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Toward the Nodal Library Atkey, Susan 2009

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Toward the Nodal Library A Discussion Paper on the future of the UBC Library in the emerging eLibrary environment. Prepared by the eLibrary Discussion Paper Working Group Larry Campbell Susan Atkey Hilde Colenbrander Patricia Foster Chris Hives Joy Kirchner May Yan-Mountain November 2, 2006. Toward the  Nodal  Library Toward  the  Nodal  L ib ra r y  -  Execut i ve  Summary Under  the  impac t  of  d is rup t i v e  change,  coming  in  the  wake of  new deve lopments  in   in fo rmat i on  techno logy ,  the  t rad i t i o na l  def i n i t i o n  of the  l i b r a r y  in  te rms  of  a repos i t o r y  or  co l l ec t i o n  is  becoming  stead i l y less  v iab le .  A new def i n i t i o n  or  model  i s  needed ins tead  - -  tha t  of  the l i b r a r y  as a node in  an in fo rma t i on  network ,  prov id i ng  a loca l  or reg iona l  locus  of  in fo rmat i on  serv i ces ,  access  poin t s ,  and meta- in fo rma t i ona l  exper t i s e ,  commonly  (bu t  not  necessar i l y )  assoc ia ted  wi th a phys ica l  co l l e c t i o n .  Two themes tha t  immedia te l y  fo l l ow  f rom th i s model  - -  the  media t i on  of  network  in fo rma t i on  to  the  loca l  communi ty (wh ich  may be as la rge  as a nat i ona l  reg ion  or  as smal l  as a campus or neighbourhood) ,  and the  media t i on  of  loca l  in fo rmat i on  to  the  network - -  are  examined  in  more deta i l .  This  invo l ves ,  in  the  f i r s t  case ,  the l i b r a r y  as in fo rmat i on  broker  and arch i t e c t ,  as wel l  as persona l in fo rma t i on  app l i ance  and in fo rmat i on  consu l t ancy .  In  the  second  case , i t  invo l ves  the  l i b r a r y  as  cura to r  of  d ig i t a l  in fo rma t i on  co l l ec t i o ns , whether  of  i t s  own dig i t i z e d  resources  or  of  mater i a l  co l l e c t ed  f rom i t s  communi t y ,  as wel l  as an in fo rma t i on  dissemina to r  or  pub l i s he r ,  and as  a labe l  fo r  a decomposable  assemblage  of  serv i ces  and resources  tha t can  be made ava i l ab l e  to  the  network  themse lves .  Two fu r t he r  themes, re la t ed  to  the  quest i on  of  the  changes  requ i r ed  by  the  new model ,  are d iscussed :  the  ongo ing  ro le  of  the  phys i ca l  co l l ec t i o n ,  which  remains of  grea t  prac t i c a l  impor tance  but  which  has  requ i r ements  tha t  are  qu i t e d is t i n c t  f rom those  of  networked  in fo rmat i on ;  and the  v i t a l  impor tance of  access  to ,  and prov i s i on  of ,  so- ca l l ed  "pure  data"  - -  meaning  s imp ly data  s t r i pped  of  i t s  presen ta t i o na l  wrapp ings  - -  fo r  the  fu l l deve lopment  of  the  noda l  l i b r a r y  as such . Af te r  th i s  qu ick  look  at  where  we as an ins t i t u t i o n  need to  be,  we examine  even  more qu ick l y  where  we are  now.  A number  of  promis i ng  s igns at  UBC Lib ra r y  in  par t i c u l a r  are  noted ,  inc l ud i ng  a co l l abo ra t i o n  wi th the  Medica l  Facu l t y  in  cur r i c u l um  des ign ,  a mul t i - year  program fo r  the rep lacement  of  pr in t  jou rna l s  wi th  onl i ne  vers i ons ,  a range  of  o ld  and new dig i t i z a t i o n  pro jec t s ,  and the  ear l y  deve lopment  of  a func t i ona l  i f p iecemeal  in fo rmat i on  in f r as t r u c t u r e  based  on ColdFus ion .  Along  wi th those  encourag ing  s igns ,  however ,  the re  are  a lso  a number  tha t  are somewhat  dis courag ing ,  many of  which  appear  to  der i ve  f rom,  or  at  leas t be assoc ia ted  wi th ,  the  enormous  f i nanc ia l ,  and there fo re organ iza t i ona l ,  burden  of  i t s  legacy  " In t eg ra t ed  Lib ra r y  System" , des igned  to  serve  the  needs  of  the  l i b r a r y  as  phys ica l  co l l e c t i o n .  This is  a genera l  cond i t i o n  wi th  which  al l  l i b r a r i e s  are  st rugg l i n g  in var i ous  ways,  however ,  and a number  of  others  are  a lso  f i nd i ng innova t i v e  ways to  beg in  the  process  of  break ing  the  old  mold  - -  some examples  are  s imp ly  l i s t ed . Fina l l y ,  then ,  we look  in  very  genera l  te rms  at  what  we need to  do to ensure  tha t  we get  f rom where  we are  now to  where  we need to  be.  The dec is i on  tha t  our  pr imary  bus iness  is  in fo rmat i on  ra the r  than co l l e c t i o n  wi l l  requ i r e  s t ra t eg i c  boldness ,  and wi l l  lead  to  some fa r - reach ing  ef fec t s  in  organ iza t i on ,  po l i c y ,  and prac t i c e .  A bo ld  approach on a s t ra t eg i c  leve l ,  however ,  wi l l  need to  be matched  wi th  an 2 Toward the  Nodal  Library exp lo ra t o r y  and high l y  f l ex i b l e  approach  on a tac t i c a l  or imp lementa t i on  leve l ,  as new deve lopments  can  always  render  any par t i c u l a r  pro jec t  qu ick l y  obso le te .  With in  th i s  f ramework ,  some genera l  but  s t i l l  concre te  steps  are  suggested  over  shor t -  and longer - te rm  t ime l i nes .  In  the  end,  i t ' s  recogn i zed  tha t  the  fu tu re  isn ' t someth ing  to  be mere ly  env is i oned ,  i t ' s  someth ing  tha t  must  be bu i l t  - - and tha t  do ing  so,  desp i t e  the  di f f i c u l t y  of  re l i nqu i sh i ng  some of  the past ,  wi l l  pos i t i o n  the  l i b r a r y  as a fac i l i t y  at  the  hear t  of  the emerg ing  In fo rmat i on  Socie t y ,  and l i b r a r i a ns  among i t s  leaders . Toward the Nodal Library Node :  Any po in t  in  a network  tha t  can in f l uence  the  f l ow  of  data  on tha t  network . In t r oduc t i on :  Envis i on i ng  the  Future What  comes to  mind  when you  hear  a phrase  l i k e  " the  l i b r a r y  of  the fu tu re "?  Some sor t  of  st reaml i ned ,  Ar t  Deco- ed,  Jetson ' s  k ind  of  th i ng , perhaps?  Robot  l i b r a r i a ns ,  f l oa t i n g  books ,  v i r t ua l - rea l i t y  card cata l ogues ,  etc .?  Wel l ,  perhaps  not .  The phrase  i t se l f ,  af te r  a l l ,  has an i ron i ca l l y  re t r o ,  o ld - fash ioned  r i ng  to  i t  now - -  fo r  good reason , we've  become susp ic i ous  of  the  sor t  of  gush ing ,  hype- r i dden  fu tu r i sm tha t  of ten  seems jus t  to  exaggera te  the  obv ious  and miss  the s ign i f i c an t .  And yet  . . .  how are  we to  dea l  wi th  the  fu tu re  at  a l l  i f we don ' t  make some ef fo r t  to  imag ine  i t ?  And then  how,  exac t l y ,  would we go about  doing  tha t  - -  env is i on i ng  the  fu tu re  of  the  l i b r a r y? Let ' s  cons ide r  two  poss ib i l i t i e s .  One is  to  sta r t  f rom where  we are , and ext rapo la t e  t rends  tha t  we see  in  our  sur round ings  and our  recen t past .  This  has  a k ind  of  natu ra l ,  grounded,  common- sens ica l  appea l  tha t can  be a usefu l  ant i do t e  to  the  f l u r r y  of  buzzwords  and abst rac t i o ns tha t  so of ten  charac te r i z e s  d iscuss ions  of  " the  fu tu re "  of  anyth i ng . But  i t  a lso  has  cer ta i n  l im i t a t i o n s  - -  in  par t i c u l a r ,  i t  requ i r es  some assumpt ions ,  exp l i c i t  or  imp l i c i t ,  about  the  natu re  of  the  change process  i t se l f :  not  tha t  i t  need be " l i n ea r " ,  exac t l y ,  but  tha t  i t  i s , in  some def i ned  manner ,  cont i nuous .  What  i f ,  ins tead ,  the  k ind  of change  we face  is  dis cont i nuous  - -  abrup t ,  sudden,  or  "d i s rup t i v e " , undermin i ng  what  we've  seen  to  date ,  dash ing  expec ta t i ons ,  and break ing up ex is t i n g  pat te rns  and t rends?  Change doesn ' t  a lways  come in  th i s fo rm,  of  course ,  but  occas iona l l y  i t  does ,  and on al l  sca les .  Haven ' t we,  in  fac t ,  been th rough  one such  upheava l ,  wi th  the  advent  of  the graph ica l  web browser  in  the  mid  90 's ,  a l t e r i n g  fundamenta l l y  the  way in  which  peop le  accessed  in fo rmat i on?  And now,  jus t  a decade  la te r , might  we not  be in  the  mids t  of  another  one,  wi th  the  rap id pro l i f e r a t i o n  of  the  so- ca l l ed  "Web 2.0"  phenomenon1,  chang ing  not  jus t the  way peop le  access  in fo rmat i on  but  the  way they  re la t e  to  i t , put t i n g  in  ques t i on  the  or ig i ns ,  uses ,  s t ruc t u re ,  and very  natu re  of in fo rma t i on? I f  tha t ' s  the  s i t ua t i o n  we' re  in ,  or  even  c lose  to  i t ,  then  we need another  way of  imag in i ng  the  fu tu re  - -  one tha t  focuses  not  so much on t rends  as  on imp l i ca t i o n s ,  and s ta r t s  not  wi th  where  we are  but  wi th where  we want  or  need to  be.  This  focus  takes  us outs i de  of  the  l i b r a r y 3 Toward the  Nodal  Library and i t s  sur round ings ,  and looks  at  the  changes  inheren t  in  the  cu l t u re at  la rge ,  such  as: • the  emergence  of  a new in fo rma t i on  eco logy ,  in  which  t rad i t i o na l sources  of  author i t y  (c reden t i a l ed  exper t s ,  recogn i zed  re fe rence works ,  news media )  are  being  pushed  as ide  by  an assor tment  of prob lemat i c  but  r i ch  and var i ed  sources  l i ke  b logs  and wik i s ,  the pre - eminen t ,  t rans fo rma t i ona l  example  be ing  the  Wik iped ia 2; • mass dig i t i z a t i o n  pro jec t s  l i ke  Google  Books  (and  s imi l a r European  in i t i a t i v e s ) ,  once  thought  to  be imposs ib l e ,  or  to requ i r e  centu r i e s ; • the  rap id l y  spread ing  access  to  wi re l ess  broadband,  and the  r i se of  the  a lways- on,  a lways- connected  soc ie t y ; • the  emergence  of  a new k ind  of  in fo rmat i on  user ,  or  consumer- producer ,  wi th  expec ta t i ons  cond i t i o ned  by Google - Amazon- eBay; • the  appearance  of  d isc i p l i n e - based  " in f o rma t i c s "  to  manage the sca le  and complex i t y  of  the  data  be ing  genera ted 3; • new,  more complex  modes of  scho la r l y  communica t i on  other  than  the t rad i t i o na l  peer - rev iewed  jou rna l ,  and new k inds  of  research behav io r 4 • the  pro l i f e r a t i o n  of  the  d ig i t a l  equ iva l en t  of  "grey  l i t e r a t u r e " or  ephemera ,  as  ind i v i dua l  and organ iza t i ona l  websi tes  come and go; • the  r i se  of  new k inds  of  in fo rmat i on  spaces ,  or  "cyberspaces" , such  as VR wor lds  l i k e  "Second  Li f e " ,  soc ia l  wor lds  l i ke "MySpace" ,  geograph i ca l  wor lds  l i k e  Google  Maps, image/sound /v i deo  wor lds  such  as  Fl i c k r / i T unes /YouTube,  etc . ; • the  growing  issues  and growing  complex i t y  of  the  issues  around "d ig i t a l  r i gh t s " ,  and the  inc reas i ng  impor tance  of  the  var i ous "open  access"  in i t i a t i v e s  tha t  are  s t rugg l i n g  to  come to  te rms wi th ,  or  in  some ways to  c i r cumvent ,  those  issues . And these  are  only  some of  the  examples  or  por ten t s  of  fa r - reach ing changes  afoo t ,  as ever - inc reas ing  amounts  of  in fo rmat i on ,  serv i ces , work ,  p lay ,  and communi t y  a l l  are  sh i f t e d  to  the  v i r t ua l  rea lms  of  the g loba l  network .  What  does  a sh i f t  of  tha t  natu re  and magni tude ,  then , imp ly  fo r  the  l i b r a r y  as an ins t i t u t i o n? Not  an easy  ques t i on  to  answer ,  obv ious l y ,  but  at t empt i ng  to  do so may lead  us to  ask  ourse l ves  what  a l i b r a r y  i s  in  the  f i r s t  p lace . Trad i t i o na l l y ,  the  very  meaning  of  the  word  " l i b r a r y "  i s  bound up wi th the  not i on  of  " repos i t o r y "  or  "co l l e c t i o n " ,  and th i s  assoc ia t i o n  may wel l  be unbreakab le .  But  i f  so,  then  i t ' s  l i k e l y  tha t  the  l i b r a r y ' s fu tu re ,  as a d is t i n gu i shab le  soc ia l  ins t i t u t i o n ,  i s  one of  sta te l y  but s teady  dec l i ne  in  cu l t u r a l  re levance .  Not  because  there  won' t  be a need fo r  in fo rmat i on  sto rage ,  but  jus t  because  such  s to rage  wi l l inc reas ing l y  take  such  a var i e t y  of  f l u i d  and in tang ib l e  fo rms,  so sub l im ina l ,  so  in teg ra ted  in to  the  soc ia l  and techn i ca l  fab r i c  of  our l i ves ,  tha t  one would  no more th ink  of  go ing  to  a par t i c u l a r  repos i t o r y fo r  in fo rmat i on  than  one would  th i nk ,  any  longer ,  of  go ing  to  a communi t y  wel l  fo r  water .  Which,  in  a la rge r  perspec t i v e  - -  and wi th due respec t  fo r  the  waning  of  another  ins t i t u t i o n  and i t s  assoc ia t ed pro fess i on  - -  may be jus t  f i ne ,  af te r  a l l ;  the  ins t i t u t i o n  served  us wel l  in  i t s  t ime,  would  go the  sent iment ,  but  i t s  t ime  is  past ,  or pass ing . 4 Toward the  Nodal  Library And yet  . . .  in  th i s  networked  wor ld ,  the  to r ren t  of  in fo rmat i on produced ,  t ranspo r t ed ,  and consumed,  of  a l l  k inds ,  and at  a l l  sca les  or leve l s ,  cont i nues  to  inc rease  at  unpreceden ted  ra tes ,  cons tan t l y th rea ten i ng  to  drown us al l  in  data ,  c la ims ,  suppos i t i o n s ,  ques t i ons , er ro r s ,  repor t s ,  documents ,  t r i v i a ,  fac t s ,  and dub ious  " fac t s " . Cer ta i n l y ,  ind i v i dua l s  and groups  di rec t l y  invo l ved  make inc reas ing l y s t renuous  and of ten  ingen ious  ef fo r t s  to  cope  wi th  the  de luge ,  and cer ta i n l y  Google  and i t s  l i k e  are  do ing  every th i ng  they  can  th ink  of ( i nc l ud i ng  sp inn ing  of f  a var i e t y  of  serv i ces ,  produc ts ,  and pro jec t s  in  perpe tua l  beta )  to  prov ide  broad ,  gener i c ,  h igh- leve l cont ro l  sys tems  and access  mechanisms.  But  desp i t e  a l l  these  good ef fo r t s ,  in fo rmat i on ,  t ime  and energy  are  inc reas ing l y  being  los t  or wasted  in  th i s  d ig i t a l  f l ood i ng  - -  what ' s  needed is  an ent i r e  soc ia l / c u l t u r a l  in f r a s t r u c t u r e ,  capab le  of  managing  in fo rmat i on and prov id i ng  in fo rmat i ona l  serv i ces  in  a var ie t y  of  fo rms  and leve l s , across  d ive rse  communi t i e s ,  over  long  t ime- f rames.  What  is  needed,  in other  words ,  i s  someth ing  very  much l i k e  l i b r a r i e s ,  but  l i b r a r i e s focused  on,  and organ ized  around ,  not  in fo rma t i on  repos i t o r i e s  but in fo rma t i on  jus t  as such.  In  th i s  sense,  l i b r a r i e s  would  no longer  be seen  as re la t i v e l y  autonomous ins t i t u t i o n s  wi th  the i r  s tand- a lone  and heav i l y  redundant  co l l e c t i o ns ,  but  ra the r  as nodes  in  an in fo rmat i on network ,  st rong l y  connected  to  the  whole ,  but  prov id i ng  a loca l  or reg iona l  locus  of  serv i ces ,  access  poin t s ,  and meta- in fo rmat i ona l exper t i s e ,  of ten  (bu t  not  necessar i l y )  assoc ia ted  wi th  a phys ica l co l l e c t i o n  as an adjunc t .  In  tha t  sense,  the  fu tu re  of  the  l i b r a r y  is as  open and expans ive  as the  network  i t se l f . The sec t i ons  tha t  fo l l ow  assume tha t  " l i b r a r y "  i s  def i ned  in  the second,  noda l  sense,  and ask  a ser ies  of  ques t i ons  - -  s ta r t i n g  wi th where  we ( "we"  be ing  the  co l l e c t i v e  sense  of  the  l i b r a r y  as an ins t i t u t i o n )  want  or  need to  be,  as imp l i ed  by the  k ind  of  changes underway  in  the  cu l t u re  at  la rge ;  coming  back  to  look  at  where  we are now,  in  both  pos i t i v e  and negat i ve  aspec ts ;  and f i na l l y  ask ing  what  we need to  do to  get  to  where  we need to  be.  We hope i t ' s  need less  to  say tha t  the  answers  prov ided  be low those  quest i ons  are  in  no sense  f i na l or  conc lus i ve  - -  they ' r e  in tended  ra the r  as thoughts ,  observa t i ons ,  and sugges t i ons ,  and there fo re  as jus t  the  sta r t  (o r  so we also  hope)  of  a usefu l  conversa t i on . Where do we need to  be? I f  we take  ser ious l y  the  idea  of  the  l i b r a r y  as a node in  an in fo rma t i on  network ,  then  two  main  themes quick l y  become apparen t :  the f i r s t  i s  the  l i b r a r y ' s  ro le  in  media t i ng  network  in fo rmat i on ,  a long wi th  va lue - added serv i ces ,  to  i t s  communi ty ;  and the  other  i s  the rec ip roca l  ro le  of  prov id i ng  loca l 5 in fo rmat i on ,  in  standard i zed  fo rmat , to  the  network .  Let ' s  look  more c lose l y  at  some of  what  these  enta i l : 1.  Mediat ing  network  in format ion  to  the  community One aspec t  of  th i s  theme is  actua l l y  qu i t e  o ld  and fami l i a r  - -  th i s  i s the  l i b r a r y  in  the  ro le  of  in fo rmat i on  "b roke r " ,  negot i a t i n g  and purchas ing  l i cenced  access  to  impor tan t  propr i e t a r y  resources  fo r  i t s author i zed  users .  (L ib ra r i e s  have  become accus tomed to  th i nk i ng  of  the 5 Toward the  Nodal  Library resources  so l i c enced  as par t  of  the i r  "co l l e c t i o n " ,  even  though  they don ' t ,  as  a ru le ,  s to re  them themse lves ,  don ' t  have  access  r i gh t s beyond  the  negot i a t ed  t ime  f rame,  and of ten  cannot  cont ro l  which ind i v i dua l  i t ems  are  inc l uded  in  the  negot i a t ed  access  package  - -  i t seems both  c leare r  and more t rue  to  v iew  them as cent ra l l y  co l l e c t ed resources  to  which  the  l i b r a r y  s imp ly  media tes  or  brokers  access . )  For much of  the  h is to r y  of  the  l i b r a r y ' s  invo l vement  wi th  such  resources , however ,  they  were  ent i r e l y  separa te  f rom one anothe r ,  and users  would , fo r  example ,  ra the r  labor i ous l y  have  to  co l l ec t  c i t a t i o n s  f rom one database  and then  search  fo r  fu l l - tex t  sources  in  another .  The advent of  the  OpenURL standard  of fe red  the  poss ib i l i t y  of  automated  l i nk i ng across  di f f e r en t  produc ts  and vendors ,  f rom meta- data  source  to in fo rma t i on  ta rge t ,  and on ly  requ i r ed  a one- t ime  set - up wi th  each source  database .  More recen t l y ,  OCLC has  estab l i s hed  a reg i s t r y 6 which , a long  wi th  a new,  more l i gh twe igh t  pro toco l  fo r  inse r t i n g  OpenURLs in l i n ks  ( COinS7) ,  wi l l  make th i s  sor t  of  l i n k i ng  between  d ive rse  resources ava i l ab l e  fo r  anyth ing :  b logs ,  wik i s ,  academic  papers ,  etc .  With  these and fu r t he r  deve lopments  a long  these  l i nes ,  we see  the  l i b ra r y ' s  ro le as  in fo rmat i on  broker  becoming  inc reas ing l y  inv i s i b l e ,  as  i t becomes more deep ly  embedded in  the  in fo rma t i on  in f r as t r u c t u r e  of  the soc ie t y  at  la rge . Another  aspec t  of  the  same theme,  however ,  i s  qu i t e  v is i b l e  - -  th i s  i s the  l i b r a r y  in  the  ro le  of  in fo rmat i on  or  knowledge  "a rch i t e c t " , bui l d i ng  and main ta i n i ng  in te r f a ces  to  network  in fo rmat i on  appropr i a t e fo r  i t s  par t i c u l a r  communi t i e s .  Such in te r f a ces  may be search  boxes , browsab le  d isp l ays ,  or  both ,  and may combine  the  outpu t  of  mul t i p l e network  resources .  And here  aga in ,  we've  seen  in i t i a l  moves along  these l i nes  fo r  a whi le  now,  in  every th i ng  f rom s imp le  "A  to  Z l i s t s "  of resources ,  th rough  home- grown database  search  func t i ona l i t y ,  to  more complex ,  but  s t i l l  l im i t ed  and prob lem- r idden  commerc ia l  "metasearch " produc ts .  But  by and la rge  these  are  a l l  jus t  aspec ts  or  por t i ons  of the  l i b r a r y ' s  in te r f a ce ,  s tand ing  apar t  f rom one another ,  and stuck l i ke  iso l a t ed  cand les  in  a sta t i c ,  one- s ize - f i t s - a l l  web s i t e ;  i t ' s inc reas ing l y  ev iden t  tha t  what ' s  rea l l y  needed is  a much more f l ex i b l e in te r f a ce  - -  or ,  bet te r  yet ,  in te r f a ce  in f r a s t r u c t u r e  - -  tha t  can: • accommodate  a wide  range  of  resources ,  types  of  resources , func t i ona l i t i e s ,  serv i ces ,  etc . ,  in  a coheren t ,  cons is t en t presen ta t i on ; • be eas i l y  and qu ick l y  conf i gu rab l e  to  suppor t  d i f f e r en t  uses  or s i t ua t i o ns  - -  e.g . ,  user  types ,  sub jec t  area  or  d isc i p l i n e , c lasses ,  sub- communi t i e s ,  etc . ; • be persona l i z ed ,  so ind i v i dua l s  can in  ef fec t  cra f t  the i r  own in te r f a ce ,  cut t i ng  across  al l  the  d i f f e r en t  types ,  sub jec t s ,  sub- communi t i e s ,  etc .  in  which  they ' r e  invo l ved . In  th i s  sense,  there  would  no longer  be a s ing le  l i b r a r y  websi te ,  apar t perhaps  f rom a fa i r l y  gener i c ,  brochure - l i ke  defau l t ,  but  ra the r  a l i b r a r y  web in f r a s t r u c t u r e ,  tha t  would  be capab le  of  genera t i ng  a var i e t y  of  web s i t es  to  su i t  the  needs  of  par t i c u l a r  communi t i e s , s i t ua t i o ns ,  or  uses . A th i r d  aspec t  i s  s t rong l y  re la t ed  to  the  one above,  but  i s  a new and s ign i f i c an t  enough deve lopment  to  warran t  separa te  t rea tment  - -  th i s  i s the  l i b r a r y  in  the  ro le  of  persona l  in fo rmat i on  app l i ance ,  where " i n f o rma t i on "  is  now cons t rued  in  the  more in te rac t i v e  and mal leab le 6 Toward the  Nodal  Library "web 2.0"  sense.  This  is  a rap id l y  mutat i ng  in fo rmat i on  env i r onment , invo l v i ng  elements  tha t  might  seem,  odd ly ,  both  fami l i a r  and s t range : tags ,  comments ,  "mash- ups" ,   feeds ,  etc .  - -  conten t  tha t ' s  not  jus t user - cont ro l l e d ,  in  other  words ,  but  user - supp l i ed .  Such a deve lopment fo r  l i b r a r i e s  goes  beyond  jus t  le t t i n g  users  add rev iews  to  cata l ogue reco rds  - -  i t  means prov id i ng  users  wi th  a k ind  of  sharab le  work- space wi th i n  which  they  have  access  to  l i b r a r y - media ted  network  resources  and func t i ona l i t y ,  and to  which  they ' r e  able  to  add in fo rmat i on  of  the i r own which  then  becomes,  poten t i a l l y ,  ava i l ab l e  to  the  network .  Users , in  such  an env i r onment ,  can  become the i r  own l i b r a r i a n s  af te r  a fash ion ,  bu i l d i n g  the i r  own co l l e c t i o ns  of  in fo rmat i on  resources  to  be shared  wi th  others  ( fo r  ear l y  examples  of  th i s  sor t  of  th i ng ,  see del . i c i o . u s 8 or  L ib ra r yTh ing 9) .  This  aspec t  i s  a good i l l u s t r a t i o n  of the  nodal  l i b r a r y  media t i ng  the  two- way f l ow  of  in fo rma t i on ,  and crea t i ng  communi t i e s  as i t  does  so. A four t h  (and  fo r  now f i na l )  aspec t  of  the  l i b r a r y  media t i ng  network in fo rma t i on  p icks  up on th i s  theme of  two- way f l ow  - -  i t  invo l ves  the l i b r a r y  in  the  ro le  of  in fo rma t i on  consu l t ancy .  This  is  rea l l y  jus t  an extens ion  of  one of  the  o ldes t  and most  fami l i a r  of  l i b r a r y  serv i ces : re fe rence .  But  as scho la r l y  and research  behav io r s  beg in  to  change under  the  impact  of  the  networked  soc ie t y  - -  as vas t  quant i t i e s  of in fo rma t i on  are  genera ted  and s imi l a r l y  vas t  quant i t i e s  become ava i l ab l e  as inpu t  - -  re fe rence  serv i ces  too  wi l l  need to  evo lve . Subjec t  in fo rmat i on  spec ia l i s t s  wi l l  need to  be more invo l ved  wi th research  pro jec t s  and cur r i c u l um  des ign  f rom ear l y  stages ,  and so wi l l have  to  become more fami l i a r  wi th  the  in fo rmat i c s  of  par t i c u l a r d isc i p l i n e s  whi le  s t i l l  main ta i n i ng  a cross - disc i p l i n a r y ,  "meta - in fo rma t i c s "  v iew  tha t  keeps  them in  touch  wi th  the  broader  in fo rma t i on processes  of  the  networked  env i r onment .  This  may invo l ve ,  among other th i ngs ,  the  in teg ra t i o n  of  in fo rma t i on  l i t e r a cy  educat i on  in to  the work f l ows  of  s tuden ts  and scho la r s ,  the  crea t i v e  exp lo ra t i o n  and use  of new too l s  and fo rmats  tha t  become ava i l ab l e  (e .g . ,  b logs ,  wik i s ,  "mash- ups" ) ,  and the  sh i f t  away f rom a reac t i v e ,  "pa t ron  comes to  us"  model of  re fe rence  toward  a more  proac t i v e ,  embedded and engaged model .  And so the  theme of  two- way media t i on  re - appears ,  as spec ia l i z ed in fo rma t i on  consu l t an t s  a id  users  both  in  f i nd i ng  the i r  way th rough in fo rma t i on  mazes,  and in  managing  the  in fo rmat i on  they  genera te accord ing  to  cu l t u r a l  and network  standards  (e .g . ,  metada ta , preserva t i o na l  st ra teg i es ,  etc . ) . 2.  Mediat ing  community  informat ion  to  the  network The f i r s t  example  of  th i s  k ind  of  media t i on ,  f rom loca l  in fo rmat i on sources  to  network ,  i s  a lso ,  by now,  a fami l i a r  one - -  i t ' s  the "d ig i t a l  l i b r a r y "  in  the  nar row  sense,  in  fac t ,  or  the  l i b ra r y  in  the ro le  of  d ig i t a l ,  or  d ig i t i zed ,  co l l ec t i o n  manager .  The loca l in fo rma t i on  sources ,  in  th i s  case ,  are  typ i ca l l y  drawn f rom the l i b r a r y ' s  own pr in t  or  phys ica l  co l l ec t i o ns ,  and the  l i b r a r y  under takes the  task  of  se lec t i ng ,  d ig i t i z i n g ,  organ iz i ng ,  and presen t i ng  those resources  in  a network - access ib l e  fo rm.  This  process  has  been go ing  on, in  vary ing  degrees ,  at  many l i b r a r i e s  fo r  a number  of  years  now, and the  resu l t  has  been a s low  but  steady  accumula t i on  of  a subs tan t i a l number  of  h igh - va lue  co l l ec t i o n s  poten t i a l l y  access ib l e  to  anyone anywhere .   But  these  co l l e c t i o n s  have  also  been genera ted  in  a wide 7 Toward the  Nodal  Library var i e t y  of  fo rms,  fo rmats ,  d isp l ays ,  access  methods ,  meta- data descr i p t i o n s ,  granu la r i t y  leve l s ,  and so fo r t h ,  a l l  of  which  compromise the i r  in te r - co l l e c t i o n  coherence  and hamper  the i r  actua l  access ib i l i t y . Ef fo r t s  l i k e  those  of  the  Open Arch ives  In i t i a t i v e  are  a sta r t  toward prov id i ng  some mutua l  compat ib i l i t y  between  dig i t a l  co l l e c t i o ns ,  but much more wi l l  be needed,  both  on nat i ona l / g l o ba l  leve l s  and on loca l leve l s ,  to  ensure  tha t  the  r i ch  in fo rmat i on  sources  be ing  produced  are fu l l y  network - access ib l e  in  browsab le ,  searchab le ,  cross - co l l e c t i o n in te r f a ces . At  leas t  as impor tan t  as the  dig i t i z i n g  of  the  l i b r a r y ' s  own phys ica l resources ,  however ,  i s  the  co l l e c t i o n ,  preserva t i on ,  and presen ta t i o n - -  in  a word ,  the  cura t i on  - -  of  the  loca l  communi t y ' s  resources . L ib ra r i e s  have  long  done th i s ,  in  a somewhat  in fo rma l  way,  fo r  loca l l y genera ted  pr in t  or  phys ica l  resources ,  of ten  ca l l ed  "g rey  l i t e r a t u r e " , but  even  th i s  in fo rma l  at ten t i on  has  usua l l y  been lack i ng  fo r  s imi l a r k inds  of  in fo rmat i on  resources  "born  d ig i t a l "  - -  the  network  equ iva len t of  organ i za t i o na l ,  or  event - re la t ed  (o r  even  ind i v i dua l )  brochures , pamphle ts ,  announcements ,  documents ,  etc .  tha t  of ten  car r y  much of  the deta i l  of  h is to r y .  L ib ra r i e s  as loca l  network  nodes  have  an obv ious respons ib i l i t y  to  deve lop  sys temat i c  approaches  toward  the  management of  th i s  k ind  of  in fo rmat i on ,  and the  in teg ra t i o n  of  i t  in to  tha t genera l  network  in te r f a ce  spoken  of  above  - -  a ro le  tha t  l i b r a r i e s ' fund ing  sources  need to  apprec i a t e  and prov ide  fo r  as wel l ,  i t  shou ld be sa id . For  a cer ta i n  k ind  of  loca l l y - produced  dig i t a l  in fo rmat i on ,  in  fac t , l i b r a r i e s  (o f  a cer ta i n  type)  have  al ready  been invo l ved  as cura to r s , at  leas t  to  some exten t  - -  th i s  i s  the  research  data ,  in fo rma t i on ,  and knowledge  produced  in  academic  ins t i t u t i o n s ,  and somewhat  haphazard l y co l l e c t ed  and main ta i ned  in  var i ous  vers i ons  of  " i ns t i t u t i o na l repos i t o r y " .  To th i s  po in t ,  the  ro le  or  func t i on  of  the  " i ns t i t u t i o na l repos i t o r y "  seems a b i t  unc lea r :  shou ld  i t  s t r i v e  pr imar i l y  fo r  ease  of access  - -  a searchab le ,  browsab le  showcase  of  ins t i t u t i o na l  resources (a  campus- wide  extens ion  of  the  d ig i t a l  l i b r a r y ) ?  Or fo r  in fo rma t i on secur i t y  and reso l vab i l i t y  - -  a long- te rm  d ig i t a l  arch i ve  of ins t i t u t i o na l  resources?  Or fo r  comprehens iveness  - -  an assor tment  of ins t i t u t i o na l  d ig i t a l  ob jec t s  of  a l l  k inds ,  leve l s ,  and media?  I t  might be tempt ing  to  say  "a l l  of  the  above" ,  of  course ,  but  i t ' s  a lso rea l i s t i c  to  accept  tha t  d i f f e r i n g  ob jec t i v es  somet imes  br ing  wi th  them di f f i c u l t - to - avo id  t rade - of f s ,  and the  need fo r  dec is i ons .  Cer ta i n l y , though ,  a major  a im of  IR ' s  in  the  la rge r  in fo rmat i ona l  landscape  is  to crea te  a sys tem of  in te rope rab le ,  in te r - searchab le  repos i t o r i e s  on a g loba l  sca le ,  a deve lopment  which  would  have  a cons ide rab l e  impact  on scho la r l y  communica t i on  and on research  i t se l f .  And fac to r s  tha t  l i e  in back  of  much of  th i s  deve lopment  may wel l  have  the  most  to  say  about the  fo rm  or  fo rms  by  which  l i b r a r i e s  can  help  media te  the  outpu t  of academic  research  and pedagogy  - -  fac to r s  such  as: • the  Open Access /Open  Data  movement • the  appearance  of  Very  Large  Data  Sets  (e .g . ,  in  ast ronomy, genomics ,  l i ngu i s t i c s ) ,  and the  r i s i ng  impor tance  of  d isc i p l i n a r y in fo rma t i c s • the  chang ing  natu re  of  scho la r l y  research  and communica t i on , inc l ud i ng  the  spread  of  the  "d i sc i p l i n a r y  repos i t o r y " ,  such  as arX iv ,  CogPr in t s ,  etc . 8 Toward the  Nodal  Library What  l i b r a r i e s  can and shou ld  add to  th i s  rap id l y  chang ing  pic tu re  is  a cer ta i n  cu l t u re - wide  and his to r i c a l  perspec t i v e  on in fo rma t i on , inc l ud i ng  cross - disc i p l i n a r y  descr i p t i v e  s tandards ,  copyr i gh t  and dig i t a l  r i gh t s  issues ,  and both  an open and a preserva t i ona l  approach to  access . Given  the  rap id l y  inc reas ing  ro le  l i b r a r i e s  are  p lay ing  in  the co l l e c t i o n  and dissemina t i on  of  networked  in fo rma t i on  genera l l y ,  we might ,  in  fac t ,  beg in  to  cons ide r  the  l i b ra r y  in  the  ro le  of  pub l i she r , at  leas t  of  academic  conten t .  Stan fo rd 10,  the  Univers i t y  of  Mich igan 11, and the  Cal i f o r n i a  Dig i t a l  L ib ra r y 12,  fo r  example ,  a l ready  have s ign i f i c an t  pub l i sh i ng  in i t i a t i v e s  underway,  and UBC Lib ra r y  i s respond ing  to  reques ts  f rom facu l t y  to  prov ide  some publ i s he r - l i k e serv i ces  fo r  loca l l y - managed open- access  ejourna l s .  As scho la r l y in fo rma t i on  and assoc ia t ed  communica t i on  processes  become stead i l y  more open and pro tean  in  fo rm (see  be low,  on "The  impor tance  of  pure  data" ) , l i b r a r i e s  may wel l  tu rn  out  to  be bet te r  pos i t i o ned  than  t rad i t i o na l academic  presses  to  prov ide  at  leas t  some of  the  serv i ces  and exper t i s e tha t  a new publ i sh i ng  env i ronment  requ i r es .  L ib ra r i e s ,  which  have  long been in  the  pos i t i o n  of  l i c en cees  of  in fo rmat i on  resources ,  may soon f i nd  themse lves  in  the  unfami l i a r  ro le  of  l i c en cors .  In  any  case ,  the ro le  of  pub l i she r ,  whether  a lone  or  in  par tne rsh i p ,  i s  one the  l i b r a r y may have  to  be ready  to  assume when and as needed. There ' s  one other  aspec t  of  the  noda l  l i b r a r y  tha t  shou ld  be ment ioned in  th i s  contex t  of  media t i ng  loca l  in fo rma t i on  - -  and th i s  invo l ves th i nk i ng  of  the  l i b r a r y  as a decomposable  assemblage  of  resources  and serv i ces ,  which  makes i t se l f  ava i l ab l e ,  in  whole  or  in  par t ,  to  the network  and to  var i ous  other  network  nodes  or  access  po in t s .  This  i s  in some ways s imi l a r  to  the  idea  of  the  l i b r a r y  as a "persona l  in fo rmat i on app l i ance "  ment ioned  above,  but  i t ' s  a lso  in  some ways the  inve rse  - - tha t  i s ,  in  th i s  v iew  the  l i b r a r y  is  no longer  a s ing le  ent i t y , se lec ted  and conf i gu red  f rom some bas ic  or  defau l t  model ,  but  ra the r s imp ly  a labe l  fo r  a set  of  func t i ons ,  any  of  which  can be made ava i l ab l e  to  the  network  to  be eas i l y  impor ted  in to  a wide  var i e t y  of other  network  contex t s ,  such  as e lea rn i ng  sys tems  ( f r om  pre - schoo l  to post - gradua te ) ,  ente r t a i nmen t  dev ices ,  work  or  research  s i t es ,  home networks ,  etc .  I t ' s  much l i ke  what  Wendy Prad t  Lougee re fe r red  to  as " d i f f u se  l i b r a r i e s " 13,  but  extended  beyond  the  academic  wor ld ,  and perhaps  worked  even  more deep ly  in to  the  in f r a s t r u c t u r e  of  soc ie t y  in genera l .  The ro le  of  the  physica l  col lec t ion The noda l  l i b r a r y ,  as  we've  seen,  doesn ' t  need a phys ica l  co l l e c t i o n  to per fo rm  i t s  essent i a l  func t i ons ,  but  of  course  v i r t ua l l y  a l l  actua l l i b r a r i e s  have  such  co l l e c t i o n s ,  and they  cont i nue  to  consume the  bu lk of  the  l i b r a r y ' s  resources ,  both  f i nanc ia l  and human.  There ' s  a good reason  fo r  th i s  - -  i t ' s  cer ta i n l y  not  the  case  tha t  "every t h i ng  is  on the  In te rne t " ,  and,  the  l i k es  of  Google  Pr in t  notw i t hs t and ing ,  i t  i sn ' t l i ke l y  to  be the  case  anyt ime  soon.  (The  tw in  obs tac l es  of  a workab le d ig i t a l  r i gh t s  reg ime  and a comfor tab l e  d ig i t a l  read ing  dev ice  wi l l keep  the  pr in t ed  book  in  serv i ce  fo r  the  fo reseeab le  fu tu re ,  qui t e apar t  f rom the  gaps  and unknowns invo l ved  in  any  mass d ig i t i z a t i o n pro jec t . )  St i l l ,  the  fac t  remains  tha t ,  as more and more mater i a l  does 9 Toward the  Nodal  Library appear  on the  In te rne t ,  usage  pat te rns  are  chang ing  rap id l y  - -  e jou rna l use  is  soar i ng ,  fo r  example ,  and c i r cu l a t i o n  s ta t i s t i c s  are  dropp ing . I t ' s  becoming  inc reas ing l y  d i f f i c u l t  to  jus t i f y  the  h igh  propor t i on  of l i b r a r y  budgets  devoted  to  a dec l i n i ng  in fo rma t i on  medium,  and in par t i c u l a r  to  suppor t  the  use  of  expens i ve  phys ica l  space  s imply  fo r book  s tacks .  Among the  l i ke l y  resu l t s : • the re  wi l l  be inc reas ing  use  made of  phys ica l  sto rage  (on- s i t e  or of f - ) ,  wi th  the  coro l l a r y  tha t  the re  wi l l  then  be inc reas ing  need fo r  a r i ch  onl i ne  brows ing  exper ience  fo r  the  phys i ca l  co l l e c t i o n as  wel l  as the  dig i t a l ,  perhaps  along  the  l i nes  suggested  by Amazon; • i t  may wel l  be the  case  tha t  the  deve lopment  of  a fas t , ef f i c i e n t ,  and easy- to - use  ILL  serv i ce  (even  invo l v i ng  buy ing f rom the  l i kes  of  Amazon when necessary )  would  be a more  cos t - ef f ec t i v e  use of  funds  than  cont i nu i ng  to  bui l d  up redundant " j us t - in - case"  co l l ec t i o n s .  (Compare ,  e.g . ,  wi th  Lorcan  Dempsey 's theme of  " Discovery  to  Del i ve r y " 14. ) That  sa id ,  however ,  the  phys ica l  co l l ec t i o n  wi l l  be a va luab le  ad junc t to  the  noda l  l i b r a r y  inde f i n i t e l y ,  and wi l l  cont i nue  to  requ i r e  the serv i ces  tha t  have  become so wel l - def i ned  and so spec ia l i z ed  fo r  i t : acqu is i t i o n s ,  cata logu ing ,  she lv i ng  and c i r cu l a t i o n .  And fo r  tha t reason ,  ra the r  than  t r y i ng  to  bend such  func t i ons ,  wi th  the i r assoc ia t ed  and wel l - unders tood  procedures ,  work- f l ows ,  sk i l l - sets ,  and knowledge ,  in to  shapes  necessary  to  accommodate  the  qu i t e  d i f f e r en t needs  and demands of  network  in fo rmat i on ,  a good case  can  be made fo r keep ing  them toge the r  as an organ i za t i o na l  uni t ,  and cent red  on the l i s t  or  database  tha t  i s  devoted  to  what  the  l i b r a r y  phys i ca l l y  ho lds - -  tha t  i s ,  the  cata logue . The imp l i c a t i o n  of  tha t ,  in  tu rn ,  i s  tha t  the  cata logue  shou ld  no longer  be used  as mere ly  an easy  way to  ach ieve  a "s ing l e  search"  fo rm fo r  users  - -  i t  hasn ' t  been,  i sn ' t ,  and never  can  be tha t  in  any  case - -  nor  as  a k ind  of  catch - al l  database  fo r  every  resource  or  objec t tha t  we'd  l i ke  to  count  in  our  "ho ld i ngs " ,  but  ra the r  as  the  database i t  was or ig i na l l y  des igned  to  be:  the  comprehens ive  record  of  the b ib l i og raph i c  descr i p t i o n ,  phys i ca l  loca t i on ,  and c i r cu l a t i o n  sta tus  of i t ems  compr i s i ng  our  phys i ca l  co l l e c t i o n .  Network  in fo rmat i on  doesn ' t need the  las t  two  k inds  of  metadata ,  c lea r l y ,  but  of ten  does  requ i r e other  k inds ,  re la t i n g  to  issues  of  access ,  d ig i t a l  r i gh t s ,  network in f r a s t r u c t u r e ,  in fo rmat i on  arch i t e c t u r e ,  and others ,  tha t  s imply  don ' t f i t  wel l  wi th i n  the  res t r i c t i v e  or  spec ia l i z ed  f ramework  of  the  MARC reco rd .  And i f  we le t  go of  tha t  f ramework  then  we might  a lso  wonder whether  we shou ld  le t  go of  the  somewhat  ha l l owed  idea  of  " the cata l ogue"  as the  cent rep iece  of  the  l i b r a r y  as a whole  - -  we might  le t i t  become s imply  another  database ,  wi th  an impor tan t  but  no longer cent ra l  ro le  to  p lay .  The importance  of  pure  data Fi r s t ,  i t ' s  no doubt  necessary  to  say  what ' s  meant  by the  phrase  "pure data"  ( fo r  want  of  a bet te r  one) :  th i s  s imp ly  re fe r s  to  data  s t r i pped of  i t s  presen ta t i on  or  in te r f a ce  contex t .  To see why tha t ' s  impor tan t , we have  to  look  at  the  prob lems  presen ted  by  in fo rmat i on  in  i t s ,  to th i s  po in t ,  usua l  guise ,  as  obta ined  f rom the  network  or  co l l ec t ed  f rom 10 Toward the  Nodal  Library the  communi t y  - -  embedded in  var i ous  fon ts ,  markup,  layou ts ,  co lou rs , images ,  and so on,  a l l  cons ide red  essent i a l  fo r  human usab i l i t y ,  but a l l  d i f f e r en t  across  the  myr iad  di f f e r en t  network  resources  tha t  the l i b r a r y  media tes ,  and usua l l y  imperv i ous  to  any  sor t  of  programmat i c ana ly t i c  access  tha t  would  le t  the  data  be re - purposed  or  re - used  in d i f f e r en t  contex t s ,  or  mixed  and matched  to  su i t  d i f f e r en t  needs .  The resu l t  i s  tha t  the  l i b r a r y ' s  users  are  presen ted  wi th  a confus ing  ar ray of  in te r f a ces ,  each  of  which  s tands  a lone  as  an essen t i a l l y  sea led in fo rma t i on  env i r onment  - -  which ,  among other  th i ngs ,  represen ts  a ser i ous  bar r i e r  to  the  nodal  l i b r a r y ' s  ef fo r t s  to  presen t  cons is t en t , coheren t  in te r f a ces  su i t ed  to  i t s  d i f f e r en t  user  communi t i e s ,  needs , s i t ua t i o ns ,  etc . Some network  produc ts ,  of  course ,  a l l ow  fo r  l im i t ed  amounts  of cus tomiza t i on  (o f t en  invo l v i ng  l i t t l e  more than  prov id i ng  a loca l l i b r a r y  banner ) ,  but  th i s  doesn ' t  beg in  to  address  the  prob lem of  a la rge l y  c losed  sys tem.  "Screen  scrap ing "  is  an apt  metaphor  fo r the  sor t  of  work- around  too  of ten  used  wi th  such  env i ronments  to ext rac t  usab le  data  f rom the  heavy  over l ay  of  mere  presen ta t i o n ar t i f a c t s ,  but  th i s  i s  a very  breakab le  and er ro r - prone  resor t .  Some produc ts ,  however ,  are  s ta r t i n g  to  open themselves  up in  much more in te res t i n g  and poten t i a l l y  usefu l  ways - -  a s imp le  example  is  the inc reas ing l y  widespread  use  of  RSS " feeds"  (a  bas ic  type  of  XML) to prov ide  at  leas t  a subse t  of  ava i l ab l e  in fo rmat i on  pure l y  as s t ruc t u red data .  Some produc ts  are  making  use  of  so- ca l l ed  "XML gateways"  (o f t en re fe r r i n g  to  XMLized  vers ions  of  the  Z39.50  search  pro toco l ,  ca l l ed " SRU"  or  "SRW"15)  to  prov ide  a s tandard i zed  access  path  to  more complex and/o r  more comple te  sets  of  s t ruc tu r ed  data .  OAI 's  "Pro toco l  fo r Metada ta  Harves t i ng "  (OAI - PMH) is  yet  another  example  of  the  var i ous moves cur ren t l y  underway  to  address  th i s  i ssue  of  i so l a t ed  data  is l ands (o r  "s i l o s " ,  to  mix  in  a more common metaphor ) . But  a l l  of  these  methods  are  on ly  the  beg inn ing  of  a much more  fa r - reach ing  ser i es  of  deve lopments  across  the  network  to  separa te  data f rom presen ta t i o n ,  enab l i ng  var i ous  data  sources  to  be "p lugged  in to " an enr i ched  in te r f a ce ,  or  var i ous  in te r f a ces  to  over l ay  the  same pure data .  Cer ta i n l y  the re  are  prob lems  wi th  th i s  tha t  remain  to  be so lved , not  the  leas t  of  them being  the  f i nanc ia l  or  bus iness  model  tha t suppor t s  i t .  But  there  are  a lso  some power fu l  economic  and soc ia l fo rces  advanc ing  i t ,  s ince  the  inc rease  in  data  f l ex i b i l i t y  i t  prov ides makes the  data  tha t  much more usab le  and hence  more economica l l y appea l i ng .  Such deve lopments  may have  par t i c u l a r  re levance  to  the processes  of  scho la r l y  communica t i on ,  as they  may lead  to  the decomposi t i o n  of  t rad i t i o na l  packag ing  (e .g . ,  the  academic  jou rna l )  in favour  of  more eas i l y  harves tab le  and sharab le  packe ts  of  mul t i - media in fo rma t i on .  For  l i b r a r i e s ,  in  any  case ,  i t ' s  prec i se l y  th i s  k ind  of f l ex i b i l i t y  tha t  wi l l  enable  the  deve lopment  of  such  fac i l i t i e s  as the  "persona l  in fo rmat i on  app l i ance " ,  or  the  decomposable ,  d i f f u s i b l e set  of  resources ,  serv i ces ,  and func t i o ns  ment ioned  above  - -  tha t  wi l l enable ,  in  fac t ,  the  fu l l  deve lopment  of  the  noda l  l i b r a r y  as such. Where are  we now? Some promising  signs 11 Toward the  Nodal  Library With  some ideas  about  where  l i b r a r i e s  in  genera l  need to  be,  g iven  the changes  underway  in  the  in fo rma t i on  landscape,  i t ' s  t ime  to  look ,  in compar i son ,  at  where  UBC Lib ra r y  in  par t i c u l a r  cur ren t l y  i s .  New el i b ra r y  pos i t i o ns  have  been crea ted  (e .g . ,  a d ig i t a l - in i t i a t i v e s l i b r a r i a n ,  an eresources  l i b ra r i a n ) ,  new elearn i ng  co l l abo ra t i o ns in i t i a t e d  (e .g . ,  the  MEDICOL program) ,  new v i r t ua l  re fe rence  serv i ces launched  (e .g . ,  the  prov inc i a l  pos t - secondary  consor t i um  "AskAway" serv i ce ) ,  and new produc ts  p ioneered  (e .g . ,  the  OpenURL l i n kse rve r , SFX) .  Withou t  doubt ,  we've  made some s ign i f i c a n t  changes,  and are  in the  process  of  making  more - -  le t ' s  look  a l i t t l e  more c lose l y  at  th ree in  par t i c u l a r : The "Trans i t i o n  to  Onl ine  Journa l s " 16 pro jec t ,  fo r  example ,  has success fu l l y  moved the  unive rs i t y  communi t y  as a whole  away f rom redundant  and cos t l y  jou rna l  pr in t  subscr i p t i o ns  and toward  re l i a nce upon l i cenced  access  to  e lec t r on i c  vers i ons  fo r  thousands  of  t i t l e s , us ing  the  sav ings  to  purchase  more access  to  both  e journa l s  and other network  resources .  Some care  has  been taken  in  th i s  process  to  obta in reasonab le  assurance  tha t  such  access  is  sus ta i nab le  both  fo r  cur ren t and fo r  arch i ved  issues  befo re  cance l l i n g  pr in t 17,  but  such  a pro jec t re f l e c t s  a c lea r  dec is i on  to  ente r  the  wor ld  of  network  in fo rmat i on  and to  le t  go of  pr in t . UBC Lib ra r y  has  also  got ten  extens i ve l y  invo l ved  in  a number  of d ig i t i z a t i o n  pro jec t s 18,  inc l ud i ng ,  recen t l y ,  a co l l abo ra t i o n  wi th  the Facu l t y  of  Graduate  Stud ies  on an eTheses  pro jec t  tha t  makes use  of  the DSpace ins t i t u t i o na l  repos i t o r y .  As wi th  most  other  academic  l i b ra r i e s , these  pro jec t s  have  grown up over  t ime ,  and very  of ten  under taken  wi th gran t  funds  at tached  to  a par t i c u l a r  purpose ,  so i t ' s  not  unexpec ted tha t  they  would  exh ib i t  a var i e t y  of  too l s ,  st ra teg i es ,  nav iga t i on  and in te r f a ce  des igns ,  but  in  the i r  cumula t i v e  and deve lop ing  var i e t y , number ,  and vo lume of  data ,  they  represen t  an inc reas ing l y  impress i ve cont r i bu t i o n  to  network - access ib l e  in fo rmat i on . The Lib ra r y  has  also  been invo l ved  f rom an ear l y  s tage  of  the  Web phenomenon in  deve lop ing  a func t i o na l  in f r as t r u c t u r e  capab le  of dynamica l l y  genera t i n g  pages  tha t  can kn i t  toge the r  many of  the resources  and serv i ces  i t  of fe r s  in  a h igh l y  conf i gu rab l e  in te r f a ce . This  uses  a genera l ,  though  propr i e t a r y ,  midd leware  too l  ca l l ed ColdFus ion  tha t  de l i ve r s  database  conten ts  to  web pages  in  an eas i l y modi f i ab l e  manner ,  and also  a l l ows  those  databases  to  be main ta i ned  in a d is t r i b u t ed  manner  th rough  user - f r i end l y ,  web- based  fo rms .  These processes  too ,  of  course ,  have  become qu i te  d ive rse  over  t ime ,  and now need ra t i ona l i z a t i o n ,  but  the  re la t i v e  ease  and f l ex i b i l i t y  which  such a too l  prov ides  fo r  the  management  of  both  in fo rma t i on  and in te r f a ce makes i t ,  or  someth ing  l i ke  i t ,  c lea r l y  essent i a l  to  the  opera t i on  of the  l i b r a r y  as  network  node. Some less  promising  signs Despi te  these  s igns  tha t  UBC L ib ra r y  i s  accommodat ing  the  changes  in the  in fo rmat i on  landscape  wel l ,  however ,  the re  are  a number  of ind i ca t i o ns  of  deeper  prob lems.  The websi te  as a whole ,  fo r  example , remains  a la rge l y  s ta t i c ,  and ra the r  sprawl i ng  assemblage  of  pages, 12 Toward the  Nodal  Library some genera ted ,  but  many hand- cra f t ed ,  d i f f i c u l t  to  change  or  ta i l o r  to need.  Dig i t a l  co l l ec t i o n s ,  whi le  impress i ve  in  the i r  var ie t y ,  remain la rge l y  d ispersed  in i t i a t i v e s  lack i ng  an overa l l  p lan  or  purpose .  The tendency  to  purchase  of f - the - she l f  sof tware  produc ts  as a means of quick l y  f i l l i n g  a need or  a want  has  le f t  us wi th  a patchwork  of propr i e t a r y  sys tems  tha t  over l ap ,  leave  gaps,  res i s t  communica t i on  wi th other  sys tems  both  wi th i n  and wi thou t  the  L ib ra r y ,  and presen t  the  user wi th  tha t  bewi l de r i ng  var i e t y  of  in te r f a ces .  And looming  over  a l l  such sys tems,  consuming  more resources  than  al l  the  res t  combined ,  i s  the very  epi t ome  of  the  iso l a t ed  data  s i l o ,  the  i ron i ca l l y  named " In t eg ra t ed  Lib ra r y  System" ,  wi th  i t s  r i g i d  and spec ia l i z ed  database , the  OPAC. This  las t  s i t ua t i o n ,  in  fac t ,  may l i e  at  the  hear t  of  many of  the prob lems  l i b r a r i e s  in  genera l  cont i nue  to  face  in  ad jus t i n g  to  the network  soc ie t y .  The grea t  cos t  of  the  ILS  tha t  serves  the  t rad i t i o n a l organ iza t i ona l  un i t s  of  the  l i b r a r y  - -  acqu is i t i o n s ,  cata l ogu ing , c i r cu l a t i o n  - -  cons t i t u t e s  in  i t se l f  a k ind  of  jus t i f i c a t i o n ,  consc ious or  not ,  fo r  t r y i ng  to  c l i ng  to  tha t  organ iza t i on ,  and indeed  fo r  t r y i ng to  mold  network  resources ,  serv i ces ,  and func t i ons  to  f i t  in to  tha t t rad i t i o na l  s t ruc tu r e ,  however  inadequa te l y  or  ine f f i c i e n t l y . Unders tandab le  as th i s  might  be,  g iven  the  inves tment  in  such  a sys tem,  i t ' s  d i f f i c u l t  not  to  see i t  as a k ind  of  wag- the - dog ef fec t , whereby  the  too l  dete rm ines  the  serv i ces  ra the r  than  the  serv i ces dete rm in i ng  the  too l ( s ) .  And the  resu l t  i s  tha t  the  func t i ons  of  the l i b r a r y  seen  as  pr imar i l y  a phys ica l  repos i t o r y  cont i nue  to  domina te  i t both  organ iza t i o na l l y  and opera t i ona l l y ,  fo rc i ng  network  or  nodal func t i ons  in to  separa te  organ iza t i o na l  domains  tha t  might  otherw ise gain  cons ide rab l e  scope  and synergy  by  be ing  brought  toge the r ,  and produc ing  the  genera l  lack  of  coherence  in  network  serv i ces  noted above. Some good pract ices The fundamenta l  prob lem of  a legacy  organ iza t i ona l  st ruc tu re  ex is t i n g in  a co- dependent  re la t i o nsh i p  wi th  a la rge  and expens ive  suppor t i ng techno log i ca l  sys tem,  a l l  cent red  around  a database  des igned  to  serve  a phys ica l  co l l ec t i o n ,  i s  someth ing  tha t  af f l i c t s  most  l i b r a r i e s  of  any k ind  at  presen t .  But ,  in  add i t i o n  to  recogn iz i ng  our  own ef fo r t s  to escape  the  l im i t a t i o n s  of  tha t  s i t ua t i o n ,  i t ' s  both  in te res t i n g  and help fu l  to  look  at  some of  the  in i t i a t i v e s  and innova t i ons  at  other ins t i t u t i o n s  tha t  are  help i ng  to  break  th i s  mold . • Coheren t ,  cons is t en t  in te r f a ce  and resource  management : o see  the  Univers i t y  of  Toron to  L ib ra r y :  us ing  Plone 19 as a Conten t  Management  System,  ColdFus ion  to  media te  a l l e lec t r on i c  resources 20 o see  the  Univers i t y  of  Rocheste r  L ib ra r y 21:  ColdFus ion  as both  CMS and eresource  database • Open OPAC (search  resu l t s  as RSS feed) : o here ' s  a sample  RSS feed 22 f rom the   Ann Arbor  Dis t r i c t L ib ra r y ' s  OPAC • Uni f i ed  search  in te r f a ce : o see  Univers i t y  of  Pi t t s bu rg  L ib ra r y 's  "ZOOM"23 • In fo rma t i on  app l i ance : o see  Univers i t y  of  Minnesota  L ib ra r y ' s  " My Fie ld " 24 13 Toward the  Nodal  Library • Lib ra r y  as pub l i she r : o see  Columbia ' s  " ep ic "  pro jec t 25 How do we get  f rom here  to  the re? With  a bold  approach to  stra tegy The opt i ons  fo r  get t i ng  f rom here  to  there  obv ious l y  depend upon where we cons ide r  " the re "  to  be.  And fo r  tha t ,  we' l l  need to  face  and make a s t ra t eg i c  dec is i on .  I f  we want  to  cont i nue  to  th ink  of  the  l i b r a r y  as an ins t i t u t i o n  def i ned  pr imar i l y  in  te rms  of  i t s  "co l l e c t i o n " ,  then we' l l  no doubt  cont i nue  to  t i nke r  wi th  network  serv i ces  around  the edges,  so to  speak  - -  exper iment i ng  wi th  "soc ia l  sof tware " ,  add ing  new dig i t i z a t i o n  in i t i a t i v e s ,  perhaps  even  ins ta l l i n g  a "Conten t  Management System"  fo r  the  websi te ,  but  not  under tak i ng  any  more fundamenta l organ iza t i ona l  or  other  s t ra t eg i c  moves tha t  might  t rans fo rm  the serv i ces  the  l i b r a r y  prov ides ,  or  a l t e r  the  ro le  of  the  l i b ra r y  as such .  I f ,  on the  other  hand,  we' re  wi l l i n g  to  reconce ive  the  l i b r a r y pr imar i l y  in  te rms  of  i t s  ro le  in  an in fo rmat i on  network ,  prov id i ng serv i ces  to  and f rom i t s  loca l  communi t y / i e s ,  then  we' l l  need to  re - th i nk  i t s  organ iza t i o n  to  opt im ize  tha t  ro le ,  and deve lop  genera l s t ra t eg i es  fo r  ach iev i ng  i t .  We' l l  need to  dec ide ,  in  other  words ,  and in  a famous  fo rmu la t i on ,  what  bus iness  we' re  in  - -  the  co l l e c t i o n bus iness  or  the  in fo rmat i on  bus iness .  The fo rmer  cho ice  is  c lea r l y  the more conserva t i v e ,  and might  appear  the  more prudent .  But  in  t imes  of rap id  change,  espec ia l l y ,  the  conserva t i v e  cho ice  is  not  of ten  the safe r  - -  the  adage tha t  fo r t une  favours  the  bo ld  becomes par t i c u l a r l y per t i nen t . With  an explora tory  approach to  implementat ion The same env i r onment  of  rap id  change  tha t  rewards  a bold  st ra t egy , however ,  wi l l  usua l l y  a lso  requ i r e  a more exp lo ra t o r y ,  exper imenta l approach  to  tac t i c s  or  imp lementa t i on .  I t ' s  inev i t ab l e  in  such  a t ime tha t  some ventu res  wi l l  tu rn  out  to  be bl i nd  a l l eys ,  some wi l l  be superceded  by events  or  new poss ib i l i t i e s ,  some wi l l  s imp ly  tu rn  out  to have  been yes te rday ' s  fad  or  buzzword .  We' l l  need to  be both  wi l l i n g and eager  to  t r y  new approaches ,  sys tems,  produc ts ,  etc . ,  and at  the same t ime  cr i t i c a l  in  our  assessment  of  them. The card ina l  v i r t ue ,  as we move fo rward ,  then ,  i s  f l ex i b i l i t y  - -  f i r s t and fo remost  in  our  human resources ,  where  peop le  wi l l  need to  be able to  re loca te ,  re t r a i n ,  and rede f i ne  themse lves  much more eas i l y  than they  can  at  presen t .  St ruc tu res  put  in  p lace  to  pro tec t  peop le  work ing under  more s ta t i c  cond i t i o ns  of ten  become jus t  bureaucra t i c  g lue  under more dynamic  ones ,  d isab l i ng  the  organ iza t i o n ' s  ab i l i t y  to  respond  to change,  and f requen t l y  demora l i z i n g  work ing  peop le  themselves .  Free ing people  f rom these  over l y  r i g i d  job  def in i t i o n s ,  change  processes ,  etc . can  resu l t  in  a win  fo r  a l l  concerned ,  and ach iev i ng  th i s  wi l l  need to be worked  out  wi th  the  var ious  assoc ia t i o ns  and unions  invo l ved . Whether  th rough  such  more or  less  fo rma l i z ed  processes  as "Organ i za t i ona l  Deve lopment " 26,  or  s imp ly  th rough  i t s  own focused 14 Toward the  Nodal  Library ef fo r t s ,  the  ob jec t i v e  is  to  embed the  ideas  of  change  and cont i nuous lea rn i ng  in to  the  l i b r a r y ' s  cu l t u re  and organ iza t i o n . A f l ex i b l e  approach  to  the  implementa t i on  of  sys tems  and produc ts  is a lso  impor tan t .  There  may be a natu ra l  tendency  to  want  to  encourage "buy- in "  to  a par t i c u l a r  new approach ,  both  wi th  our  users  and wi th  our s ta f f ,  by  exto l l i n g  i t s  v i r t ues  and min imiz i ng  i t s  cos ts ,  weaknesses , or  t rade - of f s .  But  such  a tac t i c  can inc rease  the  r i sk  fo r  new,  unt r i ed in i t i a t i v e s ,  s ince  i t  undermines  our  cred ib i l i t y  i f  and when unexpected di f f i c u l t i e s  ar i se  - -  bet te r  to  appea l  to  the  cr i t i c a l  in te l l i g e nce  of our  sta f f ,  and the  good wi l l  of  our  users ,  by  presen t i ng  the  pro jec t  as a t r i a l  and set t i ng  expec ta t i ons  accord i ng l y . Two other  aspec ts  of  an exp lo ra t o r y  or  exper imenta l  approach  to pro jec t / p r oduc t  imp lementa t i on  might  be suggested ,  here ,  even  though they  may appear  obv ious : • befo re  dec id i ng  on a par t i c u l a r  so lu t i on ,  however  exper imenta l , i t  would  be good to  cons ide r  care fu l l y  the  downs ide  and "ex i t s t ra t egy "  shou ld  i t  not  work  as hoped;  tha t  i s ,  a so lu t i o n  tha t requ i r es  less  of  an ins t i t u t i o na l  commitment ,  or  tha t  a l l ows  more of  tha t  commitment  - -  e.g . ,  in  te rms  of  sa lvageab le  conten t ,  or t rans fe rab l e  knowledge  - -  to  be saved  or  re - used,  i s  pre fe rab le (o the r  th i ngs  be ing  equa l )  to  one tha t  commits  us more heav i l y ; • and,  in  add i t i o n  to  eva lua t i on  of  a l t e rna t i v e s  pr io r  to imp lementa t i on ,  i t  would  be usefu l  to  p lan  befo rehand  how we might  bu i l d  in  ongo ing  moni to r i ng  and measurement  of  the ef fec t i v eness  of  the  se lec ted  opt i on ,  as compared  to  exp l i c i t pro jec t  objec t i v e s . With  some concrete  steps Some plaus ib l e ,  i f  very  broad ,  and very  sketchy  objec t i v es ,  rough ly  in order  of  the  t ime  f rames  l i k e l y  requ i r ed  to  rea l i z e  them: • Shor t  te rm  (<  1 year ) : o Re- examine  the  cur ren t  ar ray  of  produc ts ,  co l l e c t i o ns ,  and serv i ces ,  wi th  a v iew  to  making  them as  cons is t en t , in te rope rab le ,  comprehens ive ,  and open as poss ib l e • Medium te rm  (1  -  3 years ) : o Develop  the  network  in f r as t r u c t u r e  necessary  to  br ing toge the r  the  produc ts ,  serv i ces ,  resources ,  ins t r u c t i o n , etc .  - -  inc l ud i ng  the  OPAC - -  in to  a seamless  and f l ex i b l e user  in te r f a ce • Long te rm  (>  3 years ) : o Rest ruc tu re  the  l i b r a r y  organ iza t i o n  to  re f l e c t  the func t i ona l  needs  of  a networked  l i b r a r y  ra the r  than  tha t  of a phys ica l  co l l e c t i o n o Develop  the  exte rna l  network  l i n ks  tha t  wi l l  t i e  loca l l i b r a r i e s  toge the r  as  in te rope rab le  network  nodes, prov id i ng  comprehens ive  in fo rmat i on  serv i ces  at  a l l  leve l s of  soc ie t y Obvious l y ,  these  are  too  br ie f  to  be any th i ng  more than  mere sugges t i ons ,  and leave  ent i r e l y  open a l l  i ssues  of  imp lementa t i on  - -  in 15 Toward the  Nodal  Library fac t ,  a l l  of  them can  and shou ld  be tu rned  in to  ques t i ons  by pre f i x i n g them wi th  the  phrase  "How do we. . . " .  But ,  tha t  sa id ,  any  movement  a long the  di rec t i o ns  such  ob jec t i v es  sugges t  would  be pos i t i v e  steps  toward rea l i z i n g  the  noda l  l i b r a r y . Conclus i on :  Const ruc t i n g  the  Future Fina l l y ,  of  course ,  we' l l  have  to  do more than  jus t  "env i s i on "  the fu tu re  - -  we have  to  sta r t  bu i l d i ng  i t .  And th i s  can  be hard ,  fo r anyone,  any  group ,  or  any  ins t i t u t i o n ,  espec ia l l y  in  a t ime  of d is rup t i v e  change,  in  which  embrac ing  the  fu tu re  of ten  requ i r es re l i nqu i s h i ng  much of  the  past .  For  l i b r a r i e s  in  par t i c u l a r ,  th i s  need to  le t  go is  what  makes the  embrace  of  the  fu tu re  a l l  the more di f f i c u l t  - -  qui t e  apar t  f rom the  s ta tus  l i b r a r i e s  have  long r i gh t l y  en joyed  as co l l e c t o r s  and preserve rs  of  the  cu l t u ra l inher i t a nce  of  human c iv i l i z a t i o n ,  the i r  more recen t  past  i s  one of remarkab le  ach ievement ,  in  cross - cu l t u ra l  descr i p t i v e  s tandards , unive rsa l  c lass i f i c a t i o n  schemes,  the  deve lopment  and main tenance  of cont ro l l e d  vocabu la r i e s ,  and of  course  in  the  ear l y  use  of  automated sys tems  on an ente rp r i s e  leve l .  To say  now tha t  much of  tha t ach ievement  app l i e s  pr imar i l y  to  the  co l l e c t i o n  of  phys i ca l  i t ems ,  and tha t  such  a co l l e c t i o n  shou ld  no longer  be seen  as  at  the  cent re  of  the l i b r a r y  as an ins t i t u t i o n  is  fo r  many,  to  say  the  leas t ,  a wrench . And th i s  wrench  of ten  mani fes t s  i t se l f  in  an ent i r e l y  unders tandab le res i s t ance  to  change  - -  not  of ten  in  exp l i c i t  te rms,  but  of ten  enough in  the  subt l e r  fo rms  of  an under l y i ng  anx ie t y  and a th rea tened defens i veness .  With in  th i s  mindset ,  fo r  example ,  Google  and Amazon are seen  not  as amazing  in fo rmat i on  too l s  and aids  tha t  can  be used  by l i b r a r i e s ,  but  ins tead  as compet i t o r s  f rom which  we must  t r y ,  though wi thou t  much hope,  to  lu re  peop le  away.   Rather  than  v iew ing  the cata l ogue  as s imp ly  one database  among many,  and focus ing  i t  on what  i t was des igned  fo r ,  we' re  led  to  th row  more " th i ngs "  in to  i t ,  wi th  the idea  tha t  maybe th i s  wi l l  keep  i t  " re l evan t "  and ent i ce  more people  to use  i t .  We want ,  wi th  a cer ta i n  pathos ,  to  "keep  up"  and be "w i t h  i t " , but  at  the  same t ime  c l i ng  to  a l l  of  the  th ings  we be l i eve  have  def i ned us  in  the  pas t .  And we somet imes  tend ,  a lmost  t rucu len t l y ,  to  th i nk tha t  the re ' s  bas ica l l y  someth ing  wrong  wi th  our  users ,  which  might  be f i xab le  wi th  the  proper  ins t r u c t i o n ,  i f  on ly  we cou ld  reach  them al l . Now,  admi t t ed l y ,  th i s  i s  a b i t  of  a car i ca t u re ,  of  what  we might  ca l l the  Defens i ve  L ib ra r i a n  Mindse t  (o r  "DLM")  - -  not  many actua l l i b r a r i a ns  are  pure  examples  of  i t ,   most  of  us are  af fec ted  by i t  to some exten t ,  and some elements  of  i t  may be more or  less  ra t i ona l  in any  case.  I t ' s  a rea l  enough cond i t i o n ,  though ,  tha t  i t  cons t i t u t e s ,  in i t se l f ,  a s ign i f i c a n t  prob lem,  and qu i t e  poss ib l y  a cruc i a l  prob lem - - i t  would  be a pa in fu l  i rony  i f  the  one fac to r  tha t  might  rea l l y th rea ten  the  fu tu re  of  the  l i b r a r y  were  the  defens i ve ,  reac t i v e  pos tu re of  too  many of  i t s  pro fess i ona l s . For tuna te l y ,  s igns  are  widespread  tha t  th i s  postu re  is  waning  (see "Some good prac t i c es "  above) .  Inc reas ing l y ,  l i b r a r i a ns  are  rea l i z i n g tha t ,  as in fo rmat i on  pro fess i ona l s  in  the  very  Age of  In fo rmat i on ,  our ro le  goes  much beyond  jus t  "keep ing  up"  - -  our  ro le  becomes "showing 16 Toward the  Nodal  Library the  way" .  And in  showing  or  lead ing  the  way ( i n  company,  i t  must  be sa id ,  wi th  par tne rs  and co l l abo ra to r s  in  other  pro fess i ons  and ins t i t u t i o n s ) ,  we not  on ly  t rans fo rm  the  l i b r a r y  in to  an in fo rmat i on fac i l i t y  at  the  hear t  of  the  In fo rmat i on  Socie t y ,  we a lso  preserve  and enhance  both  the  cu l t u r a l  sta tus  and endur ing  ach ievements  of  the l i b r a r y  as an ins t i t u t i o n .  Rather  than  be ing  the  v ic t im  of  change,  the l i b r a r y  becomes the  maker  of  change. 17 1  See Tim O'Rei l l y ,  "What  is  Web 2.0?" ,  O'Rei l l y  websi te ,  Sep 30/05 : ht t p : / / www.o re i l l y n e t . c om/pub /a / o re i l l y / t i m / news /2005 /09 /30 /wha t - is - web- 20.h tm l 2  An aspec t ,  perhaps ,  of  the  phenomenon discussed  by  James Surowieck i  in  The Wisdom of  Crowds ,  New York :  Doubleday ,  2004 3  See Maureen  Pennock ,  " Curat i ng  e- Science  Data" ,  Dig i t a l  Cura t i on  Cent re ,  Aug 25/06 :  ht t p : / / www.dcc .ac . uk / r e sou rce / b r i e f i n g - papers / cu ra t i n g - e- sc ience- data / 4  See  Michae l  Fraser ,  " The Place  of  the  Dig i t a l  L ib ra r y  wi th i n  Vi r t ua l  Research Envi ronments " ,  in  Dig i t a l  L ib ra r i e s  a la  Car te :  New Choices  fo r  the  Futu re , Research  Techno logy  Serv i ce ,  Oxford  Univers i t y  Comput ing  Serv i ces ,  Aug/06 :  ht tp : / / users .ox . ac . uk / ~m ike f / r t s / t i c e r / f r a s e r _d i g l i b _ v r e_24Aug06- on l i ne . pd f ;  see  also " Data  webs:   new v is i ons  fo r  research  data  on the  Web",  A Research  In fo rmat i on Network  workshop ,  Jun  28/06 :  ht tp : / / www. r i n . a c . u k / da t a - webs 5  A note  on " loca l " :  the  te rm  here  re fe r s  to  any  appropr i a t e  loca l i t y  fo r  a g iven l i b r a r y :  i t s  ins t i t u t i o n ,  i t s  communi t y ( / i e s ) ,  i t s  reg ion ,  i t s  nat i on ,  etc .  The " loca l  communi t y "  fo r  a la rge  research  l i b r a r y ,  fo r  example ,  may invo l ve  not  jus t i t s  campus,  but  a lso  i t s  prov ince ,  s ta te ,  or  nat i ona l  reg ion ,  which  might otherw ise  go unserved . Note  tha t  the  idea  of  loca l i t y  has  become i f  anyth ing  even  more impor tan t  in  a network  contex t  s ince  the  va lue  of  the  network  is  in  many ways a func t i on  of  the degree  to  which  each  node prov ides  serv i ce  to  and f rom i t s  appropr i a t e  communi t y - -  a somewhat  counte r i n t u i t i v e  consequence  tha t  may wel l  resu l t  in  reduced autonomy fo r  the  ins t i t u t i o n s  invo l ved . 6  ht t p : / / www.oc l c . o r g / p r oduc tworks /u r l r e s o l v e r . h tm 7  ht tp : / / o co i n s . i n f o / 8  ht tp : / / d e l . i c i o . u s / 9  ht tp : / / www. l i b r a r y t h i n g . c om/ 10  See highWire  Press ,  ht tp : / / h i g hw i r e . s t a n f o r d . edu / 11  See the  Univers i t y  of  Mich igan  Lib ra r y  Schola r l y  Publ i sh i ng  Off i ce , ht t p : / / s po . umd l . um ich .edu / 12  See CDL "eScho la r sh i p  ed i t i o ns " ,  ht tp : / / c on t en t . c d l i b . o r g / e scho la r sh i p / 13  Wendy Pradt  Lougee ,  Di f f use  Lib ra r i e s :  Emergent  Roles  fo r  the  Research  Lib ra r y in  the  Dig i t a l  Age.  Counc i l  on L ib ra r y  and In fo rmat i on  Resources ,  "Perspec t i v es  on the  Evolv i ng  Lib ra r y  Ser ies " : ht t p : / / www.c l i r . o r g / p ubs / r epo r t s / p ub108 /con ten t s . h tm l 14  Lorcan  Dempsey,  " Discover ,  loca te ,  . . .  ver t i c a l  and hor i zon ta l  in teg ra t i o n " , Lorcan  Dempsey 's  Weblog ,  Nov 20,  2005: ht t p : / / o rweb log .oc l c . o r g / a r c h i v es / 000865 .h tm l 15   ht t p : / / o rweb log .oc l c . o r g / a r c h i v es / 000865 .h tm l 16   ht tp : / / www. l i b r a r y . ubc . ca / co l l e c t i o n s / t r a ns i t i o n _on l i n e2006 / 17  Lib ra r i e s  have  dea l t  wi th  th i s  i ssue  in  a number  of  ways,  such  as negot i a t i n g perpe tua l  access  c lauses  in  l i censes ,  put t i ng  pressu re  on vendors  and pub l i s he rs to  cons ide r  the  issue ,  and ins t i g a t i n g  new consor t i ums  such  as  Por t i c o  (see ht tp : / / www.por t i c o . o r g )  and LOCKSS (see  ht tp : / / www. l ockss . o r g )  tha t  of fe r  serv i ces which  prov ide  a permanent  arch i ve  fo r  e lec t r on i c  scho la r l y  jou rna l s .  As wel l , pub l i she r s  are  inc reas ing l y  par tne r i ng  wi th  l i b ra r i e s  to  bu i l d  harves tab le in fo rma t i on  repos i t o r i e s  to  sto re  and arch i ve  conten t  and l i cens i ng  in fo rmat i on . See "Urgen t  Act ion  Needed to  Preserve  Schola r l y  Elec t r on i c  Journa l s , "  Dig i t a l L ib ra r y  Federa t i on  (DLF) ,  v iewed  at  ht t p : / / www.d ig l i b . o r g / pubs /wa te r s051015.h tm  on August  27,  2006.  See also  "Update  on TRANSFER Act i v i t i e s , "  Uni ted  Kingdom Ser ia l s Group (UKSG),  v iewed  at  ht t p : / / www.uksg .o rg / t r a ns f e r . a sp  on August  27,  2006. 18   ht tp : / / www. l i b r a r y . ubc . ca / a r ch i v es / d i g i c o l l e c t i o n s . h tm l 19   ht tp : / /ma in . l i b r a r y . u t o r on t o . ca / 20   ht tp : / /ma in . l i b r a r y . u t o r on t o . c a / e i r / r e s ou r ces . c fm 21   ht tp : / / www. l i b . r o ches te r . edu / 22  ht tp : / / www.aad l . o r g / c a t / s eek / sea rch /X?moby %20dick&searchscope=26&m=&SORT=D&topfo rmsub=1&rss=1 23  ht tp : / / www. l i b r a r y . p i t t . e d u / 24  ht tp : / / www. l i b . umn .edu /san /me l l on / i n dex .ph tm l 25  ht tp : / / www.ep i c . co l umb ia . edu / 26  See Karen  Hol loway ,  " The Sign i f i c a nce  of  Organ iza t i o na l  Development in  Academic  Research  Lib ra r i e s " ,  Lib ra r y  Trends ,  Summer 2004: ht t p : / / f i n d a r t i c l e s . c om/p /a r t i c l e s /m i_m1387/ i s _1_53 /a i _n8640802 Appendix One:  Supplementary Notes 1.  Digi ta l  Col lec t ions  & Scholar ly  Communicat ion • Where do we want  to  be? o Dig i t i z a t i o n  Campus- wide  dig i t i z a t i o n  fac i l i t y ?  ( IKBLC?)  Cont rac t  ar rangements  fo r  d ig i t i z a t i o n  serv i ces?  In te rna t i o na l  standards?  Col labo ra t i o n  wi th  Museum,  UBC Press?  Col labo ra t i o n  wi th  Google  et  a l? o Dig i t a l  cura t i on  & access  Var ie t i e s  of  Ins t i t u t i o n a l  Repos i t o r y  (Theses ,  Papers ,  Data , Objec ts ,  Proceed ings? )?  Col lec t i o n  po l i c y  fo r  reg iona l  born- dig i t a l  mater i a l ?  In te r f a ce  standards?  Sing le  in te r f a ce?  Preserva t i on  s tandards?  Preserva t i on  & permanent  access  pol i c i e s  and st ra t eg i es (poss ib l y  in  co l l abo ra t i o n ) .  A l i c ens i ng  pol i c y  on perpe tua l access /pe rmanent  access  to  subscr i p t i o n  e- co l l e c t i o n s .  Jo in i ng  & cont r i bu t i n g  to  LOCKSS, Por t i c o  Data  access  s tandards  (e .g . ,  OAI,  SRU, genera l  XML)?  Develop  a consu l t a t i o n  serv i ce  fo r  UBC researchers  tha t :  In fo rms  them of  copyr i gh t  i ssues  & depos i t i n g  research  in a repos i t o r y  Consu l t a t i o n  serv i ce  fo r  facu l t y  pub l i c a t i o n s  Host ing  s i t e  & suppor t  fo r  facu l t y  pub l i ca t i o ns o Dig i t a l  harves t i ng  A repos i t o r y  of  reg iona l  repos i t o r i e s ?  Col labo ra t e  to  prov ide  disc i p l i n e -  or  top i c - spec i f i c repos i t o r i e s?  Licenses  & cont rac t s  tha t  enab le  the  Lib ra r y  to  harves t , repurpose ,  and repackage  in fo rma t i on  f rom other  IR ’s Schola r l y  Communica t i on /Pub l i c a t i o n  & Open Access  Suppor t • Estab l i s h  a fo rma l  ins t i t u t i o na l  pos i t i o n  on Open Access  & Changes  to  Schola r l y  pub l i sh i ng  and suppor t  fo r  tha t . • Consu l t  wi th  Facu l t y  on deve lop ing  a co l l e c t i o n  po l i c y  to suppor t  Open Access  co l l ec t i o ns ,  membersh ips ,  suppor t  fo r  author submiss ions . • Where are  we now? o Posi t i v e  deve lopments :  A number  of  d is t i n c t  d ig i t i z a t i o n  pro jec t s :  Col labo ra t i n g  wi th  FOGS on a s ta r t  on an IR  (us ing  DSpace)  fo r eTheses  Col labo ra t i n g  wi th  PRDLA to  prov ide  harves tab le  (OAI - PMH) data fo r  reg iona l  d ig i t a l  co l l ec t i o n  UBC l i b r a r i a n s  at tended  an ARL Ins t i t u t e  on Schola r l y Communica t i on  wi th  the  v iew  to  deve lop  an ins t i t u t i o na l  p lan  fo r suppor t i ng  and educat i ng  others  about  these  changes.  Lib ra r y  act i ve l y  suppor t s  a var i e t y  of  Open Access  pub l i c a t i o n s & some membersh ips .  Lib ra r y  is  a SPARC suppor te r .  Sporad ic  d iscuss i ons  wi th  facu l t y  groups  on changes  to  scho la r l y pub l i ca t i o n .  Sporad ic  d iscuss i on  wi th  facu l t y  on i ssues  re la t i n g  to  the preserva t i o n  of  e lec t r on i c  resources . o Prob lems  and Issues :  Wide var ie t y  of  in te r f a ces ,  brows ing  disp lays ,  access  methods fo r  d i f f e r en t  d ig i t a l  co l l ec t i o ns  Inab i l i t y  to  search  or  browse  across  co l l e c t i o n s  Do we have  a pol i c y  on dig i t i z a t i o n  s tandards?  A po l i c y  on d ig i t a l  preserva t i o n?  Campus- wide  co l l e c t i o n  pol i c y  fo r  IR?  Region- wide  fo r  born - dig i t a l  mater i a l s ?  Pol i c y  on data  cura t i o n .  No network  co l l abo ra t i o n  on data  harves t i ng ,  on preserva t i o n • How do we get  there? o Decide  to  estab l i s h  a d is t i n c t ,  L ib ra r y - wide  Dig i t a l  Col lec t i o ns  uni t ( i nc l ud i ng  dig i t i z a t i o n ,  Ins t i t u t i o na l  Repos i to r y ,  d ig i t a l  cura t i on , etc . ) ,  and fund  i t  and red i r ec t  sta f f  accord i ng l y o Trans i t i o n  “Co l l e c t i o n s  s ta f f ”  in to  Schola r l y  Communica t i on  s ta f f o Develop  sys temat i c  communica t i on  avenues  to  educate  facu l t y  and l i b r a r y  sta f f  about  changes  to  scho la r l y  communica t i on .  Develop  a Schola r l y  Communica t i on  Commit tee  made up of  facu l t y  and l i b r a r i a ns . o Make cho ices  what  we wi l l  not  do to  suppor t  th i s :  ie :  t rans i t i o n  pr in t cata l oguers  in to  metadata  ana lyze rs . o Stop  suppor t i ng  and acqu i r i ng  techno log ies  and sof tware  tha t  do not accommodate  these  ventu res . 2.  Systems/Technology • Where do we need to  be? o A web- based,  s tandards - based  in f r a s t r u c t u r e ,  able  to  communica te  wi th the  var i ous  produc ts ,  serv i ces ,  func t i ons ,  and co l l e c t i o n s  tha t  the L ib ra r y  makes ava i l ab l e  - -  inc l ud i ng  the  OPAC - -  as  wel l  as wi th sys tems  exte rna l  to  the  Lib ra r y o A f l ex i b l e ,  conf i gu rab l e  in te r f a ce  genera to r ,  based  upon the in f r a s t r u c t u r e  above,  and able  to  prov ide  users  wi th  both  s imp le  and advanced  func t i o na l i t y ,  and r i ch ,  cus tomizab le  resu l t s • Where are  we now? o A Lib ra r y  websi te  tha t  inc l udes :  many hand- coded pages  a number  of  loca l  databases  media ted  by  ColdFus ion  a number  of  propr i e t a r y  produc ts ,  databases ,  "Knowledge- bases" , and so on,  tha t  don ' t  communica te  wi th  each  other  a number  of  loca l  d ig i t a l  co l l ec t i o ns  tha t  don ' t  communica te wi th  each  other  an OPAC tha t  cannot  be in teg ra t ed  wi th  e i t he r  the  res t  of  the websi te  or  wi th  exte rna l  sys tems • How do we get  there? o Redeve lop ing  websi t e  in  phases :  phase  1:  renewing  look - and- fee l ,  add ing  new search func t i ona l i t y ,  and prepar i ng  conten t  fo r  phase  2  phase  2:  ins ta l l i n g  in f r as t r u c t u r e  (e .g . ,  CMS) to  genera te websi tes o Determin ing  an in f r as t r u c t u r e  s t ra t egy  - -  e.g . ,  i s  a CMS tha t in f r a s t r u c t u r e ,  or  i s  i t  jus t  another  sys tem to  be inc l uded? o Determin ing  the  range  of  produc ts  and sys tems  to  be suppor ted  - -  e.g . :  Eser ia l s / e j o u r na l s  knowledge  base  ( i nc l ud i ng  ebooks?)  (e .g . , Ser ia l s  Solu t i ons )  OpenURL suppor t :  Targe t  reso l ve r  (e .g . ,  SFX)  Use of  OpenURL l i n ks  in  a l l  our  own l i nks  to  resources  Dig i t a l  co l l ec t i o n  suppor t  (e .g . ,  Conten tDM,  DSpace) :  Separa t i on  of  in te r f a ce  and data  (bo th  metadata  and source data )  standards - based  co l l ec t i o n  mechanisms  Dig i t a l  preserva t i o n  st ra t eg i es  Dig i t a l  harves t i ng  s t ra t eg i es  Consis ten t  search  in te r f a ce :  Federa ted  search  of  exte rna l  databases  (e .g . ,  Meta l i b )  "Cong lomera ted "  search  of  loca l  databases  ( i nc l ud i ng  OPAC) (e .g . ,  Aquabrowser ,  Endeca,  Pr imo)  Browsab le  in fo rma t i on  in te r f a ce  - -  e.g . ,  Visua l  Disp lays (Aquabrowser?  Viv i s imo- sty l e  c lus te r i n g? ) ,  browsab le  cata logue  Suppor t  fo r  phys ica l  d is t r i b u t i o n  - -  e.g . ,  ILL ,  docde l o Bui l d i ng  the  in f r a s t r u c t u r e  capab le  of  accommodat ing  these  and other , s t i l l  unknown,  produc ts  and sys tems,  and presen t i ng  them in  a h igh l y - conf i gu rab l e  var i e t y  of  in te r f a ces 3.  Library  Organiza t ion Where do we want  to  be? • Organiza t i o na l  cu l t u re : o Open to  the  fu tu re o Proac t i v e  ra the r  than  reac t i v e o High ly  f l ex i b l e  - -  able  to  respond  to  change  and adapt  to  unfo reseen deve lopments • Organiza t i o na l  st ruc tu re : o Focus  on phys i ca l  co l l e c t i o n  fo r  t rad i t i o na l  un i t s :  acqu is i t i o n s , cata l ogu ing ,  c i r cu l a t i o n o Develop  new un i t s  focused  on network  in fo rmat i on :  l i c ens i ng ,  metada ta descr i p t i o n ,  d ig i t i z a t i o n ,  in te r f a ce  des ign ,  in f r as t r u c t u r e o "Co l l ec t i o n s "  broadened  in to  " In fo rmat i on  Access" o "Pub l i c  Serv i ces "  tu rned  in to  " In fo rma t i on  consu l t anc i es " o Trans i t i o n  f rom fac i l i t y - based  serv i ces  such  as cata l ogu ing  and c i r cu l a t i o n  in  the  phys ica l  l i b r a r y  to  inc l ude  a knowledge- based in fo rma t i on  serv i ce  (eHe lp ,  eRefe rence ,  eLearn ing ) Where are  we now? • Organiza t i o na l  cu l t u re : o Ambiva len t  about  the  fu tu re o React i ve  - -  concerned  wi th  "keep ing  up" o Job,  c lass i f i c a t i o n  r i g i d i t i e s  impede  ab i l i t y  to  adapt  to  change • Organiza t i o na l  st ruc tu re : o Network  in fo rmat i on  management  d ispersed  to  t rad i t i o na l  organ i za t i o na l uni t s :  Eresources  grouped  wi th  Techn ica l  Serv i ces  Web s i t e  and in te r f a ce  issues  grouped  wi th  IT /Sys tems  Dig i t i z a t i o n  grouped  wi th  Arch ives o Many in  t rad i t i o na l  un i t s  be ing  pressured  to  take  on unfami l i a r  tasks re la t i n g  to  network  in fo rmat i on How do we get  where we want  to  be? • Organiza t i o na l  cu l t u re : o Use of  "Organ iza t i o na l  Deve lopment "  (OD)  techn iques? o Do a needs  assessment  of  fu tu re  sk i l l s  act i v i t i e s  requ i r ed  and beg in the  process  of  t ra i n i n g  and rec ru i t i n g  appropr i a t e  sta f f . o Discuss ions  wi th  Unions  and Assoc ia t i o ns  invo l ved  to  deve lop  more f l ex i b l e  job  def in i t i o n s ,  po l i c i e s o Cross- t ra i n i ng? o Reward  change o But  don ' t  penal i ze  those  who nei the r  want  nor  need to  change  (e .g . , those  suppor t i ng  ongo ing  func t i ons  of  the  phys ica l  co l l ec t i o n ) o Recogniz i ng  the  “ l i b r a r y ”  wi l l  a lways  be in  a cons tan t  s ta te  of techn ica l  evo lu t i o n  we:  Encourage  new at t i t u des  to  accommodate  an env i r onment  tha t  i s about  cons tan t  change.  Selec t  techno log ies ,  sof tware ,  and adopt  bus iness  prac t i c es  tha t embraces  and accommodates  cons tan t  evo lu t i on • Organiza t i o na l  st ruc tu re : o Determine  pr io r i t i e s  and make cho ices  to  beg in  the  process  of  reduc ing fuc t i o ns  and s ta f f i n g  tha t  accommodate  pr in t - based  organ i za t i o n  and red i r ec t  energ ies  and sta f f i n g  to  fu tu re  l i b r a r y . o Conside r  innova t i v e  organ iza t i o na l  s t ru t u r es  (e .g . ,  matr i x )  to  deve lop c loser  coopera t i on  across  ex is t i n g  boundar i es  (as  an in te rmed ia t e s tep?) o Conside r  pul l i n g  toge the r  network  in fo rmat i on  func t i ons  in  an expanded Network  In fo rmat i on  Suppor t  un i t o Conside r  c lose r  in teg ra t i o n  between  l i b r a r y  sub jec t  spec ia l i s t s  and facu l t y / d epa r tment / d i s c i p l i n e  un i t s o Shape a user - cente red  (o r  c l i en t - cent red )  l i b r a r y .  This  wi l l  depend upon bui l d i ng  in  a fo rma l i zed  user - consu l t a t i o n  process .  Al l  of  our serv i ces ,  processes ,  dec is i on - making  i s  focused  on th i s  requ i r ement . Appendix two: Portrait of a New Media Library User Prepared by Patty Foster 1. Library Users have changed • Changes in text technologies have resulted in changes to how we think, remember and collaborate. • Disruptive technologies can cause changes to how people relate to each other (Taris) • Learners are becoming more knowledgeable about technology and repurpose it for their own needs. 2. Library Users have become Google-trained. • What are the expectations of the user in the modern world? • The proliferation of Google as a peer to peer network has taken over a chunk of the Internet, it acts as a middle man between the browser and the information. • As people use it for searches, it uses algorithms to create a better searching tool.     A. Personal Reflections and conversation as a learning tool. • Journaling, conversation and collaboration have historically been important to the learning process. • Innovations in social software have allowed this process to "gel" better. • Allows you to contribute to and see the results quicker when you collaborate and when conversations are created from personal reflections.      B. Sharing of Knowledge has become more important. • The ability and willingness of individuals to push their thinking creatively has been enhanced by the creation of meme trees. • Social software allows the sharing of resource lists and the ability to examine what resources your colleagues/classmates are looking at. • Example GUSSE, a social bookmarking system that promotes the development of sustainability solutions among urban professionals and citizens. • Promote engagement with the community.     C. Motivations have changed at the post-secondary curriculum level (Jafari 2006 pp.58 Educause). • Integration of course software and library resources • course software: WebCT, Sakai, Moodle • motivation involves choices (Jafari 2006) • Personal learning preferences can influence choices in learning modes: kinetic, visual and auditory. • Quick info vs. contemplative: The user will choose the appropriate media depending on the approach required for the material. • "For elearning environments to be motivational, they must be 'smart' and acquire an understanding of the uniqueness of the learner and the instructor: their habits, choices, preferences and even errors." (Jafari 2006: pp.58 Educause). 3. Users Curriculum Needs - How Are We Currently Assisting the New User? • Engaging faculty and students with the library • UBC specific - hiring librarians/information specialists for individual departments. • Ask Away - network of librarians always available via IM (instant messenger). • McMaster University has recently adopted a similar system to "chapters.ca", a familiar interface to modern users. It has the ability to create research sets and wish lists. • Issues: a lot of add-ons but no real overall restructuring. The catalogue currently reflects the print collection and does not operate as a research tool. 4. The future user as contributor. • Unique URIs to show colleagues/students what resources you have been exploring. • Historical photographs, podcasts and contributing to the findability of materials via folksonomy integrated with traditional classification systems. • Learning salons. 5. Issue: How do you remediate between the traditional and modern user? • Nature of digitization - How does this benefit the user? What are the disadvantages? • Ebooks vs. digitized books - not the same thing. • The scanning of books only shows the representation of the text, the ability to search via index may be lost. i.e. , 24x7 books no hyperlinking. • A lot of patrons still consider themselves computer illiterate and while they may be able to handle the online catalogue as it currently stands what would happen if a tighter integration with social software were to be introduced? • LibQual survey software - a communication strategy, which collects and interprets library user feedback systematically over time.

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