?and?expect?from?universities??dissemination?of?knowledge???2) ?There?are?already?several?Canadian?led?infrastructure?platforms?for?scholarly?publishing,?with??rudit?and?Synergies?being?two?outstanding?examples.?Next?steps?toward?developing?stable?national?platforms?could?include?building?on?these?successful?initiatives?and?finding?ways?to?leverage?the?resource?base.??3) Redefine?the?role?of?university?presses,?including?the?business?model?to?support?them.?Redefine?the?role?of?the?university?library?in?scholarly?communication?and?publishing.?Identify?IT?s?role?in?these?developments.??4) Create?forums?for?developing?new?publishing?models?across?Canadian?universities???for?example,?establish?scholarly?communications?steering?committees?at?all?G13?universities.??5) Explore?alternative?incentives?related?to?promotion?and?tenure?that?will?encourage?more?research?faculty?to?adopt?innovative?dissemination?models,?including?online?publishing.?                                                 1?For?example,?a?March?24,?2010?Scholarly?Journals?Stakeholders?meeting?held?in?Ottawa?explored?similar?transformation?in?journal?publishing,?and?recommended?national?collective?action.? 2  ?PROCEEDINGS? Background:?In?2007,?the?US?based?Ithaka?Group?published?a?landmark?report?on?new?models?for?scholarly?book?publishing.?The?report?recommends?renewed?commitment?to?publishing?in?its?broadest?sense?so?universities?can?realize?the?global?impact?of?their?academic?programs,?enhance?the?reputations?of?their?institutions,?maintain?a?voice?in?what?constitutes?important?scholarship,?and?in?some?cases?reduce?costs.?The?report?highlights?the?need?to?deploy?the?full?range?of?university?resources???faculty?research?and?teaching,?library?collections,?IT?capacity,?and?press?publishing?expertise???and?signals?the?leading?role?university?provosts?can?play?in?developing?new?publishing?models?for?their?campuses.2???Canadian?University?Publishing?in?a?Digital?Age:?a?Symposium?built?on?these?ideas?and?took?the?discussion?to?a?pan?Canadian?level.?It?examined:??? What?new?models?are?emerging?for?production?and?digital?dissemination?of?scholarly?work???? How?are?these?transforming?the?roles?of?university?presses,?libraries,?IT?and?faculty?authors???? What?approaches?are?no?longer?working?and?why??What?new?collaborations,?especially?using?digital?platforms,?are?possible??What?must?we?preserve?about?our?current?system???? How?can?we?achieve?sustainability?from?the?creation?of?new?scholarship?through?to?its?long?term?preservation?and?accessibility???The?symposium?was?designed?to?be?the?first?step?in?a?longer?process?of?transforming?academic?publishing?in?Canada?to?ensure?that?universities?can?effectively?meet?and?sustain?their?obligations?for?learning,?research,?and?service.??Presentations??David?Farrar,?UBC?Provost?and?Vice?President?Academic?welcomed?the?group?on?behalf?of?the?University?and?the?G13?Provosts.?He?noted?the?impact?of?these?transformative?changes?and?stressed?the?opportunity?within?the?symposium?to?precipitate?collective,?concerted?action.??He?introduced?keynote?speaker?Daniel?Greenstein,?Vice?Provost,?Academic?Planning?and?Programs,?University?of?California,?who?gave?an?opening?address?entitled???Sustainable?scholarly?communication.?Is?it?possible????Dan?Greenstein?noted?that?the?future?of?a?university?s?library,?press,?IT?organization?and?museums?ought?properly?to?reflect?choices?made?at?a?broader?level?about?the?university?s?mission.?                                                 2?From?the?Ithaka?Report:?University?Publishing?in?a?Digital?Age?available?at:?http://www.ithaka.org/ithaka?s?r/strategy/Ithaka%20University%20Publishing%20Report.pdf?? 3  Increasingly,?strategic?choices?and?trade?off?decisions?will?need?to?be?taken?to?maximize?the?impact?of?investments?in?scholarly?communication.?Moreover,?resources?already?being?spent?in?these?areas?could?be?effectively?reallocated?to?new?organizational?models,?based?on?new?assumptions?about?what?most?adds?value.???As?illustration,?he?posed?a?series?of?provocative?questions:?? ?Cabinets?of?curiosities????that?is,?our?collections?held?digitally?or?locally?in?print???are?wonderful?and?inherently?worthy.?But?are?we?investing?in?them?in?ways?that?surface?important?and?high?quality?information?allied?with?the?institution?s?mission??Should?libraries?continue?building?print?collections?that?are?frequently?duplicated?elsewhere??? If?we?eliminated?our?investments?in?publishing,?if?we?closed?our?university?presses,?would?we?harm?our?faculty??Don?t?our?faculty?members?always?have?peer?reviewed?outlets?for?their?research??? If?we?shut?our?institutional?repositories?today?would?our?faculty?s?research,?conference?and?seminar?papers,?and?their?data,?simulations,?and?images???still?not?find?their?way?to?the?Internet??? Should?the?university?publish?in?the?interest?of?discipline?building?and?gap?filling,?or?should?it?select?a?few?areas?that?make?sense?to?the?institution?given?its?strategy?and?mission,?its?unique?location,?history,?and?discipline?and?research?strengths,?and?that?it?can?afford??? Can?the?university?investigate?possibilities?for?continuum?publishing?between?academic?publishing?and?trade?publishing?as?a?way?of?reducing?costs?and?increasing?revenue???In?summary?he?urged?the?audience?to?explore?new?business,?technical?and?organizational?models?aligned?with?the?university?s?core?mission?and?what?can,?realistically,?be?sustained.? Following?the?keynote,?Ingrid?Parent,?University?Librarian,?UBC,?introduced?a?panel?to?present?on?specific?issues?and?initiatives?underway.?Panelists?were:??? Peter?Givler,?Executive?Director,?Association?of?American?University?Presses,?who?provided?an?overview?of?innovative?US?based?scholarly?publishing?projects?and?trends;???? Carole?Moore,?University?Librarian,?University?of?Toronto,?who?described?work?underway?in?Canada?s?university?libraries,?focusing?on?open?access?initiatives?and?collaborations?among?libraries?and?presses;?and???? G?rard?Boismenu,?Dean,?Faculty?of?Arts?and?Sciences,?Universit??de?Montr?al,?who?presented??rudit,?the?multi?institutional?digital?publishing?consortium?comprising?Quebec?universities?that?offers?an?innovative?model?for?promotion?and?dissemination?of?research.?? Peter?Milroy,?Director,?UBC?Press,?introduced?the?final?presentation?by?Melissa?Pitts,?Assistant?Director,?UBC?Press?on?the?Results?of?a?Canadian?Open?Access?White?Paper?commissioned?by?the?Association?of?Canadian?University?Presses.?  4  Presenters?offered?differing?and?valuable?perspectives?on?projects?currently?underway?in?Canada?and?the?US,?along?with?their?underlying?access?and?business?models.?Many?projects?are?exploring?new?modes?of?distribution?and?publishing?including?increasing??on?demand??delivery.?Open?Access?mandates?offer?new?possibilities?for?public?access?and?impact,?but?their?effect?on?press?revenue?models???fundamentally,?does?OA?impair?them,?or?is?it?a?value?adding?adjunct??is?far?from?clear.?Projects?have?tended?to?be?led?by?libraries,?groups?of?universities,?groups?of?faculty?or?societies?and?branches?of?the?academy?rather?than?being?mandated?by?the?university?as?a?corporate?entity.?The?role?of?provosts?in?steering?and?empowering?change?will?be?critical?in?future.?? Slides?from?all?presentations?are?available?on?the?symposium?website:??http://blogs.ubc.ca/universitypublishing/presentations/??? A?recording?of?the?presentations?is?also?available?at:?http://mediasite.mediagroup.ubc.ca/MediaGroup/Viewer/?peid=b7322220708f43ac99b43ca2a55f2a00???Group?Discussions??Speaker?presentations?were?followed?by?discussion?in?groups?which?were?pre?assigned?in?order?to?ensure?each?group?had?representation?from?each?constituency.?The?presenters?joined?the?groups.?Groups?were?asked?to?discuss?all?three?of?the?following?issues:? ? Guiding?principles?for?building?a?national?strategy?for?academic?publishing?? Desired?outcomes?and?potential?projects?? Challenges?and?resource?issues??but?were?assigned?to?focus?on?one?in?detail.?These?sessions?were?followed?with?reports?back?to?the?whole?groups,?summarized?below:?? Guiding?Principles??1. Quality?assurance?and?pursuit?of?excellence?must?be?paramount?in?any?model.?2. Open?access?is?a?value?embraced?by?most.?There?is,?however,?a?wide?range?of?understanding?of?what?open?access?means.?As?part?of?any?strategy,?open?access?must?be?clearly?defined?particularly?with?respect?to?the?rights?of?creators?and?of?their?institutions.??Limits?to??open??should?be?defined?and?acknowledged:??open?access?does?not?mean?free.??Economic?models?that?incorporate?open?access?need?to?be?explored.?3. Any?strategy?for?new?models?of?university?publishing?should?be?national?and?fully?engaged?with?similar?efforts?internationally?while?preserving?some?autonomy?at?the?local?level.?4. Academic?publishing?from?Canadian?universities?should?bring?prominence?to?Canadian?scholarship.?5. Preservation?and?access?to?source?data?behind?scholarly?works?should?be?ensured.? 5  6. Peer?review?must?be?preserved.?7. Redundancy?should?be?avoided?through?national/international?common?platforms.?8. Strategic?leadership?must?come?from?senior?administrations.??Desired?Outcomes??1. Common?understanding?of?Open?Access.?2. A?vibrant?national?system?of?digital?publishing?of?academic?materials?closely?aligned?with?international?efforts.?3. A?small?group?of?risk?tolerant,?early?movers?providing?leadership?to?move?forward?with?pilot?projects.?4. A?national?repository/archive.?5. Sustainable?economic?models?that?recognize?incremental?funding?to?institutions?is?unlikely.?6. A?national?system?that?can?involve?collaboration?with?the?private?sector?without?contravening?the?principles?of?open?access,?creator?s?rights,?and?public?ownership.?7. The?university?brand?is?seen?as?strong?and?an?assurance?of?quality.?8. Better?measures?of?impact?and?success?for?academic?publishing?are?determined.?9. Libraries?move?from?a?holding?strategy?to?a?more?on?demand?strategy.?10. Strategic?priorities?of?the?host?university?are?more?directly?incorporated?in?planning.??Challenges?and?Resource?Issues??1. Private?sector?and?not?for?profit?publishers?that?currently?operate?on?a??purchase?by?user??financial?model?bring?considerable?value?to?the?dissemination?process?but?with?significant?associated?costs.??This?will?not?be?easily?replaced?if?moves?to?open?access?reduce?or?eliminate?that?engagement.??2. Digital?technology?presents?opportunities?to?reclaim?academic?publishing?from?private?hands?without?incurring?the?large?capital?costs?of?print?facilities.?It?is?important?to?note?that?the?ease?of?digital?publishing?in?no?way?covers?the?need?for?editing,?the?co?ordination?of?peer?review,?marketing?and?other?support?functions.??Digital?and?especially?e?publishing?is?non?capital?intensive.??It?is,?however,?human?resource?intensive.??Any?strategies?to?reclaim?the?role?must?take?into?account?these?needs.??3. Current?models?of?academic?publishing?are?not?seen?as?financially?sustainable?except?perhaps?in?some?of?the?more?high?profile?scientific?disciplines.??Those?exceptions?are?not?sustainable?if?demands?for?open?access?and?safeguarding?the?public?interest?are?taken?seriously.?Sustainability?must?be?a?major?focus?of?any?movement?for?change.???4. Change?will?not?be?cost?neutral.??Those?costs?will?likely?have?to?be?recovered?from?savings?or?increased?revenue.??Increased?government?support?is?unlikely?at?least?in?the?short?to?medium?term.?5. Universities?are?not?well?known?for?their?ability?to?collaborate?with?each?other.?Will?senior?administration?take?up?the?demand?for?their?leadership?on?these?issues??6. Many?other?university?processes?are?bound?up?in?current?publishing?models?most?notably?promotions?and?tenure.?7. Bringing?research?faculty?into?the?discussion?is?imperative?at?an?early?date.? 6  8. These?issues?are?urgent,?but?there?is?not?a?general?perception?of?that?urgency?on?campuses?across?the?country.??A?plenary?discussion?followed?the?group?reports,?and?focused?on:??pilot?projects,?funding,?task?forces?to?address?issues?and?who?else?should?be?engaged?in?next?steps.???Funding:??1. Clear?assessment?of?the?use?of?existing?resources?must?be?made?in?the?anticipation?that?the?cost?of?new?models?will?largely?need?to?be?borne?out?of?reuse?of?existing?funds.?2. The?granting?councils?support?the?existing?models?to?a?significant?extent.??The?role?of?the?councils?and?of?CFI?in?support?and?building?of?new?models?needs?to?be?discussed?fully?with?them.?3. A?change?in?the?model?does?not?necessarily?eliminate?roles?for?the?private?sector.??Exploration?of?new?business?models?must?occur?before?funding?decisions?are?set?in?stone.?4. Foundations?like?the?Mellon?Foundation?may?be?sources?of?funding?for?exploratory?work?and?pilot?projects.??Who?else?needs?to?be?engaged:??Suggestions?included?but?were?not?limited?to?faculty?and?students?and?their?associations,?granting?councils,?CFI,?commercial?publishers,?scholarly?societies,?professional?associations?such?as?CARL/ABRC?for?libraries?and?ACUP/APUC?for?presses,?federal?and?provincial?governments,?clients?and?end?users.???Concluding?Messages??The?Symposium?concluded?with?Doug?Owram,?Deputy?Vice?Chancellor?and?Principal,?UBC?Okanagan?and?David?Farrar,?Provost?and?Vice?President?Academic,?UBC,?summarizing?what?they?had?heard?and?what?would?be?communicated?back?to?the?G13?Provosts.??Both?provosts?commented?on?the?value?of?having?the?diverse?groups?at?this?event,?and?that?though?there?are?differences?there?is?also?growing?desire?for?change.?They?noted?that?the?current?publishing?model?is?broken;?technical?innovation?makes?new?models?possible;?and?that?universities?should?be?creating?the?future?not?simply?allowing?it?to?happen?to?them.?It?was?clear?that?a?number?of?experimental?models?have?emerged,?but?that?nothing?has?yet?emerged?as??the?way.??Funding?for?new?models?will?mostly?have?to?be?found?from?repurposing?existing?resources.?The?concerns?of?a?much?wider?group?of?stakeholders?than?represented?at?the?symposium?will?need?to?be?engaged???most?notably?those?of?research?faculty?members.?? 7   8The?provosts?in?attendance?committed?to?taking?these?issues?forward?to?the?G13?Provosts?who?meet?in?April?2010?and?to?a?national?meeting?of?all?provosts?in?the?autumn.???Comments?from?Walter?Stewart,?Facilitator:??As?has?been?noted,?those?who?attended?represented?a?range?of?roles?within?the?university.?A?very?wide?range?of?positions?on?the?issues?was?also?represented???ranging?from?those?who?would?be?happy?to??blow?the?whole?system?up??to?those?who?wished?to?incorporate?new?technologies?and?business?models?to?significantly?sustain?existing?structures.??No?one?in?attendance?expressed?an?opinion?that?nothing?needed?to?be?done.??No?one?said?all?was?just?fine?and?that?change?was?unnecessary.?The?day?concluded?in?an?atmosphere?of?good?will?and?belief?that?a?process?had?begun?that?could?make?the?changes?required?to?make?the?dissemination?of?Canadian?scholarship?both?powerful?and?sustainable.???The?consensus?reached?at?the?end?of?the?day?is?both?a?great?argument?for?change?and?a?major?asset?in?beginning?that?change.?There?is?will?and?there?is?demand?for?senior?administration?to?lead?a?process?in?which?all?can?engage.?It?would,?however,?be?a?mistake?to?over?estimate?the?depth?of?consensus.??If?the?task?force?is?appointed,?it?will?face?a?strong?challenge?charting?a?course?among?revolutionaries?and?incrementalists?and?those?who?wish?to?tinker?to?preserve?and?those?who?are?committed?to?building?anew.?Its?ability?to?navigate?among?those?positions?and?to?engage?research?faculty?and?graduate?students?will?also?be?key?to?its?success?in?building?a?new?model?for?academic?publishing?in?Canada.?

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