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Toward the Nodal Library Atkey, Susan; Campbell, Larry; Colenbrander, Hilde; Foster, Patricia; Hives, Chris; Kirchner, Joy; Yan-Mountain, May 2009

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Appendix two: Portrait of a New Media Library UserPrepared by Patty Foster1. Library Users have changed Changes in text technologies have resulted in changes to how we think, remember and collaborate. Disruptive technologies can cause changes to how people relate to each other (Taris) Learners are becoming more knowledgeable about technology and repurpose it for their own needs. 2. Library Users have become Google-trained.What are the expectations of the user in the modern world? The proliferation of Google as a peer to peer network has taken over a chunk of the Internet, it acts as a middle man between the browser and the information. As people use it for searches, it uses algorithms to create a better searching tool.     A. Personal Reflections and conversation as a learning tool. Journaling, conversation and collaboration have historically been important to the learning process. Innovations in social software have allowed this process to "gel" better. Allows you to contribute to and see the results quicker when you collaborate and when conversations are created from personal reflections.      B. Sharing of Knowledge has become more important.The ability and willingness of individuals to push their thinking creatively has been enhanced by the creation of meme trees. Social software allows the sharing of resource lists and the ability to examine what resources your colleagues/classmates are looking at. Example GUSSE, a social bookmarking system that promotes the development of sustainability solutions among urban professionals and citizens.Promote engagement with the community.     C. Motivations have changed at the post-secondary curriculum level (Jafari 2006 pp.58 Educause).Integration of course software and library resources course software: WebCT, Sakai, Moodle motivation involves choices (Jafari 2006) Personal learning preferences can influence choices in learning modes: kinetic, visual and auditory. Quick info vs. contemplative: The user will choose the appropriate media depending on the approach required for the material. "For elearning environments to be motivational, they must be 'smart' and acquire an understanding of the uniqueness of the learner and the instructor: their habits, choices, preferences and even errors." (Jafari 2006: pp.58 Educause). 3. Users Curriculum Needs - How Are We Currently Assisting the New User?Engaging faculty and students with the library UBC specific - hiring librarians/information specialists for individual departments. Ask Away - network of librarians always available via IM (instant messenger). McMaster University has recently adopted a similar system to "chapters.ca", a familiar interface to modern users. It has the ability to create research sets and wish lists. Issues: a lot of add-ons but no real overall restructuring. The catalogue currently reflects the print collection and does not operate as a research tool. 4. The future user as contributor.Unique URIs to show colleagues/students what resources you have been exploring. Historical photographs, podcasts and contributing to the findability of materials via folksonomy integrated with traditional classification systems. Learning salons. 5. Issue: How do you remediate between the traditional and modern user?Nature of digitization - How does this benefit the user? What are the disadvantages? Ebooks vs. digitized books - not the same thing. The scanning of books only shows the representation of the text, the ability to search via index may be lost. i.e. , 24x7 books no hyperlinking. A lot of patrons still consider themselves computer illiterate and while they may be able to handle the online catalogue as it currently stands what would happen if a tighter integration with social software were to be introduced?LibQual survey software - a communication strategy, which collects and interprets library user feedback systematically over time.  Appendix two: Portrait of a New Media Library UserPrepared by Patty Foster1. Library Users have changed Changes in text technologies have resulted in changes to how we think, remember and collaborate. Disruptive technologies can cause changes to how people relate to each other (Taris) Learners are becoming more knowledgeable about technology and repurpose it for their own needs. 2. Library Users have become Google-trained.What are the expectations of the user in the modern world? The proliferation of Google as a peer to peer network has taken over a chunk of the Internet, it acts as a middle man between the browser and the information. As people use it for searches, it uses algorithms to create a better searching tool.     A. Personal Reflections and conversation as a learning tool. Journaling, conversation and collaboration have historically been important to the learning process. Innovations in social software have allowed this process to "gel" better. Allows you to contribute to and see the results quicker when you collaborate and when conversations are created from personal reflections.      B. Sharing of Knowledge has become more important.The ability and willingness of individuals to push their thinking creatively has been enhanced by the creation of meme trees. Social software allows the sharing of resource lists and the ability to examine what resources your colleagues/classmates are looking at. Example GUSSE, a social bookmarking system that promotes the development of sustainability solutions among urban professionals and citizens.Promote engagement with the community.     C. Motivations have changed at the post-secondary curriculum level (Jafari 2006 pp.58 Educause).Integration of course software and library resources course software: WebCT, Sakai, Moodle motivation involves choices (Jafari 2006) Personal learning preferences can influence choices in learning modes: kinetic, visual and auditory. Quick info vs. contemplative: The user will choose the appropriate media depending on the approach required for the material. "For elearning environments to be motivational, they must be 'smart' and acquire an understanding of the uniqueness of the learner and the instructor: their habits, choices, preferences and even errors." (Jafari 2006: pp.58 Educause). 3. Users Curriculum Needs - How Are We Currently Assisting the New User?Engaging faculty and students with the library UBC specific - hiring librarians/information specialists for individual departments. Ask Away - network of librarians always available via IM (instant messenger). McMaster University has recently adopted a similar system to "chapters.ca", a familiar interface to modern users. It has the ability to create research sets and wish lists. Issues: a lot of add-ons but no real overall restructuring. The catalogue currently reflects the print collection and does not operate as a research tool. 4. The future user as contributor.Unique URIs to show colleagues/students what resources you have been exploring. Historical photographs, podcasts and contributing to the findability of materials via folksonomy integrated with traditional classification systems. Learning salons. 5. Issue: How do you remediate between the traditional and modern user?Nature of digitization - How does this benefit the user? What are the disadvantages? Ebooks vs. digitized books - not the same thing. The scanning of books only shows the representation of the text, the ability to search via index may be lost. i.e. , 24x7 books no hyperlinking. A lot of patrons still consider themselves computer illiterate and while they may be able to handle the online catalogue as it currently stands what would happen if a tighter integration with social software were to be introduced?LibQual survey software - a communication strategy, which collects and interprets library user feedback systematically over time.  Appendix One:  Supplementary Notes1. Digital Collections & Scholarly CommunicationWhere do we want to be? Digitization Campus-wide digitization facility? (IKBLC?) Contract arrangements for digitization services? International standards? Collaboration with Museum, UBC Press?Collaboration with Google et al?Digital curation & accessVarieties of Institutional Repository (Theses, Papers, Data, Objects, Proceedings?)?Collection policy for regional born-digital material? Interface standards? Single interface?Preservation standards? Preservation & permanent access policies and strategies (possibly in collaboration). A licensing policy on perpetual access/permanent access to subscription e-collections. Joining & contributing to LOCKSS, Portico Data access standards (e.g., OAI, SRU, general XML)?Develop a consultation service for UBC researchers that:Informs them of copyright issues & depositing research in a repositoryConsultation service for faculty publicationsHosting site & support for faculty publicationsDigital harvesting A repository of regional repositories? Collaborate to provide discipline- or topic-specific repositories?Licenses & contracts that enable the Library to harvest, repurpose, and repackage information from other IR’sScholarly Communication/Publication & Open Access SupportEstablish a formal institutional position on Open Access & Changes to Scholarly publishing and support for that.Consult with Faculty on developing a collection policy to support Open Access collections, memberships, support for author submissions.Where are we now? Positive developments: A number of distinct digitization projects: Collaborating with FOGS on a start on an IR (using DSpace) for eThesesCollaborating with PRDLA to provide harvestable (OAI-PMH) data for regional digital collection UBC librarians attended an ARL Institute on Scholarly Communication with the view to develop an institutional plan for supporting and educating others about these changes.Library actively supports a variety of Open Access publications & some memberships.Library is a SPARC supporter.Sporadic discussions with faculty groups on changes to scholarly publication.Sporadic discussion with faculty on issues relating to the preservation of electronic resources.Problems and Issues: Wide variety of interfaces, browsing displays, access methods for different digital collections Inability to search or browse across collections Do we have a policy on digitization standards? A policy on digital preservation?Campus-wide collection policy for IR? Region-wide for born-digital materials? Policy on data curation.No network collaboration on data harvesting, on preservationHow do we get there? Decide to establish a distinct, Library-wide Digital Collections unit (including digitization, Institutional Repository, digital curation, etc.), and fund it and redirect staff accordinglyTransition “Collections staff” into Scholarly Communication staffDevelop systematic communication avenues to educate faculty and library staff about changes to scholarly communication. Develop a Scholarly Communication Committee made up of faculty and librarians.Make choices what we will not do to support this: ie: transition print cataloguers into metadata analyzers.Stop supporting and acquiring technologies and software that do not accommodate these ventures.2. Systems/Technology Where do we need to be? A web-based, standards-based infrastructure, able to communicate with the various products, services, functions, and collections that the Library makes available -- including the OPAC -- as well as with systems external to the Library A flexible, configurable interface generator, based upon the infrastructure above, and able to provide users with both simple and advanced functionality, and rich, customizable resultsWhere are we now? A Library website that includes: many hand-coded pages a number of local databases mediated by ColdFusion a number of proprietary products, databases, "Knowledge-bases", and so on, that don't communicate with each other a number of local digital collections that don't communicate with each other an OPAC that cannot be integrated with either the rest of the website or with external systems How do we get there? Redeveloping website in phases:phase 1: renewing look-and-feel, adding new search functionality, and preparing content for phase 2 phase 2: installing infrastructure (e.g., CMS) to generate websitesDetermining an infrastructure strategy -- e.g., is a CMS that infrastructure, or is it just another system to be included? Determining the range of products and systems to be supported -- e.g.: Eserials/ejournals knowledge base (including ebooks?) (e.g., Serials Solutions)OpenURL support: Target resolver (e.g., SFX) Use of OpenURL links in all our own links to resources Digital collection support (e.g., ContentDM, DSpace): Separation of interface and data (both metadata and source data) standards-based collection mechanismsDigital preservation strategies Digital harvesting strategiesConsistent search interface: Federated search of external databases (e.g., Metalib) "Conglomerated" search of local databases (including OPAC) (e.g., Aquabrowser, Endeca, Primo) Browsable information interface -- e.g., Visual Displays (Aquabrowser? Vivisimo-style clustering?), browsable catalogueSupport for physical distribution -- e.g., ILL, docdel Building the infrastructure capable of accommodating these and other, still unknown, products and systems, and presenting them in a highly-configurable variety of interfaces3. Library Organization Where do we want to be?Organizational culture: Open to the future Proactive rather than reactive Highly flexible -- able to respond to change and adapt to unforeseen developmentsOrganizational structure: Focus on physical collection for traditional units: acquisitions, cataloguing, circulation Develop new units focused on network information: licensing, metadata description, digitization, interface design, infrastructure "Collections" broadened into "Information Access""Public Services" turned into "Information consultancies"Transition from facility-based services such as cataloguing and circulation in the physical library to include a knowledge-based information service (eHelp, eReference, eLearning)Where are we now?Organizational culture: Ambivalent about the future Reactive -- concerned with "keeping up" Job, classification rigidities impede ability to adapt to change Organizational structure: Network information management dispersed to traditional organizational units: Eresources grouped with Technical Services Web site and interface issues grouped with IT/Systems Digitization grouped with Archives Many in traditional units being pressured to take on unfamiliar tasks relating to network informationHow do we get where we want to be?Organizational culture: Use of "Organizational Development" (OD) techniques? Do a needs assessment of future skills activities required and begin the process of training and recruiting appropriate staff.Discussions with Unions and Associations involved to develop more flexible job definitions, policies Cross-training?Reward change But don't penalize those who neither want nor need to change (e.g., those supporting ongoing functions of the physical collection)Recognizing the “library” will always be in a constant state of technical evolution we: Encourage new attitudes to accommodate an environment that is about constant change.Select technologies, software, and adopt business practices that embraces and accommodates constant evolutionOrganizational structure: Determine priorities and make choices to begin the process of reducing fuctions and staffing that accommodate print-based organization and redirect energies and staffing to future library. Consider innovative organizational strutures (e.g., matrix) to develop closer cooperation across existing boundaries (as an intermediate step?) Consider pulling together network information functions in an expanded Network Information Support unit Consider closer integration between library subject specialists and faculty/department/discipline unitsShape a user-centered (or client-centred) library. This will depend upon building in a formalized user-consultation process. All of our services, processes, decision-making is focused on this requirement. Appendix two: Portrait of a New Media Library UserPrepared by Patty Foster1. Library Users have changed Changes in text technologies have resulted in changes to how we think, remember and collaborate. Disruptive technologies can cause changes to how people relate to each other (Taris) Learners are becoming more knowledgeable about technology and repurpose it for their own needs. 2. Library Users have become Google-trained.What are the expectations of the user in the modern world? The proliferation of Google as a peer to peer network has taken over a chunk of the Internet, it acts as a middle man between the browser and the information. As people use it for searches, it uses algorithms to create a better searching tool.     A. Personal Reflections and conversation as a learning tool. Journaling, conversation and collaboration have historically been important to the learning process. Innovations in social software have allowed this process to "gel" better. Allows you to contribute to and see the results quicker when you collaborate and when conversations are created from personal reflections.      B. Sharing of Knowledge has become more important.The ability and willingness of individuals to push their thinking creatively has been enhanced by the creation of meme trees. Social software allows the sharing of resource lists and the ability to examine what resources your colleagues/classmates are looking at. Example GUSSE, a social bookmarking system that promotes the development of sustainability solutions among urban professionals and citizens.Promote engagement with the community.     C. Motivations have changed at the post-secondary curriculum level (Jafari 2006 pp.58 Educause).Integration of course software and library resources course software: WebCT, Sakai, Moodle motivation involves choices (Jafari 2006) Personal learning preferences can influence choices in learning modes: kinetic, visual and auditory. Quick info vs. contemplative: The user will choose the appropriate media depending on the approach required for the material. "For elearning environments to be motivational, they must be 'smart' and acquire an understanding of the uniqueness of the learner and the instructor: their habits, choices, preferences and even errors." (Jafari 2006: pp.58 Educause). 3. Users Curriculum Needs - How Are We Currently Assisting the New User?Engaging faculty and students with the library UBC specific - hiring librarians/information specialists for individual departments. Ask Away - network of librarians always available via IM (instant messenger). McMaster University has recently adopted a similar system to "chapters.ca", a familiar interface to modern users. It has the ability to create research sets and wish lists. Issues: a lot of add-ons but no real overall restructuring. The catalogue currently reflects the print collection and does not operate as a research tool. 4. The future user as contributor.Unique URIs to show colleagues/students what resources you have been exploring. Historical photographs, podcasts and contributing to the findability of materials via folksonomy integrated with traditional classification systems. Learning salons. 5. Issue: How do you remediate between the traditional and modern user?Nature of digitization - How does this benefit the user? What are the disadvantages? Ebooks vs. digitized books - not the same thing. The scanning of books only shows the representation of the text, the ability to search via index may be lost. i.e. , 24x7 books no hyperlinking. A lot of patrons still consider themselves computer illiterate and while they may be able to handle the online catalogue as it currently stands what would happen if a tighter integration with social software were to be introduced?LibQual survey software - a communication strategy, which collects and interprets library user feedback systematically over time.  Appendix One:  Supplementary Notes1. Digital Collections & Scholarly CommunicationWhere do we want to be? Digitization Campus-wide digitization facility? (IKBLC?) Contract arrangements for digitization services? International standards? Collaboration with Museum, UBC Press?Collaboration with Google et al?Digital curation & accessVarieties of Institutional Repository (Theses, Papers, Data, Objects, Proceedings?)?Collection policy for regional born-digital material? Interface standards? Single interface?Preservation standards? Preservation & permanent access policies and strategies (possibly in collaboration). A licensing policy on perpetual access/permanent access to subscription e-collections. Joining & contributing to LOCKSS, Portico Data access standards (e.g., OAI, SRU, general XML)?Develop a consultation service for UBC researchers that:Informs them of copyright issues & depositing research in a repositoryConsultation service for faculty publicationsHosting site & support for faculty publicationsDigital harvesting A repository of regional repositories? Collaborate to provide discipline- or topic-specific repositories?Licenses & contracts that enable the Library to harvest, repurpose, and repackage information from other IR’sScholarly Communication/Publication & Open Access SupportEstablish a formal institutional position on Open Access & Changes to Scholarly publishing and support for that.Consult with Faculty on developing a collection policy to support Open Access collections, memberships, support for author submissions.Where are we now? Positive developments: A number of distinct digitization projects: Collaborating with FOGS on a start on an IR (using DSpace) for eThesesCollaborating with PRDLA to provide harvestable (OAI-PMH) data for regional digital collection UBC librarians attended an ARL Institute on Scholarly Communication with the view to develop an institutional plan for supporting and educating others about these changes.Library actively supports a variety of Open Access publications & some memberships.Library is a SPARC supporter.Sporadic discussions with faculty groups on changes to scholarly publication.Sporadic discussion with faculty on issues relating to the preservation of electronic resources.Problems and Issues: Wide variety of interfaces, browsing displays, access methods for different digital collections Inability to search or browse across collections Do we have a policy on digitization standards? A policy on digital preservation?Campus-wide collection policy for IR? Region-wide for born-digital materials? Policy on data curation.No network collaboration on data harvesting, on preservationHow do we get there? Decide to establish a distinct, Library-wide Digital Collections unit (including digitization, Institutional Repository, digital curation, etc.), and fund it and redirect staff accordinglyTransition “Collections staff” into Scholarly Communication staffDevelop systematic communication avenues to educate faculty and library staff about changes to scholarly communication. Develop a Scholarly Communication Committee made up of faculty and librarians.Make choices what we will not do to support this: ie: transition print cataloguers into metadata analyzers.Stop supporting and acquiring technologies and software that do not accommodate these ventures.2. Systems/Technology Where do we need to be? A web-based, standards-based infrastructure, able to communicate with the various products, services, functions, and collections that the Library makes available -- including the OPAC -- as well as with systems external to the Library A flexible, configurable interface generator, based upon the infrastructure above, and able to provide users with both simple and advanced functionality, and rich, customizable resultsWhere are we now? A Library website that includes: many hand-coded pages a number of local databases mediated by ColdFusion a number of proprietary products, databases, "Knowledge-bases", and so on, that don't communicate with each other a number of local digital collections that don't communicate with each other an OPAC that cannot be integrated with either the rest of the website or with external systems How do we get there? Redeveloping website in phases:phase 1: renewing look-and-feel, adding new search functionality, and preparing content for phase 2 phase 2: installing infrastructure (e.g., CMS) to generate websitesDetermining an infrastructure strategy -- e.g., is a CMS that infrastructure, or is it just another system to be included? Determining the range of products and systems to be supported -- e.g.: Eserials/ejournals knowledge base (including ebooks?) (e.g., Serials Solutions)OpenURL support: Target resolver (e.g., SFX) Use of OpenURL links in all our own links to resources Digital collection support (e.g., ContentDM, DSpace): Separation of interface and data (both metadata and source data) standards-based collection mechanismsDigital preservation strategies Digital harvesting strategiesConsistent search interface: Federated search of external databases (e.g., Metalib) "Conglomerated" search of local databases (including OPAC) (e.g., Aquabrowser, Endeca, Primo) Browsable information interface -- e.g., Visual Displays (Aquabrowser? Vivisimo-style clustering?), browsable catalogueSupport for physical distribution -- e.g., ILL, docdel Building the infrastructure capable of accommodating these and other, still unknown, products and systems, and presenting them in a highly-configurable variety of interfaces3. Library Organization Where do we want to be?Organizational culture: Open to the future Proactive rather than reactive Highly flexible -- able to respond to change and adapt to unforeseen developmentsOrganizational structure: Focus on physical collection for traditional units: acquisitions, cataloguing, circulation Develop new units focused on network information: licensing, metadata description, digitization, interface design, infrastructure "Collections" broadened into "Information Access""Public Services" turned into "Information consultancies"Transition from facility-based services such as cataloguing and circulation in the physical library to include a knowledge-based information service (eHelp, eReference, eLearning)Where are we now?Organizational culture: Ambivalent about the future Reactive -- concerned with "keeping up" Job, classification rigidities impede ability to adapt to change Organizational structure: Network information management dispersed to traditional organizational units: Eresources grouped with Technical Services Web site and interface issues grouped with IT/Systems Digitization grouped with Archives Many in traditional units being pressured to take on unfamiliar tasks relating to network informationHow do we get where we want to be?Organizational culture: Use of "Organizational Development" (OD) techniques? Do a needs assessment of future skills activities required and begin the process of training and recruiting appropriate staff.Discussions with Unions and Associations involved to develop more flexible job definitions, policies Cross-training?Reward change But don't penalize those who neither want nor need to change (e.g., those supporting ongoing functions of the physical collection)Recognizing the “library” will always be in a constant state of technical evolution we: Encourage new attitudes to accommodate an environment that is about constant change.Select technologies, software, and adopt business practices that embraces and accommodates constant evolutionOrganizational structure: Determine priorities and make choices to begin the process of reducing fuctions and staffing that accommodate print-based organization and redirect energies and staffing to future library. Consider innovative organizational strutures (e.g., matrix) to develop closer cooperation across existing boundaries (as an intermediate step?) Consider pulling together network information functions in an expanded Network Information Support unit Consider closer integration between library subject specialists and faculty/department/discipline unitsShape a user-centered (or client-centred) library. This will depend upon building in a formalized user-consultation process. All of our services, processes, decision-making is focused on this requirement. Toward the Nodal LibraryA Discussion Paper on the future of the UBC Library in the emerging eLibrary environment.Prepared by the eLibrary Discussion Paper Working GroupLarry CampbellSusan AtkeyHilde ColenbranderPatricia FosterChris HivesJoy KirchnerMay Yan-MountainNovember 2, 2006.Toward the Nodal Library - Executive SummaryUnder the impact of disruptive change, coming in the wake of new developments in  information technology, the traditional definition of the library in terms of a repository or collection is becoming steadily less viable. A new definition or model is needed instead -- that of the library as a node in an information network, providing a local or regional locus of information services, access points, and meta-informational expertise, commonly (but not necessarily) associated with a physical collection. Two themes that immediately follow from this model -- the mediation of network information to the local community (which may be as large as a national region or as small as a campus or neighbourhood), and the mediation of local information to the network -- are examined in more detail. This involves, in the first case, the library as information broker and architect, as well as personal information appliance and information consultancy. In the second case, it involves the library as curator of digital information collections, whether of its own digitized resources or of material collected from its community, as well as an information disseminator or publisher, and as a label for a decomposable assemblage of services and resources that can be made available to the network themselves. Two further themes, related to the question of the changes required by the new model, are discussed: the ongoing role of the physical collection, which remains of great practical importance but which has requirements that are quite distinct from those of networked information; and the vital importance of access to, and provision of, so-called "pure data" -- meaning simply data stripped of its presentational wrappings -- for the full development of the nodal library as such.After this quick look at where we as an institution need to be, we examine even more quickly where we are now. A number of promising signs at UBC Library in particular are noted, including a collaboration with the Medical Faculty in curriculum design, a multi-year program for the replacement of print journals with online versions, a range of old and new digitization projects, and the early development of a functional if piecemeal information infrastructure based on ColdFusion. Along with those encouraging signs, however, there are also a number that are somewhat discouraging, many of which appear to derive from, or at least be associated with, the enormous financial, and therefore organizational, burden of its legacy "Integrated Library System", designed to serve the needs of the library as physical collection. This is a general condition with which all libraries are struggling in various ways, however, and a number of others are also finding innovative ways to begin the process of breaking the old mold -- some examples are simply listed.Finally, then, we look in very general terms at what we need to do to ensure that we get from where we are now to where we need to be. The decision that our primary business is information rather than collection will require strategic boldness, and will lead to some far-reaching effects in organization, policy, and practice. A bold approach on a strategic level, however, will need to be matched with an exploratory and highly flexible approach on a tactical or implementation level, as new developments can always render any particular project quickly obsolete. Within this framework, some general but still concrete steps are suggested over short- and longer-term timelines. In the end, it's recognized that the future isn't something to be merely envisioned, it's something that must be built -- and that doing so, despite the difficulty of relinquishing some of the past, will position the library as a facility at the heart of the emerging Information Society, and librarians among its leaders. Toward the Nodal Library HYPERLINK "http://www.micro2000uk.co.uk/network_glossary.htm" \o "Node" \t "blank_" Node : Any point in a network that can influence the flow of data on that network.Introduction: Envisioning the Future What comes to mind when you hear a phrase like "the library of the future"? Some sort of streamlined, Art Deco-ed, Jetson's kind of thing, perhaps? Robot librarians, floating books, virtual-reality card catalogues, etc.? Well, perhaps not. The phrase itself, after all, has an ironically retro, old-fashioned ring to it now -- for good reason, we've become suspicious of the sort of gushing, hype-ridden futurism that often seems just to exaggerate the obvious and miss the significant. And yet ... how are we to deal with the future at all if we don't make some effort to imagine it? And then how, exactly, would we go about doing that -- envisioning the future of the library?Let's consider two possibilities. One is to start from where we are, and extrapolate trends that we see in our surroundings and our recent past. This has a kind of natural, grounded, common-sensical appeal that can be a useful antidote to the flurry of buzzwords and abstractions that so often characterizes discussions of "the future" of anything. But it also has certain limitations -- in particular, it requires some assumptions, explicit or implicit, about the nature of the change process itself: not that it need be "linear", exactly, but that it is, in some defined manner, continuous. What if, instead, the kind of change we face is discontinuous -- abrupt, sudden, or "disruptive", undermining what we've seen to date, dashing expectations, and breaking up existing patterns and trends? Change doesn't always come in this form, of course, but occasionally it does, and on all scales. Haven't we, in fact, been through one such upheaval, with the advent of the graphical web browser in the mid 90's, altering fundamentally the way in which people accessed information? And now, just a decade later, might we not be in the midst of another one, with the rapid proliferation of the so-called  HYPERLINK "http://www.oreillynet.com/pub/a/oreilly/tim/news/2005/09/30/what-is-web-20.html" "Web 2.0" phenomenon, changing not just the way people access information but the way they relate to it, putting in question?the origins, uses, structure, and very nature of information?If that's the situation we're in, or even close to it, then we need another way of imagining the future -- one that focuses not so much on trends as on implications, and starts not with where we are but with where we want or need to be. This focus takes us outside of the library and its surroundings, and looks at the changes inherent in the culture at large, such as:the emergence of a new information ecology, in which traditional sources of authority (credentialed experts, recognized reference works, news media) are being pushed aside by an assortment of problematic but rich and varied sources like blogs and wikis, the pre-eminent, transformational example being the Wikipedia; mass digitization projects like Google Books (and similar European initiatives), once thought to be impossible, or to require centuries; the rapidly spreading access to wireless broadband, and the rise of the always-on, always-connected society; the emergence of a new kind of information user, or consumer-producer, with expectations conditioned by Google-Amazon-eBay;the?appearance of discipline-based "informatics" to manage  HYPERLINK "http://www.dcc.ac.uk/resource/briefing-papers/curating-e-science-data/" the scale and complexity of the data being generated; new, more complex modes of scholarly communication other than the traditional peer-reviewed journal, and  HYPERLINK "http://users.ox.ac.uk/~mikef/rts/ticer/fraser_diglib_vre_24Aug06-online.pdf" new kinds of research behavior the proliferation of the digital equivalent of "grey literature" or ephemera, as individual and organizational websites come and go; the rise of new kinds of information spaces, or "cyberspaces", such as VR worlds like "Second Life", social worlds like "MySpace", geographical worlds like Google Maps,? image/sound/video worlds such as Flickr/iTunes/YouTube, etc.; the growing issues and growing complexity of the issues around "digital rights", and the increasing importance of the various "open access" initiatives that are struggling to come to terms with, or in some ways to circumvent, those issues. And these are only some of the examples or portents of far-reaching changes afoot, as ever-increasing amounts of information, services, work, play, and community all are shifted to the virtual realms of the global network. What does a shift of that nature and magnitude, then, imply for the library as an institution?Not an easy question to answer, obviously, but attempting to do so may lead us to ask ourselves what a library is in the first place. Traditionally, the very meaning of the word "library" is bound up with the notion of "repository" or "collection", and this association may well be unbreakable. But if so, then it's likely that the library's future, as a distinguishable social institution,?is one of stately but steady decline in cultural relevance. Not because there won't be a need for information storage, but just because such storage will increasingly take such a variety of fluid and intangible forms, so subliminal,?so integrated into the social and technical fabric of our lives,?that one would no more think of going to a particular repository for information than one would think, any longer,?of going to a community well for water. Which, in a larger perspective -- and with due respect for the waning of another institution and its associated profession -- may be just fine, after all; the institution served us well in its time, would go the sentiment, but its time is past, or passing.And yet ... in this networked world, the torrent of information produced, transported, and consumed,?of all kinds, and at all scales or levels,?continues to increase at unprecedented rates, constantly threatening to drown us all in data, claims, suppositions, questions, errors, reports, documents, trivia, facts, and dubious "facts". Certainly, individuals and groups directly involved make increasingly strenuous and often ingenious efforts to cope with the deluge, and certainly Google and its like?are doing everything?they can think of (including spinning off a variety of services, products, and projects?in perpetual beta) to provide broad, generic, high-level control systems and access mechanisms. But despite all these good efforts, information, time and energy are increasingly being lost or wasted in this digital flooding -- what's needed?is an entire?social/cultural infrastructure, capable of managing information and providing informational services in a variety of forms and levels, across diverse communities, over long time-frames. What is needed, in other words, is something very much like libraries, but libraries focused on, and organized around, not?information repositories but information just as such.?In this sense,?libraries would no longer be seen as relatively autonomous institutions with their stand-alone and heavily redundant?collections, but?rather as nodes in an information network, strongly connected to the whole, but providing a local or regional locus of services, access points, and meta-informational expertise, often (but not necessarily) associated with a physical collection as an adjunct. In that sense, the future of the library?is as open and expansive as the network itself. The sections that follow assume that "library" is defined in the second, nodal sense, and ask a series of questions -- starting with where we ("we" being the collective sense of the library as an institution) want or need to be, as implied by the kind of changes underway in the culture at large; coming back to look at where we are now, in both positive and negative aspects; and finally asking what we need to do to get to where we need to be. We hope it's needless to say that the answers provided below those questions are in no sense final or conclusive -- they're intended rather as thoughts, observations, and suggestions, and therefore as just the start (or so we also hope) of a useful conversation. Where do we need to be? If we take seriously the idea of the library as a node in an information network, then two main themes quickly become apparent:?the first?is the library's role in mediating network information, along with value-added services, to its community; and the other is the reciprocal role of providing local information, in standardized format, to the network.?Let's look more closely at some of what these entail: 1. Mediating network information to the community One aspect of this theme is actually quite old and familiar -- this is the library in the role of information "broker", negotiating and purchasing licenced access to important proprietary resources for its authorized users. (Libraries have become accustomed to thinking of the resources so licenced as part of their "collection", even though they don't, as a rule, store them themselves, don't have access rights beyond the negotiated time frame, and often cannot control which individual items are included in the negotiated access package -- it seems both clearer and more true to view them as centrally collected resources to which the library simply mediates or brokers access.) For much of the history of the library's involvement with such resources, however, they were entirely separate from one another, and users would, for example,?rather laboriously have to collect citations from one database and then search for full-text sources in another. The advent of the OpenURL standard offered the possibility of?automated linking across different products and vendors, from meta-data source to information target, and only required a one-time set-up with each source database. More recently, OCLC has established a  HYPERLINK "http://www.oclc.org/productworks/urlresolver.htm" registry which, along with a new, more lightweight protocol for?inserting OpenURLs in links ( HYPERLINK "http://ocoins.info/" COinS), will make this sort of linking between diverse resources available for anything: blogs, wikis, academic papers, etc. With these and further developments along these lines, we see the library's role as information broker becoming increasingly invisible,?as it becomes?more deeply embedded in the information infrastructure of the society at large. Another aspect of the same theme, however, is quite visible -- this is the library in the role of information or knowledge "architect", building and maintaining interfaces to network information appropriate for its particular communities. Such interfaces may be search boxes, browsable displays, or both, and may combine the output of multiple network resources. And here again, we've seen initial moves along these lines for a while now, in everything from simple "A to Z lists" of resources, through home-grown database search functionality, to more complex, but still limited and problem-ridden?commercial "metasearch" products. But by and large these are all just aspects or portions of the library's interface, standing apart from one another, and stuck like isolated candles in a static, one-size-fits-all web site;?it's increasingly evident that what's really?needed is a much more flexible interface -- or, better yet, interface infrastructure -- that can: accommodate a wide range of resources, types of resources, functionalities, services, etc., in a coherent, consistent presentation; be easily and quickly configurable to support different uses or situations -- e.g., user types, subject area?or discipline, classes, sub-communities, etc.; be personalized, so individuals can in effect craft their own interface, cutting across all the different types, subjects, sub-communities, etc. in which they're involved. In this sense, there would no longer be a single library website, apart perhaps from a fairly generic, brochure-like default, but rather a library web infrastructure, that would be capable of generating a variety of web sites to suit the needs of particular communities, situations, or uses. A third aspect is strongly related to the one above, but?is a new and significant enough development to warrant separate treatment -- this is the library in the role of personal information appliance, where "information" is now construed in the more interactive and malleable "web 2.0" sense.?This is?a rapidly mutating information environment, involving elements that might?seem, oddly, both familiar and?strange: tags, comments, "mash-ups",??feeds, etc. -- content that's not just user-controlled, in other words, but?user-supplied. Such a development for libraries goes beyond just letting users add reviews to catalogue records -- it means providing users with a kind of sharable work-space within which they have access to library-mediated network resources and functionality, and to which they're able to add information of their own which then becomes, potentially, available to the network. Users, in such an environment, can become their own librarians after a fashion, building their own collections of information resources to be shared with others (for early examples of this sort of thing, see  HYPERLINK "http://del.icio.us/" del.icio.us or  HYPERLINK "http://www.librarything.com/" LibraryThing). This aspect is a good illustration of the nodal library mediating the two-way flow of information, and creating communities as it does so. A fourth (and for now final) aspect of the library mediating network information picks up on this theme of two-way flow -- it involves the library in the role of information consultancy. This is really just an extension of one of the oldest and most familiar of library services: reference. But as scholarly and research behaviors begin to change under the impact of the networked society -- as vast quantities of information are generated and similarly vast quantities become available as input --?reference services too will need to?evolve. Subject information specialists will need to be more involved with research projects and curriculum design from early stages, and so will have to become more familiar with the informatics of particular disciplines while still maintaining a cross-disciplinary, "meta-informatics" view that keeps them in touch with the broader information processes of the networked environment. This may involve, among other things, the integration of information literacy education into the workflows of students and scholars, the creative exploration and use of new tools and formats that become available (e.g., blogs, wikis, "mash-ups"), and the shift away from a reactive, "patron comes to us" model of reference toward a more proactive, embedded and engaged model. And so the theme of two-way mediation re-appears, as specialized information consultants aid users both in finding their way through information mazes, and in managing the information they generate according to cultural and?network standards (e.g., metadata, preservational strategies, etc.). 2. Mediating community information to the network The first example of this kind of mediation, from local information sources to network, is also, by now, a familiar one -- it's the "digital library" in the narrow sense, in fact, or the library in the role of digital, or digitized, collection manager. The local information sources, in this case, are typically drawn from the library's own print or physical collections, and the library undertakes the task of selecting, digitizing, organizing, and presenting those resources in a network-accessible form. This process has been going on, in varying degrees, at many libraries for a number of years now, and?the result has been a slow but steady accumulation of a substantial number of high-value collections potentially accessible to anyone anywhere. ?But these collections have also been?generated in a wide variety of forms, formats, displays, access methods, meta-data descriptions,?granularity levels, and so forth, all of which compromise their inter-collection coherence and hamper their actual accessibility. Efforts like those of the Open Archives Initiative are a start toward providing some mutual compatibility between digital collections, but much more will be needed, both on national/global levels and on local levels, to ensure that the rich information sources being produced?are fully network-accessible in browsable, searchable, cross-collection interfaces. At least as important as the digitizing of the library's own physical resources, however, is the collection, preservation, and presentation -- in a word, the curation -- of the?local community's resources. Libraries have long done this, in a somewhat informal way, for locally generated print or physical resources, often called "grey literature", but even this informal attention has usually been lacking for similar kinds of information resources "born digital" -- the network equivalent of organizational, or event-related (or even individual) brochures, pamphlets, announcements, documents, etc. that often carry much of the detail of history. Libraries as local network nodes have an obvious responsibility to develop systematic approaches toward the management of this kind of information, and the integration of?it into that general?network interface spoken of above -- a role that libraries' funding sources need to appreciate and provide for as well, it should be said. For a certain kind of locally-produced digital information, in fact, libraries (of a certain type) have already been involved as curators, at least to some extent -- this is the research data, information, and knowledge produced in academic institutions, and somewhat haphazardly collected and maintained in various versions of "institutional repository". To this point, the role or function of the "institutional repository" seems a bit unclear: should it strive primarily for ease of access -- a searchable, browsable showcase of institutional resources (a campus-wide extension of the digital library)? Or for information security and resolvability -- a long-term digital archive of institutional resources? Or for comprehensiveness -- an assortment of institutional digital objects of all kinds, levels, and media? It might be tempting to say "all of the above", of course, but it's also realistic to accept that differing objectives sometimes bring with them difficult-to-avoid trade-offs, and the need for decisions. Certainly, though, a major aim of IR's in the larger informational landscape is to create a system of interoperable, inter-searchable repositories on a global scale, a development which would have a considerable impact on scholarly communication and on research itself. And factors that lie in back of much of this development may well have the most to say about the form or forms by which libraries can help mediate the output of academic research and pedagogy -- factors such as:the Open Access/Open Data movement the appearance of Very Large Data Sets (e.g., in astronomy, genomics, linguistics), and the rising importance of disciplinary informatics the changing nature of scholarly research and communication, including the spread of the "disciplinary repository", such as arXiv, CogPrints, etc. What libraries can and should add to this rapidly changing picture is a certain culture-wide and historical perspective on information, including cross-disciplinary descriptive standards, copyright and digital rights issues, and both an open and a preservational approach to access.Given the rapidly increasing role libraries are playing in the collection and dissemination of networked information generally, we might, in fact, begin to consider the library in the role of publisher, at least of academic content.  HYPERLINK "http://highwire.stanford.edu/" Stanford, the  HYPERLINK "http://spo.umdl.umich.edu/" University of Michigan, and the  HYPERLINK "http://content.cdlib.org/escholarship/" California Digital Library, for example, already have significant publishing initiatives underway, and UBC Library is responding to requests from faculty to provide some publisher-like services for locally-managed open-access ejournals. As scholarly information and associated communication processes become steadily more open and protean in form (see below, on "The importance of pure data"), libraries may well turn out to be better positioned than traditional academic presses to provide at least some of the services and expertise that a new publishing environment requires. Libraries, which have long been in the position of licencees of information resources, may soon find themselves in the unfamiliar role of licencors. In any case, the role of publisher, whether alone or in partnership, is one the library may have to be ready to assume when and as needed.There's one other aspect of the nodal library that should be mentioned in this context of mediating local information -- and this involves thinking of the library as a decomposable assemblage of resources and services, which makes itself available, in whole or in part, to the network and to various other network nodes or access points. This is in some ways similar to the idea of the library as a "personal information appliance" mentioned above, but it's also in some ways the inverse -- that is, in this view the library is no longer a single entity, selected and configured from some basic or default model, but rather simply a label for a set of functions, any of which can be made available to the network to be easily imported into a wide variety of other network contexts, such as elearning systems (from pre-school to post-graduate), entertainment devices, work or research sites, home networks, etc. It's much like what Wendy Pradt Lougee referred to as " HYPERLINK "http://www.clir.org/pubs/reports/pub108/contents.html" diffuse libraries", but extended beyond the academic world, and perhaps worked?even more deeply into the infrastructure of society in general.?? The role of the physical collection The nodal library, as we've seen, doesn't need a physical collection to perform its essential functions, but of course virtually all actual libraries have such collections, and they?continue to consume the bulk of the library's resources, both financial and human. There's a good reason for this -- it's certainly not the case that "everything is on the Internet", and, the likes of Google Print notwithstanding, it isn't likely to be the case anytime soon. (The twin obstacles of a workable digital rights regime and a comfortable digital reading device will keep the printed book in service for the foreseeable future, quite apart from the gaps and unknowns involved in any mass digitization project.) Still, the fact remains that, as more and more material does appear on the Internet, usage patterns are changing rapidly -- ejournal use is soaring, for example,?and circulation statistics are dropping. It's becoming increasingly difficult to justify the high proportion of library budgets devoted to a declining information medium, and in particular to support the use of expensive physical space simply for book stacks. Among the likely results: there will be increasing use made of physical storage (on-site or off-), with the corollary that there will then be increasing need for a rich online browsing experience for the physical collection as well as the digital, perhaps along the lines suggested by Amazon; it may well be the case that the development of a fast, efficient, and?easy-to-use ILL service (even involving buying from the likes of Amazon when necessary) would be a more cost-effective use of funds than continuing to build up redundant "just-in-case" collections. (Compare, e.g., with Lorcan Dempsey's theme of " HYPERLINK "http://orweblog.oclc.org/archives/000865.html" Discovery to Delivery".) That said, however, the physical collection will be?a valuable adjunct to the nodal library indefinitely, and will continue to require the services that have become so well-defined and so specialized?for it: acquisitions, cataloguing, shelving and circulation. And for that reason, rather than trying to bend such functions, with their associated and well-understood procedures, work-flows, skill-sets, and knowledge, into shapes necessary to accommodate the quite different needs and demands of network information, a good case can be made for keeping?them together as an organizational unit,?and centred on the list or database that is devoted to what the library physically holds -- that is, the catalogue.?? The implication of that, in turn, is that the catalogue should no longer be used as merely an easy way to achieve a "single search" form for users -- it hasn't been, isn't, and never can be that in any case -- nor as a kind of catch-all database for every resource or object that we'd like to count in our "holdings", but rather as the database it was originally designed to be: the comprehensive record of the bibliographic description, physical location, and circulation status of items comprising our physical collection. Network information doesn't need the last two kinds of metadata, clearly, but often does?require other kinds, relating to issues of access, digital rights, network infrastructure,?information architecture, and others, that simply don't fit well within the restrictive or specialized framework of the MARC record.?And if we let go of that framework then we might also wonder whether we should let go of the somewhat hallowed idea of?"the catalogue" as the centrepiece of the library as a whole -- we might let it become simply another database, with an important but no longer central role to play. ? The?importance of pure?data First, it's no doubt necessary to say what's meant by the phrase "pure data" (for want of a better one): this simply refers to data stripped of its presentation or interface context. To see why that's important, we have to look at the problems presented by information in its, to this point, usual guise, as obtained from the network or collected from the community --?embedded in various fonts, markup, layouts, colours, images, and so on, all considered essential for human usability, but all different across the?myriad different network resources that the library mediates, and usually impervious to any sort of programmatic analytic access that would let the data be re-purposed or re-used in different contexts, or mixed and matched to suit different needs. The result is that the library's users are presented with a confusing array of interfaces, each of which stands alone as an essentially sealed information environment --?which, among other things,?represents a serious barrier to the nodal library's efforts to present consistent, coherent interfaces suited to its different user communities, needs, situations, etc.? Some network products, of course, allow for limited amounts of customization (often involving little more than providing a local library banner),?but this doesn't begin to address the problem of a largely closed?system. "Screen scraping" is an apt metaphor for the?sort of work-around?too often?used?with such environments?to extract usable data from the heavy overlay of mere presentation artifacts, but this is a very breakable and error-prone resort. Some products, however, are starting to open themselves up in much more?interesting and potentially useful ways -- a simple example is the increasingly widespread use of RSS "feeds"?(a basic type of XML) to provide at least a subset of available information purely as structured data. Some products are making use of so-called "XML gateways" (often referring to XMLized versions of the Z39.50 search protocol, called " HYPERLINK "http://orweblog.oclc.org/archives/000865.html" SRU" or "SRW")?to provide a standardized access path to?more complex and/or more complete sets of structured data. OAI's "Protocol for Metadata Harvesting" (OAI-PMH) is yet another example of the various moves currently?underway to address this issue of isolated data islands (or "silos", to?mix in a more common?metaphor). But all of these methods are only the beginning of a much more far-reaching series of developments across the network?to?separate data from presentation, enabling various data sources to be "plugged into" an enriched interface, or various interfaces to overlay the same pure data. Certainly there are problems with this that remain to be solved, not the least of them being the financial or business model that supports it. But there are also some powerful economic and social forces advancing it, since the increase in data flexibility it provides makes?the data?that much more usable and hence more economically appealing. Such developments may have particular relevance to the processes of scholarly communication, as they may lead to the decomposition of traditional packaging (e.g., the academic journal) in favour of more easily harvestable and sharable packets of multi-media information. For libraries, in any case, it's precisely this kind of flexibility that will enable the development of such facilities as the?"personal information appliance", or the decomposable, diffusible set of resources, services, and functions mentioned above -- that will enable, in fact, the full development of the nodal library as such. Where are we now? Some promising signs With some ideas about where libraries in general need to be, given the changes underway in the information landscape, it's time to look, in comparison, at where UBC Library in particular currently is. New elibrary positions have been created (e.g., a digital-initiatives librarian, an eresources librarian), new elearning collaborations initiated (e.g., the MEDICOL program), new virtual reference services launched (e.g., the provincial post-secondary consortium "AskAway" service), and new products pioneered (e.g., the OpenURL linkserver, SFX). Without doubt, we've made some significant changes, and are in the process of making more -- let's look a little more closely at three in particular: The "Transition to Online Journals" project, for example, has successfully moved the university community as a whole away from redundant and costly journal print subscriptions and toward reliance upon licenced access to electronic versions for thousands of titles, using the savings to purchase more access to both ejournals and other network resources. Some care has been taken in this process to obtain reasonable assurance that such access is sustainable both for current and for archived issues before cancelling print, but such a project reflects a clear decision to enter the world of network information and to let go of print. UBC Library has also gotten extensively involved in  HYPERLINK "http://www.library.ubc.ca/archives/digicollections.html" a number of digitization projects, including, recently, a collaboration with the Faculty of Graduate Studies on an eTheses project that makes use of the DSpace institutional repository. As with most other academic libraries, these projects have grown up over time, and very often undertaken with grant funds attached to a particular purpose, so it's not unexpected that they would exhibit a variety of tools, strategies, navigation and interface designs, but in their cumulative and developing variety, number, and volume of data, they represent an increasingly impressive contribution to network-accessible information.The Library has also been involved from an early stage of the Web phenomenon in developing a functional infrastructure capable of dynamically generating pages that can knit together many of the resources and services it offers in a?highly configurable?interface. This uses a general, though proprietary, middleware tool called ColdFusion that delivers database contents to web pages in an easily modifiable manner, and also allows those databases to be maintained in a distributed manner through user-friendly, web-based?forms. These processes too, of course, have become quite diverse over time, and now need rationalization, but the relative ease and flexibility which such a tool provides for the management of both?information and interface makes it, or something like it, clearly essential to the operation of the library as network node. Some?less promising?signsDespite these signs that UBC Library is accommodating the changes in the information landscape well, however, there are a number of indications of deeper problems. The website as a whole, for example, remains a largely static, and rather sprawling assemblage of pages, some generated, but many hand-crafted, difficult to change or tailor to need. Digital collections, while impressive in their variety, remain largely dispersed initiatives lacking an overall plan or purpose. The tendency to purchase off-the-shelf software products as a means of quickly filling a need or a want has left us with a patchwork of proprietary systems that overlap, leave gaps, resist communication with other systems both within and without the Library, and present the user with that bewildering variety of interfaces. And looming over all such systems, consuming more resources than all the rest combined, is the very epitome of the isolated data silo, the ironically named "Integrated Library System", with its rigid and specialized database, the OPAC. This last situation, in fact, may?lie at the heart of many of the problems libraries in general continue to face in adjusting to the network society. The great cost of the ILS that serves the traditional organizational units?of the library -- acquisitions, cataloguing, circulation -- constitutes in itself a kind of justification, conscious or not, for trying to cling to that organization, and indeed for trying to mold network resources, services, and functions to fit into that traditional structure, however inadequately or inefficiently. Understandable as this might be, given the investment in such a system,?it's difficult not to see it as a kind of wag-the-dog effect, whereby the tool determines the services rather than the services determining the tool(s). And the result is that the functions of the library seen as primarily?a physical repository continue to dominate it both organizationally and operationally, forcing network or nodal functions into separate organizational domains that might otherwise gain considerable scope and synergy by being brought together, and producing the general lack of coherence in network services noted above. Some good practices The fundamental problem of a legacy organizational structure?existing in a?co-dependent relationship with a large and expensive supporting technological system, all centred around a?database designed to serve a physical collection, is?something that afflicts?most libraries of any kind at present. But, in addition to recognizing our own efforts to escape the limitations of that situation,?it's both interesting and helpful to?look at some of the initiatives and innovations at other institutions?that are helping to break this mold. ? Coherent, consistent interface and resource management:? see the University of Toronto Library:  HYPERLINK "http://www.library.ubc.ca/archives/digicollections.html" using Plone as a Content Management System, ColdFusion to mediate  HYPERLINK "http://main.library.utoronto.ca/eir/resources.cfm" all electronic resources see the  HYPERLINK "http://www.lib.rochester.edu/" University of Rochester Library: ColdFusion as both CMS and eresource databaseOpen OPAC (search results as RSS feed): here's a  HYPERLINK "http://www.aadl.org/cat/seek/search/X?moby%20dick&searchscope=26&m=&SORT=D&topformsub=1&rss=1" sample RSS feed from the  Ann Arbor District Library's OPAC Unified search interface: see  HYPERLINK "http://www.library.pitt.edu/" \o "University of Pittsburg Library" University of Pittsburg Library's "ZOOM" Information appliance: see University of Minnesota Library's " HYPERLINK "http://www.lib.umn.edu/san/mellon/index.phtml" \o "My Field" \t "blank_" My Field"Library as publisher:see Columbia's " HYPERLINK "http://www.epic.columbia.edu/" epic" project How do we get from here to there? With a?bold approach to strategy The options for getting from here to there obviously depend upon where we consider "there" to be. And for that, we'll need to face and make a strategic decision. If we want to continue to think of the library as an institution defined primarily in terms of its "collection", then we'll no doubt continue to tinker with network services around the edges, so to speak -- experimenting with "social software", adding new digitization initiatives, perhaps even installing a "Content Management System" for the website, but not undertaking any more fundamental organizational or other strategic moves that might transform the services the library provides, or alter the role of the library as such. If, on the other hand, we're willing to reconceive the library primarily in terms of its role in an information network, providing services to and from its local community/ies, then we'll need to re-think its organization to optimize that role, and develop general strategies for achieving it. We'll need to decide, in other words, and in a famous formulation, what business we're in -- the collection business or the information business. The former choice is clearly the more conservative, and might appear the more prudent. But in times of rapid change, especially, the conservative choice is not often the safer -- the adage that fortune favours the bold becomes particularly pertinent.With an exploratory approach to implementation The same environment of rapid change that rewards a bold strategy, however, will usually also require a more exploratory, experimental approach to tactics or implementation. It's inevitable in such a time that some ventures will turn out to be blind alleys, some will be superceded by events or new possibilities, some will simply turn out to have been yesterday's fad or buzzword. We'll need to be both willing and eager to try new approaches, systems, products, etc., and at the same time critical in our assessment of them. The cardinal virtue, as we move forward, then, is flexibility -- first and foremost in our human resources, where people will need to be able to relocate, retrain, and redefine themselves much more easily than they can at present. Structures put in place to protect people working under more static conditions often become just bureaucratic glue under more dynamic ones, disabling the organization's ability to respond to change, and frequently demoralizing working people themselves. Freeing people from these overly rigid job definitions, change processes, etc. can result in a win for all concerned, and achieving this will need to be worked out with the various associations and unions involved. Whether through such more or less formalized processes as "Organizational Development", or simply through its own focused efforts, the objective is to embed the ideas of change and continuous learning into the library's culture and organization.A flexible approach to the implementation of systems and products is also important. There may be a natural tendency to want to encourage "buy-in" to a particular new approach, both with our users and with our staff, by extolling its virtues and minimizing its costs, weaknesses, or trade-offs. But such a tactic can increase the risk for new, untried initiatives, since it undermines our credibility if and when unexpected difficulties arise?-- better to appeal to the critical intelligence of our staff, and the good will of our users, by presenting the project as a trial and setting expectations accordingly.Two other aspects of an exploratory or experimental approach to project/product implementation might be suggested, here, even though they may appear obvious: before deciding on a particular solution, however experimental, it would be good to consider carefully the downside and "exit strategy" should it not work as hoped; that is, a solution that requires less of an institutional commitment, or that allows more of that commitment -- e.g., in terms of salvageable content, or transferable knowledge -- to be saved or re-used, is preferable (other things being equal) to one that commits us more heavily; and, in addition to evaluation of alternatives prior to implementation, it would be useful to plan beforehand how we might build in ongoing monitoring and measurement of the effectiveness of the selected option, as compared to explicit project objectives.With some concrete steps Some plausible, if very broad, and very sketchy objectives, roughly in order of the time frames likely required to realize them:Short term (< 1 year): Re-examine the current array of products, collections, and services, with a view to making them as consistent, interoperable, comprehensive, and open as possible? Medium term (1 - 3 years): Develop the network infrastructure necessary to bring together the products, services, resources, instruction, etc. -- including the OPAC -- into a seamless and flexible user interface? Long term (> 3 years): Restructure the library organization to reflect the functional needs of a networked library rather than that of a physical collection Develop?the external network links that will tie local libraries together as interoperable network nodes, providing comprehensive information services at all levels of society Obviously, these are too brief to be anything more than mere suggestions, and leave entirely open all issues of implementation -- in fact, all of them can and should be turned into questions by prefixing them with the phrase "How do we...". But, that said, any movement along the directions such objectives suggest would be positive steps toward realizing the nodal library.Conclusion:?Constructing the Future Finally, of course, we'll have to do more than just "envision" the future -- we have to start building it. And this can be hard, for anyone, any group, or any institution, especially in a time of disruptive change, in which?embracing the future often requires relinquishing much of the past.?For libraries in particular, this need to let go is?what makes the embrace of the future all the more?difficult?-- quite apart from the status libraries have long rightly enjoyed as collectors and preservers of the cultural inheritance of human civilization, their more recent past is one of remarkable achievement, in cross-cultural descriptive standards, universal classification schemes, the development and maintenance of controlled vocabularies, and of course in the early use of automated systems on an enterprise level. To say now that much of that achievement applies primarily to the collection of physical items, and that such a collection should no longer be seen as at the centre of the library as an institution is for many, to say the least, a wrench. And this wrench often manifests itself in an entirely understandable resistance to change -- not often in explicit terms, but often enough in the subtler forms of an underlying anxiety and a threatened defensiveness. Within this mindset, for example,?Google and Amazon are seen not as amazing information tools and aids that can be?used by libraries, but instead as competitors from which we must try, though without much hope,?to lure people away.??Rather than viewing the catalogue as simply one database among many, and focusing it on what it was designed for, we're led to throw more "things" into it, with the idea that maybe this will keep it "relevant" and?entice more people to use it. We want, with a certain pathos, to "keep up" and be "with it", but at the same time?cling to all of?the things we believe have defined us in the past. And we sometimes tend, almost truculently, to think that there's basically something wrong with our users, which might be fixable with the proper instruction, if only we could reach them all.Now, admittedly, this is a bit of a caricature, of what we might call the Defensive Librarian Mindset (or "DLM") -- not many actual librarians are pure examples of it,  most of us are affected by it to some extent, and some elements of it may be more or less rational in any case. It's a real enough condition, though, that it constitutes, in itself, a significant problem, and quite possibly a crucial problem?-- it would be a painful irony if the one factor that might really threaten the future of the library were the defensive, reactive posture of too many of its professionals.Fortunately, signs are widespread that this posture is waning (see "Some good practices" above). Increasingly, librarians are realizing that, as information professionals in the very Age of Information, our role goes much beyond just "keeping up" -- our role becomes "showing the way". And in showing or leading the way (in company, it must be said, with partners and collaborators in other professions and institutions), we not only transform the library into an information facility at the heart of the Information Society, we also preserve and enhance both the cultural status and enduring achievements of the library as an institution. Rather than being the victim of change, the library becomes the maker of change. PAGE  PAGE  16Toward the Nodal Library                                                                                                                        See Tim O'Reilly, "What is Web 2.0?", O'Reilly website, Sep 30/05:  HYPERLINK "http://www.oreillynet.com/pub/a/oreilly/tim/news/2005/09/30/what-is-web-20.html" http://www.oreillynet.com/pub/a/oreilly/tim/news/2005/09/30/what-is-web-20.html An aspect, perhaps, of the phenomenon discussed by James Surowiecki in  HYPERLINK "http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0385503865" The Wisdom of Crowds, New York: Doubleday, 2004 See Maureen Pennock, "Curating e-Science Data", Digital Curation Centre, Aug 25/06:  HYPERLINK "http://www.dcc.ac.uk/resource/briefing-papers/curating-e-science-data/" http://www.dcc.ac.uk/resource/briefing-papers/curating-e-science-data/ See Michael Fraser, "The Place of the Digital Library within Virtual Research Environments", in Digital Libraries a la Carte: New Choices for the Future, Research Technology Service, Oxford University Computing Services, Aug/06:  HYPERLINK "http://users.ox.ac.uk/~mikef/rts/ticer/fraser_diglib_vre_24Aug06-online.pdf" http://users.ox.ac.uk/~mikef/rts/ticer/fraser_diglib_vre_24Aug06-online.pdf; see also "Data webs:? new visions for research data on the Web", A  HYPERLINK "http://www.rin.ac.uk/" \o "Research Information Network" \t "blank_" Research Information Network workshop, Jun 28/06:  HYPERLINK "http://www.rin.ac.uk/data-webs" \o "http://www.rin.ac.uk/data-webs" \t "blank_" http://www.rin.ac.uk/data-webs A note on "local":?the term?here refers to any appropriate locality for a given library: its institution, its community(/ies), its region, its nation, etc. The "local community" for a large research library, for example, may involve not just its campus, but also its province, state, or national region, which might otherwise go?unserved.? Note that the idea of locality has become if anything even more important in a network context since the value of the network is in many ways a function of the degree to which each node provides service to and from its appropriate community -- a somewhat counterintuitive consequence that may well result in reduced autonomy for the institutions involved.  HYPERLINK "http://www.oclc.org/productworks/urlresolver.htm" http://www.oclc.org/productworks/urlresolver.htm  HYPERLINK "http://ocoins.info/" http://ocoins.info/  HYPERLINK "http://del.icio.us/" http://del.icio.us/  HYPERLINK "http://www.librarything.com/" http://www.librarything.com/ See highWire Press,  HYPERLINK "http://highwire.stanford.edu/" http://highwire.stanford.edu/ See the University of Michigan Library Scholarly Publishing Office,  HYPERLINK "http://spo.umdl.umich.edu/" http://spo.umdl.umich.edu/ See CDL "eScholarship editions",  HYPERLINK "http://content.cdlib.org/escholarship/" http://content.cdlib.org/escholarship/ Wendy Pradt Lougee, Diffuse Libraries: Emergent Roles for the Research Library in the Digital Age. Council on Library and Information Resources, "Perspectives on the Evolving Library Series":  HYPERLINK "http://www.clir.org/pubs/reports/pub108/contents.html" http://www.clir.org/pubs/reports/pub108/contents.html Lorcan Dempsey, "Discover, locate, ... vertical and horizontal integration", Lorcan Dempsey's Weblog, Nov 20, 2005:  HYPERLINK "http://orweblog.oclc.org/archives/000865.html" http://orweblog.oclc.org/archives/000865.html   HYPERLINK "http://orweblog.oclc.org/archives/000865.html" http://orweblog.oclc.org/archives/000865.html   HYPERLINK "http://www.library.ubc.ca/collections/transition_online2006/" http://www.library.ubc.ca/collections/transition_online2006/ Libraries have dealt with this issue in a number of ways, such as negotiating perpetual access clauses in licenses, putting pressure on vendors and publishers to consider the issue, and instigating new consortiums such as Portico (see  HYPERLINK "http://www.portico.org" http://www.portico.org) and LOCKSS (see  HYPERLINK "http://www.lockss.org" http://www.lockss.org) that offer services which provide a permanent archive for electronic scholarly journals. As well, publishers are increasingly partnering with libraries to build harvestable information repositories to store and archive content and licensing information. See "Urgent Action Needed to Preserve Scholarly Electronic Journals," Digital Library Federation (DLF), viewed at  HYPERLINK "http://www.diglib.org/pubs/waters051015.htm " http://www.diglib.org/pubs/waters051015.htm on August 27, 2006. See also "Update on TRANSFER Activities," United Kingdom Serials Group (UKSG), viewed at  HYPERLINK "http://www.uksg.org/transfer.asp" http://www.uksg.org/transfer.asp on August 27, 2006.   HYPERLINK "http://www.library.ubc.ca/archives/digicollections.html" http://www.library.ubc.ca/archives/digicollections.html   HYPERLINK "http://main.library.utoronto.ca/" http://main.library.utoronto.ca/   HYPERLINK "http://main.library.utoronto.ca/eir/resources.cfm" http://main.library.utoronto.ca/eir/resources.cfm   HYPERLINK "http://www.lib.rochester.edu/" http://www.lib.rochester.edu/  HYPERLINK "http://www.aadl.org/cat/seek/search/X?moby%20dick&searchscope=26&m=&SORT=D&topformsub=1&rss=1" http://www.aadl.org/cat/seek/search/X?moby%20dick&searchscope=26&m=&SORT=D&topformsub=1&rss=1  HYPERLINK "http://www.library.pitt.edu/" http://www.library.pitt.edu/  HYPERLINK "http://www.lib.umn.edu/san/mellon/index.phtml" http://www.lib.umn.edu/san/mellon/index.phtml  HYPERLINK "http://www.epic.columbia.edu/" http://www.epic.columbia.edu/ See Karen Holloway, "The Significance of Organizational Developmentin Academic Research Libraries", Library Trends, Summer 2004:  HYPERLINK "http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1387/is_1_53/ai_n8640802" http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1387/is_1_53/ai_n8640802  Toward the Nodal Library  A Discussion Paper on the future of the UBC Library in the  emerging eLibrary environment.  Prepared by the eLibrary Discussion Paper Working Group  Larry Campbell Susan Atkey Hilde Colenbrander Patricia Foster Chris Hives Joy Kirchner May Yan-Mountain  November 2, 2006.  Toward the Nodal Libra r y  Toward the Noda l L ib r a r y  2  - Execu t i v e Summary  Under the impac t of d i s r up t i v e change , coming i n the wake of new deve l opmen t s i n i n f o rma t i o n techno l o gy , the t r a d i t i o n a l def i n i t i o n of the l i b r a r y i n te rms of a repos i t o r y or co l l e c t i o n i s becoming stead i l y l e ss v iab l e . A new def i n i t i o n or model i s needed i n s t e ad - - tha t of the l i b r a r y as a node i n an i n f o rma t i o n networ k , prov i d i n g a lo ca l or reg i o na l lo cus of i n f o rma t i o n serv i c e s , access po in t s , and metai n f o rma t i o n a l expe r t i s e , commonly (bu t not necessa r i l y ) assoc i a t e d wi t h a phys i c a l co l l e c t i o n . Two themes tha t immedia t e l y fo l l ow f r om th i s model - - the media t i o n of ne two rk in f o rma t i o n to the l o ca l communi t y (wh i ch may be as l a r g e as a nat i o n a l reg i o n or as smal l as a campus or ne ighbou rhood ) , and the media t i o n of l o ca l i n f o rma t i o n to the netwo rk - - are examined in more deta i l . Th is i n vo l v e s , i n the f i r s t case , the l i b r a r y as i n f o rma t i o n broke r and arch i t e c t , as wel l as persona l i n f o rma t i o n app l i a n ce and i n f o rma t i o n consu l t a n c y . In the second case , i t i n vo l v e s the l i b r a r y as cura t o r of d ig i t a l in f o rma t i o n co l l e c t i o n s , whethe r of i t s own d ig i t i z e d resou r ce s or of mater i a l co l l e c t e d f r om i t s communi t y , as wel l as an i n f o rma t i o n d i ssemina t o r or pub l i s h e r , and as a l abe l fo r a decomposab l e assemblage of se rv i c e s and resou r ces tha t can be made ava i l a b l e to the network themse l ve s . Two fu r t h e r themes , re l a t e d to the ques t i o n of the changes requ i r e d by the new model , are d i scussed : the ongo ing ro l e of the phys i c a l co l l e c t i o n , which rema ins of grea t prac t i c a l impor t a n ce but which has requ i r emen t s tha t are qu i t e d i s t i n c t f r om those of networ ked in f o rma t i o n ; and the v i t a l impor t a n ce of access to , and prov i s i o n of , so- ca l l e d "pu re data " - - meaning s imp l y data s t r i p p e d of i t s presen t a t i o n a l wrapp ings - - fo r the fu l l deve l opmen t of the noda l l i b r a r y as such . Af t e r th i s qu i ck l ook at where we as an in s t i t u t i o n need to be, we examine even more qu i ck l y where we are now. A number of promis i n g s igns at UBC L ib r a r y in par t i c u l a r are noted , in c l u d i n g a co l l a b o r a t i o n wi t h the Medica l Facu l t y in cur r i c u l um des i gn , a mul t i - year prog ram fo r the rep l a cemen t of pr i n t jou r na l s wi t h on l i n e vers i o n s , a range of o ld and new d ig i t i z a t i o n pro j e c t s , and the ear l y deve l opmen t of a func t i o n a l i f p iecemea l in f o rma t i o n i n f r a s t r u c t u r e based on ColdFus i o n . Along wi t h those encourag i n g s igns , however , the re are a lso a number tha t are somewhat d is courag i n g , many of which appear to der i v e f r om , or at l eas t be assoc i a t e d wi t h , the enormous f i n an c i a l , and the r e f o r e organ i z a t i o n a l , burden of i t s l egacy " I n t e g r a t e d L ib r a r y Sys tem" , des igned to serve the needs of the l i b r a r y as phys i ca l co l l e c t i o n . Th is i s a genera l cond i t i o n wi t h which a l l l i b r a r i e s are st r u gg l i n g i n var i o u s ways, however , and a number of othe r s are a lso f i n d i n g i nnova t i v e ways to beg in the process of break i n g the o ld mold - - some examples are s imp l y l i s t e d . Fina l l y , then , we l ook i n very genera l te rms at what we need to do to ensure tha t we get f r om where we are now to where we need to be. The dec i s i o n tha t our pr ima r y bus i ness i s in f o rma t i o n ra t he r than co l l e c t i o n wi l l requ i r e s t r a t e g i c bo ldness , and wi l l l ead to some fa r reach i n g ef f e c t s i n organ i z a t i o n , po l i c y , and prac t i c e . A bo ld approach on a s t r a t e g i c le ve l , however , wi l l need to be matched wi t h an  Toward the Nodal Libra r y  3  exp l o r a t o r y and h igh l y f l e x i b l e approach on a ta c t i c a l or imp l emen ta t i o n l e ve l , as new deve l opmen t s can a lways rende r any par t i c u l a r pro j e c t qu i ck l y obso le t e . With i n th i s f r amework , some genera l bu t s t i l l conc re t e steps are sugges t ed over shor t - and longe r te rm t ime l i n e s . In the end , i t ' s recogn i z ed tha t the fu t u r e i sn ' t someth i ng to be mere l y env i s i o n ed , i t ' s someth i n g tha t must be bu i l t - and tha t do ing so , desp i t e the d i f f i c u l t y of re l i n q u i s h i n g some of the pas t , wi l l pos i t i o n the l i b r a r y as a fac i l i t y at the hear t of the emerg i ng In f o rma t i o n Soc ie t y , and l i b r a r i a n s among i t s l eade r s .  Toward the Nodal Library Node : Any po in t  in a networ k tha t  In t r o du c t i o n :  can i n f l u e n ce the f l ow of data on tha t  network .  Env i s i o n i n g the Futu r e  What comes to mind when you hear a phrase l i k e " t h e l i b r a r y of the fu t u r e " ? Some sor t of st r e am l i n e d , Ar t Deco- ed, Je t son ' s k ind of th i n g , perhaps? Robot l i b r a r i a n s , f l o a t i n g books , v i r t u a l - rea l i t y card ca ta l o gues , etc . ? Wel l , perhaps not . The phrase i t s e l f , af t e r a l l , has an i r o n i c a l l y re t r o , o ld - fash i o ned r i n g to i t now - - fo r good reason , we've become susp i c i o u s of the sor t of gush i ng , hype- r i d den fu t u r i sm tha t of t en seems j u s t to exagge ra t e the obv i ous and miss the s ign i f i c a n t . And ye t . . . how are we to dea l wi t h the fu t u r e at a l l i f we don ' t make some ef f o r t to imag i ne i t ? And then how, exac t l y , would we go abou t do ing tha t - - env i s i o n i n g the fu t u r e of the l i b r a r y ? Let ' s cons i de r two poss i b i l i t i e s . One i s to sta r t f r om where we are , and ext r apo l a t e t r e nds tha t we see i n our sur r ound i n g s and our recen t pas t . Th is has a k ind of natu r a l , grounded , common- sens i c a l appea l tha t can be a use fu l ant i d o t e to the f l u r r y of buzzwords and abs t r a c t i o n s tha t so of t e n charac t e r i z e s d is cuss i o n s of " t h e fu t u r e " of any th i n g . But i t a l so has ce r t a i n l im i t a t i o n s - - in par t i c u l a r , i t requ i r e s some assumpt i o n s , exp l i c i t or imp l i c i t , abou t the natu r e of the change process i t s e l f : not tha t i t need be " l i n e a r " , exac t l y , but tha t i t i s , i n some def i n ed manner , con t i n u ous . What i f , i n s t e ad , the k ind of change we face i s d i s con t i n uous - - abrup t , sudden , or "d i s r u p t i v e " , underm in i n g what we've seen to date , dash i ng expec ta t i o n s , and break i n g up ex i s t i n g pat t e r n s and t r e nds? Change doesn ' t a lways come i n th i s fo rm , of cou rse , but occas i o na l l y i t does , and on a l l sca l e s . Haven ' t we, i n fac t , been th r ough one such upheava l , wi t h the adven t of the graph i c a l web browse r in the mid 90 ' s , a l t e r i n g fundamenta l l y the way i n which peop le accessed i n f o rma t i o n ? And now, j u s t a decade l a t e r , migh t we not be in the mids t of anothe r one, wi t h the rap i d pro l i f e r a t i o n of the so- ca l l e d "Web 2.0 " phenomenon 1, chang ing not j u s t the way peop le access i n f o rma t i o n bu t the way they re l a t e to i t , put t i n g in ques t i o n the or i g i n s , uses , s t r u c t u r e , and ve ry natu r e of i n f o rma t i o n ? I f tha t ' s the s i t u a t i o n we' r e i n , or even c l ose to i t , then ano the r way of imag i n i n g the fu t u r e - - one tha t focuses not t r e nds as on imp l i c a t i o n s , and s ta r t s not wi t h where we are where we want or need to be. Thi s focus ta kes us out s i d e of  we need so much on but wi t h the l i b r a r y  Toward the Nodal Libra r y  4  and i t s su r r ound i n g s , and looks at the changes i nhe r en t in the cu l t u r e at la r ge , such as: • the emergence of a new i n f o rma t i o n eco logy , in which t r ad i t i o n a l sources of autho r i t y (c r eden t i a l e d exper t s , recogn i z ed re f e r e n ce works , news media ) are be ing pushed as i de by an asso r tmen t of prob l ema t i c but r i c h and var i e d sources l i k e b logs and wik i s , the pre - eminen t , t r a n s f o rma t i o n a l example be ing the Wik i ped i a 2; • mass d ig i t i z a t i o n pro j e c t s l i k e Google Books (and s im i l a r European i n i t i a t i v e s ) , once though t to be imposs i b l e , or to requ i r e cen tu r i e s ; • the rap i d l y spread i ng access to wi re l e s s broadband , and the r i s e of the a lways - on, a lways - connec t ed soc i e t y ; • the emergence of a new k ind of i n f o rma t i o n user , or consumer produce r , wi t h expec ta t i o n s cond i t i o n e d by Google - Amazon- eBay; • the appea rance of d i sc i p l i n e - based " i n f o rma t i c s " to manage the sca l e and complex i t y of the data be ing genera t ed 3; • new, more complex modes of scho l a r l y communica t i o n othe r than the t r a d i t i o n a l peer - rev i ewed jou r na l , and new k inds of resea r ch behav i o r 4 • the pro l i f e r a t i o n of the d ig i t a l equ i va l e n t of "g r ey l i t e r a t u r e " or ephemera , as i nd i v i d u a l and organ i z a t i o n a l webs i t e s come and go; • the r i s e of new k inds of i n f o rma t i o n spaces , or "cybe r spaces " , such as VR wor l d s l i k e "Second L i f e " , soc i a l wor l d s l i k e "MySpace" , geograph i c a l wor l d s l i k e Google Maps, image / sound / v i d e o wor l d s such as Fl i c k r / i T u n e s / YouTube , et c . ; • the grow ing i s sues and grow ing complex i t y of the i s sues around "d i g i t a l r i g h t s " , and the in c r e as i n g impor t a n ce of the var i o u s "open access " in i t i a t i v e s tha t are s t r u gg l i n g to come to te rms wi t h , or in some ways to c i r c umven t , those i s sues . And these are on l y some of the examples or por t en t s of fa r - reach i n g changes afoo t , as ever - i n c r ea s i n g amounts of in f o rma t i o n , serv i c e s , work , p lay , and communi t y a l l are sh i f t e d to the v i r t u a l rea lms of the g loba l networ k . What does a sh i f t of tha t natu r e and magni t u de , then , imp l y fo r the l i b r a r y as an i n s t i t u t i o n ? Not an easy ques t i o n to answer , obv ious l y , but at t emp t i n g to do so may l ead us to ask ourse l v e s what a l i b r a r y i s i n the f i r s t p lace . Trad i t i o n a l l y , the very meaning of the word " l i b r a r y " i s bound up wi t h the no t i o n of " r epos i t o r y " or "co l l e c t i o n " , and th i s assoc i a t i o n may wel l be unbreakab l e . But i f so , then i t ' s l i k e l y tha t the l i b r a r y ' s fu t u r e , as a d i s t i n g u i s h ab l e soc i a l i n s t i t u t i o n , i s one of sta t e l y but s teady dec l i n e in cu l t u r a l re l e vance . Not because the r e won ' t be a need fo r in f o rma t i o n sto r age , but j u s t because such s to r age wi l l i n c r ea s i n g l y take such a var i e t y of f l u i d and in t a n g i b l e fo rms , so sub l im i n a l , so i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the soc i a l and techn i c a l fab r i c of our l i v e s , tha t one would no more th i n k of go ing to a par t i c u l a r repos i t o r y fo r in f o rma t i o n than one would th i n k , any l onge r , of go ing to a communi t y wel l fo r wate r . Which , in a la r ge r perspec t i v e - - and wi t h due respec t fo r the waning of ano the r i n s t i t u t i o n and i t s assoc i a t e d pro f e ss i o n - - may be ju s t f i n e , af t e r a l l ; the i n s t i t u t i o n served us wel l i n i t s t ime , would go the sen t imen t , but i t s t ime i s pas t , or pass i n g .  Toward the Nodal Libra r y  5  And ye t . . . i n th i s networ ked wor l d , the to r r e n t of i n f o rma t i o n produced , t r a n spo r t e d , and consumed, of a l l k inds , and at a l l sca l e s or l e ve l s , con t i n u e s to i n c r ea se at unpreceden t ed ra t e s , cons t an t l y th r ea t e n i n g to drown us a l l in data , c l a ims , suppos i t i o n s , ques t i o n s , er r o r s , repo r t s , documents , t r i v i a , fac t s , and dub ious " f a c t s " . Cer t a i n l y , i nd i v i d u a l s and groups d i r e c t l y i n vo l v e d make in c r e a s i n g l y s t r e nuous and of t e n ingen i o u s ef f o r t s to cope wi t h the de luge , and cer t a i n l y Google and i t s l i k e are do ing every t h i n g they can th i n k of ( i n c l u d i n g sp i nn i n g of f a var i e t y of serv i c e s , produc t s , and pro j e c t s in perpe t ua l be ta ) to prov i d e broad , gener i c , h igh - l e ve l con t r o l sys t ems and access mechan i sms . But desp i t e a l l these good ef f o r t s , in f o rma t i o n , t ime and energy are i n c r e as i n g l y be ing l o s t or wasted i n th i s d ig i t a l f l o o d i n g - - what ' s needed i s an ent i r e soc i a l / c u l t u r a l in f r a s t r u c t u r e , capab l e of managing i n f o rma t i o n and prov i d i n g in f o rma t i o n a l serv i c e s i n a var i e t y of fo rms and le ve l s , across d i ve r s e communi t i e s , over long t ime - f r ames . What i s needed , i n othe r words , i s someth i n g very much l i k e l i b r a r i e s , but l i b r a r i e s focused on, and organ i z ed around , not i n f o rma t i o n repos i t o r i e s but i n f o rma t i o n j u s t as such . In th i s sense , l i b r a r i e s would no l onge r be seen as re l a t i v e l y autonomous i n s t i t u t i o n s wi t h the i r s tand - a lone and heav i l y redundan t co l l e c t i o n s , but ra t he r as nodes i n an i n f o rma t i o n networ k , st r ong l y connec t ed to the whole , but prov i d i n g a l o ca l or reg i o na l lo cus of serv i c e s , access po in t s , and meta - i n f o rma t i o n a l exper t i s e , of t e n (bu t not necessa r i l y ) assoc i a t e d wi t h a phys i ca l co l l e c t i o n as an ad junc t . In tha t sense , the fu t u r e of the l i b r a r y i s as open and expans i v e as the networ k i t s e l f . The sec t i o n s tha t fo l l ow assume tha t " l i b r a r y " i s def i n ed in the second , noda l sense , and ask a ser i e s of ques t i o n s - - s ta r t i n g wi t h where we ( "we " be ing the co l l e c t i v e sense of the l i b r a r y as an i n s t i t u t i o n ) want or need to be, as imp l i e d by the k ind of changes underway i n the cu l t u r e at l a r g e ; coming back to l ook at where we are now, i n both pos i t i v e and nega t i v e aspec t s ; and f i n a l l y ask i ng what we need to do to get to where we need to be. We hope i t ' s need le ss to say tha t the answers prov i d ed be low those ques t i o n s are i n no sense f i n a l or conc l u s i v e - - they ' r e i n t e nded ra t he r as though t s , obser va t i o n s , and sugges t i o n s , and the r e f o r e as j u s t the sta r t (o r so we a l so hope) of a use fu l conve r sa t i o n .  Where do we need to be? I f we take ser i o u s l y the i dea of the l i b r a r y as a node i n an i n f o rma t i o n networ k , then two main themes qu i ck l y become apparen t : the f i r s t i s the l i b r a r y ' s ro l e i n media t i n g network i n f o rma t i o n , a long wi t h va lue - added serv i c e s , to i t s communi t y ; and the othe r i s the rec i p r o c a l ro l e of prov i d i n g l o ca l 5 i n f o rma t i o n , i n standa rd i z e d fo rma t , to the networ k . Let ' s l ook more c lo se l y at some of what these enta i l : 1. Media t i ng network in fo rmat i on to the community One aspec t of th i s theme i s ac tua l l y qu i t e o ld and fami l i a r - - th i s i s the l i b r a r y i n the ro l e of i n f o rma t i o n "b ro ke r " , nego t i a t i n g and purchas i n g l i c e n ced access to impor t a n t prop r i e t a r y resou r ces fo r i t s autho r i z e d users . (L i b r a r i e s have become accus t omed to th i n k i n g of the  Toward the Nodal Libra r y  6  resou r ce s so l i c e n ced as par t of the i r "co l l e c t i o n " , even though they don ' t , as a ru l e , s to r e them themse l ve s , don ' t have access r i g h t s beyond the nego t i a t e d t ime f r ame , and of t e n canno t con t r o l which i nd i v i d u a l i t ems are in c l u d ed i n the nego t i a t e d access package - - i t seems both c lea r e r and more t r u e to v iew them as cen t r a l l y co l l e c t e d resou r ce s to which the l i b r a r y s imp l y media t e s or broke r s access . ) For much of the h i s t o r y of the l i b r a r y ' s i n vo l v emen t wi t h such resou r ce s , however , they were ent i r e l y separa t e f r om one ano the r , and users would , fo r example , ra t h e r l abo r i o u s l y have to co l l e c t c i t a t i o n s f r om one database and then search fo r fu l l - tex t sources i n ano the r . The adven t of the OpenURL standa rd of f e r e d the poss i b i l i t y of automa ted l i n k i n g across d i f f e r e n t produc t s and vendo rs , f r om meta- data source to i n f o rma t i o n ta r ge t , and on l y requ i r e d a one- t ime se t - up wi t h each source database . More recen t l y , OCLC has es tab l i s h e d a reg i s t r y 6 which , a long wi t h a new, more l i g h twe i g h t pro t o co l fo r i n se r t i n g OpenURLs i n l i n k s ( COinS 7) , wi l l make th i s sor t of l i n k i n g between d ive r s e resou r ces ava i l a b l e fo r any th i n g : b logs , wik i s , academic papers , etc . With these and fu r t h e r deve l opment s a long these l i n e s , we see the l i b r a r y ' s ro l e as i n f o rma t i o n broke r becoming i n c r e as i n g l y in v i s i b l e , as i t becomes more deep l y embedded i n the in f o rma t i o n in f r a s t r u c t u r e of the soc i e t y at l a r g e . Anothe r aspec t of the same theme, however , i s qu i t e v i s i b l e - - th i s i s the l i b r a r y i n the ro l e of i n f o rma t i o n or knowledge "a r ch i t e c t " , bu i l d i n g and main t a i n i n g i n t e r f a c e s to netwo rk i n f o rma t i o n approp r i a t e fo r i t s par t i c u l a r communi t i e s . Such i n t e r f a c e s may be search boxes , browsab l e d isp l a y s , or both , and may combine the outpu t of mul t i p l e networ k resou r ces . And here aga in , we've seen in i t i a l moves a long these l i n e s fo r a whi l e now, i n every t h i n g f r om s imp le "A to Z l i s t s " of resou r ce s , th r ough home- grown database search func t i o n a l i t y , to more complex , but s t i l l l im i t e d and prob l em- r i d den commerc i a l "metasea r ch " produc t s . But by and la r g e these are a l l j u s t aspec t s or por t i o n s of the l i b r a r y ' s i n t e r f a c e , s tand i ng apar t f r om one ano the r , and stuck l i k e i so l a t e d cand le s in a sta t i c , one- s i ze - f i t s - a l l web s i t e ; i t ' s i n c r ea s i n g l y ev i den t tha t what ' s rea l l y needed i s a much more f l e x i b l e i n t e r f a c e - - or , bet t e r ye t , i n t e r f a c e in f r a s t r u c t u r e - - tha t can : • accommodate a wide range of resou r ces , t ypes of resou r ce s , func t i o n a l i t i e s , serv i c e s , et c . , in a coheren t , cons i s t e n t presen t a t i o n ; • be eas i l y and qu i ck l y con f i g u r a b l e to suppo r t d i f f e r e n t uses or s i t u a t i o n s - - e.g . , user t ypes , sub je c t area or d i sc i p l i n e , c la sses , sub- communi t i e s , et c . ; • be persona l i z e d , so ind i v i d u a l s can i n ef f e c t cra f t the i r own i n t e r f a c e , cu t t i n g across a l l the d i f f e r e n t t ypes , sub j e c t s , subcommuni t i e s , etc . i n which they ' r e i n vo l v e d . In th i s sense , the r e would no l onge r be a s i ng l e l i b r a r y webs i t e , apar t perhaps f r om a fa i r l y gener i c , brochu re - l i k e defau l t , but ra t he r a l i b r a r y web i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , tha t would be capab l e of genera t i n g a var i e t y of web s i t e s to su i t the needs of par t i c u l a r communi t i e s , s i t u a t i o n s , or uses . A th i r d aspec t i s s t r o ng l y re l a t e d to the one above , but i s a new and s ign i f i c a n t enough deve l opmen t to warran t separa t e t r ea tmen t - - th i s i s the l i b r a r y i n the ro l e of persona l i n f o rma t i o n app l i a n ce , where " i n f o rma t i o n " i s now cons t r u ed i n the more i n t e r a c t i v e and mal l e ab l e  Toward the Nodal Libra r y  7  "web 2.0 " sense . This i s a rap i d l y muta t i n g in f o rma t i o n env i r o nmen t , i n vo l v i n g e lemen t s tha t migh t seem, odd l y , both fami l i a r and s t r a nge : tags , comments , "mash- ups" , feeds , et c . - - con ten t tha t ' s not j u s t user - con t r o l l e d , i n othe r words , but user - supp l i e d . Such a deve lopmen t fo r l i b r a r i e s goes beyond ju s t l e t t i n g users add rev i ews to ca ta l o gue reco rd s - - i t means prov i d i n g users wi t h a k ind of sharab l e work - space wi t h i n which they have access to l i b r a r y - media t ed netwo rk resou r ces and func t i o n a l i t y , and to which they ' r e ab le to add i n f o rma t i o n of the i r own which then becomes, poten t i a l l y , ava i l a b l e to the networ k . Users , i n such an env i r o nmen t , can become the i r own l i b r a r i a n s af t e r a fash i o n , bu i l d i n g the i r own co l l e c t i o n s of i n f o rma t i o n resou r ce s to be shared wi t h othe r s ( f o r ear l y examples of th i s sor t of th i n g , see de l . i c i o . u s 8 or L ib r a r yTh i n g 9) . Th is aspec t i s a good i l l u s t r a t i o n of the noda l l i b r a r y media t i n g the two - way f l ow of i n f o rma t i o n , and crea t i n g communi t i e s as i t does so . A fou r t h (and fo r now f i n a l ) aspec t of the l i b r a r y media t i n g netwo rk i n f o rma t i o n p ick s up on th i s theme of two- way f l ow - - i t in vo l v e s the l i b r a r y in the ro l e of i n f o rma t i o n consu l t a n c y . Th is i s rea l l y ju s t an ex tens i o n of one of the o ldes t and most fam i l i a r of l i b r a r y serv i c e s : re f e r e n ce . But as scho l a r l y and resea r ch behav i o r s beg in to change under the impac t of the networ ked soc i e t y - - as vas t quan t i t i e s of i n f o rma t i o n are genera t ed and s im i l a r l y vas t quan t i t i e s become ava i l a b l e as i npu t - - re f e r e n ce serv i c e s too wi l l need to evo l ve . Sub jec t i n f o rma t i o n spec i a l i s t s wi l l need to be more i n vo l v e d wi t h resea r ch pro j e c t s and cur r i c u l um des i gn f r om ear l y stages , and so wi l l have to become more fam i l i a r wi t h the i n f o rma t i c s of par t i c u l a r d i sc i p l i n e s whi l e s t i l l main t a i n i n g a cross - d is c i p l i n a r y , "meta i n f o rma t i c s " v iew tha t keeps them i n touch wi t h the broade r i n f o rma t i o n processes of the networ ked env i r o nmen t . This may i n vo l v e , among othe r th i n g s , the i n t e g r a t i o n of in f o rma t i o n l i t e r a c y educa t i o n i n t o the work f l ows of s tuden t s and scho l a r s , the crea t i v e exp l o r a t i o n and use of new too l s and fo rma t s tha t become ava i l a b l e (e . g . , b logs , wik i s , "mashups" ) , and the sh i f t away f r om a reac t i v e , "pa t r o n comes to us" model of re f e r e n ce toward a more proac t i v e , embedded and engaged model . And so the theme of two - way media t i o n re - appears , as spec i a l i z e d i n f o rma t i o n consu l t a n t s a id users both i n f i n d i n g the i r way th r ough i n f o rma t i o n mazes, and i n manag ing the i n f o rma t i o n they genera t e acco rd i n g to cu l t u r a l and networ k standa rd s (e . g . , metada ta , prese r va t i o n a l st r a t e g i e s , etc . ) . 2. Media t i ng community in fo rmat i on to the network The f i r s t example of th i s k i nd of media t i o n , f r om lo ca l in f o rma t i o n sources to networ k , i s a l so , by now, a fami l i a r one - - i t ' s the "d i g i t a l l i b r a r y " i n the nar r ow sense , in fac t , or the l i b r a r y in the ro l e of d ig i t a l , or d ig i t i z e d , co l l e c t i o n manager . The lo ca l i n f o rma t i o n sources , in th i s case , are t yp i c a l l y drawn f r om the l i b r a r y ' s own pr i n t or phys i c a l co l l e c t i o n s , and the l i b r a r y under t a kes the task of se l e c t i n g , d ig i t i z i n g , organ i z i n g , and presen t i n g those resou r ce s i n a ne two rk - access i b l e fo rm . This process has been go ing on, i n vary i n g degrees , at many l i b r a r i e s fo r a number of years now, and the resu l t has been a s low but steady accumula t i o n of a subs t an t i a l number of h igh - va lue co l l e c t i o n s poten t i a l l y access i b l e to anyone anywhere . But these co l l e c t i o n s have a l so been genera t ed i n a wide  Toward the Nodal Libra r y  8  var i e t y of fo rms , fo rma t s , d isp l a y s , access methods , meta- data desc r i p t i o n s , granu l a r i t y l e ve l s , and so fo r t h , a l l of which compromise the i r i n t e r - co l l e c t i o n coherence and hamper the i r actua l access i b i l i t y . Ef f o r t s l i k e those of the Open Arch i v e s In i t i a t i v e are a sta r t toward prov i d i n g some mutua l compat i b i l i t y between d ig i t a l co l l e c t i o n s , but much more wi l l be needed , both on nat i o n a l / g l o b a l le ve l s and on lo ca l l e ve l s , to ensure tha t the r i c h in f o rma t i o n sources be ing produced are fu l l y networ k - access i b l e i n browsab l e , searchab l e , cross - co l l e c t i o n in te r f a ces . At l eas t as impor t a n t as the d ig i t i z i n g of the l i b r a r y ' s own phys i c a l resou r ce s , however , i s the co l l e c t i o n , prese r va t i o n , and presen t a t i o n - - i n a word , the cura t i o n - - of the l o ca l communi t y ' s resou r ce s . L ib r a r i e s have l ong done th i s , i n a somewhat in f o rma l way, fo r l o ca l l y genera t e d pr i n t or phys i c a l resou r ces , of t e n ca l l e d "g r ey l i t e r a t u r e " , but even th i s i n f o rma l at t e n t i o n has usua l l y been l a ck i n g fo r s im i l a r k inds of i n f o rma t i o n resou r c es "bo rn d ig i t a l " - - the netwo rk equ i va l e n t of organ i z a t i o n a l , or even t - re l a t e d (o r even ind i v i d u a l ) brochu re s , pamphle t s , announcements , documents , etc . tha t of t e n car r y much of the deta i l of h is t o r y . L ib r a r i e s as lo ca l netwo rk nodes have an obv i ous respons i b i l i t y to deve l op sys t ema t i c approaches toward the management of th i s k ind of in f o rma t i o n , and the i n t e g r a t i o n of i t i n t o tha t genera l networ k i n t e r f a c e spoken of above - - a ro l e tha t l i b r a r i e s ' fund i n g sou rces need to apprec i a t e and prov i d e fo r as wel l , i t shou l d be sa id . For a cer t a i n k ind of lo ca l l y - produced d ig i t a l i n f o rma t i o n , i n fa c t , l i b r a r i e s (o f a cer t a i n t ype ) have a l r e ady been i n vo l v e d as cura t o r s , at leas t to some ex ten t - - th i s i s the resea r ch data , i n f o rma t i o n , and knowledge produced i n academic i n s t i t u t i o n s , and somewhat haphaza rd l y co l l e c t e d and main t a i n e d i n var i o u s vers i o n s of " i n s t i t u t i o n a l repos i t o r y " . To th i s po in t , the ro l e or func t i o n of the " i n s t i t u t i o n a l repos i t o r y " seems a b i t unc l ea r : shou l d i t s t r i v e pr ima r i l y fo r ease of access - - a searchab l e , browsab l e showcase of in s t i t u t i o n a l resou r ce s (a campus- wide ex tens i o n of the d ig i t a l l i b r a r y ) ? Or fo r in f o rma t i o n secu r i t y and reso l v ab i l i t y - - a l ong - te rm d ig i t a l arch i v e of i n s t i t u t i o n a l resou r ces? Or fo r comprehens i v eness - - an asso r tmen t of i n s t i t u t i o n a l d ig i t a l ob je c t s of a l l k inds , le ve l s , and media? I t migh t be tempt i n g to say "a l l of the above" , of course , but i t ' s a l so rea l i s t i c to accep t tha t d i f f e r i n g ob jec t i v e s somet imes br i n g wi t h them d i f f i c u l t - to - avo i d t r a de - of f s , and the need fo r dec i s i o n s . Cer t a i n l y , though , a majo r a im of IR ' s in the l a r g e r i n f o rma t i o n a l landscape i s to crea t e a sys t em of i n t e r o p e r a b l e , in t e r - sea rchab l e repos i t o r i e s on a g loba l sca l e , a deve l opmen t which would have a cons i de r ab l e impac t on scho l a r l y communica t i o n and on resea r ch i t s e l f . And fac t o r s tha t l i e in back of much of th i s deve l opment may wel l have the most to say abou t the fo rm or fo rms by which l i b r a r i e s can he lp media t e the ou tpu t of academic resea r ch and pedagogy - - fac t o r s such as: • the Open Access /Open Data movement • the appearance of Very Large Data Sets (e . g . , i n as t r o nomy, genomics , l i n g u i s t i c s ) , and the r i s i n g impo r t a n ce of d i sc i p l i n a r y i n f o rma t i c s • the chang ing natu r e of scho l a r l y resea r ch and communica t i o n , i n c l u d i n g the spread of the "d i s c i p l i n a r y repos i t o r y " , such as arX i v , CogPr i n t s , etc .  Toward the Nodal Libra r y  9  What l i b r a r i e s can and shou l d add to th i s rap i d l y chang i ng p i c t u r e i s a cer t a i n cu l t u r e - wide and h i s t o r i c a l perspec t i v e on in f o rma t i o n , i n c l u d i n g cross - d is c i p l i n a r y desc r i p t i v e s tanda rds , copy r i g h t and d ig i t a l r i g h t s i s sues , and both an open and a prese r va t i o n a l approach to access . Given the rap i d l y i n c r ea s i n g ro l e l i b r a r i e s are p lay i n g i n the co l l e c t i o n and d i ssemina t i o n of netwo rked i n f o rma t i o n genera l l y , we migh t , i n fac t , beg in to cons i de r the l i b r a r y in the ro l e of pub l i s h e r , at leas t of academic con t en t . Stan f o r d 10 , the Unive r s i t y of Mich i gan 11 , and the Cal i f o r n i a Dig i t a l L ib r a r y 12 , fo r example , a l r e ady have s ign i f i c a n t pub l i s h i n g i n i t i a t i v e s underway , and UBC L ib r a r y i s respond i ng to reques t s f r om facu l t y to prov i d e some pub l i s h e r - l i k e serv i c e s fo r l o ca l l y - managed open- access e jou r na l s . As scho l a r l y i n f o rma t i o n and assoc i a t e d communica t i o n processes become stead i l y more open and pro t ean i n fo rm (see be low , on "The impo r t a n ce of pure da ta " ) , l i b r a r i e s may wel l tu r n out to be bet t e r pos i t i o n e d than t r a d i t i o n a l academic presses to prov i d e at l eas t some of the serv i c e s and exper t i s e tha t a new pub l i s h i n g env i r o nmen t requ i r e s . L ib r a r i e s , which have l ong been i n the pos i t i o n of l i c e n cees of i n f o rma t i o n resou r ce s , may soon f i n d themse l ve s in the unfami l i a r ro l e of l i c e n cors . In any case , the ro l e of pub l i s h e r , whethe r a lone or i n par t ne r s h i p , i s one the l i b r a r y may have to be ready to assume when and as needed . There ' s one othe r aspec t of the noda l l i b r a r y tha t shou l d be ment i oned i n th i s con tex t of media t i n g l o ca l i n f o rma t i o n - - and th i s i n vo l v e s th i n k i n g of the l i b r a r y as a decomposab l e assemblage of resou r ces and serv i c e s , which makes i t s e l f ava i l a b l e , in whole or i n par t , to the networ k and to var i o u s othe r networ k nodes or access po in t s . Th is i s i n some ways s im i l a r to the i dea of the l i b r a r y as a "pe r sona l i n f o rma t i o n app l i a n ce " ment i o ned above , but i t ' s a l so i n some ways the i n ve r se - tha t i s , i n th i s v iew the l i b r a r y i s no longe r a s ing l e ent i t y , se l e c t e d and con f i g u r e d f r om some bas i c or defau l t model , but ra t h e r s imp l y a labe l fo r a se t of func t i o n s , any of which can be made ava i l a b l e to the networ k to be eas i l y impor t e d i n t o a wide var i e t y of othe r netwo rk con tex t s , such as e lea rn i n g sys t ems ( f r om pre - schoo l to pos t - gradua t e ) , ente r t a i nmen t dev i ce s , work or resea r ch s i t e s , home networ ks , et c . I t ' s much l i k e what Wendy Prad t Lougee re f e r r e d to as " d i f f u s e l i b r a r i e s " 13 , but extended beyond the academic wor l d , and perhaps worked even more deep l y in t o the i n f r a s t r u c t u r e of soc i e t y i n genera l . The ro le of the physica l  col l e c t i o n  The noda l l i b r a r y , as we've seen , doesn ' t need a phys i c a l co l l e c t i o n to per f o rm i t s essen t i a l func t i o n s , bu t of cou rse v i r t u a l l y a l l ac tua l l i b r a r i e s have such co l l e c t i o n s , and they con t i n u e to consume the bu l k of the l i b r a r y ' s resou r ce s , both f i n an c i a l and human. There ' s a good reason fo r th i s - - i t ' s cer t a i n l y not the case tha t "eve r y t h i n g i s on the In t e r n e t " , and, the l i k e s of Google Pr i n t no tw i t h s t a n d i n g , i t i sn ' t l i k e l y to be the case any t ime soon . (The tw i n obs tac l e s of a workab l e d ig i t a l r i g h t s reg ime and a comfo r t a b l e d ig i t a l read i ng dev i ce wi l l keep the pr i n t e d book in serv i c e fo r the fo r e seeab l e fu t u r e , qu i t e apar t f r om the gaps and unknowns in vo l v e d i n any mass d ig i t i z a t i o n pro j e c t . ) St i l l , the fac t rema ins tha t , as more and more mater i a l does  Toward the Nodal Libra r y  10  appear on the In t e r n e t , usage pat t e r n s are chang ing rap i d l y - - e jou rna l use i s soar i n g , fo r example , and c i r c u l a t i o n s ta t i s t i c s are dropp i n g . I t ' s becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t to ju s t i f y the h igh propo r t i o n of l i b r a r y budge t s devo t ed to a dec l i n i n g in f o rma t i o n medium, and i n par t i c u l a r to suppo r t the use of expens i v e phys i c a l space s imp l y fo r book s tacks . Among the l i k e l y resu l t s : • the r e wi l l be i n c r e a s i n g use made of phys i c a l sto r age (on - s i t e or of f - ) , wi t h the coro l l a r y tha t the r e wi l l then be in c r e a s i n g need fo r a r i c h on l i n e brows i ng exper i e n ce fo r the phys i c a l co l l e c t i o n as wel l as the d ig i t a l , perhaps a long the l i n e s sugges t ed by Amazon; • i t may wel l be the case tha t the deve lopment of a fa s t , ef f i c i e n t , and easy - to - use ILL serv i c e (even i n vo l v i n g buy ing f r om the l i k e s of Amazon when necessa r y ) would be a more cos t ef f e c t i v e use of funds than con t i n u i n g to bu i l d up redundan t " j u s t - i n - case" co l l e c t i o n s . (Compare , e.g . , wi t h Lorcan Dempsey ' s theme of " Discove r y to Del i v e r y " 14 . ) That sa id , however , the phys i c a l co l l e c t i o n wi l l be a va luab l e ad junc t to the noda l l i b r a r y i nde f i n i t e l y , and wi l l con t i n u e to requ i r e the serv i c e s tha t have become so wel l - def i n e d and so spec i a l i z e d fo r i t : acqu i s i t i o n s , ca ta l o gu i n g , she l v i n g and c i r c u l a t i o n . And fo r tha t reason , ra t he r than t r y i n g to bend such func t i o n s , wi t h the i r assoc i a t e d and wel l - unders t o od procedu res , work - f l ows , sk i l l - se t s , and knowledge , i n t o shapes necessa r y to accommodate the qu i t e d i f f e r e n t needs and demands of netwo rk i n f o rma t i o n , a good case can be made fo r keep i ng them toge t he r as an organ i za t i o n a l un i t , and cen t r e d on the l i s t or database tha t i s devo ted to what the l i b r a r y phys i c a l l y ho lds - - tha t i s , the ca t a l o gue . The imp l i c a t i o n of tha t , i n tu r n , i s tha t the ca t a l o gue shou l d no l onge r be used as mere l y an easy way to ach ie ve a "s i n g l e search " fo rm fo r users - - i t hasn ' t been , i sn ' t , and never can be tha t i n any case - - nor as a k ind of ca t ch - a l l database fo r every resou r ce or ob jec t tha t we'd l i k e to coun t i n our "ho l d i n g s " , but ra t he r as the database i t was or i g i n a l l y des i gned to be: the comprehens i v e reco r d of the b ib l i o g r a p h i c desc r i p t i o n , phys i ca l l o ca t i o n , and c i r c u l a t i o n sta t u s of i t ems compr i s i n g our phys i ca l co l l e c t i o n . Network in f o rma t i o n doesn ' t need the la s t two k i nds of metada t a , c lea r l y , but of t e n does requ i r e othe r k inds , re l a t i n g to i s s ues of access , d ig i t a l r i g h t s , networ k i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , in f o rma t i o n arch i t e c t u r e , and othe r s , tha t s imp l y don ' t f i t wel l wi t h i n the res t r i c t i v e or spec i a l i z e d f r amework of the MARC reco rd . And i f we le t go of tha t f r amework then we migh t a l so wonder whethe r we shou l d l e t go of the somewhat ha l l owed i dea of " t he ca ta l o gue " as the cen t r e p i e c e of the l i b r a r y as a whole - - we migh t l e t i t become s imp l y ano the r database , wi t h an impor t a n t but no l onge r cen t r a l ro l e to p lay . The impor tance of pure data Fi r s t , i t ' s no doub t necessa r y to say what ' s meant by the phrase "pu re data " ( f o r want of a be t t e r one) : th i s s imp l y re f e r s to data s t r i p p ed of i t s presen t a t i o n or i n t e r f a c e con t ex t . To see why tha t ' s impor t a n t , we have to l ook at the prob l ems presen t ed by in f o rma t i o n i n i t s , to th i s po in t , usua l gu i se , as obta i n ed f r om the netwo rk or co l l e c t e d f r om  Toward the Nodal Libra r y  11  the communi t y - - embedded i n va r i o u s fon t s , markup , l a you t s , co l ou r s , images , and so on, a l l cons i de r e d essen t i a l fo r human usab i l i t y , but a l l d i f f e r e n t across the myr i ad d i f f e r e n t networ k resou r ce s tha t the l i b r a r y media t e s , and usua l l y imperv i o u s to any sor t of prog rammat i c ana l y t i c access tha t would l e t the data be re - purposed or re - used i n d i f f e r e n t con t ex t s , or mixed and matched to su i t d i f f e r e n t needs . The resu l t i s tha t the l i b r a r y ' s users are presen t ed wi t h a con fus i n g ar r a y of in t e r f a c e s , each of which s tands a lone as an essen t i a l l y sea l ed i n f o rma t i o n env i r o nmen t - - which , among othe r th i n g s , rep resen t s a ser i o u s bar r i e r to the noda l l i b r a r y ' s ef f o r t s to presen t cons i s t e n t , coheren t i n t e r f a c e s su i t e d to i t s d i f f e r e n t user communi t i e s , needs , s i t u a t i o n s , etc . Some networ k produc t s , of course , a l l ow fo r l im i t e d amounts of cus t om i za t i o n (o f t e n in vo l v i n g l i t t l e more than prov i d i n g a l o ca l l i b r a r y banne r ) , but th i s doesn ' t beg in to address the prob l em of a l a r g e l y c l osed sys t em. "Sc reen sc rap i n g " i s an apt metapho r fo r the sor t of work - around too of t e n used wi t h such env i r o nmen t s to ex t r a c t usab l e da ta f r om the heavy over l a y of mere presen t a t i o n ar t i f a c t s , but th i s i s a very breakab l e and er r o r - prone reso r t . Some produc t s , however , are s ta r t i n g to open themse l ves up i n much more in t e r e s t i n g and poten t i a l l y use fu l ways - - a s imp le example i s the i n c r ea s i n g l y widesp read use of RSS " f e eds " (a bas i c t ype of XML) to prov i d e at l eas t a subse t of ava i l a b l e i n f o rma t i o n pure l y as s t r u c t u r e d data . Some produc t s are making use of so- ca l l e d "XML gateways " (o f t e n re f e r r i n g to XMLized vers i o n s of the Z39 .50 sea rch pro t o co l , ca l l e d " SRU" or "SRW"15 ) to prov i d e a s tanda rd i z e d access path to more complex and /o r more comple t e se t s of s t r u c t u r e d data . OAI ' s "Pro t o co l fo r Metada ta Harves t i n g " (OAI - PMH) i s ye t anothe r example of the var i o u s moves cur r en t l y underway to address th i s i s sue of i so l a t e d data i s l a n ds (o r "s i l o s " , to mix i n a more common metaphor ) . But a l l of these methods are on l y the beg inn i n g of a much more fa r reach i n g ser i e s of deve l opment s across the netwo rk to separa t e data f r om presen t a t i o n , enab l i n g var i o u s data sources to be "p l u gged in t o " an enr i c hed i n t e r f a c e , or var i o u s in t e r f a c e s to over l a y the same pure data . Cer t a i n l y the re are prob l ems wi t h th i s tha t rema in to be so l ved , not the leas t of them be ing the f i n an c i a l or bus iness model tha t suppo r t s i t . But the r e are a l so some power f u l economic and soc i a l fo r c e s advanc i ng i t , s in ce the i n c r e ase in data f l e x i b i l i t y i t prov i d e s makes the da ta tha t much more usab l e and hence more economica l l y appea l i n g . Such deve lopmen ts may have par t i c u l a r re l e vance to the processes of scho l a r l y communica t i o n , as they may l ead to the decompos i t i o n of t r ad i t i o n a l packag i ng (e . g . , the academic j ou r na l ) in favou r of more eas i l y harves t a b l e and sharab l e packe t s of mul t i - media i n f o rma t i o n . For l i b r a r i e s , in any case , i t ' s prec i s e l y th i s k ind of f l e x i b i l i t y tha t wi l l enab le the deve l opment of such fac i l i t i e s as the "pe r sona l i n f o rma t i o n app l i a n ce " , or the decomposab l e , d i f f u s i b l e se t of resou r ce s , serv i c e s , and func t i o n s ment i o ned above - - tha t wi l l enab l e , i n fac t , the fu l l deve l opment of the noda l l i b r a r y as such .  Where are we now? Some promis ing signs  Toward the Nodal Libra r y  12  With some ideas abou t where l i b r a r i e s i n genera l need to be, g iven the changes underway i n the i n f o rma t i o n l andscape , i t ' s t ime to l ook , i n compar i s on , at where UBC L ib r a r y in par t i c u l a r cur r en t l y i s . New e l i b r a r y pos i t i o n s have been crea t ed (e . g . , a d ig i t a l - i n i t i a t i v e s l i b r a r i a n , an eresou r ces l i b r a r i a n ) , new e lea r n i n g co l l a b o r a t i o n s i n i t i a t e d (e . g . , the MEDICOL prog ram) , new v i r t u a l re f e r e n ce serv i c e s l aunched (e . g . , the prov i n c i a l pos t - seconda ry conso r t i um "AskAway" serv i c e ) , and new produc t s p ionee r ed (e . g . , the OpenURL l i n k s e r v e r , SFX) . Withou t doub t , we've made some s ign i f i c a n t changes , and are i n the process of making more - - l e t ' s l ook a l i t t l e more c l ose l y at th r ee i n par t i c u l a r : The "T rans i t i o n to Onl i n e Journa l s " 16 pro j e c t , fo r example , has success f u l l y moved the un i ve r s i t y communi t y as a who le away f r om redundan t and cos t l y jou r na l pr i n t subsc r i p t i o n s and toward re l i a n c e upon l i c e n ced access to e lec t r o n i c vers i o n s fo r thousands of t i t l e s , us i ng the sav i n gs to purchase more access to both e jou r na l s and othe r networ k resou r ces . Some care has been taken i n th i s process to obta i n reasonab l e assu rance tha t such access i s sus t a i n a b l e both fo r cur r en t and fo r arch i v ed i s sues befo r e cance l l i n g pr i n t 17 , but such a pro j e c t re f l e c t s a c lea r dec i s i o n to ente r the wor l d of netwo rk in f o rma t i o n and to le t go of pr i n t . UBC L ib r a r y has a l so got t e n ext ens i v e l y in vo l v e d i n a number of d ig i t i z a t i o n pro j e c t s 18 , i n c l u d i n g , recen t l y , a co l l a b o r a t i o n wi t h the Facu l t y of Gradua te Stud i e s on an eTheses pro j e c t tha t makes use of the DSpace i n s t i t u t i o n a l repos i t o r y . As wi t h most othe r academic l i b r a r i e s , these pro j e c t s have grown up over t ime , and ve ry of t e n under t a ken wi t h gran t funds at t a ched to a par t i c u l a r purpose , so i t ' s not unexpec t ed tha t they would exh ib i t a var i e t y of too l s , st r a t e g i e s , nav i ga t i o n and i n t e r f a c e des igns , but i n the i r cumula t i v e and deve l op i n g va r i e t y , number , and vo l ume of data , they rep re sen t an in c r e a s i n g l y impress i v e con t r i b u t i o n to networ k - access i b l e i n f o rma t i o n . The L ib r a r y has a lso been i n vo l v e d f r om an ear l y s tage of the Web phenomenon i n deve l op i n g a func t i o n a l in f r a s t r u c t u r e capab l e of dynamica l l y genera t i n g pages tha t can kn i t toge t he r many of the resou r ce s and se rv i c e s i t of f e r s in a h igh l y con f i g u r a b l e i n t e r f a c e . Th is uses a genera l , though prop r i e t a r y , midd l ewa re too l ca l l e d ColdFus i o n tha t de l i v e r s database con t en t s to web pages in an eas i l y modi f i a b l e manner , and a l so a l l ows those databases to be main t a i n ed in a d i s t r i b u t e d manner th r ough user - f r i e n d l y , web- based fo rms . These processes too , of course , have become qu i t e d i ve r s e ove r t ime , and now need ra t i o n a l i z a t i o n , but the re l a t i v e ease and f l e x i b i l i t y which such a too l prov i d e s fo r the management of both i n f o rma t i o n and in t e r f a c e makes i t , or someth i ng l i k e i t , c lea r l y essen t i a l to the opera t i o n of the l i b r a r y as netwo rk node . Some less promis ing signs Desp i t e these s igns tha t UBC L ib r a r y i s accommodat i n g the changes i n the i n f o rma t i o n landscape wel l , however , the re are a number of i nd i c a t i o n s of deeper prob l ems . The webs i t e as a whole , fo r example , rema ins a l a r g e l y s ta t i c , and ra t h e r spraw l i n g assemblage of pages ,  Toward the Nodal Libra r y  13  some genera t e d , but many hand- cra f t e d , d i f f i c u l t to change or ta i l o r to need . Dig i t a l co l l e c t i o n s , whi l e impress i v e in the i r var i e t y , rema in l a r g e l y d i spe r sed i n i t i a t i v e s l a ck i n g an overa l l p lan or purpose . The tendency to purchase of f - the - she l f so f twa r e produc t s as a means of qu i c k l y f i l l i n g a need or a want has l e f t us wi t h a pa tchwork of prop r i e t a r y sys t ems tha t over l a p , l eave gaps , res i s t communica t i o n wi t h othe r sys t ems both wi t h i n and wi t hou t the L ib r a r y , and presen t the user wi t h tha t bewi l d e r i n g var i e t y of in t e r f a c e s . And l oom ing over a l l such sys t ems , consuming more resou r ce s than a l l the res t combined , i s the very ep i t ome of the i so l a t e d data s i l o , the i r o n i c a l l y named " I n t e g r a t e d L ib r a r y System" , wi t h i t s r i g i d and spec i a l i z e d database , the OPAC. Th is l a s t s i t u a t i o n , in fac t , may l i e at the hear t of many of the prob l ems l i b r a r i e s i n genera l con t i n ue to face i n ad jus t i n g to the networ k soc i e t y . The grea t cos t of the ILS tha t serves the t r a d i t i o n a l organ i z a t i o n a l un i t s of the l i b r a r y - - acqu i s i t i o n s , ca ta l o gu i n g , c i r c u l a t i o n - - cons t i t u t e s in i t s e l f a k ind of j u s t i f i c a t i o n , consc i o us or not , fo r t r y i n g to c l i n g to tha t organ i z a t i o n , and i ndeed fo r t r y i n g to mold netwo rk resou r ces , serv i c e s , and func t i o n s to f i t i n t o tha t t r a d i t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e , however i nadequa t e l y or i ne f f i c i e n t l y . Unders t a ndab l e as th i s migh t be, g iven the i n ves tmen t i n such a sys t em, i t ' s d i f f i c u l t not to see i t as a k ind of wag- the - dog ef f e c t , whereby the too l dete rm ines the serv i c e s ra t he r than the se rv i c e s dete rm in i n g the too l ( s ) . And the resu l t i s tha t the func t i o n s of the l i b r a r y seen as pr ima r i l y a phys i c a l repos i t o r y con t i n u e to domina t e i t both organ i z a t i o n a l l y and opera t i o n a l l y , fo r c i n g netwo rk or noda l func t i o n s in t o separa t e organ i z a t i o n a l domains tha t migh t othe rw i s e ga in cons i de r ab l e scope and syne rgy by be ing brough t toge t he r , and produc i n g the genera l la c k of coherence in networ k serv i c e s noted above . Some good prac t i c es The fundamenta l prob l em of a l egacy organ i z a t i o n a l st r u c t u r e ex i s t i n g i n a co- dependen t re l a t i o n s h i p wi t h a l a r ge and expens i v e suppo r t i n g techno l o g i c a l sys t em, a l l cen t r ed around a database des i gned to serve a phys i ca l co l l e c t i o n , i s someth i ng tha t af f l i c t s most l i b r a r i e s of any k ind at presen t . But , in add i t i o n to recogn i z i n g our own ef f o r t s to escape the l im i t a t i o n s of tha t s i t u a t i o n , i t ' s both i n t e r e s t i n g and he lp f u l to look at some of the i n i t i a t i v e s and i nnova t i o n s at othe r i n s t i t u t i o n s tha t are he lp i n g to break th i s mold . • Coheren t , cons i s t e n t i n t e r f a c e and resou r ce management : o see the Unive r s i t y of Toron t o L ib r a r y : us ing Plone 19 as a Conten t Management System, ColdFus i o n to media t e a l l e lec t r o n i c resou r ce s 20 o see the Unive r s i t y of Roches te r L ib r a r y 21 : ColdFus i o n as both CMS and eresou r ce database • Open OPAC (sea r ch resu l t s as RSS feed ) : o here ' s a sample RSS feed 22 f r om the Ann Arbo r Dis t r i c t L ib r a r y ' s OPAC • Uni f i e d search i n t e r f a c e : o see Unive r s i t y of Pi t t s b u r g L ib r a r y ' s "ZOOM"23 • In f o rma t i o n app l i a n ce : o see Unive r s i t y of Minneso t a L ib r a r y ' s " My Fie l d " 24  Toward the Nodal Libra r y •  L ib r a r y as pub l i s h e r : o see Columb ia ' s " ep i c " pro j e c t  14  25  How do we get f r om here to the r e? With a bold approach to st r a t egy The opt i o n s fo r ge t t i n g f r om here to the r e obv i ou s l y depend upon where we cons i de r " t h e r e " to be. And fo r tha t , we' l l need to face and make a s t r a t e g i c dec i s i o n . I f we want to con t i n ue to th i n k of the l i b r a r y as an in s t i t u t i o n def i n ed pr ima r i l y in te rms of i t s "co l l e c t i o n " , then we' l l no doub t con t i n u e to t i n k e r wi t h netwo rk serv i c e s around the edges , so to speak - - exper imen t i n g wi t h "soc i a l so f twa r e " , add ing new d ig i t i z a t i o n i n i t i a t i v e s , perhaps even in s t a l l i n g a "Con ten t Management System" fo r the webs i t e , but not under t a k i n g any more fundamenta l organ i z a t i o n a l or othe r s t r a t e g i c moves tha t migh t t r a n s f o rm the serv i c e s the l i b r a r y prov i d e s , or a l t e r the ro l e of the l i b r a r y as such . I f , on the othe r hand , we' r e wi l l i n g to reconce i v e the l i b r a r y pr ima r i l y in te rms of i t s ro l e i n an i n f o rma t i o n netwo rk , prov i d i n g serv i c e s to and f r om i t s l o ca l communi t y / i e s , then we' l l need to re th i n k i t s organ i z a t i o n to opt im i z e tha t ro l e , and deve l op genera l s t r a t e g i e s fo r ach ie v i n g i t . We' l l need to dec i de , in othe r words , and i n a famous fo rmu l a t i o n , what bus i ne ss we' r e i n - - the co l l e c t i o n bus iness or the i n f o rma t i o n bus iness . The fo rmer cho i ce i s c lea r l y the more conse r va t i v e , and migh t appear the more pruden t . But in t imes of rap i d change , espec i a l l y , the conse r va t i v e cho i ce i s not of t e n the sa fe r - - the adage tha t fo r t u n e favou r s the bo ld becomes par t i c u l a r l y per t i n e n t .  With an explora to r y approach to implementa t i on The same env i r o nmen t of rap i d change tha t rewards a bo ld st r a t e g y , however , wi l l usua l l y a lso requ i r e a more exp l o r a t o r y , exper imen t a l approach to tac t i c s or imp l emen ta t i o n . I t ' s i nev i t a b l e in such a t ime tha t some ven tu r e s wi l l tu r n out to be b l i n d a l l e y s , some wi l l be superceded by even t s or new poss i b i l i t i e s , some wi l l s imp l y tu r n out to have been yes t e r d ay ' s fad or buzzword . We' l l need to be both wi l l i n g and eager to t r y new approaches , sys t ems , produc t s , etc . , and at the same t ime cr i t i c a l i n our assessment of them. The card i n a l v i r t u e , as we move fo rwa rd , then , i s f l e x i b i l i t y - - f i r s t and fo r emos t i n our human resou r ces , where peop le wi l l need to be ab le to re l o ca t e , re t r a i n , and rede f i n e themse l ve s much more eas i l y than they can at presen t . St ru c t u r e s put i n p lace to pro t e c t peop le work i ng under more s ta t i c cond i t i o n s of t e n become j u s t bureauc r a t i c g lue under more dynamic ones , d i sab l i n g the organ i z a t i o n ' s ab i l i t y to respond to change , and f r equen t l y demora l i z i n g work i ng peop le themse l ves . Free i ng peop l e f r om these over l y r i g i d j ob def i n i t i o n s , change processes , etc . can resu l t i n a win fo r a l l conce rned , and ach i e v i n g th i s wi l l need to be worked out wi t h the var i o u s assoc i a t i o n s and un ions i n vo l v e d . Whethe r th r ough such more or l e ss fo rma l i z e d processes as "Organ i z a t i o n a l Deve lopment " 26 , or s imp l y th r ough i t s own focused  Toward the Nodal Libra r y  15  ef f o r t s , the ob jec t i v e i s to embed the ideas of change and con t i n u ous l ea r n i n g in t o the l i b r a r y ' s cu l t u r e and organ i z a t i o n .  A f l e x i b l e approach to the imp l emen ta t i o n of sys t ems and produc t s i s a l so impor t a n t . There may be a natu r a l tendency to want to encourage "buy - i n " to a par t i c u l a r new approach , both wi t h our users and wi t h our s ta f f , by ex to l l i n g i t s v i r t u e s and min im i z i n g i t s cos t s , weaknesses , or t r a de - of f s . But such a tac t i c can i n c r ea se the r i s k fo r new, unt r i e d i n i t i a t i v e s , s i nce i t undermines our cred i b i l i t y i f and when unexpec t ed d i f f i c u l t i e s ar i s e - - bet t e r to appea l to the cr i t i c a l i n t e l l i g e n c e of our sta f f , and the good wi l l of our users , by presen t i n g the pro j e c t as a t r i a l and se t t i n g expec ta t i o n s acco rd i n g l y . Two othe r aspec t s of an exp l o r a t o r y or exper imen t a l approach to pro j e c t / p r o d u c t imp l emen ta t i o n migh t be sugges t ed , here , even though they may appea r obv i ous : • befo r e dec i d i n g on a par t i c u l a r so lu t i o n , however exper imen t a l , i t would be good to cons i de r care f u l l y the downs ide and "ex i t s t r a t e g y " shou l d i t not work as hoped ; tha t i s , a so lu t i o n tha t requ i r e s le s s of an i n s t i t u t i o n a l commi tmen t , or tha t a l l ows more of tha t commitmen t - - e.g . , i n te rms of sa l vageab l e con ten t , or t r a n s f e r a b l e knowledge - - to be saved or re - used , i s pre f e r a b l e (o t h e r th i n g s be ing equa l ) to one tha t commi t s us more heav i l y ; • and , i n add i t i o n to eva l ua t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e s pr i o r to imp l emen ta t i o n , i t would be use fu l to p lan befo r ehand how we migh t bu i l d i n ongo ing moni t o r i n g and measurement of the ef f e c t i v e n e ss of the se le c t e d opt i o n , as compared to exp l i c i t pro j e c t ob jec t i v e s . With some concre te steps Some p laus i b l e , i f very broad , and very ske t chy ob jec t i v e s , rough l y in orde r of the t ime f r ames l i k e l y requ i r e d to rea l i z e them: • Shor t te rm (< 1 year ) : o Re- examine the cur r en t ar r a y of produc t s , co l l e c t i o n s , and serv i c e s , wi t h a v iew to making them as cons i s t e n t , i n t e r o pe r ab l e , comprehens i v e , and open as poss i b l e • Medium te rm (1 - 3 years ) : o Deve lop the networ k i n f r a s t r u c t u r e necessa r y to br i n g toge t he r the produc t s , serv i c e s , resou r ces , in s t r u c t i o n , etc . - - i n c l u d i n g the OPAC - - i n t o a seamless and f l e x i b l e user i n t e r f a c e • Long te rm (> 3 years ) : o Rest r u c t u r e the l i b r a r y organ i z a t i o n to re f l e c t the func t i o n a l needs of a netwo rked l i b r a r y ra t h e r than tha t of a phys i c a l co l l e c t i o n o Deve lop the ext e r na l netwo rk l i n k s tha t wi l l t i e l o ca l l i b r a r i e s toge t he r as i n t e r o pe r ab l e network nodes , prov i d i n g comprehens i v e i n f o rma t i o n serv i c e s at a l l le ve l s of soc i e t y Obvious l y , these are too br i e f to be any th i n g more than mere sugges t i o n s , and l eave ent i r e l y open a l l i s sues of imp lemen ta t i o n  - - in  Toward the Nodal Libra r y  16  fac t , a l l of them can and shou l d be tu r ned i n t o ques t i o n s by pre f i x i n g them wi t h the phrase "How do we. . . " . But , tha t sa id , any movement a long the d i r e c t i o n s such ob je c t i v e s sugges t would be pos i t i v e steps toward rea l i z i n g the noda l l i b r a r y .  Conc lus i o n :  Const r u c t i n g  the Futu r e  Fina l l y , of course , we' l l have to do more than j u s t "env i s i o n " the fu t u r e - - we have to sta r t bu i l d i n g i t . And th i s can be hard , fo r anyone , any group , or any in s t i t u t i o n , espec i a l l y i n a t ime of d i s r up t i v e change , i n which embrac i ng the fu t u r e of t e n requ i r e s re l i n q u i s h i n g much of the pas t . For l i b r a r i e s in par t i c u l a r , th i s need to le t go i s what makes the embrace of the fu t u r e a l l the more d i f f i c u l t - - qu i t e apar t f r om the s ta t u s l i b r a r i e s have l ong r i g h t l y en jo yed as co l l e c t o r s and prese r ve r s of the cu l t u r a l i nhe r i t a n c e of human c i v i l i z a t i o n , the i r more recen t pas t i s one of remarkab l e ach i e vemen t , i n cross - cu l t u r a l desc r i p t i v e s tanda rd s , un i ve r s a l c la ss i f i c a t i o n schemes, the deve l opment and main t enance of con t r o l l e d vocabu l a r i e s , and of course i n the ear l y use of automated sys t ems on an ente r p r i s e l e ve l . To say now tha t much of tha t ach i e vemen t app l i e s pr ima r i l y to the co l l e c t i o n of phys i ca l i t ems , and tha t such a co l l e c t i o n shou l d no longe r be seen as at the cen t r e of the l i b r a r y as an i n s t i t u t i o n i s fo r many, to say the leas t , a wrench . And th i s wrench of t e n mani f e s t s i t s e l f in an ent i r e l y unders t a ndab l e res i s t a n ce to change - - not of t e n i n exp l i c i t te rms , but of t e n enough i n the sub t l e r fo rms of an under l y i n g anx ie t y and a th r ea t e ned defens i v e ness . With i n th i s mindse t , fo r example , Google and Amazon are seen not as amazing in f o rma t i o n too l s and a ids tha t can be used by l i b r a r i e s , but i n s t e ad as compet i t o r s f r om which we must t r y , though wi t hou t much hope , to lu r e peop le away. Rathe r than v iew i ng the ca ta l o gue as s imp l y one database among many, and focus i n g i t on what i t was des i gned fo r , we' r e l ed to th r ow more " t h i n g s " in t o i t , wi t h the i dea tha t maybe th i s wi l l keep i t " r e l e v a n t " and ent i c e more peop le to use i t . We want , wi t h a cer t a i n pathos , to "keep up" and be "w i t h i t " , but at the same t ime c l i n g to a l l of the th i n g s we be l i e v e have def i n ed us i n the pas t . And we somet imes tend , a lmos t t r u cu l e n t l y , to th i n k tha t the re ' s bas i ca l l y someth i n g wrong wi t h our users , which migh t be f i x a b l e wi t h the prope r i n s t r u c t i o n , i f on l y we cou l d reach them a l l . Now, admi t t e d l y , th i s i s a b i t of a car i c a t u r e , of what we migh t ca l l the Defens i v e L ib r a r i a n Mindse t (o r "DLM") - - not many ac tua l l i b r a r i a n s are pure examples of i t , most of us are af f e c t e d by i t to some ex ten t , and some e lemen ts of i t may be more or le ss ra t i o n a l i n any case . I t ' s a rea l enough cond i t i o n , though , tha t i t cons t i t u t e s , i n i t s e l f , a s ign i f i c a n t prob l em , and qu i t e poss i b l y a cruc i a l prob l em - i t would be a pa in f u l i r o n y i f the one fac t o r tha t migh t rea l l y th r ea t e n the fu t u r e of the l i b r a r y were the de fens i v e , reac t i v e pos tu r e of too many of i t s pro f e s s i o n a l s . For t una t e l y , s i gns are widesp read tha t th i s pos tu r e i s waning (see "Some good prac t i c e s " above ) . Inc r eas i n g l y , l i b r a r i a n s are rea l i z i n g tha t , as i n f o rma t i o n pro f e s s i o n a l s i n the very Age of In f o rma t i o n , our ro l e goes much beyond ju s t "keep i n g up" - - our ro l e becomes "show ing  Toward the Nodal Libra r y  17  the way" . And i n showing or l ead i n g the way ( i n company , i t must be sa i d , wi t h par t n e r s and co l l a b o r a t o r s in othe r pro f e ss i o n s and i n s t i t u t i o n s ) , we not on l y t r an s f o rm the l i b r a r y i n t o an i n f o rma t i o n fac i l i t y at the hear t of the In f o rma t i o n Soc ie t y , we a lso prese r ve and enhance both the cu l t u r a l sta t u s and endur i n g ach ie vement s of the l i b r a r y as an i n s t i t u t i o n . Rathe r than be ing the v i c t i m of change , the l i b r a r y becomes the maker of change .  See Tim O'Re i l l y , "What i s Web 2.0? " , O'Re i l l y webs i t e , Sep 30/05 : ht t p : / / www.o r e i l l y n e t . c om / pub / a / o r e i l l y / t i m / n ews / 2 005 / 09 / 3 0 /wha t - i s - web- 20.h tm l 2 An aspec t , perhaps , of the phenomenon d i scussed by James Surowie ck i in The Wisdom of Crowds , New York : Doubleday , 2004 3 See Maureen Pennock , " Cura t i n g e- Science Data " , Dig i t a l Cura t i o n Cent re , Aug 25/06 : ht t p : / / www.dcc . a c . u k / r e s o u r c e / b r i e f i n g - papers / c u r a t i n g - e- sc i ence - data / 4 See Michae l Frase r , " The Place of the Dig i t a l L ib r a r y wi t h i n Vi r t u a l Research Env i r o nmen t s " , i n Dig i t a l L ib r a r i e s a la Car t e : New Choices fo r the Futu re , Research Techno logy Serv i c e , Oxfo rd Unive r s i t y Comput i n g Serv i c e s , Aug/06 : ht t p : / / users . o x . a c . u k / ~m i k e f / r t s / t i c e r / f r a s e r _ d i g l i b _ v r e _ 24Aug06 - on l i n e . p d f ; see a lso " Data webs: new v i s i o n s fo r resea r ch data on the Web", A Research In f o rma t i o n Network workshop , Jun 28/06 : ht t p : / / www . r i n . a c . u k / d a t a - webs 5 A note on " l o c a l " : the te rm here re f e r s to any approp r i a t e lo ca l i t y fo r a g iven l i b r a r y : i t s i n s t i t u t i o n , i t s communi t y ( / i e s ) , i t s reg i o n , i t s nat i o n , etc . The " l o ca l communi t y " fo r a l a r g e resea r ch l i b r a r y , fo r example , may i n vo l v e not j u s t i t s campus, but a l so i t s prov i n ce , s ta t e , or nat i o na l reg i o n , which migh t othe rw i s e go unser ved . Note tha t the i dea of l o ca l i t y has become i f any th i n g even more impor t a n t in a networ k con tex t s ince the va lue of the netwo rk i s i n many ways a func t i o n of the degree to which each node prov i d e s serv i c e to and f r om i t s approp r i a t e communi t y - - a somewhat coun te r i n t u i t i v e consequence tha t may wel l resu l t i n reduced autonomy fo r the i n s t i t u t i o n s i n vo l v e d . 6 ht t p : / / www.oc l c . o r g / p r o d u c two r k s / u r l r e s o l v e r . h tm 7 ht t p : / / o c o i n s . i n f o / 8 ht t p : / / d e l . i c i o . u s / 9 ht t p : / / www. l i b r a r y t h i n g . c om / 10 See h ighWi r e Press , ht t p : / / h i g hw i r e . s t a n f o r d . e d u / 11 See the Unive r s i t y of Mich i gan L ib r a r y Scho la r l y Publ i s h i n g Of f i c e , ht t p : / / s p o . umd l . um i ch . e du / 12 See CDL "eScho l a r s h i p ed i t i o n s " , ht t p : / / c o n t e n t . c d l i b . o r g / e s c ho l a r s h i p / 13 Wendy Prad t Lougee , Di f f u s e L ib r a r i e s : Emergen t Roles fo r the Research L ib r a r y i n the Dig i t a l Age. Counc i l on L ib r a r y and In f o rma t i o n Resources , "Perspec t i v e s on the Evo l v i n g L ib r a r y Ser i e s " : ht t p : / / www. c l i r . o r g / p u b s / r e p o r t s / p u b108 / con t e n t s . h tm l 14 Lorcan Dempsey, " Discove r , lo ca t e , . . . ver t i c a l and hor i z o n t a l in t e g r a t i o n " , Lorcan Dempsey ' s Weblog , Nov 20, 2005 : ht t p : / / o r w eb l o g . o c l c . o r g / a r c h i v e s / 0 0 0865 . h tm l 15 ht t p : / / o r w eb l o g . o c l c . o r g / a r c h i v e s / 0 0 0865 . h tm l 16 ht t p : / / www . l i b r a r y . u b c . c a / c o l l e c t i o n s / t r a n s i t i o n _ o n l i n e 2006 / 17 L ib r a r i e s have dea l t wi t h th i s i s sue i n a number of ways, such as nego t i a t i n g perpe t ua l access c lauses i n l i c e n ses , put t i n g pressu re on vendo rs and pub l i s h e r s to cons i de r the i s sue , and i n s t i g a t i n g new conso r t i ums such as Por t i c o (see ht t p : / / www.po r t i c o . o r g ) and LOCKSS (see ht t p : / / www . l o c k s s . o r g ) tha t of f e r serv i c e s which prov i d e a permanen t arch i v e fo r e lec t r o n i c scho l a r l y j ou r na l s . As wel l , pub l i s h e r s are i n c r e a s i n g l y par t ne r i n g wi t h l i b r a r i e s to bu i l d harves t a b l e i n f o rma t i o n repos i t o r i e s to sto r e and arch i v e con t en t and l i c e n s i n g in f o rma t i o n . See "Urgen t Act i o n Needed to Prese r ve Scho la r l y Elec t r o n i c Journa l s , " Dig i t a l L ib r a r y Federa t i o n (DLF) , v i ewed at ht t p : / / www.d i g l i b . o r g / p u b s /wa t e r s 0 51015 . h tm on Augus t 27, 2006 . See a lso "Upda t e on TRANSFER Act i v i t i e s , " Uni t ed Kingdom Ser i a l s Group (UKSG) , v i ewed at ht t p : / / www.uksg . o r g / t r a n s f e r . a s p on Augus t 27, 2006 . 18 ht t p : / / www. l i b r a r y . u b c . c a / a r c h i v e s / d i g i c o l l e c t i o n s . h tm l 19 ht t p : / / ma i n . l i b r a r y . u t o r o n t o . c a / 20 ht t p : / / m a i n . l i b r a r y . u t o r o n t o . c a / e i r / r e s o u r c e s . c fm 21 ht t p : / / www. l i b . r o c h e s t e r . e d u / 22 ht t p : / / www.aad l . o r g / c a t / s e e k / s e a r c h / X ?moby %20dick&sea r chscope=26&m=&SORT=D&top f o rmsub=1&rss=1 23 ht t p : / / www. l i b r a r y . p i t t . e d u / 24 ht t p : / / www. l i b . umn . edu / s an /me l l o n / i n d e x . p h tm l 1  ht t p : / / www.ep i c . c o l umb i a . e du / See Karen Hol l oway , " The Sign i f i c a n ce of Organ i za t i o n a l Deve lopmen t i n Academic Research L ib r a r i e s " , L ib r a r y Trends , Summer 2004 : ht t p : / / f i n d a r t i c l e s . c om / p / a r t i c l e s / m i _m1387 / i s _ 1 _53 / a i _ n 8640802 25 26   Appendix One: Supplementary Notes 1. Dig i t a l •  Col l ec t i ons & Schola r l y Communicat i on  Where do we want to be? o  Dig i t i z a t i o n  Campus- wide d ig i t i z a t i o n fac i l i t y ? ( I KBLC?)  Cont r a c t ar rangements fo r d ig i t i z a t i o n serv i c e s?  In t e r n a t i o n a l standa rd s?  Col l a bo r a t i o n wi t h Museum, UBC Press?  Col l a bo r a t i o n wi t h Google et a l?  o  Dig i t a l cura t i o n & access  Var i e t i e s of Ins t i t u t i o n a l Repos i t o r y (Theses , Papers , Data , Objec t s , Proceed i ng s? ) ?  Col l e c t i o n po l i c y fo r reg i o na l born - d ig i t a l mate r i a l ?  In t e r f a c e standa rd s? Sing l e in t e r f a c e ?  Prese r va t i o n s tanda rd s?  Prese r va t i o n & permanen t access po l i c i e s and st r a t e g i e s (poss i b l y i n co l l a b o r a t i o n ) . A l i c e n s i n g po l i c y on perpe t u a l access / pe rmanen t access to subsc r i p t i o n e- co l l e c t i o n s . Jo i n i n g & con t r i b u t i n g to LOCKSS, Por t i c o  Data access s tanda rd s (e . g . , OAI , SRU, genera l XML)?  Deve lop a consu l t a t i o n serv i c e fo r UBC resea r che r s tha t :  In f o rms them of copyr i g h t i s sues & depos i t i n g resea r ch i n a repos i t o r y  Consu l t a t i o n serv i c e fo r facu l t y pub l i c a t i o n s  Host i n g s i t e & suppo r t fo r facu l t y pub l i c a t i o n s  o  Dig i t a l harves t i n g  A repos i t o r y of reg i o na l repos i t o r i e s ?  Col l a bo r a t e to prov i d e d i sc i p l i n e - or top i c - spec i f i c repos i t o r i e s ?  L i censes & con t r a c t s tha t enab le the L ib r a r y to harves t , repu rpose , and repackage i n f o rma t i o n f r om othe r IR ’ s  Scho la r l y  • •  •  Communica t i o n / P ub l i c a t i o n  Estab l i s h a fo rma l i n s t i t u t i o n a l pos i t i o n on Open Access & Changes to Scho la r l y pub l i s h i n g and suppo r t fo r tha t . Consu l t wi t h Facu l t y on deve l op i n g a co l l e c t i o n po l i c y to suppo r t Open Access co l l e c t i o n s , membersh i p s , suppor t fo r autho r submiss i o n s .  Where are we now? o  & Open Access Suppor t  Pos i t i v e  deve lopmen ts :            o  •  A number of d i s t i n c t d ig i t i z a t i o n pro j e c t s : Col l a bo r a t i n g wi t h FOGS on a s ta r t on an IR (us i n g DSpace) fo r eTheses Col l a bo r a t i n g wi t h PRDLA to prov i d e harves t ab l e (OAI - PMH) data fo r reg i o na l d ig i t a l co l l e c t i o n UBC l i b r a r i a n s at t e nded an ARL Ins t i t u t e on Scho la r l y Communica t i o n wi t h the v iew to deve l op an i n s t i t u t i o n a l p lan fo r suppo r t i n g and educa t i n g othe r s abou t these changes . L ib r a r y ac t i v e l y suppo r t s a var i e t y of Open Access pub l i c a t i o n s & some membersh i p s . L ib r a r y i s a SPARC suppo r t e r . Sporad i c d i scuss i o n s wi t h fa cu l t y groups on changes to scho l a r l y pub l i c a t i o n . Sporad i c d i scuss i o n wi t h facu l t y on i s sues re l a t i n g to the prese r va t i o n of e lec t r o n i c resou r ces .  Prob l ems and I ssues :  Wide var i e t y of in t e r f a c e s , brows i ng d i sp l a y s , access methods fo r d i f f e r e n t d ig i t a l co l l e c t i o n s  Inab i l i t y to search or browse across co l l e c t i o n s  Do we have a po l i c y on d ig i t i z a t i o n s tanda rd s?  A po l i c y on d ig i t a l prese r va t i o n ?  Campus- wide co l l e c t i o n po l i c y fo r IR? Region - wide fo r born d ig i t a l mate r i a l s ?  Pol i c y on data cu ra t i o n .  No netwo rk co l l a b o r a t i o n on data harves t i n g , on prese r va t i o n  How do we get there? o o o o o  Decide to est ab l i s h a d is t i n c t , L ib r a r y - wide Dig i t a l Col l e c t i o n s un i t ( i n c l u d i n g d ig i t i z a t i o n , Ins t i t u t i o n a l Repos i t o r y , d ig i t a l cura t i o n , etc . ) , and fund i t and red i r e c t sta f f acco rd i n g l y Trans i t i o n “Co l l e c t i o n s s ta f f ” i n t o Scho la r l y Communica t i o n s ta f f Deve lop sys t ema t i c communica t i o n avenues to educa t e facu l t y and l i b r a r y sta f f abou t changes to scho l a r l y communica t i o n . Deve lop a Scho la r l y Communica t i o n Commit t e e made up of facu l t y and l i b r a r i a n s . Make cho i ces what we wi l l no t do to suppo r t th i s : i e : t r an s i t i o n pr i n t ca ta l o gue r s i n t o metada t a ana l y ze r s . Stop suppo r t i n g and acqu i r i n g techno l og i e s and so f twa r e tha t do not accommodate these ven tu r e s .  2. Systems/Technology •  Where do we need to be? o  A web- based , s tanda rd s - based i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , ab le to communica t e wi t h the var i o u s produc t s , serv i c e s , func t i o n s , and co l l e c t i o n s tha t the L ib r a r y makes ava i l a b l e - - in c l u d i n g the OPAC - - as wel l as wi t h sys t ems ex te r na l to the L ib r a r y  o  •  Where are we now? o  •  A f l e x i b l e , con f i g u r a b l e i n t e r f a c e genera t o r , based upon the i n f r a s t r u c t u r e above , and ab le to prov i d e users wi t h both s imp le and advanced func t i o n a l i t y , and r i c h , cus t om izab l e resu l t s  A L ib r a r y webs i t e tha t i n c l u d e s :  many hand- coded pages  a number of l o ca l databases media t ed by ColdFus i on  a number of prop r i e t a r y produc t s , databases , "Knowledge - bases " , and so on, tha t don ' t communica t e wi t h each othe r  a number of l o ca l d ig i t a l co l l e c t i o n s tha t don ' t communica t e wi t h each othe r  an OPAC tha t canno t be i n t e g r a t e d wi t h e i t h e r the res t of the webs i t e or wi t h ext e r n a l sys t ems  How do we get there? o  o o  o  Redeve lop i n g webs i t e in phases :  phase 1: renew ing l ook - and- fee l , add ing new search func t i o n a l i t y , and prepa r i n g con ten t fo r phase 2  phase 2: i n s t a l l i n g in f r a s t r u c t u r e (e . g . , CMS) to genera t e webs i t e s Dete rm in i n g an i n f r a s t r u c t u r e s t r a t e g y - - e.g . , i s a CMS tha t i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , or i s i t j u s t ano the r sys t em to be in c l u d ed? Dete rm in i n g the range of produc t s and sys t ems to be suppor t e d - - e.g . :  Eser i a l s / e j o u r n a l s knowledge base ( i n c l u d i n g ebooks? ) (e . g . , Ser i a l s Solu t i o n s )  OpenURL suppor t :  Targe t reso l v e r (e . g . , SFX)  Use of OpenURL l i n k s in a l l our own l i n k s to resou r ces  Dig i t a l co l l e c t i o n suppor t (e . g . , Conten tDM, DSpace) :  Separa t i o n of in t e r f a c e and data (bo t h metada ta and source data )  s tanda rd s - based co l l e c t i o n mechan i sms  Dig i t a l prese r va t i o n st r a t e g i e s  Dig i t a l harves t i n g s t r a t e g i e s  Cons i s t e n t search i n t e r f a c e :  Federa t ed search of exte r na l databases (e . g . , Meta l i b )  "Cong l omera t e d " search of lo ca l databases ( i n c l u d i n g OPAC) (e . g . , Aquabrowse r , Endeca , Pr imo)  Browsab l e in f o rma t i o n in t e r f a c e - - e.g . , Visua l Disp l a y s (Aquabrowse r? Viv i s imo - s t y l e c lu s t e r i n g ? ) , browsab le ca ta l o gue  Suppor t fo r phys i ca l d is t r i b u t i o n - - e.g . , ILL , docde l Bui l d i n g the i n f r a s t r u c t u r e capab l e of accommodat i n g these and othe r , s t i l l unknown, produc t s and sys t ems , and presen t i n g them in a h igh l y con f i g u r a b l e var i e t y of i n t e r f a c e s  3. Libra ry Organiza t i on  Where do we want to be?  •  Organ i za t i o n a l cu l t u r e : o Open to the fu t u r e o Proac t i v e ra t h e r than reac t i v e o High l y f l e x i b l e - - ab le to respond to change and adap t to unfo r e seen deve l opmen t s  •  Organ i za t i o n a l st r u c t u r e : o Focus on phys i ca l co l l e c t i o n fo r t r a d i t i o n a l un i t s : acqu i s i t i o n s , ca ta l o gu i n g , c i r c u l a t i o n o Deve lop new un i t s focused on network i n f o rma t i o n : l i c e n s i n g , metada ta desc r i p t i o n , d ig i t i z a t i o n , in t e r f a c e des i gn , in f r a s t r u c t u r e o "Co l l e c t i o n s " broadened i n t o " I n f o rma t i o n Access " o "Pub l i c Serv i c e s " tu r ned i n t o " I n f o rma t i o n consu l t a n c i e s " o Trans i t i o n f r om fa c i l i t y - based serv i c e s such as ca ta l o gu i n g and c i r c u l a t i o n i n the phys i c a l l i b r a r y to in c l u d e a knowledge - based i n f o rma t i o n serv i c e (eHe lp , eRefe rence , eLearn i n g )  Where are we now? •  •  Organ i za t i o n a l cu l t u r e : o Ambiva l en t abou t the fu t u r e o React i v e - - conce rned wi t h "keep i n g up" o Job , c la ss i f i c a t i o n r i g i d i t i e s impede ab i l i t y  to adap t to change  Organ i za t i o n a l st r u c t u r e : o Network in f o rma t i o n management d i spe r sed to t r a d i t i o n a l organ i za t i o n a l un i t s :  Eresou r ces grouped wi t h Techn i ca l Serv i c e s  Web s i t e and i n t e r f a c e i s sues grouped wi t h IT /Sys t ems  Dig i t i z a t i o n grouped wi t h Arch i v e s o Many i n t r ad i t i o n a l un i t s be ing pressu r ed to take on unfami l i a r tasks re l a t i n g to networ k i n f o rma t i o n  How do we get where we want to be? •  Organ i za t i o n a l cu l t u r e : o Use of "Organ i z a t i o n a l Deve lopment " (OD) techn i q ues? o Do a needs assessment of fu t u r e sk i l l s act i v i t i e s requ i r e d and beg in the process of t r a i n i n g and rec r u i t i n g approp r i a t e sta f f . o Discuss i o n s wi t h Unions and Assoc i a t i o n s i n vo l v e d to deve l op more f l e x i b l e job def i n i t i o n s , po l i c i e s o Cross - t r a i n i n g ? o Reward change o But don ' t pena l i z e those who ne i t h e r want nor need to change (e . g . , those suppo r t i n g ongo ing func t i o n s of the phys i c a l co l l e c t i o n ) o Recogn i z i n g the “ l i b r a r y ” wi l l a lways be i n a cons tan t s ta t e of techn i c a l evo lu t i o n we:  Encourage new at t i t u d e s to accommodate an env i r o nmen t tha t i s abou t cons t an t change .  Selec t techno l og i e s , so f twa r e , and adop t bus i ness prac t i c e s tha t embraces and accommodates cons t an t evo lu t i o n  •  Organ i za t i o n a l st r u c t u r e : o Dete rm ine pr i o r i t i e s and make cho i ce s to beg in the process of reduc i n g fuc t i o n s and s ta f f i n g tha t accommodate pr i n t - based organ i z a t i o n and red i r e c t energ i e s and sta f f i n g to fu t u r e l i b r a r y . o Cons ide r i nnova t i v e organ i z a t i o n a l s t r u t u r e s (e . g . , mat r i x ) to deve lop c lo se r coope ra t i o n across ex i s t i n g bounda r i e s (as an i n t e rmed i a t e s tep? ) o Cons ide r pu l l i n g toge t he r netwo rk i n f o rma t i o n func t i o n s in an expanded Network In f o rma t i o n Suppor t un i t o Cons ide r c lo se r i n t e g r a t i o n between l i b r a r y sub je c t spec i a l i s t s and facu l t y / d e p a r tmen t / d i s c i p l i n e un i t s o Shape a use r - cen te r ed (o r c l i e n t - cen t r e d ) l i b r a r y . Thi s wi l l depend upon bu i l d i n g in a fo rma l i z e d user - consu l t a t i o n process . Al l of our serv i c e s , processes , dec i s i o n - making i s focused on th i s requ i r emen t .   Appendix two: Portrait of a New Media Library User Prepared by Patty Foster  1. Library Users have changed • • •  Changes in text technologies have resulted in changes to how we think, remember and collaborate. Disruptive technologies can cause changes to how people relate to each other (Taris) Learners are becoming more knowledgeable about technology and repurpose it for their own needs.  2. Library Users have become Google-trained. • • •  What are the expectations of the user in the modern world? The proliferation of Google as a peer to peer network has taken over a chunk of the Internet, it acts as a middle man between the browser and the information. As people use it for searches, it uses algorithms to create a better searching tool.  A. Personal Reflections and conversation as a learning tool. • • •  Journaling, conversation and collaboration have historically been important to the learning process. Innovations in social software have allowed this process to "gel" better. Allows you to contribute to and see the results quicker when you collaborate and when conversations are created from personal reflections. B. Sharing of Knowledge has become more important.  • • • •  The ability and willingness of individuals to push their thinking creatively has been enhanced by the creation of meme trees. Social software allows the sharing of resource lists and the ability to examine what resources your colleagues/classmates are looking at. Example GUSSE, a social bookmarking system that promotes the development of sustainability solutions among urban professionals and citizens. Promote engagement with the community.  C. Motivations have changed at the post-secondary curriculum level (Jafari 2006 pp.58 Educause). • • • • •  Integration of course software and library resources course software: WebCT, Sakai, Moodle motivation involves choices (Jafari 2006) Personal learning preferences can influence choices in learning modes: kinetic, visual and auditory. Quick info vs. contemplative: The user will choose the appropriate media depending on the  •  approach required for the material. "For elearning environments to be motivational, they must be 'smart' and acquire an understanding of the uniqueness of the learner and the instructor: their habits, choices, preferences and even errors." (Jafari 2006: pp.58 Educause).  3. Users Curriculum Needs - How Are We Currently Assisting the New User? • • • • •  Engaging faculty and students with the library UBC specific - hiring librarians/information specialists for individual departments. Ask Away - network of librarians always available via IM (instant messenger). McMaster University has recently adopted a similar system to "chapters.ca", a familiar interface to modern users. It has the ability to create research sets and wish lists. Issues: a lot of add-ons but no real overall restructuring. The catalogue currently reflects the print collection and does not operate as a research tool.  4. The future user as contributor. • • •  Unique URIs to show colleagues/students what resources you have been exploring. Historical photographs, podcasts and contributing to the findability of materials via folksonomy integrated with traditional classification systems. Learning salons.  5. Issue: How do you remediate between the traditional and modern user? • • • •  •  Nature of digitization - How does this benefit the user? What are the disadvantages? Ebooks vs. digitized books - not the same thing. The scanning of books only shows the representation of the text, the ability to search via index may be lost. i.e. , 24x7 books no hyperlinking. A lot of patrons still consider themselves computer illiterate and while they may be able to handle the online catalogue as it currently stands what would happen if a tighter integration with social software were to be introduced? LibQual survey software - a communication strategy, which collects and interprets library user feedback systematically over time.  

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