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What is Scholarly Communication? Kirchner, Joy Apr 8, 2010

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Joy Kirchner Collections, Licensing & Digital Scholarship UBC Library What is Scholarly Communication? Eventually, Steve looked up.  His mother was nowhere in sight and this was certainly no longer the toy department.        Gary Larson Agenda • Definition of Scholarly Communication • Intellectual Property – Author rights & Copyright • Sustainability & Economics of Scholarly Publishing • Open Access & Public Access to Research • New Models of Scholarship Definition Scholarly communications covers a broad range of activities, including the discovery, collection, organization, evaluation, interpretation and preservation of primary and other sources of information, and the publication and dissemination of scholarly research.“ Mellon Foundation, 2008 AnnualReport, 30 The Scholarly Communications System incorporates and expands on the more familiar  concept of scholarly publishing and includes both informal and formal networks used by scholars to develop ideas, exchange information, build and mine data, certify research, publish findings, disseminate results, and preserve outputs. This vast and changing system is central to the academic enterprise. – Lee Van Orsdel Scholarly communication—the process used by scholars to share the results of their research—is fast approaching a crossroads. – Cornell Scholarly communication is an umbrella term used to describe the process of academics, scholars and researchers sharing and publishing their research findings so that they are available to the wider academic community (such as university academics) and beyond.  - Wikipedia Scholarly communications is the process by which scholarship is produced, supported, managed, and communicated, and includes all those involved in supporting the life-cycle of scholarship....  Joy Kirchner Iterations in the life cycle of scholarship Idea research peer review data publication dissemination manuscript preservation expansion/reformulation copy editing copyrights assignment Mentorship roles in the academy Formulation Registration Certification Dissemination Preservation Iterations in the life cycle of scholarship major participants in that life cycle researchers authors foundations scholarly societies federal agencies universities publishers libraries taxpaying public Academic LibraryPublisher Editor Peer Reviewers Creation Manuscript & IP Dissemination Publication (Registration and Certification) Reformulation cost Academic Library budget Publisher Editor Peer Reviewers Creation IP Dissemination Publication (Registration and Certification) pressure points Reformulation Disruption #1: Unsustainbility of the economic model revenue in 2006 STM sector D at a fro m  D at a fro m  O ut se ll O ut se ll ’’ ss 20 06  S TM  m ar ke t r ep or t  2 00 6 ST M  m ar ke t r ep or t 84% of total revenue 15.7% of total revenue Data from Outsell’s 2006 STM market report Els evi er Klu we r H eal th Spr ing er Am er C hem  So c Joh n W iley Bla ckw ell me rge d w ith Wil ey 200 7 oth er 1 ,19 5 p ubl ish ers Dysfunction rooted in problematic economic model  Steelmakers Auto manufacturers Consumers Steel $ Cars $ normal economy Author Library JournalArticle Publisher $$ gift economy P&T Grants Reputation Prestige Universities Taxpayer Publisher IP wholesale transfer of rights creates scarcity/monopoly drives prices up (inelastic market) Average serial price up 227% Average book price up 65% CPI up 57% The result: Scholarly communications reform includes efforts to establish balanced, sustainable economic models Disruption 2:  Web Academic LibraryPublisher Editor Reviewers most scholarly publications still mimic print:  linear, formal, publisher-coordinated internet creation publication dissemination reformulation scholars are beginning to exploit the power of the Web Iterations in the life cycle of scholarship Idea research peer review data publication dissemination manuscript preservation expansion/reformulation copy editing copyrights assignment internet creation publication dissemination reformulation PUB ED P-R LIB internet creation publication dissemination reformulation Publishers editor Peer-reviewers Libraries Disaggregation of traditional system?   new models are popping up repositories e-journals working papers data banks preprints 㻤㻵㻯㻒㻬㼗㼋㼄㼎㼄㻃㻵㼈㼓㼒㼕㼗㻃䇬㻃䇵㻦㼘㼕㼕㼈㼑㼗㻃㻰㼒㼇㼈㼏㼖㻃㼒㼉㻃㻧㼌㼊㼌㼗㼄㼏㻃㻶㼆㼋㼒㼏㼄㼕㼏㼜㻃㻦㼒㼐㼐㼘㼑㼌㼆㼄㼗㼌㼒㼑䇶 http://www.arl.org/bm~doc/current-models-report.pdf Faculty choices, original, scholarly, evaluated Disruption 3: Open Movement disruption: Open Movement power of ‘open’ disruption: Open Movement access grows impact disruption: Open Movement taxpayers should have access to the research they fund disruption: Open Movement universities create new knowledge for the good of society disruption: Open Movement there’s more than one way to fund a scholarly distribution system What do we mean by open? Open to contributions and participation Open and free to access Open to use & reuse w/few or no restrictions Transparency Open to contributions and participation As opposed to… Open and free to access As opposed to… Open to use and reuse with few or no restrictions As opposed to… Transparency As opposed to… Commonalities • Generally enabled by technology • Works both inside and outside of traditional models • Supported by a variety of business models Open movements • Open access –Public access • Open source • Open education • Open data • Open science • Open books • Open peer review…. Open access literature is digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Peter Suber Open Access By 'open access‘ to literature, we mean its free availability on the public internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. The only constraint on reproduction and distribution, and the only role for copyright in this domain, should be to give authors control over the integrity of their work and the right to be properly acknowledged and cited. -Budapest Open Access Initiative- 2002 Some common misconceptions • Open access means no copyright • Open access is free • Open access always means the author pays • Open access will destroy peer review • Open access will destroy publishers 2 Paths to Open Access manuscript …. Open Access journal (PLOS Medicine; Biomedcentral, DOAJ) Open access copy in online archive (cIRcle; Pubmed Central) Traditional subscription  access journals Articles can be made OA by publishing in an OA journal or self archiving OA copies from a traditional publication gold New Models of Scholarship green Open Access Publishing (‘Gold’) • Publication that is free & open for anyone to access • Share all characteristics with “Toll Access” journals except free, open, and generally only electronic • Supported by variety of models – Institution / funder supported OR author-supported (2006 – 47% author supported) • Generally allow authors to retain copyright and/or license under creative commons • 4380 number of OA journals according to Directory of Open Access Journals across all disciplines Examples Open Access via Archiving/Repositories (‘Green’) • Literature published through traditional channels that is made openly available through deposit in a repository or placing on web site • Institutional, departmental, or discipline based repository • Range of publisher policies on deposit – Often post-prints (final author manuscript) can be deposited but publisher version cannot Disciplinary Repository  㻫㼜㼅㼕㼌㼇㻃㼒㼓㼈㼑㻃㼄㼆㼆㼈㼖㼖 • American Chemical Society • American Institute of Physics • American Physical Society • BMJ (British Medical Journal) • Blackwell • Cambridge University Press • Elsevier • Oxford University Press • Royal Society (UK) • SAGE Open • Springer • Taylor and Francis The author is given the option to pay a publication charge to make his or her article Open Access immediately on publication. Access to articles by authors who choose not to pay (and other content) require a subscription. Open Source • Free to download • Open to modify • Contribute back code Open Content • Licensed to permit reuse & remixing • Anything that’s copyrightable can become open content: images, text, music, video • Open content license examples include Creative Commons, GNU General Public License, Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) Open Content – MIT Visualizing Cultures Open Education Open Data • Open access to data not just papers • Data should be available in reusable forms (not tied up in pdfs for example) – Data wants to be acted upon • Working Group on Open Data in Science (http://okfn.org/wiki/wg/science) and Science Commons (http://sciencecommons.org/) Open Data Examples Dynamic, constantly updated, in progress Evaluation criteria Open Data Examples (Partnerships with the community) Open Science New tools Summary • Principle of openness not just about ‘free’ – Ability to reuse – Ability to contribute to and participate in – Transparency • Multiple methods for open access and multiple business models to support • Public access generally different argument than open access • Range of movements around ‘openness’ in higher education Pressure for change: • 132 PROVOSTS support Open Access: http://www.arl.org/sparc/advocacy/frpaa/institutions.html “If universities pay the salaries of researchers and provide them with labs, and the federal government provides those researchers with grants for their studies, why should those same universities feel they can’t afford to have access to research findings?” http://insidehighered.com/news/2006/07/28/provosts • Researchers are putting pressure on Societies: (e.g. Royal Society members); PLoS’ Open letter: http://www.plos.org/support/openletter.shtml • OA publications are more often cited: Eysenbach G. Citation advantage of open access articles. PLoS Biol 2006;4(5):e157. Other Pressures: Mandates to Encourage OA from Government Agencies In Canada: • Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) – as of Jan 1, 2008: Research must be deposited in an Institutional Repository or Pubmed Central within 6 months of publication. • (SSHRC, NSERC …) Elsewhere worldwide: • As of October 1, 2006, all Wellcome Trust funded research must be deposited in PubMed Central: • U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) – deposited in OA within 12 months of publication as of April 7, 2008. • Federal Research Public Access Act of 2006 (Senate Bill 2695) • U.K. House of Commons Science & Technology Committee • European Union & DAREnet Faculty(Institutional) Mandates: ie. Harvard’s OA Policy We are nearing the point where it will be unusual for any leading institution or funder not to have a mandate! 212 listed in ROARMAP http://www.eprints.org/openaccess/policysignup Eg.University of Ottawa,  University College London, Harvard, Stanford, MIT,  and others Wellcome Trust, NIH, CIHR Researcher benefits • **Visibility and impact of research • **Gives an indicator of the impact of your research is having in your field, helps identify who is reading your work and encourages impact to be more related to the merit of your work and not the name of the journal it is finally published • Safe, backed-up secure place to store research output • Persistent web address for citing research • Ease with complying & fulfilling grant funding OA mandates • **Allows University to negotiate author rights and deposit in OA repository directly with publishers on behalf of authors • Easier to keep abreast of latest research findings  and connections with others work at your institution. • Reduce your workload managing your portfolio of scholarly works • Improve your understanding of copyright and increased awareness of your rights and maximize the return of your efforts • Offers new opportunities for publishing your work • Makes possible easy to access materials previously only available in print Institutional benefits • Visibility and impact of research • Fosters and facilitates greater interdisciplinary collaboration • Serves strategic goals of university of greater international impact and collaboration and return on investment • Contributes to University mission and values (i.e. access to research in the service of society) • Effective management of research programmes • A means to measure and assess research programmes • A tool to support internal & external driven audits of research activity (i.e.. External reviews, accreditation) • Strategic marketing tool; showcases research to funders, donors, prospective researchers and students • Provide new opportunities for preserving and archiving valuable digital works • Provide meaningful reports on scholarly work - act as a barometer of research activity in a particular field • Improve the accuracy and completeness of the institution’s record of scholarly works Be prepared for common OA misconceptions Misconceptions that an OA policy will: • negatively impact academic societies or journal publications particularly low cost humanities journals • is not easy to comply with • is not good for authors • negatively interfere with author’s freedom to publish where they choose. • impact junior faculty members’ tenure • will affect peer-review. • will force publishers to change business models. • will force faculty to publish in OA journals. • only support STM needs not other disciplines • negatively impact researcher competitive advantage – research will be scooped. We refuse to accept a future of digital feudalism where we do not actually own the products we buy, but we are merely granted limited uses of them as long as we pay the rent. We will make, share, adapt, and promote open content. We will listen to free music, look at free art, watch free film, and read free books. All the while, we will contribute, discuss, annotate, critique, improve, improvise, remix, mutate, and add yet more ingredients into the free culture soup. We believe that culture should be a two-way affair, about participation, not merely consumption. We will not be content to sit passively at the end of a one-way media tube. mission …is to build a bottom-up, participatory structure to society and culture, rather than a top-down, closed, proprietary structure. Through the democratizing power of digital technology and the Internet, we can place the tools of creation and distribution, communication and collaboration, teaching and learning into the hands of the common person http://oaweek.scholcomm.ubc.ca/ Questions? Comments? This work was created by Joy Kirchner,  Lee Van Orsdel, Sarah L Shreeves for the ACRL National Conference, Scholarly Communications 101 Workshop and last updated April 8,2010. It is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution- Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 United States License. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/


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