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Toward the Nodal Library Atkey, Susan; Campbell, Larry; Colenbrander, Hilde; Foster, Patricia; Hives, Chris; Kirchner, Joy; Yan-Mountain, May 2009

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Toward the Nodal Library  A Discussion Paper on the future of the UBC Library in the  emerging eLibrary environment.  Prepared by the eLibrary Discussion Paper Working Group  Larry Campbell Susan Atkey Hilde Colenbrander Patricia Foster Chris Hives Joy Kirchner May Yan-Mountain  November 2, 2006.  Toward the Nodal Libra r y  Toward the Noda l L ib r a r y  2  - Execu t i v e Summary  Under the impac t of d i s r up t i v e change , coming i n the wake of new deve l opmen t s i n i n f o rma t i o n techno l o gy , the t r a d i t i o n a l def i n i t i o n of the l i b r a r y i n te rms of a repos i t o r y or co l l e c t i o n i s becoming stead i l y l e ss v iab l e . A new def i n i t i o n or model i s needed i n s t e ad - - tha t of the l i b r a r y as a node i n an i n f o rma t i o n networ k , prov i d i n g a lo ca l or reg i o na l lo cus of i n f o rma t i o n serv i c e s , access po in t s , and metai n f o rma t i o n a l expe r t i s e , commonly (bu t not necessa r i l y ) assoc i a t e d wi t h a phys i c a l co l l e c t i o n . Two themes tha t immedia t e l y fo l l ow f r om th i s model - - the media t i o n of ne two rk in f o rma t i o n to the l o ca l communi t y (wh i ch may be as l a r g e as a nat i o n a l reg i o n or as smal l as a campus or ne ighbou rhood ) , and the media t i o n of l o ca l i n f o rma t i o n to the netwo rk - - are examined in more deta i l . Th is i n vo l v e s , i n the f i r s t case , the l i b r a r y as i n f o rma t i o n broke r and arch i t e c t , as wel l as persona l i n f o rma t i o n app l i a n ce and i n f o rma t i o n consu l t a n c y . In the second case , i t i n vo l v e s the l i b r a r y as cura t o r of d ig i t a l in f o rma t i o n co l l e c t i o n s , whethe r of i t s own d ig i t i z e d resou r ce s or of mater i a l co l l e c t e d f r om i t s communi t y , as wel l as an i n f o rma t i o n d i ssemina t o r or pub l i s h e r , and as a l abe l fo r a decomposab l e assemblage of se rv i c e s and resou r ces tha t can be made ava i l a b l e to the network themse l ve s . Two fu r t h e r themes , re l a t e d to the ques t i o n of the changes requ i r e d by the new model , are d i scussed : the ongo ing ro l e of the phys i c a l co l l e c t i o n , which rema ins of grea t prac t i c a l impor t a n ce but which has requ i r emen t s tha t are qu i t e d i s t i n c t f r om those of networ ked in f o rma t i o n ; and the v i t a l impor t a n ce of access to , and prov i s i o n of , so- ca l l e d "pu re data " - - meaning s imp l y data s t r i p p e d of i t s presen t a t i o n a l wrapp ings - - fo r the fu l l deve l opmen t of the noda l l i b r a r y as such . Af t e r th i s qu i ck l ook at where we as an in s t i t u t i o n need to be, we examine even more qu i ck l y where we are now. A number of promis i n g s igns at UBC L ib r a r y in par t i c u l a r are noted , in c l u d i n g a co l l a b o r a t i o n wi t h the Medica l Facu l t y in cur r i c u l um des i gn , a mul t i - year prog ram fo r the rep l a cemen t of pr i n t jou r na l s wi t h on l i n e vers i o n s , a range of o ld and new d ig i t i z a t i o n pro j e c t s , and the ear l y deve l opmen t of a func t i o n a l i f p iecemea l in f o rma t i o n i n f r a s t r u c t u r e based on ColdFus i o n . Along wi t h those encourag i n g s igns , however , the re are a lso a number tha t are somewhat d is courag i n g , many of which appear to der i v e f r om , or at l eas t be assoc i a t e d wi t h , the enormous f i n an c i a l , and the r e f o r e organ i z a t i o n a l , burden of i t s l egacy " I n t e g r a t e d L ib r a r y Sys tem" , des igned to serve the needs of the l i b r a r y as phys i ca l co l l e c t i o n . Th is i s a genera l cond i t i o n wi t h which a l l l i b r a r i e s are st r u gg l i n g i n var i o u s ways, however , and a number of othe r s are a lso f i n d i n g i nnova t i v e ways to beg in the process of break i n g the o ld mold - - some examples are s imp l y l i s t e d . Fina l l y , then , we l ook i n very genera l te rms at what we need to do to ensure tha t we get f r om where we are now to where we need to be. The dec i s i o n tha t our pr ima r y bus i ness i s in f o rma t i o n ra t he r than co l l e c t i o n wi l l requ i r e s t r a t e g i c bo ldness , and wi l l l ead to some fa r reach i n g ef f e c t s i n organ i z a t i o n , po l i c y , and prac t i c e . A bo ld approach on a s t r a t e g i c le ve l , however , wi l l need to be matched wi t h an  Toward the Nodal Libra r y  3  exp l o r a t o r y and h igh l y f l e x i b l e approach on a ta c t i c a l or imp l emen ta t i o n l e ve l , as new deve l opmen t s can a lways rende r any par t i c u l a r pro j e c t qu i ck l y obso le t e . With i n th i s f r amework , some genera l bu t s t i l l conc re t e steps are sugges t ed over shor t - and longe r te rm t ime l i n e s . In the end , i t ' s recogn i z ed tha t the fu t u r e i sn ' t someth i ng to be mere l y env i s i o n ed , i t ' s someth i n g tha t must be bu i l t - and tha t do ing so , desp i t e the d i f f i c u l t y of re l i n q u i s h i n g some of the pas t , wi l l pos i t i o n the l i b r a r y as a fac i l i t y at the hear t of the emerg i ng In f o rma t i o n Soc ie t y , and l i b r a r i a n s among i t s l eade r s .  Toward the Nodal Library Node : Any po in t  in a networ k tha t  In t r o du c t i o n :  can i n f l u e n ce the f l ow of data on tha t  network .  Env i s i o n i n g the Futu r e  What comes to mind when you hear a phrase l i k e " t h e l i b r a r y of the fu t u r e " ? Some sor t of st r e am l i n e d , Ar t Deco- ed, Je t son ' s k ind of th i n g , perhaps? Robot l i b r a r i a n s , f l o a t i n g books , v i r t u a l - rea l i t y card ca ta l o gues , etc . ? Wel l , perhaps not . The phrase i t s e l f , af t e r a l l , has an i r o n i c a l l y re t r o , o ld - fash i o ned r i n g to i t now - - fo r good reason , we've become susp i c i o u s of the sor t of gush i ng , hype- r i d den fu t u r i sm tha t of t en seems j u s t to exagge ra t e the obv i ous and miss the s ign i f i c a n t . And ye t . . . how are we to dea l wi t h the fu t u r e at a l l i f we don ' t make some ef f o r t to imag i ne i t ? And then how, exac t l y , would we go abou t do ing tha t - - env i s i o n i n g the fu t u r e of the l i b r a r y ? Let ' s cons i de r two poss i b i l i t i e s . One i s to sta r t f r om where we are , and ext r apo l a t e t r e nds tha t we see i n our sur r ound i n g s and our recen t pas t . Th is has a k ind of natu r a l , grounded , common- sens i c a l appea l tha t can be a use fu l ant i d o t e to the f l u r r y of buzzwords and abs t r a c t i o n s tha t so of t e n charac t e r i z e s d is cuss i o n s of " t h e fu t u r e " of any th i n g . But i t a l so has ce r t a i n l im i t a t i o n s - - in par t i c u l a r , i t requ i r e s some assumpt i o n s , exp l i c i t or imp l i c i t , abou t the natu r e of the change process i t s e l f : not tha t i t need be " l i n e a r " , exac t l y , but tha t i t i s , i n some def i n ed manner , con t i n u ous . What i f , i n s t e ad , the k ind of change we face i s d i s con t i n uous - - abrup t , sudden , or "d i s r u p t i v e " , underm in i n g what we've seen to date , dash i ng expec ta t i o n s , and break i n g up ex i s t i n g pat t e r n s and t r e nds? Change doesn ' t a lways come i n th i s fo rm , of cou rse , but occas i o na l l y i t does , and on a l l sca l e s . Haven ' t we, i n fac t , been th r ough one such upheava l , wi t h the adven t of the graph i c a l web browse r in the mid 90 ' s , a l t e r i n g fundamenta l l y the way i n which peop le accessed i n f o rma t i o n ? And now, j u s t a decade l a t e r , migh t we not be in the mids t of anothe r one, wi t h the rap i d pro l i f e r a t i o n of the so- ca l l e d "Web 2.0 " phenomenon 1, chang ing not j u s t the way peop le access i n f o rma t i o n bu t the way they re l a t e to i t , put t i n g in ques t i o n the or i g i n s , uses , s t r u c t u r e , and ve ry natu r e of i n f o rma t i o n ? I f tha t ' s the s i t u a t i o n we' r e i n , or even c l ose to i t , then ano the r way of imag i n i n g the fu t u r e - - one tha t focuses not t r e nds as on imp l i c a t i o n s , and s ta r t s not wi t h where we are where we want or need to be. Thi s focus ta kes us out s i d e of  we need so much on but wi t h the l i b r a r y  Toward the Nodal Libra r y  4  and i t s su r r ound i n g s , and looks at the changes i nhe r en t in the cu l t u r e at la r ge , such as: • the emergence of a new i n f o rma t i o n eco logy , in which t r ad i t i o n a l sources of autho r i t y (c r eden t i a l e d exper t s , recogn i z ed re f e r e n ce works , news media ) are be ing pushed as i de by an asso r tmen t of prob l ema t i c but r i c h and var i e d sources l i k e b logs and wik i s , the pre - eminen t , t r a n s f o rma t i o n a l example be ing the Wik i ped i a 2; • mass d ig i t i z a t i o n pro j e c t s l i k e Google Books (and s im i l a r European i n i t i a t i v e s ) , once though t to be imposs i b l e , or to requ i r e cen tu r i e s ; • the rap i d l y spread i ng access to wi re l e s s broadband , and the r i s e of the a lways - on, a lways - connec t ed soc i e t y ; • the emergence of a new k ind of i n f o rma t i o n user , or consumer produce r , wi t h expec ta t i o n s cond i t i o n e d by Google - Amazon- eBay; • the appea rance of d i sc i p l i n e - based " i n f o rma t i c s " to manage the sca l e and complex i t y of the data be ing genera t ed 3; • new, more complex modes of scho l a r l y communica t i o n othe r than the t r a d i t i o n a l peer - rev i ewed jou r na l , and new k inds of resea r ch behav i o r 4 • the pro l i f e r a t i o n of the d ig i t a l equ i va l e n t of "g r ey l i t e r a t u r e " or ephemera , as i nd i v i d u a l and organ i z a t i o n a l webs i t e s come and go; • the r i s e of new k inds of i n f o rma t i o n spaces , or "cybe r spaces " , such as VR wor l d s l i k e "Second L i f e " , soc i a l wor l d s l i k e "MySpace" , geograph i c a l wor l d s l i k e Google Maps, image / sound / v i d e o wor l d s such as Fl i c k r / i T u n e s / YouTube , et c . ; • the grow ing i s sues and grow ing complex i t y of the i s sues around "d i g i t a l r i g h t s " , and the in c r e as i n g impor t a n ce of the var i o u s "open access " in i t i a t i v e s tha t are s t r u gg l i n g to come to te rms wi t h , or in some ways to c i r c umven t , those i s sues . And these are on l y some of the examples or por t en t s of fa r - reach i n g changes afoo t , as ever - i n c r ea s i n g amounts of in f o rma t i o n , serv i c e s , work , p lay , and communi t y a l l are sh i f t e d to the v i r t u a l rea lms of the g loba l networ k . What does a sh i f t of tha t natu r e and magni t u de , then , imp l y fo r the l i b r a r y as an i n s t i t u t i o n ? Not an easy ques t i o n to answer , obv ious l y , but at t emp t i n g to do so may l ead us to ask ourse l v e s what a l i b r a r y i s i n the f i r s t p lace . Trad i t i o n a l l y , the very meaning of the word " l i b r a r y " i s bound up wi t h the no t i o n of " r epos i t o r y " or "co l l e c t i o n " , and th i s assoc i a t i o n may wel l be unbreakab l e . But i f so , then i t ' s l i k e l y tha t the l i b r a r y ' s fu t u r e , as a d i s t i n g u i s h ab l e soc i a l i n s t i t u t i o n , i s one of sta t e l y but s teady dec l i n e in cu l t u r a l re l e vance . Not because the r e won ' t be a need fo r in f o rma t i o n sto r age , but j u s t because such s to r age wi l l i n c r ea s i n g l y take such a var i e t y of f l u i d and in t a n g i b l e fo rms , so sub l im i n a l , so i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the soc i a l and techn i c a l fab r i c of our l i v e s , tha t one would no more th i n k of go ing to a par t i c u l a r repos i t o r y fo r in f o rma t i o n than one would th i n k , any l onge r , of go ing to a communi t y wel l fo r wate r . Which , in a la r ge r perspec t i v e - - and wi t h due respec t fo r the waning of ano the r i n s t i t u t i o n and i t s assoc i a t e d pro f e ss i o n - - may be ju s t f i n e , af t e r a l l ; the i n s t i t u t i o n served us wel l i n i t s t ime , would go the sen t imen t , but i t s t ime i s pas t , or pass i n g .  Toward the Nodal Libra r y  5  And ye t . . . i n th i s networ ked wor l d , the to r r e n t of i n f o rma t i o n produced , t r a n spo r t e d , and consumed, of a l l k inds , and at a l l sca l e s or l e ve l s , con t i n u e s to i n c r ea se at unpreceden t ed ra t e s , cons t an t l y th r ea t e n i n g to drown us a l l in data , c l a ims , suppos i t i o n s , ques t i o n s , er r o r s , repo r t s , documents , t r i v i a , fac t s , and dub ious " f a c t s " . Cer t a i n l y , i nd i v i d u a l s and groups d i r e c t l y i n vo l v e d make in c r e a s i n g l y s t r e nuous and of t e n ingen i o u s ef f o r t s to cope wi t h the de luge , and cer t a i n l y Google and i t s l i k e are do ing every t h i n g they can th i n k of ( i n c l u d i n g sp i nn i n g of f a var i e t y of serv i c e s , produc t s , and pro j e c t s in perpe t ua l be ta ) to prov i d e broad , gener i c , h igh - l e ve l con t r o l sys t ems and access mechan i sms . But desp i t e a l l these good ef f o r t s , in f o rma t i o n , t ime and energy are i n c r e as i n g l y be ing l o s t or wasted i n th i s d ig i t a l f l o o d i n g - - what ' s needed i s an ent i r e soc i a l / c u l t u r a l in f r a s t r u c t u r e , capab l e of managing i n f o rma t i o n and prov i d i n g in f o rma t i o n a l serv i c e s i n a var i e t y of fo rms and le ve l s , across d i ve r s e communi t i e s , over long t ime - f r ames . What i s needed , i n othe r words , i s someth i n g very much l i k e l i b r a r i e s , but l i b r a r i e s focused on, and organ i z ed around , not i n f o rma t i o n repos i t o r i e s but i n f o rma t i o n j u s t as such . In th i s sense , l i b r a r i e s would no l onge r be seen as re l a t i v e l y autonomous i n s t i t u t i o n s wi t h the i r s tand - a lone and heav i l y redundan t co l l e c t i o n s , but ra t he r as nodes i n an i n f o rma t i o n networ k , st r ong l y connec t ed to the whole , but prov i d i n g a l o ca l or reg i o na l lo cus of serv i c e s , access po in t s , and meta - i n f o rma t i o n a l exper t i s e , of t e n (bu t not necessa r i l y ) assoc i a t e d wi t h a phys i ca l co l l e c t i o n as an ad junc t . In tha t sense , the fu t u r e of the l i b r a r y i s as open and expans i v e as the networ k i t s e l f . The sec t i o n s tha t fo l l ow assume tha t " l i b r a r y " i s def i n ed in the second , noda l sense , and ask a ser i e s of ques t i o n s - - s ta r t i n g wi t h where we ( "we " be ing the co l l e c t i v e sense of the l i b r a r y as an i n s t i t u t i o n ) want or need to be, as imp l i e d by the k ind of changes underway i n the cu l t u r e at l a r g e ; coming back to l ook at where we are now, i n both pos i t i v e and nega t i v e aspec t s ; and f i n a l l y ask i ng what we need to do to get to where we need to be. We hope i t ' s need le ss to say tha t the answers prov i d ed be low those ques t i o n s are i n no sense f i n a l or conc l u s i v e - - they ' r e i n t e nded ra t he r as though t s , obser va t i o n s , and sugges t i o n s , and the r e f o r e as j u s t the sta r t (o r so we a l so hope) of a use fu l conve r sa t i o n .  Where do we need to be? I f we take ser i o u s l y the i dea of the l i b r a r y as a node i n an i n f o rma t i o n networ k , then two main themes qu i ck l y become apparen t : the f i r s t i s the l i b r a r y ' s ro l e i n media t i n g network i n f o rma t i o n , a long wi t h va lue - added serv i c e s , to i t s communi t y ; and the othe r i s the rec i p r o c a l ro l e of prov i d i n g l o ca l 5 i n f o rma t i o n , i n standa rd i z e d fo rma t , to the networ k . Let ' s l ook more c lo se l y at some of what these enta i l : 1. Media t i ng network in fo rmat i on to the community One aspec t of th i s theme i s ac tua l l y qu i t e o ld and fami l i a r - - th i s i s the l i b r a r y i n the ro l e of i n f o rma t i o n "b ro ke r " , nego t i a t i n g and purchas i n g l i c e n ced access to impor t a n t prop r i e t a r y resou r ces fo r i t s autho r i z e d users . (L i b r a r i e s have become accus t omed to th i n k i n g of the  Toward the Nodal Libra r y  6  resou r ce s so l i c e n ced as par t of the i r "co l l e c t i o n " , even though they don ' t , as a ru l e , s to r e them themse l ve s , don ' t have access r i g h t s beyond the nego t i a t e d t ime f r ame , and of t e n canno t con t r o l which i nd i v i d u a l i t ems are in c l u d ed i n the nego t i a t e d access package - - i t seems both c lea r e r and more t r u e to v iew them as cen t r a l l y co l l e c t e d resou r ce s to which the l i b r a r y s imp l y media t e s or broke r s access . ) For much of the h i s t o r y of the l i b r a r y ' s i n vo l v emen t wi t h such resou r ce s , however , they were ent i r e l y separa t e f r om one ano the r , and users would , fo r example , ra t h e r l abo r i o u s l y have to co l l e c t c i t a t i o n s f r om one database and then search fo r fu l l - tex t sources i n ano the r . The adven t of the OpenURL standa rd of f e r e d the poss i b i l i t y of automa ted l i n k i n g across d i f f e r e n t produc t s and vendo rs , f r om meta- data source to i n f o rma t i o n ta r ge t , and on l y requ i r e d a one- t ime se t - up wi t h each source database . More recen t l y , OCLC has es tab l i s h e d a reg i s t r y 6 which , a long wi t h a new, more l i g h twe i g h t pro t o co l fo r i n se r t i n g OpenURLs i n l i n k s ( COinS 7) , wi l l make th i s sor t of l i n k i n g between d ive r s e resou r ces ava i l a b l e fo r any th i n g : b logs , wik i s , academic papers , etc . With these and fu r t h e r deve l opment s a long these l i n e s , we see the l i b r a r y ' s ro l e as i n f o rma t i o n broke r becoming i n c r e as i n g l y in v i s i b l e , as i t becomes more deep l y embedded i n the in f o rma t i o n in f r a s t r u c t u r e of the soc i e t y at l a r g e . Anothe r aspec t of the same theme, however , i s qu i t e v i s i b l e - - th i s i s the l i b r a r y i n the ro l e of i n f o rma t i o n or knowledge "a r ch i t e c t " , bu i l d i n g and main t a i n i n g i n t e r f a c e s to netwo rk i n f o rma t i o n approp r i a t e fo r i t s par t i c u l a r communi t i e s . Such i n t e r f a c e s may be search boxes , browsab l e d isp l a y s , or both , and may combine the outpu t of mul t i p l e networ k resou r ces . And here aga in , we've seen in i t i a l moves a long these l i n e s fo r a whi l e now, i n every t h i n g f r om s imp le "A to Z l i s t s " of resou r ce s , th r ough home- grown database search func t i o n a l i t y , to more complex , but s t i l l l im i t e d and prob l em- r i d den commerc i a l "metasea r ch " produc t s . But by and la r g e these are a l l j u s t aspec t s or por t i o n s of the l i b r a r y ' s i n t e r f a c e , s tand i ng apar t f r om one ano the r , and stuck l i k e i so l a t e d cand le s in a sta t i c , one- s i ze - f i t s - a l l web s i t e ; i t ' s i n c r ea s i n g l y ev i den t tha t what ' s rea l l y needed i s a much more f l e x i b l e i n t e r f a c e - - or , bet t e r ye t , i n t e r f a c e in f r a s t r u c t u r e - - tha t can : • accommodate a wide range of resou r ces , t ypes of resou r ce s , func t i o n a l i t i e s , serv i c e s , et c . , in a coheren t , cons i s t e n t presen t a t i o n ; • be eas i l y and qu i ck l y con f i g u r a b l e to suppo r t d i f f e r e n t uses or s i t u a t i o n s - - e.g . , user t ypes , sub je c t area or d i sc i p l i n e , c la sses , sub- communi t i e s , et c . ; • be persona l i z e d , so ind i v i d u a l s can i n ef f e c t cra f t the i r own i n t e r f a c e , cu t t i n g across a l l the d i f f e r e n t t ypes , sub j e c t s , subcommuni t i e s , etc . i n which they ' r e i n vo l v e d . In th i s sense , the r e would no l onge r be a s i ng l e l i b r a r y webs i t e , apar t perhaps f r om a fa i r l y gener i c , brochu re - l i k e defau l t , but ra t he r a l i b r a r y web i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , tha t would be capab l e of genera t i n g a var i e t y of web s i t e s to su i t the needs of par t i c u l a r communi t i e s , s i t u a t i o n s , or uses . A th i r d aspec t i s s t r o ng l y re l a t e d to the one above , but i s a new and s ign i f i c a n t enough deve l opmen t to warran t separa t e t r ea tmen t - - th i s i s the l i b r a r y i n the ro l e of persona l i n f o rma t i o n app l i a n ce , where " i n f o rma t i o n " i s now cons t r u ed i n the more i n t e r a c t i v e and mal l e ab l e  Toward the Nodal Libra r y  7  "web 2.0 " sense . This i s a rap i d l y muta t i n g in f o rma t i o n env i r o nmen t , i n vo l v i n g e lemen t s tha t migh t seem, odd l y , both fami l i a r and s t r a nge : tags , comments , "mash- ups" , feeds , et c . - - con ten t tha t ' s not j u s t user - con t r o l l e d , i n othe r words , but user - supp l i e d . Such a deve lopmen t fo r l i b r a r i e s goes beyond ju s t l e t t i n g users add rev i ews to ca ta l o gue reco rd s - - i t means prov i d i n g users wi t h a k ind of sharab l e work - space wi t h i n which they have access to l i b r a r y - media t ed netwo rk resou r ces and func t i o n a l i t y , and to which they ' r e ab le to add i n f o rma t i o n of the i r own which then becomes, poten t i a l l y , ava i l a b l e to the networ k . Users , i n such an env i r o nmen t , can become the i r own l i b r a r i a n s af t e r a fash i o n , bu i l d i n g the i r own co l l e c t i o n s of i n f o rma t i o n resou r ce s to be shared wi t h othe r s ( f o r ear l y examples of th i s sor t of th i n g , see de l . i c i o . u s 8 or L ib r a r yTh i n g 9) . Th is aspec t i s a good i l l u s t r a t i o n of the noda l l i b r a r y media t i n g the two - way f l ow of i n f o rma t i o n , and crea t i n g communi t i e s as i t does so . A fou r t h (and fo r now f i n a l ) aspec t of the l i b r a r y media t i n g netwo rk i n f o rma t i o n p ick s up on th i s theme of two- way f l ow - - i t in vo l v e s the l i b r a r y in the ro l e of i n f o rma t i o n consu l t a n c y . Th is i s rea l l y ju s t an ex tens i o n of one of the o ldes t and most fam i l i a r of l i b r a r y serv i c e s : re f e r e n ce . But as scho l a r l y and resea r ch behav i o r s beg in to change under the impac t of the networ ked soc i e t y - - as vas t quan t i t i e s of i n f o rma t i o n are genera t ed and s im i l a r l y vas t quan t i t i e s become ava i l a b l e as i npu t - - re f e r e n ce serv i c e s too wi l l need to evo l ve . Sub jec t i n f o rma t i o n spec i a l i s t s wi l l need to be more i n vo l v e d wi t h resea r ch pro j e c t s and cur r i c u l um des i gn f r om ear l y stages , and so wi l l have to become more fam i l i a r wi t h the i n f o rma t i c s of par t i c u l a r d i sc i p l i n e s whi l e s t i l l main t a i n i n g a cross - d is c i p l i n a r y , "meta i n f o rma t i c s " v iew tha t keeps them i n touch wi t h the broade r i n f o rma t i o n processes of the networ ked env i r o nmen t . This may i n vo l v e , among othe r th i n g s , the i n t e g r a t i o n of in f o rma t i o n l i t e r a c y educa t i o n i n t o the work f l ows of s tuden t s and scho l a r s , the crea t i v e exp l o r a t i o n and use of new too l s and fo rma t s tha t become ava i l a b l e (e . g . , b logs , wik i s , "mashups" ) , and the sh i f t away f r om a reac t i v e , "pa t r o n comes to us" model of re f e r e n ce toward a more proac t i v e , embedded and engaged model . And so the theme of two - way media t i o n re - appears , as spec i a l i z e d i n f o rma t i o n consu l t a n t s a id users both i n f i n d i n g the i r way th r ough i n f o rma t i o n mazes, and i n manag ing the i n f o rma t i o n they genera t e acco rd i n g to cu l t u r a l and networ k standa rd s (e . g . , metada ta , prese r va t i o n a l st r a t e g i e s , etc . ) . 2. Media t i ng community in fo rmat i on to the network The f i r s t example of th i s k i nd of media t i o n , f r om lo ca l in f o rma t i o n sources to networ k , i s a l so , by now, a fami l i a r one - - i t ' s the "d i g i t a l l i b r a r y " i n the nar r ow sense , in fac t , or the l i b r a r y in the ro l e of d ig i t a l , or d ig i t i z e d , co l l e c t i o n manager . The lo ca l i n f o rma t i o n sources , in th i s case , are t yp i c a l l y drawn f r om the l i b r a r y ' s own pr i n t or phys i c a l co l l e c t i o n s , and the l i b r a r y under t a kes the task of se l e c t i n g , d ig i t i z i n g , organ i z i n g , and presen t i n g those resou r ce s i n a ne two rk - access i b l e fo rm . This process has been go ing on, i n vary i n g degrees , at many l i b r a r i e s fo r a number of years now, and the resu l t has been a s low but steady accumula t i o n of a subs t an t i a l number of h igh - va lue co l l e c t i o n s poten t i a l l y access i b l e to anyone anywhere . But these co l l e c t i o n s have a l so been genera t ed i n a wide  Toward the Nodal Libra r y  8  var i e t y of fo rms , fo rma t s , d isp l a y s , access methods , meta- data desc r i p t i o n s , granu l a r i t y l e ve l s , and so fo r t h , a l l of which compromise the i r i n t e r - co l l e c t i o n coherence and hamper the i r actua l access i b i l i t y . Ef f o r t s l i k e those of the Open Arch i v e s In i t i a t i v e are a sta r t toward prov i d i n g some mutua l compat i b i l i t y between d ig i t a l co l l e c t i o n s , but much more wi l l be needed , both on nat i o n a l / g l o b a l le ve l s and on lo ca l l e ve l s , to ensure tha t the r i c h in f o rma t i o n sources be ing produced are fu l l y networ k - access i b l e i n browsab l e , searchab l e , cross - co l l e c t i o n in te r f a ces . At l eas t as impor t a n t as the d ig i t i z i n g of the l i b r a r y ' s own phys i c a l resou r ce s , however , i s the co l l e c t i o n , prese r va t i o n , and presen t a t i o n - - i n a word , the cura t i o n - - of the l o ca l communi t y ' s resou r ce s . L ib r a r i e s have l ong done th i s , i n a somewhat in f o rma l way, fo r l o ca l l y genera t e d pr i n t or phys i c a l resou r ces , of t e n ca l l e d "g r ey l i t e r a t u r e " , but even th i s i n f o rma l at t e n t i o n has usua l l y been l a ck i n g fo r s im i l a r k inds of i n f o rma t i o n resou r c es "bo rn d ig i t a l " - - the netwo rk equ i va l e n t of organ i z a t i o n a l , or even t - re l a t e d (o r even ind i v i d u a l ) brochu re s , pamphle t s , announcements , documents , etc . tha t of t e n car r y much of the deta i l of h is t o r y . L ib r a r i e s as lo ca l netwo rk nodes have an obv i ous respons i b i l i t y to deve l op sys t ema t i c approaches toward the management of th i s k ind of in f o rma t i o n , and the i n t e g r a t i o n of i t i n t o tha t genera l networ k i n t e r f a c e spoken of above - - a ro l e tha t l i b r a r i e s ' fund i n g sou rces need to apprec i a t e and prov i d e fo r as wel l , i t shou l d be sa id . For a cer t a i n k ind of lo ca l l y - produced d ig i t a l i n f o rma t i o n , i n fa c t , l i b r a r i e s (o f a cer t a i n t ype ) have a l r e ady been i n vo l v e d as cura t o r s , at leas t to some ex ten t - - th i s i s the resea r ch data , i n f o rma t i o n , and knowledge produced i n academic i n s t i t u t i o n s , and somewhat haphaza rd l y co l l e c t e d and main t a i n e d i n var i o u s vers i o n s of " i n s t i t u t i o n a l repos i t o r y " . To th i s po in t , the ro l e or func t i o n of the " i n s t i t u t i o n a l repos i t o r y " seems a b i t unc l ea r : shou l d i t s t r i v e pr ima r i l y fo r ease of access - - a searchab l e , browsab l e showcase of in s t i t u t i o n a l resou r ce s (a campus- wide ex tens i o n of the d ig i t a l l i b r a r y ) ? Or fo r in f o rma t i o n secu r i t y and reso l v ab i l i t y - - a l ong - te rm d ig i t a l arch i v e of i n s t i t u t i o n a l resou r ces? Or fo r comprehens i v eness - - an asso r tmen t of i n s t i t u t i o n a l d ig i t a l ob je c t s of a l l k inds , le ve l s , and media? I t migh t be tempt i n g to say "a l l of the above" , of course , but i t ' s a l so rea l i s t i c to accep t tha t d i f f e r i n g ob jec t i v e s somet imes br i n g wi t h them d i f f i c u l t - to - avo i d t r a de - of f s , and the need fo r dec i s i o n s . Cer t a i n l y , though , a majo r a im of IR ' s in the l a r g e r i n f o rma t i o n a l landscape i s to crea t e a sys t em of i n t e r o p e r a b l e , in t e r - sea rchab l e repos i t o r i e s on a g loba l sca l e , a deve l opmen t which would have a cons i de r ab l e impac t on scho l a r l y communica t i o n and on resea r ch i t s e l f . And fac t o r s tha t l i e in back of much of th i s deve l opment may wel l have the most to say abou t the fo rm or fo rms by which l i b r a r i e s can he lp media t e the ou tpu t of academic resea r ch and pedagogy - - fac t o r s such as: • the Open Access /Open Data movement • the appearance of Very Large Data Sets (e . g . , i n as t r o nomy, genomics , l i n g u i s t i c s ) , and the r i s i n g impo r t a n ce of d i sc i p l i n a r y i n f o rma t i c s • the chang ing natu r e of scho l a r l y resea r ch and communica t i o n , i n c l u d i n g the spread of the "d i s c i p l i n a r y repos i t o r y " , such as arX i v , CogPr i n t s , etc .  Toward the Nodal Libra r y  9  What l i b r a r i e s can and shou l d add to th i s rap i d l y chang i ng p i c t u r e i s a cer t a i n cu l t u r e - wide and h i s t o r i c a l perspec t i v e on in f o rma t i o n , i n c l u d i n g cross - d is c i p l i n a r y desc r i p t i v e s tanda rds , copy r i g h t and d ig i t a l r i g h t s i s sues , and both an open and a prese r va t i o n a l approach to access . Given the rap i d l y i n c r ea s i n g ro l e l i b r a r i e s are p lay i n g i n the co l l e c t i o n and d i ssemina t i o n of netwo rked i n f o rma t i o n genera l l y , we migh t , i n fac t , beg in to cons i de r the l i b r a r y in the ro l e of pub l i s h e r , at leas t of academic con t en t . Stan f o r d 10 , the Unive r s i t y of Mich i gan 11 , and the Cal i f o r n i a Dig i t a l L ib r a r y 12 , fo r example , a l r e ady have s ign i f i c a n t pub l i s h i n g i n i t i a t i v e s underway , and UBC L ib r a r y i s respond i ng to reques t s f r om facu l t y to prov i d e some pub l i s h e r - l i k e serv i c e s fo r l o ca l l y - managed open- access e jou r na l s . As scho l a r l y i n f o rma t i o n and assoc i a t e d communica t i o n processes become stead i l y more open and pro t ean i n fo rm (see be low , on "The impo r t a n ce of pure da ta " ) , l i b r a r i e s may wel l tu r n out to be bet t e r pos i t i o n e d than t r a d i t i o n a l academic presses to prov i d e at l eas t some of the serv i c e s and exper t i s e tha t a new pub l i s h i n g env i r o nmen t requ i r e s . L ib r a r i e s , which have l ong been i n the pos i t i o n of l i c e n cees of i n f o rma t i o n resou r ce s , may soon f i n d themse l ve s in the unfami l i a r ro l e of l i c e n cors . In any case , the ro l e of pub l i s h e r , whethe r a lone or i n par t ne r s h i p , i s one the l i b r a r y may have to be ready to assume when and as needed . There ' s one othe r aspec t of the noda l l i b r a r y tha t shou l d be ment i oned i n th i s con tex t of media t i n g l o ca l i n f o rma t i o n - - and th i s i n vo l v e s th i n k i n g of the l i b r a r y as a decomposab l e assemblage of resou r ces and serv i c e s , which makes i t s e l f ava i l a b l e , in whole or i n par t , to the networ k and to var i o u s othe r networ k nodes or access po in t s . Th is i s i n some ways s im i l a r to the i dea of the l i b r a r y as a "pe r sona l i n f o rma t i o n app l i a n ce " ment i o ned above , but i t ' s a l so i n some ways the i n ve r se - tha t i s , i n th i s v iew the l i b r a r y i s no longe r a s ing l e ent i t y , se l e c t e d and con f i g u r e d f r om some bas i c or defau l t model , but ra t h e r s imp l y a labe l fo r a se t of func t i o n s , any of which can be made ava i l a b l e to the networ k to be eas i l y impor t e d i n t o a wide var i e t y of othe r netwo rk con tex t s , such as e lea rn i n g sys t ems ( f r om pre - schoo l to pos t - gradua t e ) , ente r t a i nmen t dev i ce s , work or resea r ch s i t e s , home networ ks , et c . I t ' s much l i k e what Wendy Prad t Lougee re f e r r e d to as " d i f f u s e l i b r a r i e s " 13 , but extended beyond the academic wor l d , and perhaps worked even more deep l y in t o the i n f r a s t r u c t u r e of soc i e t y i n genera l . The ro le of the physica l  col l e c t i o n  The noda l l i b r a r y , as we've seen , doesn ' t need a phys i c a l co l l e c t i o n to per f o rm i t s essen t i a l func t i o n s , bu t of cou rse v i r t u a l l y a l l ac tua l l i b r a r i e s have such co l l e c t i o n s , and they con t i n u e to consume the bu l k of the l i b r a r y ' s resou r ce s , both f i n an c i a l and human. There ' s a good reason fo r th i s - - i t ' s cer t a i n l y not the case tha t "eve r y t h i n g i s on the In t e r n e t " , and, the l i k e s of Google Pr i n t no tw i t h s t a n d i n g , i t i sn ' t l i k e l y to be the case any t ime soon . (The tw i n obs tac l e s of a workab l e d ig i t a l r i g h t s reg ime and a comfo r t a b l e d ig i t a l read i ng dev i ce wi l l keep the pr i n t e d book in serv i c e fo r the fo r e seeab l e fu t u r e , qu i t e apar t f r om the gaps and unknowns in vo l v e d i n any mass d ig i t i z a t i o n pro j e c t . ) St i l l , the fac t rema ins tha t , as more and more mater i a l does  Toward the Nodal Libra r y  10  appear on the In t e r n e t , usage pat t e r n s are chang ing rap i d l y - - e jou rna l use i s soar i n g , fo r example , and c i r c u l a t i o n s ta t i s t i c s are dropp i n g . I t ' s becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t to ju s t i f y the h igh propo r t i o n of l i b r a r y budge t s devo t ed to a dec l i n i n g in f o rma t i o n medium, and i n par t i c u l a r to suppo r t the use of expens i v e phys i c a l space s imp l y fo r book s tacks . Among the l i k e l y resu l t s : • the r e wi l l be i n c r e a s i n g use made of phys i c a l sto r age (on - s i t e or of f - ) , wi t h the coro l l a r y tha t the r e wi l l then be in c r e a s i n g need fo r a r i c h on l i n e brows i ng exper i e n ce fo r the phys i c a l co l l e c t i o n as wel l as the d ig i t a l , perhaps a long the l i n e s sugges t ed by Amazon; • i t may wel l be the case tha t the deve lopment of a fa s t , ef f i c i e n t , and easy - to - use ILL serv i c e (even i n vo l v i n g buy ing f r om the l i k e s of Amazon when necessa r y ) would be a more cos t ef f e c t i v e use of funds than con t i n u i n g to bu i l d up redundan t " j u s t - i n - case" co l l e c t i o n s . (Compare , e.g . , wi t h Lorcan Dempsey ' s theme of " Discove r y to Del i v e r y " 14 . ) That sa id , however , the phys i c a l co l l e c t i o n wi l l be a va luab l e ad junc t to the noda l l i b r a r y i nde f i n i t e l y , and wi l l con t i n u e to requ i r e the serv i c e s tha t have become so wel l - def i n e d and so spec i a l i z e d fo r i t : acqu i s i t i o n s , ca ta l o gu i n g , she l v i n g and c i r c u l a t i o n . And fo r tha t reason , ra t he r than t r y i n g to bend such func t i o n s , wi t h the i r assoc i a t e d and wel l - unders t o od procedu res , work - f l ows , sk i l l - se t s , and knowledge , i n t o shapes necessa r y to accommodate the qu i t e d i f f e r e n t needs and demands of netwo rk i n f o rma t i o n , a good case can be made fo r keep i ng them toge t he r as an organ i za t i o n a l un i t , and cen t r e d on the l i s t or database tha t i s devo ted to what the l i b r a r y phys i c a l l y ho lds - - tha t i s , the ca t a l o gue . The imp l i c a t i o n of tha t , i n tu r n , i s tha t the ca t a l o gue shou l d no l onge r be used as mere l y an easy way to ach ie ve a "s i n g l e search " fo rm fo r users - - i t hasn ' t been , i sn ' t , and never can be tha t i n any case - - nor as a k ind of ca t ch - a l l database fo r every resou r ce or ob jec t tha t we'd l i k e to coun t i n our "ho l d i n g s " , but ra t he r as the database i t was or i g i n a l l y des i gned to be: the comprehens i v e reco r d of the b ib l i o g r a p h i c desc r i p t i o n , phys i ca l l o ca t i o n , and c i r c u l a t i o n sta t u s of i t ems compr i s i n g our phys i ca l co l l e c t i o n . Network in f o rma t i o n doesn ' t need the la s t two k i nds of metada t a , c lea r l y , but of t e n does requ i r e othe r k inds , re l a t i n g to i s s ues of access , d ig i t a l r i g h t s , networ k i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , in f o rma t i o n arch i t e c t u r e , and othe r s , tha t s imp l y don ' t f i t wel l wi t h i n the res t r i c t i v e or spec i a l i z e d f r amework of the MARC reco rd . And i f we le t go of tha t f r amework then we migh t a l so wonder whethe r we shou l d l e t go of the somewhat ha l l owed i dea of " t he ca ta l o gue " as the cen t r e p i e c e of the l i b r a r y as a whole - - we migh t l e t i t become s imp l y ano the r database , wi t h an impor t a n t but no l onge r cen t r a l ro l e to p lay . The impor tance of pure data Fi r s t , i t ' s no doub t necessa r y to say what ' s meant by the phrase "pu re data " ( f o r want of a be t t e r one) : th i s s imp l y re f e r s to data s t r i p p ed of i t s presen t a t i o n or i n t e r f a c e con t ex t . To see why tha t ' s impor t a n t , we have to l ook at the prob l ems presen t ed by in f o rma t i o n i n i t s , to th i s po in t , usua l gu i se , as obta i n ed f r om the netwo rk or co l l e c t e d f r om  Toward the Nodal Libra r y  11  the communi t y - - embedded i n va r i o u s fon t s , markup , l a you t s , co l ou r s , images , and so on, a l l cons i de r e d essen t i a l fo r human usab i l i t y , but a l l d i f f e r e n t across the myr i ad d i f f e r e n t networ k resou r ce s tha t the l i b r a r y media t e s , and usua l l y imperv i o u s to any sor t of prog rammat i c ana l y t i c access tha t would l e t the data be re - purposed or re - used i n d i f f e r e n t con t ex t s , or mixed and matched to su i t d i f f e r e n t needs . The resu l t i s tha t the l i b r a r y ' s users are presen t ed wi t h a con fus i n g ar r a y of in t e r f a c e s , each of which s tands a lone as an essen t i a l l y sea l ed i n f o rma t i o n env i r o nmen t - - which , among othe r th i n g s , rep resen t s a ser i o u s bar r i e r to the noda l l i b r a r y ' s ef f o r t s to presen t cons i s t e n t , coheren t i n t e r f a c e s su i t e d to i t s d i f f e r e n t user communi t i e s , needs , s i t u a t i o n s , etc . Some networ k produc t s , of course , a l l ow fo r l im i t e d amounts of cus t om i za t i o n (o f t e n in vo l v i n g l i t t l e more than prov i d i n g a l o ca l l i b r a r y banne r ) , but th i s doesn ' t beg in to address the prob l em of a l a r g e l y c l osed sys t em. "Sc reen sc rap i n g " i s an apt metapho r fo r the sor t of work - around too of t e n used wi t h such env i r o nmen t s to ex t r a c t usab l e da ta f r om the heavy over l a y of mere presen t a t i o n ar t i f a c t s , but th i s i s a very breakab l e and er r o r - prone reso r t . Some produc t s , however , are s ta r t i n g to open themse l ves up i n much more in t e r e s t i n g and poten t i a l l y use fu l ways - - a s imp le example i s the i n c r ea s i n g l y widesp read use of RSS " f e eds " (a bas i c t ype of XML) to prov i d e at l eas t a subse t of ava i l a b l e i n f o rma t i o n pure l y as s t r u c t u r e d data . Some produc t s are making use of so- ca l l e d "XML gateways " (o f t e n re f e r r i n g to XMLized vers i o n s of the Z39 .50 sea rch pro t o co l , ca l l e d " SRU" or "SRW"15 ) to prov i d e a s tanda rd i z e d access path to more complex and /o r more comple t e se t s of s t r u c t u r e d data . OAI ' s "Pro t o co l fo r Metada ta Harves t i n g " (OAI - PMH) i s ye t anothe r example of the var i o u s moves cur r en t l y underway to address th i s i s sue of i so l a t e d data i s l a n ds (o r "s i l o s " , to mix i n a more common metaphor ) . But a l l of these methods are on l y the beg inn i n g of a much more fa r reach i n g ser i e s of deve l opment s across the netwo rk to separa t e data f r om presen t a t i o n , enab l i n g var i o u s data sources to be "p l u gged in t o " an enr i c hed i n t e r f a c e , or var i o u s in t e r f a c e s to over l a y the same pure data . Cer t a i n l y the re are prob l ems wi t h th i s tha t rema in to be so l ved , not the leas t of them be ing the f i n an c i a l or bus iness model tha t suppo r t s i t . But the r e are a l so some power f u l economic and soc i a l fo r c e s advanc i ng i t , s in ce the i n c r e ase in data f l e x i b i l i t y i t prov i d e s makes the da ta tha t much more usab l e and hence more economica l l y appea l i n g . Such deve lopmen ts may have par t i c u l a r re l e vance to the processes of scho l a r l y communica t i o n , as they may l ead to the decompos i t i o n of t r ad i t i o n a l packag i ng (e . g . , the academic j ou r na l ) in favou r of more eas i l y harves t a b l e and sharab l e packe t s of mul t i - media i n f o rma t i o n . For l i b r a r i e s , in any case , i t ' s prec i s e l y th i s k ind of f l e x i b i l i t y tha t wi l l enab le the deve l opment of such fac i l i t i e s as the "pe r sona l i n f o rma t i o n app l i a n ce " , or the decomposab l e , d i f f u s i b l e se t of resou r ce s , serv i c e s , and func t i o n s ment i o ned above - - tha t wi l l enab l e , i n fac t , the fu l l deve l opment of the noda l l i b r a r y as such .  Where are we now? Some promis ing signs  Toward the Nodal Libra r y  12  With some ideas abou t where l i b r a r i e s i n genera l need to be, g iven the changes underway i n the i n f o rma t i o n l andscape , i t ' s t ime to l ook , i n compar i s on , at where UBC L ib r a r y in par t i c u l a r cur r en t l y i s . New e l i b r a r y pos i t i o n s have been crea t ed (e . g . , a d ig i t a l - i n i t i a t i v e s l i b r a r i a n , an eresou r ces l i b r a r i a n ) , new e lea r n i n g co l l a b o r a t i o n s i n i t i a t e d (e . g . , the MEDICOL prog ram) , new v i r t u a l re f e r e n ce serv i c e s l aunched (e . g . , the prov i n c i a l pos t - seconda ry conso r t i um "AskAway" serv i c e ) , and new produc t s p ionee r ed (e . g . , the OpenURL l i n k s e r v e r , SFX) . Withou t doub t , we've made some s ign i f i c a n t changes , and are i n the process of making more - - l e t ' s l ook a l i t t l e more c l ose l y at th r ee i n par t i c u l a r : The "T rans i t i o n to Onl i n e Journa l s " 16 pro j e c t , fo r example , has success f u l l y moved the un i ve r s i t y communi t y as a who le away f r om redundan t and cos t l y jou r na l pr i n t subsc r i p t i o n s and toward re l i a n c e upon l i c e n ced access to e lec t r o n i c vers i o n s fo r thousands of t i t l e s , us i ng the sav i n gs to purchase more access to both e jou r na l s and othe r networ k resou r ces . Some care has been taken i n th i s process to obta i n reasonab l e assu rance tha t such access i s sus t a i n a b l e both fo r cur r en t and fo r arch i v ed i s sues befo r e cance l l i n g pr i n t 17 , but such a pro j e c t re f l e c t s a c lea r dec i s i o n to ente r the wor l d of netwo rk in f o rma t i o n and to le t go of pr i n t . UBC L ib r a r y has a l so got t e n ext ens i v e l y in vo l v e d i n a number of d ig i t i z a t i o n pro j e c t s 18 , i n c l u d i n g , recen t l y , a co l l a b o r a t i o n wi t h the Facu l t y of Gradua te Stud i e s on an eTheses pro j e c t tha t makes use of the DSpace i n s t i t u t i o n a l repos i t o r y . As wi t h most othe r academic l i b r a r i e s , these pro j e c t s have grown up over t ime , and ve ry of t e n under t a ken wi t h gran t funds at t a ched to a par t i c u l a r purpose , so i t ' s not unexpec t ed tha t they would exh ib i t a var i e t y of too l s , st r a t e g i e s , nav i ga t i o n and i n t e r f a c e des igns , but i n the i r cumula t i v e and deve l op i n g va r i e t y , number , and vo l ume of data , they rep re sen t an in c r e a s i n g l y impress i v e con t r i b u t i o n to networ k - access i b l e i n f o rma t i o n . The L ib r a r y has a lso been i n vo l v e d f r om an ear l y s tage of the Web phenomenon i n deve l op i n g a func t i o n a l in f r a s t r u c t u r e capab l e of dynamica l l y genera t i n g pages tha t can kn i t toge t he r many of the resou r ce s and se rv i c e s i t of f e r s in a h igh l y con f i g u r a b l e i n t e r f a c e . Th is uses a genera l , though prop r i e t a r y , midd l ewa re too l ca l l e d ColdFus i o n tha t de l i v e r s database con t en t s to web pages in an eas i l y modi f i a b l e manner , and a l so a l l ows those databases to be main t a i n ed in a d i s t r i b u t e d manner th r ough user - f r i e n d l y , web- based fo rms . These processes too , of course , have become qu i t e d i ve r s e ove r t ime , and now need ra t i o n a l i z a t i o n , but the re l a t i v e ease and f l e x i b i l i t y which such a too l prov i d e s fo r the management of both i n f o rma t i o n and in t e r f a c e makes i t , or someth i ng l i k e i t , c lea r l y essen t i a l to the opera t i o n of the l i b r a r y as netwo rk node . Some less promis ing signs Desp i t e these s igns tha t UBC L ib r a r y i s accommodat i n g the changes i n the i n f o rma t i o n landscape wel l , however , the re are a number of i nd i c a t i o n s of deeper prob l ems . The webs i t e as a whole , fo r example , rema ins a l a r g e l y s ta t i c , and ra t h e r spraw l i n g assemblage of pages ,  Toward the Nodal Libra r y  13  some genera t e d , but many hand- cra f t e d , d i f f i c u l t to change or ta i l o r to need . Dig i t a l co l l e c t i o n s , whi l e impress i v e in the i r var i e t y , rema in l a r g e l y d i spe r sed i n i t i a t i v e s l a ck i n g an overa l l p lan or purpose . The tendency to purchase of f - the - she l f so f twa r e produc t s as a means of qu i c k l y f i l l i n g a need or a want has l e f t us wi t h a pa tchwork of prop r i e t a r y sys t ems tha t over l a p , l eave gaps , res i s t communica t i o n wi t h othe r sys t ems both wi t h i n and wi t hou t the L ib r a r y , and presen t the user wi t h tha t bewi l d e r i n g var i e t y of in t e r f a c e s . And l oom ing over a l l such sys t ems , consuming more resou r ce s than a l l the res t combined , i s the very ep i t ome of the i so l a t e d data s i l o , the i r o n i c a l l y named " I n t e g r a t e d L ib r a r y System" , wi t h i t s r i g i d and spec i a l i z e d database , the OPAC. Th is l a s t s i t u a t i o n , in fac t , may l i e at the hear t of many of the prob l ems l i b r a r i e s i n genera l con t i n ue to face i n ad jus t i n g to the networ k soc i e t y . The grea t cos t of the ILS tha t serves the t r a d i t i o n a l organ i z a t i o n a l un i t s of the l i b r a r y - - acqu i s i t i o n s , ca ta l o gu i n g , c i r c u l a t i o n - - cons t i t u t e s in i t s e l f a k ind of j u s t i f i c a t i o n , consc i o us or not , fo r t r y i n g to c l i n g to tha t organ i z a t i o n , and i ndeed fo r t r y i n g to mold netwo rk resou r ces , serv i c e s , and func t i o n s to f i t i n t o tha t t r a d i t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e , however i nadequa t e l y or i ne f f i c i e n t l y . Unders t a ndab l e as th i s migh t be, g iven the i n ves tmen t i n such a sys t em, i t ' s d i f f i c u l t not to see i t as a k ind of wag- the - dog ef f e c t , whereby the too l dete rm ines the serv i c e s ra t he r than the se rv i c e s dete rm in i n g the too l ( s ) . And the resu l t i s tha t the func t i o n s of the l i b r a r y seen as pr ima r i l y a phys i c a l repos i t o r y con t i n u e to domina t e i t both organ i z a t i o n a l l y and opera t i o n a l l y , fo r c i n g netwo rk or noda l func t i o n s in t o separa t e organ i z a t i o n a l domains tha t migh t othe rw i s e ga in cons i de r ab l e scope and syne rgy by be ing brough t toge t he r , and produc i n g the genera l la c k of coherence in networ k serv i c e s noted above . Some good prac t i c es The fundamenta l prob l em of a l egacy organ i z a t i o n a l st r u c t u r e ex i s t i n g i n a co- dependen t re l a t i o n s h i p wi t h a l a r ge and expens i v e suppo r t i n g techno l o g i c a l sys t em, a l l cen t r ed around a database des i gned to serve a phys i ca l co l l e c t i o n , i s someth i ng tha t af f l i c t s most l i b r a r i e s of any k ind at presen t . But , in add i t i o n to recogn i z i n g our own ef f o r t s to escape the l im i t a t i o n s of tha t s i t u a t i o n , i t ' s both i n t e r e s t i n g and he lp f u l to look at some of the i n i t i a t i v e s and i nnova t i o n s at othe r i n s t i t u t i o n s tha t are he lp i n g to break th i s mold . • Coheren t , cons i s t e n t i n t e r f a c e and resou r ce management : o see the Unive r s i t y of Toron t o L ib r a r y : us ing Plone 19 as a Conten t Management System, ColdFus i o n to media t e a l l e lec t r o n i c resou r ce s 20 o see the Unive r s i t y of Roches te r L ib r a r y 21 : ColdFus i o n as both CMS and eresou r ce database • Open OPAC (sea r ch resu l t s as RSS feed ) : o here ' s a sample RSS feed 22 f r om the Ann Arbo r Dis t r i c t L ib r a r y ' s OPAC • Uni f i e d search i n t e r f a c e : o see Unive r s i t y of Pi t t s b u r g L ib r a r y ' s "ZOOM"23 • In f o rma t i o n app l i a n ce : o see Unive r s i t y of Minneso t a L ib r a r y ' s " My Fie l d " 24  Toward the Nodal Libra r y •  L ib r a r y as pub l i s h e r : o see Columb ia ' s " ep i c " pro j e c t  14  25  How do we get f r om here to the r e? With a bold approach to st r a t egy The opt i o n s fo r ge t t i n g f r om here to the r e obv i ou s l y depend upon where we cons i de r " t h e r e " to be. And fo r tha t , we' l l need to face and make a s t r a t e g i c dec i s i o n . I f we want to con t i n ue to th i n k of the l i b r a r y as an in s t i t u t i o n def i n ed pr ima r i l y in te rms of i t s "co l l e c t i o n " , then we' l l no doub t con t i n u e to t i n k e r wi t h netwo rk serv i c e s around the edges , so to speak - - exper imen t i n g wi t h "soc i a l so f twa r e " , add ing new d ig i t i z a t i o n i n i t i a t i v e s , perhaps even in s t a l l i n g a "Con ten t Management System" fo r the webs i t e , but not under t a k i n g any more fundamenta l organ i z a t i o n a l or othe r s t r a t e g i c moves tha t migh t t r a n s f o rm the serv i c e s the l i b r a r y prov i d e s , or a l t e r the ro l e of the l i b r a r y as such . I f , on the othe r hand , we' r e wi l l i n g to reconce i v e the l i b r a r y pr ima r i l y in te rms of i t s ro l e i n an i n f o rma t i o n netwo rk , prov i d i n g serv i c e s to and f r om i t s l o ca l communi t y / i e s , then we' l l need to re th i n k i t s organ i z a t i o n to opt im i z e tha t ro l e , and deve l op genera l s t r a t e g i e s fo r ach ie v i n g i t . We' l l need to dec i de , in othe r words , and i n a famous fo rmu l a t i o n , what bus i ne ss we' r e i n - - the co l l e c t i o n bus iness or the i n f o rma t i o n bus iness . The fo rmer cho i ce i s c lea r l y the more conse r va t i v e , and migh t appear the more pruden t . But in t imes of rap i d change , espec i a l l y , the conse r va t i v e cho i ce i s not of t e n the sa fe r - - the adage tha t fo r t u n e favou r s the bo ld becomes par t i c u l a r l y per t i n e n t .  With an explora to r y approach to implementa t i on The same env i r o nmen t of rap i d change tha t rewards a bo ld st r a t e g y , however , wi l l usua l l y a lso requ i r e a more exp l o r a t o r y , exper imen t a l approach to tac t i c s or imp l emen ta t i o n . I t ' s i nev i t a b l e in such a t ime tha t some ven tu r e s wi l l tu r n out to be b l i n d a l l e y s , some wi l l be superceded by even t s or new poss i b i l i t i e s , some wi l l s imp l y tu r n out to have been yes t e r d ay ' s fad or buzzword . We' l l need to be both wi l l i n g and eager to t r y new approaches , sys t ems , produc t s , etc . , and at the same t ime cr i t i c a l i n our assessment of them. The card i n a l v i r t u e , as we move fo rwa rd , then , i s f l e x i b i l i t y - - f i r s t and fo r emos t i n our human resou r ces , where peop le wi l l need to be ab le to re l o ca t e , re t r a i n , and rede f i n e themse l ve s much more eas i l y than they can at presen t . St ru c t u r e s put i n p lace to pro t e c t peop le work i ng under more s ta t i c cond i t i o n s of t e n become j u s t bureauc r a t i c g lue under more dynamic ones , d i sab l i n g the organ i z a t i o n ' s ab i l i t y to respond to change , and f r equen t l y demora l i z i n g work i ng peop le themse l ves . Free i ng peop l e f r om these over l y r i g i d j ob def i n i t i o n s , change processes , etc . can resu l t i n a win fo r a l l conce rned , and ach i e v i n g th i s wi l l need to be worked out wi t h the var i o u s assoc i a t i o n s and un ions i n vo l v e d . Whethe r th r ough such more or l e ss fo rma l i z e d processes as "Organ i z a t i o n a l Deve lopment " 26 , or s imp l y th r ough i t s own focused  Toward the Nodal Libra r y  15  ef f o r t s , the ob jec t i v e i s to embed the ideas of change and con t i n u ous l ea r n i n g in t o the l i b r a r y ' s cu l t u r e and organ i z a t i o n .  A f l e x i b l e approach to the imp l emen ta t i o n of sys t ems and produc t s i s a l so impor t a n t . There may be a natu r a l tendency to want to encourage "buy - i n " to a par t i c u l a r new approach , both wi t h our users and wi t h our s ta f f , by ex to l l i n g i t s v i r t u e s and min im i z i n g i t s cos t s , weaknesses , or t r a de - of f s . But such a tac t i c can i n c r ea se the r i s k fo r new, unt r i e d i n i t i a t i v e s , s i nce i t undermines our cred i b i l i t y i f and when unexpec t ed d i f f i c u l t i e s ar i s e - - bet t e r to appea l to the cr i t i c a l i n t e l l i g e n c e of our sta f f , and the good wi l l of our users , by presen t i n g the pro j e c t as a t r i a l and se t t i n g expec ta t i o n s acco rd i n g l y . Two othe r aspec t s of an exp l o r a t o r y or exper imen t a l approach to pro j e c t / p r o d u c t imp l emen ta t i o n migh t be sugges t ed , here , even though they may appea r obv i ous : • befo r e dec i d i n g on a par t i c u l a r so lu t i o n , however exper imen t a l , i t would be good to cons i de r care f u l l y the downs ide and "ex i t s t r a t e g y " shou l d i t not work as hoped ; tha t i s , a so lu t i o n tha t requ i r e s le s s of an i n s t i t u t i o n a l commi tmen t , or tha t a l l ows more of tha t commitmen t - - e.g . , i n te rms of sa l vageab l e con ten t , or t r a n s f e r a b l e knowledge - - to be saved or re - used , i s pre f e r a b l e (o t h e r th i n g s be ing equa l ) to one tha t commi t s us more heav i l y ; • and , i n add i t i o n to eva l ua t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e s pr i o r to imp l emen ta t i o n , i t would be use fu l to p lan befo r ehand how we migh t bu i l d i n ongo ing moni t o r i n g and measurement of the ef f e c t i v e n e ss of the se le c t e d opt i o n , as compared to exp l i c i t pro j e c t ob jec t i v e s . With some concre te steps Some p laus i b l e , i f very broad , and very ske t chy ob jec t i v e s , rough l y in orde r of the t ime f r ames l i k e l y requ i r e d to rea l i z e them: • Shor t te rm (< 1 year ) : o Re- examine the cur r en t ar r a y of produc t s , co l l e c t i o n s , and serv i c e s , wi t h a v iew to making them as cons i s t e n t , i n t e r o pe r ab l e , comprehens i v e , and open as poss i b l e • Medium te rm (1 - 3 years ) : o Deve lop the networ k i n f r a s t r u c t u r e necessa r y to br i n g toge t he r the produc t s , serv i c e s , resou r ces , in s t r u c t i o n , etc . - - i n c l u d i n g the OPAC - - i n t o a seamless and f l e x i b l e user i n t e r f a c e • Long te rm (> 3 years ) : o Rest r u c t u r e the l i b r a r y organ i z a t i o n to re f l e c t the func t i o n a l needs of a netwo rked l i b r a r y ra t h e r than tha t of a phys i c a l co l l e c t i o n o Deve lop the ext e r na l netwo rk l i n k s tha t wi l l t i e l o ca l l i b r a r i e s toge t he r as i n t e r o pe r ab l e network nodes , prov i d i n g comprehens i v e i n f o rma t i o n serv i c e s at a l l le ve l s of soc i e t y Obvious l y , these are too br i e f to be any th i n g more than mere sugges t i o n s , and l eave ent i r e l y open a l l i s sues of imp lemen ta t i o n  - - in  Toward the Nodal Libra r y  16  fac t , a l l of them can and shou l d be tu r ned i n t o ques t i o n s by pre f i x i n g them wi t h the phrase "How do we. . . " . But , tha t sa id , any movement a long the d i r e c t i o n s such ob je c t i v e s sugges t would be pos i t i v e steps toward rea l i z i n g the noda l l i b r a r y .  Conc lus i o n :  Const r u c t i n g  the Futu r e  Fina l l y , of course , we' l l have to do more than j u s t "env i s i o n " the fu t u r e - - we have to sta r t bu i l d i n g i t . And th i s can be hard , fo r anyone , any group , or any in s t i t u t i o n , espec i a l l y i n a t ime of d i s r up t i v e change , i n which embrac i ng the fu t u r e of t e n requ i r e s re l i n q u i s h i n g much of the pas t . For l i b r a r i e s in par t i c u l a r , th i s need to le t go i s what makes the embrace of the fu t u r e a l l the more d i f f i c u l t - - qu i t e apar t f r om the s ta t u s l i b r a r i e s have l ong r i g h t l y en jo yed as co l l e c t o r s and prese r ve r s of the cu l t u r a l i nhe r i t a n c e of human c i v i l i z a t i o n , the i r more recen t pas t i s one of remarkab l e ach i e vemen t , i n cross - cu l t u r a l desc r i p t i v e s tanda rd s , un i ve r s a l c la ss i f i c a t i o n schemes, the deve l opment and main t enance of con t r o l l e d vocabu l a r i e s , and of course i n the ear l y use of automated sys t ems on an ente r p r i s e l e ve l . To say now tha t much of tha t ach i e vemen t app l i e s pr ima r i l y to the co l l e c t i o n of phys i ca l i t ems , and tha t such a co l l e c t i o n shou l d no longe r be seen as at the cen t r e of the l i b r a r y as an i n s t i t u t i o n i s fo r many, to say the leas t , a wrench . And th i s wrench of t e n mani f e s t s i t s e l f in an ent i r e l y unders t a ndab l e res i s t a n ce to change - - not of t e n i n exp l i c i t te rms , but of t e n enough i n the sub t l e r fo rms of an under l y i n g anx ie t y and a th r ea t e ned defens i v e ness . With i n th i s mindse t , fo r example , Google and Amazon are seen not as amazing in f o rma t i o n too l s and a ids tha t can be used by l i b r a r i e s , but i n s t e ad as compet i t o r s f r om which we must t r y , though wi t hou t much hope , to lu r e peop le away. Rathe r than v iew i ng the ca ta l o gue as s imp l y one database among many, and focus i n g i t on what i t was des i gned fo r , we' r e l ed to th r ow more " t h i n g s " in t o i t , wi t h the i dea tha t maybe th i s wi l l keep i t " r e l e v a n t " and ent i c e more peop le to use i t . We want , wi t h a cer t a i n pathos , to "keep up" and be "w i t h i t " , but at the same t ime c l i n g to a l l of the th i n g s we be l i e v e have def i n ed us i n the pas t . And we somet imes tend , a lmos t t r u cu l e n t l y , to th i n k tha t the re ' s bas i ca l l y someth i n g wrong wi t h our users , which migh t be f i x a b l e wi t h the prope r i n s t r u c t i o n , i f on l y we cou l d reach them a l l . Now, admi t t e d l y , th i s i s a b i t of a car i c a t u r e , of what we migh t ca l l the Defens i v e L ib r a r i a n Mindse t (o r "DLM") - - not many ac tua l l i b r a r i a n s are pure examples of i t , most of us are af f e c t e d by i t to some ex ten t , and some e lemen ts of i t may be more or le ss ra t i o n a l i n any case . I t ' s a rea l enough cond i t i o n , though , tha t i t cons t i t u t e s , i n i t s e l f , a s ign i f i c a n t prob l em , and qu i t e poss i b l y a cruc i a l prob l em - i t would be a pa in f u l i r o n y i f the one fac t o r tha t migh t rea l l y th r ea t e n the fu t u r e of the l i b r a r y were the de fens i v e , reac t i v e pos tu r e of too many of i t s pro f e s s i o n a l s . For t una t e l y , s i gns are widesp read tha t th i s pos tu r e i s waning (see "Some good prac t i c e s " above ) . Inc r eas i n g l y , l i b r a r i a n s are rea l i z i n g tha t , as i n f o rma t i o n pro f e s s i o n a l s i n the very Age of In f o rma t i o n , our ro l e goes much beyond ju s t "keep i n g up" - - our ro l e becomes "show ing  Toward the Nodal Libra r y  17  the way" . And i n showing or l ead i n g the way ( i n company , i t must be sa i d , wi t h par t n e r s and co l l a b o r a t o r s in othe r pro f e ss i o n s and i n s t i t u t i o n s ) , we not on l y t r an s f o rm the l i b r a r y i n t o an i n f o rma t i o n fac i l i t y at the hear t of the In f o rma t i o n Soc ie t y , we a lso prese r ve and enhance both the cu l t u r a l sta t u s and endur i n g ach ie vement s of the l i b r a r y as an i n s t i t u t i o n . Rathe r than be ing the v i c t i m of change , the l i b r a r y becomes the maker of change .  See Tim O'Re i l l y , "What i s Web 2.0? " , O'Re i l l y webs i t e , Sep 30/05 : ht t p : / / www.o r e i l l y n e t . c om / pub / a / o r e i l l y / t i m / n ews / 2 005 / 09 / 3 0 /wha t - i s - web- 20.h tm l 2 An aspec t , perhaps , of the phenomenon d i scussed by James Surowie ck i in The Wisdom of Crowds , New York : Doubleday , 2004 3 See Maureen Pennock , " Cura t i n g e- Science Data " , Dig i t a l Cura t i o n Cent re , Aug 25/06 : ht t p : / / www.dcc . a c . u k / r e s o u r c e / b r i e f i n g - papers / c u r a t i n g - e- sc i ence - data / 4 See Michae l Frase r , " The Place of the Dig i t a l L ib r a r y wi t h i n Vi r t u a l Research Env i r o nmen t s " , i n Dig i t a l L ib r a r i e s a la Car t e : New Choices fo r the Futu re , Research Techno logy Serv i c e , Oxfo rd Unive r s i t y Comput i n g Serv i c e s , Aug/06 : ht t p : / / users . o x . a c . u k / ~m i k e f / r t s / t i c e r / f r a s e r _ d i g l i b _ v r e _ 24Aug06 - on l i n e . p d f ; see a lso " Data webs: new v i s i o n s fo r resea r ch data on the Web", A Research In f o rma t i o n Network workshop , Jun 28/06 : ht t p : / / www . r i n . a c . u k / d a t a - webs 5 A note on " l o c a l " : the te rm here re f e r s to any approp r i a t e lo ca l i t y fo r a g iven l i b r a r y : i t s i n s t i t u t i o n , i t s communi t y ( / i e s ) , i t s reg i o n , i t s nat i o n , etc . The " l o ca l communi t y " fo r a l a r g e resea r ch l i b r a r y , fo r example , may i n vo l v e not j u s t i t s campus, but a l so i t s prov i n ce , s ta t e , or nat i o na l reg i o n , which migh t othe rw i s e go unser ved . Note tha t the i dea of l o ca l i t y has become i f any th i n g even more impor t a n t in a networ k con tex t s ince the va lue of the netwo rk i s i n many ways a func t i o n of the degree to which each node prov i d e s serv i c e to and f r om i t s approp r i a t e communi t y - - a somewhat coun te r i n t u i t i v e consequence tha t may wel l resu l t i n reduced autonomy fo r the i n s t i t u t i o n s i n vo l v e d . 6 ht t p : / / www.oc l c . o r g / p r o d u c two r k s / u r l r e s o l v e r . h tm 7 ht t p : / / o c o i n s . i n f o / 8 ht t p : / / d e l . i c i o . u s / 9 ht t p : / / www. l i b r a r y t h i n g . c om / 10 See h ighWi r e Press , ht t p : / / h i g hw i r e . s t a n f o r d . e d u / 11 See the Unive r s i t y of Mich i gan L ib r a r y Scho la r l y Publ i s h i n g Of f i c e , ht t p : / / s p o . umd l . um i ch . e du / 12 See CDL "eScho l a r s h i p ed i t i o n s " , ht t p : / / c o n t e n t . c d l i b . o r g / e s c ho l a r s h i p / 13 Wendy Prad t Lougee , Di f f u s e L ib r a r i e s : Emergen t Roles fo r the Research L ib r a r y i n the Dig i t a l Age. Counc i l on L ib r a r y and In f o rma t i o n Resources , "Perspec t i v e s on the Evo l v i n g L ib r a r y Ser i e s " : ht t p : / / www. c l i r . o r g / p u b s / r e p o r t s / p u b108 / con t e n t s . h tm l 14 Lorcan Dempsey, " Discove r , lo ca t e , . . . ver t i c a l and hor i z o n t a l in t e g r a t i o n " , Lorcan Dempsey ' s Weblog , Nov 20, 2005 : ht t p : / / o r w eb l o g . o c l c . o r g / a r c h i v e s / 0 0 0865 . h tm l 15 ht t p : / / o r w eb l o g . o c l c . o r g / a r c h i v e s / 0 0 0865 . h tm l 16 ht t p : / / www . l i b r a r y . u b c . c a / c o l l e c t i o n s / t r a n s i t i o n _ o n l i n e 2006 / 17 L ib r a r i e s have dea l t wi t h th i s i s sue i n a number of ways, such as nego t i a t i n g perpe t ua l access c lauses i n l i c e n ses , put t i n g pressu re on vendo rs and pub l i s h e r s to cons i de r the i s sue , and i n s t i g a t i n g new conso r t i ums such as Por t i c o (see ht t p : / / www.po r t i c o . o r g ) and LOCKSS (see ht t p : / / www . l o c k s s . o r g ) tha t of f e r serv i c e s which prov i d e a permanen t arch i v e fo r e lec t r o n i c scho l a r l y j ou r na l s . As wel l , pub l i s h e r s are i n c r e a s i n g l y par t ne r i n g wi t h l i b r a r i e s to bu i l d harves t a b l e i n f o rma t i o n repos i t o r i e s to sto r e and arch i v e con t en t and l i c e n s i n g in f o rma t i o n . See "Urgen t Act i o n Needed to Prese r ve Scho la r l y Elec t r o n i c Journa l s , " Dig i t a l L ib r a r y Federa t i o n (DLF) , v i ewed at ht t p : / / www.d i g l i b . o r g / p u b s /wa t e r s 0 51015 . h tm on Augus t 27, 2006 . See a lso "Upda t e on TRANSFER Act i v i t i e s , " Uni t ed Kingdom Ser i a l s Group (UKSG) , v i ewed at ht t p : / / www.uksg . o r g / t r a n s f e r . a s p on Augus t 27, 2006 . 18 ht t p : / / www. l i b r a r y . u b c . c a / a r c h i v e s / d i g i c o l l e c t i o n s . h tm l 19 ht t p : / / ma i n . l i b r a r y . u t o r o n t o . c a / 20 ht t p : / / m a i n . l i b r a r y . u t o r o n t o . c a / e i r / r e s o u r c e s . c fm 21 ht t p : / / www. l i b . r o c h e s t e r . e d u / 22 ht t p : / / www.aad l . o r g / c a t / s e e k / s e a r c h / X ?moby %20dick&sea r chscope=26&m=&SORT=D&top f o rmsub=1&rss=1 23 ht t p : / / www. l i b r a r y . p i t t . e d u / 24 ht t p : / / www. l i b . umn . edu / s an /me l l o n / i n d e x . p h tm l 1  ht t p : / / www.ep i c . c o l umb i a . e du / See Karen Hol l oway , " The Sign i f i c a n ce of Organ i za t i o n a l Deve lopmen t i n Academic Research L ib r a r i e s " , L ib r a r y Trends , Summer 2004 : ht t p : / / f i n d a r t i c l e s . c om / p / a r t i c l e s / m i _m1387 / i s _ 1 _53 / a i _ n 8640802 25 26   Appendix One: Supplementary Notes 1. Dig i t a l •  Col l ec t i ons & Schola r l y Communicat i on  Where do we want to be? o  Dig i t i z a t i o n  Campus- wide d ig i t i z a t i o n fac i l i t y ? ( I KBLC?)  Cont r a c t ar rangements fo r d ig i t i z a t i o n serv i c e s?  In t e r n a t i o n a l standa rd s?  Col l a bo r a t i o n wi t h Museum, UBC Press?  Col l a bo r a t i o n wi t h Google et a l?  o  Dig i t a l cura t i o n & access  Var i e t i e s of Ins t i t u t i o n a l Repos i t o r y (Theses , Papers , Data , Objec t s , Proceed i ng s? ) ?  Col l e c t i o n po l i c y fo r reg i o na l born - d ig i t a l mate r i a l ?  In t e r f a c e standa rd s? Sing l e in t e r f a c e ?  Prese r va t i o n s tanda rd s?  Prese r va t i o n & permanen t access po l i c i e s and st r a t e g i e s (poss i b l y i n co l l a b o r a t i o n ) . A l i c e n s i n g po l i c y on perpe t u a l access / pe rmanen t access to subsc r i p t i o n e- co l l e c t i o n s . Jo i n i n g & con t r i b u t i n g to LOCKSS, Por t i c o  Data access s tanda rd s (e . g . , OAI , SRU, genera l XML)?  Deve lop a consu l t a t i o n serv i c e fo r UBC resea r che r s tha t :  In f o rms them of copyr i g h t i s sues & depos i t i n g resea r ch i n a repos i t o r y  Consu l t a t i o n serv i c e fo r facu l t y pub l i c a t i o n s  Host i n g s i t e & suppo r t fo r facu l t y pub l i c a t i o n s  o  Dig i t a l harves t i n g  A repos i t o r y of reg i o na l repos i t o r i e s ?  Col l a bo r a t e to prov i d e d i sc i p l i n e - or top i c - spec i f i c repos i t o r i e s ?  L i censes & con t r a c t s tha t enab le the L ib r a r y to harves t , repu rpose , and repackage i n f o rma t i o n f r om othe r IR ’ s  Scho la r l y  • •  •  Communica t i o n / P ub l i c a t i o n  Estab l i s h a fo rma l i n s t i t u t i o n a l pos i t i o n on Open Access & Changes to Scho la r l y pub l i s h i n g and suppo r t fo r tha t . Consu l t wi t h Facu l t y on deve l op i n g a co l l e c t i o n po l i c y to suppo r t Open Access co l l e c t i o n s , membersh i p s , suppor t fo r autho r submiss i o n s .  Where are we now? o  & Open Access Suppor t  Pos i t i v e  deve lopmen ts :            o  •  A number of d i s t i n c t d ig i t i z a t i o n pro j e c t s : Col l a bo r a t i n g wi t h FOGS on a s ta r t on an IR (us i n g DSpace) fo r eTheses Col l a bo r a t i n g wi t h PRDLA to prov i d e harves t ab l e (OAI - PMH) data fo r reg i o na l d ig i t a l co l l e c t i o n UBC l i b r a r i a n s at t e nded an ARL Ins t i t u t e on Scho la r l y Communica t i o n wi t h the v iew to deve l op an i n s t i t u t i o n a l p lan fo r suppo r t i n g and educa t i n g othe r s abou t these changes . L ib r a r y ac t i v e l y suppo r t s a var i e t y of Open Access pub l i c a t i o n s & some membersh i p s . L ib r a r y i s a SPARC suppo r t e r . Sporad i c d i scuss i o n s wi t h fa cu l t y groups on changes to scho l a r l y pub l i c a t i o n . Sporad i c d i scuss i o n wi t h facu l t y on i s sues re l a t i n g to the prese r va t i o n of e lec t r o n i c resou r ces .  Prob l ems and I ssues :  Wide var i e t y of in t e r f a c e s , brows i ng d i sp l a y s , access methods fo r d i f f e r e n t d ig i t a l co l l e c t i o n s  Inab i l i t y to search or browse across co l l e c t i o n s  Do we have a po l i c y on d ig i t i z a t i o n s tanda rd s?  A po l i c y on d ig i t a l prese r va t i o n ?  Campus- wide co l l e c t i o n po l i c y fo r IR? Region - wide fo r born d ig i t a l mate r i a l s ?  Pol i c y on data cu ra t i o n .  No netwo rk co l l a b o r a t i o n on data harves t i n g , on prese r va t i o n  How do we get there? o o o o o  Decide to est ab l i s h a d is t i n c t , L ib r a r y - wide Dig i t a l Col l e c t i o n s un i t ( i n c l u d i n g d ig i t i z a t i o n , Ins t i t u t i o n a l Repos i t o r y , d ig i t a l cura t i o n , etc . ) , and fund i t and red i r e c t sta f f acco rd i n g l y Trans i t i o n “Co l l e c t i o n s s ta f f ” i n t o Scho la r l y Communica t i o n s ta f f Deve lop sys t ema t i c communica t i o n avenues to educa t e facu l t y and l i b r a r y sta f f abou t changes to scho l a r l y communica t i o n . Deve lop a Scho la r l y Communica t i o n Commit t e e made up of facu l t y and l i b r a r i a n s . Make cho i ces what we wi l l no t do to suppo r t th i s : i e : t r an s i t i o n pr i n t ca ta l o gue r s i n t o metada t a ana l y ze r s . Stop suppo r t i n g and acqu i r i n g techno l og i e s and so f twa r e tha t do not accommodate these ven tu r e s .  2. Systems/Technology •  Where do we need to be? o  A web- based , s tanda rd s - based i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , ab le to communica t e wi t h the var i o u s produc t s , serv i c e s , func t i o n s , and co l l e c t i o n s tha t the L ib r a r y makes ava i l a b l e - - in c l u d i n g the OPAC - - as wel l as wi t h sys t ems ex te r na l to the L ib r a r y  o  •  Where are we now? o  •  A f l e x i b l e , con f i g u r a b l e i n t e r f a c e genera t o r , based upon the i n f r a s t r u c t u r e above , and ab le to prov i d e users wi t h both s imp le and advanced func t i o n a l i t y , and r i c h , cus t om izab l e resu l t s  A L ib r a r y webs i t e tha t i n c l u d e s :  many hand- coded pages  a number of l o ca l databases media t ed by ColdFus i on  a number of prop r i e t a r y produc t s , databases , "Knowledge - bases " , and so on, tha t don ' t communica t e wi t h each othe r  a number of l o ca l d ig i t a l co l l e c t i o n s tha t don ' t communica t e wi t h each othe r  an OPAC tha t canno t be i n t e g r a t e d wi t h e i t h e r the res t of the webs i t e or wi t h ext e r n a l sys t ems  How do we get there? o  o o  o  Redeve lop i n g webs i t e in phases :  phase 1: renew ing l ook - and- fee l , add ing new search func t i o n a l i t y , and prepa r i n g con ten t fo r phase 2  phase 2: i n s t a l l i n g in f r a s t r u c t u r e (e . g . , CMS) to genera t e webs i t e s Dete rm in i n g an i n f r a s t r u c t u r e s t r a t e g y - - e.g . , i s a CMS tha t i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , or i s i t j u s t ano the r sys t em to be in c l u d ed? Dete rm in i n g the range of produc t s and sys t ems to be suppor t e d - - e.g . :  Eser i a l s / e j o u r n a l s knowledge base ( i n c l u d i n g ebooks? ) (e . g . , Ser i a l s Solu t i o n s )  OpenURL suppor t :  Targe t reso l v e r (e . g . , SFX)  Use of OpenURL l i n k s in a l l our own l i n k s to resou r ces  Dig i t a l co l l e c t i o n suppor t (e . g . , Conten tDM, DSpace) :  Separa t i o n of in t e r f a c e and data (bo t h metada ta and source data )  s tanda rd s - based co l l e c t i o n mechan i sms  Dig i t a l prese r va t i o n st r a t e g i e s  Dig i t a l harves t i n g s t r a t e g i e s  Cons i s t e n t search i n t e r f a c e :  Federa t ed search of exte r na l databases (e . g . , Meta l i b )  "Cong l omera t e d " search of lo ca l databases ( i n c l u d i n g OPAC) (e . g . , Aquabrowse r , Endeca , Pr imo)  Browsab l e in f o rma t i o n in t e r f a c e - - e.g . , Visua l Disp l a y s (Aquabrowse r? Viv i s imo - s t y l e c lu s t e r i n g ? ) , browsab le ca ta l o gue  Suppor t fo r phys i ca l d is t r i b u t i o n - - e.g . , ILL , docde l Bui l d i n g the i n f r a s t r u c t u r e capab l e of accommodat i n g these and othe r , s t i l l unknown, produc t s and sys t ems , and presen t i n g them in a h igh l y con f i g u r a b l e var i e t y of i n t e r f a c e s  3. Libra ry Organiza t i on  Where do we want to be?  •  Organ i za t i o n a l cu l t u r e : o Open to the fu t u r e o Proac t i v e ra t h e r than reac t i v e o High l y f l e x i b l e - - ab le to respond to change and adap t to unfo r e seen deve l opmen t s  •  Organ i za t i o n a l st r u c t u r e : o Focus on phys i ca l co l l e c t i o n fo r t r a d i t i o n a l un i t s : acqu i s i t i o n s , ca ta l o gu i n g , c i r c u l a t i o n o Deve lop new un i t s focused on network i n f o rma t i o n : l i c e n s i n g , metada ta desc r i p t i o n , d ig i t i z a t i o n , in t e r f a c e des i gn , in f r a s t r u c t u r e o "Co l l e c t i o n s " broadened i n t o " I n f o rma t i o n Access " o "Pub l i c Serv i c e s " tu r ned i n t o " I n f o rma t i o n consu l t a n c i e s " o Trans i t i o n f r om fa c i l i t y - based serv i c e s such as ca ta l o gu i n g and c i r c u l a t i o n i n the phys i c a l l i b r a r y to in c l u d e a knowledge - based i n f o rma t i o n serv i c e (eHe lp , eRefe rence , eLearn i n g )  Where are we now? •  •  Organ i za t i o n a l cu l t u r e : o Ambiva l en t abou t the fu t u r e o React i v e - - conce rned wi t h "keep i n g up" o Job , c la ss i f i c a t i o n r i g i d i t i e s impede ab i l i t y  to adap t to change  Organ i za t i o n a l st r u c t u r e : o Network in f o rma t i o n management d i spe r sed to t r a d i t i o n a l organ i za t i o n a l un i t s :  Eresou r ces grouped wi t h Techn i ca l Serv i c e s  Web s i t e and i n t e r f a c e i s sues grouped wi t h IT /Sys t ems  Dig i t i z a t i o n grouped wi t h Arch i v e s o Many i n t r ad i t i o n a l un i t s be ing pressu r ed to take on unfami l i a r tasks re l a t i n g to networ k i n f o rma t i o n  How do we get where we want to be? •  Organ i za t i o n a l cu l t u r e : o Use of "Organ i z a t i o n a l Deve lopment " (OD) techn i q ues? o Do a needs assessment of fu t u r e sk i l l s act i v i t i e s requ i r e d and beg in the process of t r a i n i n g and rec r u i t i n g approp r i a t e sta f f . o Discuss i o n s wi t h Unions and Assoc i a t i o n s i n vo l v e d to deve l op more f l e x i b l e job def i n i t i o n s , po l i c i e s o Cross - t r a i n i n g ? o Reward change o But don ' t pena l i z e those who ne i t h e r want nor need to change (e . g . , those suppo r t i n g ongo ing func t i o n s of the phys i c a l co l l e c t i o n ) o Recogn i z i n g the “ l i b r a r y ” wi l l a lways be i n a cons tan t s ta t e of techn i c a l evo lu t i o n we:  Encourage new at t i t u d e s to accommodate an env i r o nmen t tha t i s abou t cons t an t change .  Selec t techno l og i e s , so f twa r e , and adop t bus i ness prac t i c e s tha t embraces and accommodates cons t an t evo lu t i o n  •  Organ i za t i o n a l st r u c t u r e : o Dete rm ine pr i o r i t i e s and make cho i ce s to beg in the process of reduc i n g fuc t i o n s and s ta f f i n g tha t accommodate pr i n t - based organ i z a t i o n and red i r e c t energ i e s and sta f f i n g to fu t u r e l i b r a r y . o Cons ide r i nnova t i v e organ i z a t i o n a l s t r u t u r e s (e . g . , mat r i x ) to deve lop c lo se r coope ra t i o n across ex i s t i n g bounda r i e s (as an i n t e rmed i a t e s tep? ) o Cons ide r pu l l i n g toge t he r netwo rk i n f o rma t i o n func t i o n s in an expanded Network In f o rma t i o n Suppor t un i t o Cons ide r c lo se r i n t e g r a t i o n between l i b r a r y sub je c t spec i a l i s t s and facu l t y / d e p a r tmen t / d i s c i p l i n e un i t s o Shape a use r - cen te r ed (o r c l i e n t - cen t r e d ) l i b r a r y . Thi s wi l l depend upon bu i l d i n g in a fo rma l i z e d user - consu l t a t i o n process . Al l of our serv i c e s , processes , dec i s i o n - making i s focused on th i s requ i r emen t .   Appendix two: Portrait of a New Media Library User Prepared by Patty Foster  1. Library Users have changed • • •  Changes in text technologies have resulted in changes to how we think, remember and collaborate. Disruptive technologies can cause changes to how people relate to each other (Taris) Learners are becoming more knowledgeable about technology and repurpose it for their own needs.  2. Library Users have become Google-trained. • • •  What are the expectations of the user in the modern world? The proliferation of Google as a peer to peer network has taken over a chunk of the Internet, it acts as a middle man between the browser and the information. As people use it for searches, it uses algorithms to create a better searching tool.  A. Personal Reflections and conversation as a learning tool. • • •  Journaling, conversation and collaboration have historically been important to the learning process. Innovations in social software have allowed this process to "gel" better. Allows you to contribute to and see the results quicker when you collaborate and when conversations are created from personal reflections. B. Sharing of Knowledge has become more important.  • • • •  The ability and willingness of individuals to push their thinking creatively has been enhanced by the creation of meme trees. Social software allows the sharing of resource lists and the ability to examine what resources your colleagues/classmates are looking at. Example GUSSE, a social bookmarking system that promotes the development of sustainability solutions among urban professionals and citizens. Promote engagement with the community.  C. Motivations have changed at the post-secondary curriculum level (Jafari 2006 pp.58 Educause). • • • • •  Integration of course software and library resources course software: WebCT, Sakai, Moodle motivation involves choices (Jafari 2006) Personal learning preferences can influence choices in learning modes: kinetic, visual and auditory. Quick info vs. contemplative: The user will choose the appropriate media depending on the  •  approach required for the material. "For elearning environments to be motivational, they must be 'smart' and acquire an understanding of the uniqueness of the learner and the instructor: their habits, choices, preferences and even errors." (Jafari 2006: pp.58 Educause).  3. Users Curriculum Needs - How Are We Currently Assisting the New User? • • • • •  Engaging faculty and students with the library UBC specific - hiring librarians/information specialists for individual departments. Ask Away - network of librarians always available via IM (instant messenger). McMaster University has recently adopted a similar system to "chapters.ca", a familiar interface to modern users. It has the ability to create research sets and wish lists. Issues: a lot of add-ons but no real overall restructuring. The catalogue currently reflects the print collection and does not operate as a research tool.  4. The future user as contributor. • • •  Unique URIs to show colleagues/students what resources you have been exploring. Historical photographs, podcasts and contributing to the findability of materials via folksonomy integrated with traditional classification systems. Learning salons.  5. Issue: How do you remediate between the traditional and modern user? • • • •  •  Nature of digitization - How does this benefit the user? What are the disadvantages? Ebooks vs. digitized books - not the same thing. The scanning of books only shows the representation of the text, the ability to search via index may be lost. i.e. , 24x7 books no hyperlinking. A lot of patrons still consider themselves computer illiterate and while they may be able to handle the online catalogue as it currently stands what would happen if a tighter integration with social software were to be introduced? LibQual survey software - a communication strategy, which collects and interprets library user feedback systematically over time.  

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