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Report of the Working Group on Teaching and Learning Adam, Sheryl; Beck, Charlotte; Greenwood, Aleteia; Lannon, Amber; Naslund, Jo-Anne 2009

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Appendix DTeaching and Learning: Background ReadingAbels, E. (2004). Information seekers' perspectives of libraries and librarians. Advances in Librarianship, 28, 151-170. Aborg, C., Boivie, I., Lofberg, M., & Persson, J. (2003). Why usability gets lost or usability in in-house software development. Interacting with Computers, 15(4), 623-639. ACRL research agenda: Research agenda for library instruction and information literacy. (2003). Library and Information Science Research, 25(4), 479-487. Albrecht, R., & Baron, S. (2002). The politics of pedagogy: Expectations and reality for information literacy in librarianship. Journal of Library Administration, 36(1/2), 71-96. Alexander, B. (2006). Web 2.0: A new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review, 41(2), 32. Allen, B. L. (1998). Information tasks. Toward a user-centred approach to information systems. Education for Information, 16(4), 357-359. Association of College and Research Libraries. (2000). 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Advances in Librarianship, 29, 247-268. 17 Appendix CConsultation with Committees and IndividualsReference and Instruction Committee (RIC), July 24th, 2006.Present: Lee Ann Bryant, Linda Dunbar, Jan Gattrell (UBCO, by telephone) Dean Giustini, Kimberley Hintz, Katherine Kalsbeek, Vanessa Kam, Simon Neame, Elim Wong, Lorna Adcock, and Ellen George.Lea Starr (Acting Head of Systems), August 21st, 2006.PSC Subcommittee on Information Literacy, Sept 6th, 2006.Present: Hilde Colenbrander, Lorna Adcock, Vanessa Kam, Margaret Friesen, with input from Dean Giustini.*Public Service Heads (PSC), September 13th, 2006.Present: Lorna Adcock, Chris Ball, Melody Burton (conference call), Margaret Friesen, Rita Dahlie, Lea Starr, Vanessa Kam, Ralph Stanton, Jan Wallace, Tricia Yu, Eleanor Yuen, Kirsten Walsh, and Sandra Wilkins. Consultation QuestionsWhy should the library support teaching and learning as a core service?How could the library better support teaching and learning?What are the greatest challenges facing the library in supporting teaching and learning?Consultation NotesNotes from the meetings are available on the Working Group on Teaching and Learning Blog at: http://weblogs.elearning.ubc.ca/wgtl/.*Additional name added to those present at this consultation, updated December 15, 2006.16 Appendix DTeaching and Learning: Background ReadingAbels, E. (2004). Information seekers' perspectives of libraries and librarians. Advances in Librarianship, 28, 151-170. Aborg, C., Boivie, I., Lofberg, M., & Persson, J. (2003). Why usability gets lost or usability in in-house software development. Interacting with Computers, 15(4), 623-639. ACRL research agenda: Research agenda for library instruction and information literacy. (2003). Library and Information Science Research, 25(4), 479-487. 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Advances in Librarianship, 29, 247-268. 17 Appendix CConsultation with Committees and IndividualsReference and Instruction Committee (RIC), July 24th, 2006.Present: Lee Ann Bryant, Linda Dunbar, Jan Gattrell (UBCO, by telephone) Dean Giustini, Kimberley Hintz, Katherine Kalsbeek, Vanessa Kam, Simon Neame, Elim Wong, Lorna Adcock, and Ellen George.Lea Starr (Acting Head of Systems), August 21st, 2006.PSC Subcommittee on Information Literacy, Sept 6th, 2006.Present: Hilde Colenbrander, Lorna Adcock, Vanessa Kam, Margaret Friesen, with input from Dean Giustini.*Public Service Heads (PSC), September 13th, 2006.Present: Lorna Adcock, Chris Ball, Melody Burton (conference call), Margaret Friesen, Rita Dahlie, Lea Starr, Vanessa Kam, Ralph Stanton, Jan Wallace, Tricia Yu, Eleanor Yuen, Kirsten Walsh, and Sandra Wilkins. Consultation QuestionsWhy should the library support teaching and learning as a core service?How could the library better support teaching and learning?What are the greatest challenges facing the library in supporting teaching and learning?Consultation NotesNotes from the meetings are available on the Working Group on Teaching and Learning Blog at: http://weblogs.elearning.ubc.ca/wgtl/.*Additional name added to those present at this consultation, updated December 15, 2006.16 Appendix BDecline in Demand for In-Person Reference Assistance (ARL Libraries and UBC Library)ACRL Reference Statistics (August 16th 2004 revision) ACRL #reporting 042004#reporting 032003#reporting 022002 Presentation to Groups: Median249245243Presentation to Groups: Total296124,414376160,857320131,212Reference Transactions: Median22, 36827,40230526,832Reference Transactions: Total28612,256,23235718,314,91316,504,011ACRL  2004 2003 2002 Presentation to Groups: Median249245243Presentation to Groups: Total* (x100) 1,244 1,609 1,312Reference Transactions: Median2236827,402 26,832Reference Transactions: Total* (x100) 122,562 183,149165,0402000/20012001/20022002/20032003/2004Classes/Orientation: Sessions1,587137714711,536Classes/Orientation: Participants 21,41126,2762823031,383Total Questions372,270329,445286,267254,633Research24,42324,82718,80111,433Reference176,564162,625162,703144,210Directional171,283141,993104,76398,99013 Appendix DTeaching and Learning: Background ReadingAbels, E. 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Advances in Librarianship, 29, 247-268. 17 Appendix CConsultation with Committees and IndividualsReference and Instruction Committee (RIC), July 24th, 2006.Present: Lee Ann Bryant, Linda Dunbar, Jan Gattrell (UBCO, by telephone) Dean Giustini, Kimberley Hintz, Katherine Kalsbeek, Vanessa Kam, Simon Neame, Elim Wong, Lorna Adcock, and Ellen George.Lea Starr (Acting Head of Systems), August 21st, 2006.PSC Subcommittee on Information Literacy, Sept 6th, 2006.Present: Hilde Colenbrander, Lorna Adcock, Vanessa Kam, Margaret Friesen, with input from Dean Giustini.*Public Service Heads (PSC), September 13th, 2006.Present: Lorna Adcock, Chris Ball, Melody Burton (conference call), Margaret Friesen, Rita Dahlie, Lea Starr, Vanessa Kam, Ralph Stanton, Jan Wallace, Tricia Yu, Eleanor Yuen, Kirsten Walsh, and Sandra Wilkins. Consultation QuestionsWhy should the library support teaching and learning as a core service?How could the library better support teaching and learning?What are the greatest challenges facing the library in supporting teaching and learning?Consultation NotesNotes from the meetings are available on the Working Group on Teaching and Learning Blog at: http://weblogs.elearning.ubc.ca/wgtl/.*Additional name added to those present at this consultation, updated December 15, 2006.16 Appendix BDecline in Demand for In-Person Reference Assistance (ARL Libraries and UBC Library)ACRL Reference Statistics (August 16th 2004 revision) ACRL #reporting 042004#reporting 032003#reporting 022002 Presentation to Groups: Median249245243Presentation to Groups: Total296124,414376160,857320131,212Reference Transactions: Median22, 36827,40230526,832Reference Transactions: Total28612,256,23235718,314,91316,504,011ACRL  2004 2003 2002 Presentation to Groups: Median249245243Presentation to Groups: Total* (x100) 1,244 1,609 1,312Reference Transactions: Median2236827,402 26,832Reference Transactions: Total* (x100) 122,562 183,149165,0402000/20012001/20022002/20032003/2004Classes/Orientation: Sessions1,587137714711,536Classes/Orientation: Participants 21,41126,2762823031,383Total Questions372,270329,445286,267254,633Research24,42324,82718,80111,433Reference176,564162,625162,703144,210Directional171,283141,993104,76398,99013 Appendix AGraphic Organizer12 Appendix DTeaching and Learning: Background ReadingAbels, E. 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Advances in Librarianship, 29, 247-268. 17 Appendix CConsultation with Committees and IndividualsReference and Instruction Committee (RIC), July 24th, 2006.Present: Lee Ann Bryant, Linda Dunbar, Jan Gattrell (UBCO, by telephone) Dean Giustini, Kimberley Hintz, Katherine Kalsbeek, Vanessa Kam, Simon Neame, Elim Wong, Lorna Adcock, and Ellen George.Lea Starr (Acting Head of Systems), August 21st, 2006.PSC Subcommittee on Information Literacy, Sept 6th, 2006.Present: Hilde Colenbrander, Lorna Adcock, Vanessa Kam, Margaret Friesen, with input from Dean Giustini.*Public Service Heads (PSC), September 13th, 2006.Present: Lorna Adcock, Chris Ball, Melody Burton (conference call), Margaret Friesen, Rita Dahlie, Lea Starr, Vanessa Kam, Ralph Stanton, Jan Wallace, Tricia Yu, Eleanor Yuen, Kirsten Walsh, and Sandra Wilkins. Consultation QuestionsWhy should the library support teaching and learning as a core service?How could the library better support teaching and learning?What are the greatest challenges facing the library in supporting teaching and learning?Consultation NotesNotes from the meetings are available on the Working Group on Teaching and Learning Blog at: http://weblogs.elearning.ubc.ca/wgtl/.*Additional name added to those present at this consultation, updated December 15, 2006.16 Appendix BDecline in Demand for In-Person Reference Assistance (ARL Libraries and UBC Library)ACRL Reference Statistics (August 16th 2004 revision) ACRL #reporting 042004#reporting 032003#reporting 022002 Presentation to Groups: Median249245243Presentation to Groups: Total296124,414376160,857320131,212Reference Transactions: Median22, 36827,40230526,832Reference Transactions: Total28612,256,23235718,314,91316,504,011ACRL  2004 2003 2002 Presentation to Groups: Median249245243Presentation to Groups: Total* (x100) 1,244 1,609 1,312Reference Transactions: Median2236827,402 26,832Reference Transactions: Total* (x100) 122,562 183,149165,0402000/20012001/20022002/20032003/2004Classes/Orientation: Sessions1,587137714711,536Classes/Orientation: Participants 21,41126,2762823031,383Total Questions372,270329,445286,267254,633Research24,42324,82718,80111,433Reference176,564162,625162,703144,210Directional171,283141,993104,76398,99013 Appendix AGraphic Organizer12 Report of the Working Group on Teaching and LearningNovember 2006Sheryl AdamCharlotte BeckAleteia GreenwoodAmber LannonJo-Anne NaslundTable of ContentsReport											1-11	Overview: Retrospective Summary	Teaching and Learning at UBC Library					1-2	Focus on User-Centeredness						2-3	Committed Leadership							3-4	Strong Teaching Collaboration with Faculty				4-5	Information Technologies							5-6	The Agile and Flexible Organization					6-7	Summary and Evaluation of Planning Choices				7-8	Conclusion									8	Works Cited									9-11Appendix A: Teaching and Learning: Graphic Organizer 			12Appendix B: Decline in Demand for In-Person Reference Assistance           (ARL Libraries and UBC Library)					13-15Appendix C: Consultation with Committees and Individuals			16Appendix D: Teaching and Learning: Background Reading			17-46Report of the Working Group on Teaching and LearningNovember 2006Sheryl Adam, Charlotte Beck, Aleteia Greenwood, Amber Lannon, Jo-Anne NaslundIntroductionUBC strives to graduate students able to participate effectively in the information society and the knowledge economy; to fulfill the requirements demanded by professional bodies and industry; and to be lifelong learners. In the words of Trek 2010, “[t]he graduates of UBC will have developed strong analytical, problem-solving and critical thinking abilities; they will have excellent research and communication skills” (University of British Columbia, 2006).Within the changing landscape of scholarly communication and electronic resources, critical thinking, active learning, problem-based instruction and effective research require a range of skills defined as information literacy (Association of College and Research Libraries, 2000). By teaching information literacy, the Library promotes academic quality and serves the mandate of the University.In this discussion paper, “teaching and learning” refers to teaching by library staff and learning by students and faculty to become competent in finding, using and evaluating information resources.Overview: Retrospective SummaryTeaching and Learning at UBC LibraryUBC Library has always supported teaching and learning activities in the faculties through its collections, catalogues and the provision of reference service from desks throughout the library. Library tours, print handouts and presentations to classes about library materials and services were later additions, as part of the library’s “bibliographic instruction” program (Hutchins, Fister, & MacPherson, 2002). By the mid-eighties, as information resources expanded to include electronic formats, academic libraries moved toward the provision of instruction based on concepts about information, rather than on physical locations or tools such as the card catalogue and print indexes (Grassian & Kaplowitz, 2001).As librarians became mindful of pedagogical practices that involved combining conceptual-based teaching with assignment-anchored topics and assessed students as they achieved a number of standard skills which came to embody the Information Literacy initiative. Throughout North America and beyond, librarians worked with faculty, instructors, administrators and students to establish information literacy instruction as part of their institutions’ curricula. UBC Library’s program of teaching and learning was consolidated into the “Information Connections” program of the late nineties (supported in large part for more than seven years by a Teaching and Learning Enhancement Fund grant).At the same time, initiatives by individual subject librarians led to the routine inclusion of library instruction in many courses. The American and Canadian Library Associations adopted the ACRL Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education in 1999. Information literacy was identified as a component of lifelong learning and as such was central to the mission of higher education. (Association of College and Research Libraries, 2000; Hughes & Hughes, 1996). Incorporating information literacy across disciplines became a responsibility to be shared by faculty and academic librarians (Cunningham & Lanning, 2002; Dorner, Taylor, & Hodson-Carlton, 2001). In contrast, similar recommendations by the UBC Library Task Group on Information Literacy (Whitehead, Adam, Neame, Rosseel, & Taylor, 2002) were accepted by the Library Administration only in part, and those that were accepted were never fully implemented.Critical Elements for Teaching and LearningWe have identified the following primary elementsfocus on user-centerednesscommitted leadershipstrong teaching collaboration with facultysupportive information systems and technologiesbeing an agile and flexible learning organizationFocus on User-CenterednessUser-centeredness is an underlying theme and fundamental for teaching and learning activities. Almost every activity that librarians endeavor to accomplish is in some way related to user-centeredness. Although definitions of user-centeredness vary widely (Childs, 2006; Dalrymple, 2001; Gust & Haka, 2006; Kupersmith, 2006), the broad acceptance of this approach to many aspects of librarianship reflects the transition of the library from a place to an idea, from a building with a collection, to a virtual and physical learning commons.Given the range of current users, how can the UBC Library meet their teaching and learning needs?  As an entity, the UBC Library must focus on the way in which our users access and utilize information (Nahl, 1999). Tools and resources are needed that allow for flexibility so librarians can anticipate, grow with, and adapt to the users’ changing needs, wants and demands. This means being where users are (physically and virtually), designing library tools that use terms that patrons understand, (Kupersmith, 2006) and operate in the way users expect them to operate, i.e. with a Google-like simplicity.ChallengesIt is difficult to act on suggestions we have already received from user focus groups, and surveys. We have not adopted a process that accommodates change, in part because of a culture that seems to be inwardly focused.OpportunitiesThere are many opportunities for the UBC Library’s teaching and learning program to become more responsive to student needs. For example, we could reorient our planning process so that user needs drive the library’s planning for delivery of teaching and research instruction.This would entail building in regular “conversations” with our users and acting on their answers. For example, ensure that there are student members on library advisory committees, and/or establish a separate library-wide “Students’ advisory committee to the Library”, and make sure that clinical, adjunct and sessional faculty have representation.We could include questions on standard course evaluation forms about library instruction and services and add user testing in the development phase of all locally-controlled library systems. With such information in mind, we could design innovative programs to serve students and faculty more effectively. This could involve participation in program/course orientation sessions, service learning projects, LEAP portal (www.leap.ubc.ca), and interdisciplinary programs and institutes.Committed LeadershipWhen teaching and learning is central to the library’s mission, then information literacy needs are endorsed and re-affirmed both within and outside the library. As faculty struggle to rethink and repackage teaching for the digital world, active leadership from the library could make a significant contribution. It would serve to align our pedagogy with that of the faculties and the library would be part of problem-based, evidence-based, and multidisciplinary instruction.With strong library leadership, there would be opportunities to incorporate information literacy as an institutional goal (Hutchins et al., 2002; Somerville, Schader, & Huston, 2005). Faculty and librarians would have opportunities to develop a shared definition of information literacy that harmonizes with the University’s strategic vision and is endorsed by Senate. Library leadership supports participation of librarians in campus programs and initiatives and establishes mechanisms by which librarians are automatically included as members of faculty/institute committees (Breivik & Gee, 2006). When library administrators who possess a progressive educational vision for the library are recruited, the result is an institutional commitment to teaching and learning activities.ChallengesThe UBC Library Administration has endorsed the ALA information literacy standards (Association of College and Research Libraries, 2000), as per meeting with the Information Literacy Subcommittee (Kam, Colenbrander, & Giustini, 2006), but no person, unit or committee within the library is charged with leading or co-ordinating information literacy activities. No member of the library administration has been assigned the task of promoting information literacy at the University-wide level. Across the library, administrators and managers communicate uneven expectations about librarians’ involvement in teaching and faculty liaison.OpportunitiesThe University's focus on teaching (for example, the creation of the Carl Weiman Science Education Initiative), provides the Library administration and management with a tremendous opportunity to embrace teaching and learning as a core activity of the library. The acknowledgement that this activity is an integral support to the university community as researchers and key participants in the creation of knowledge, positions the University Librarian/Deputy University Librarian to advocate for the teaching role that librarians can play in the academic enterprise. Internally, the adoption of this mission can unite all levels of the UBC Library management team in a common vision and inform decisions around staff and other resource allocation. The UBC Library has a dedicated and trained staff whose further development in light of this vision will ensure that the library “can respond to the ever changing set of workplace skills for both librarians and library staff” (Breivik & Gee., 2006, p.tba).Strong Teaching Collaboration with FacultySuccessful information literacy programs begin with early collaboration and the design of learning objectives that are fully integrated into the courses. Teaching collaboration with individual faculty members is based on a strong relationship where faculty perceive the instruction with the librarian as critical to the academic enterprise “[t]o produce socially engaged critical thinkers who are equipped not to be better workers …but to engage in that ongoing curiosity and conversation that helps us understand the world.” (Hutchins et al., 2002, p.tba).ChallengesAt UBC, collaboration with faculty is generally ad hoc and based on the relationship each subject liaison librarian is able to forge with individual faculty members. With few exceptions, the concepts taught by the librarian form their own syllabus, and library instruction is perceived as an intellectually trivial but helpful support of real academic efforts. While librarians have faculty status at UBC, they are perceived as lacking credentials and/or in-depth knowledge. When librarian and faculty workplaces are in different locations, it is challenge to form collaborative relations, and “shared understanding” (Bruce, 2001) of students, curriculum, assignments.While most library instruction currently takes place in a particular class, the instruction is not integrated into the course. Librarians have had some success in establishing a presence in courses offered in whole or in part on WebCT. Again, this has varied by relationship, with some faculties assigning designer access to librarians as a matter of course, while others simply overlook librarians and access to information altogether during the development and delivery of a WebCT course.If librarians are expected to teach and to liaise with faculty, they require training in educational theory, learning styles, computer interface design, active teaching methods, negotiation skills, public speaking and presentation skills, and should receive incentives and rewards for increasing competencies in teaching and in their subject areas.OpportunitiesAs undergraduate and graduate programs are reviewed, revised and re-designed for online and mixed mode delivery there are many opportunities for collaborative planning and teaching with faculty. The library has the opportunity to partner with several campus units (such as TAG; IsoTL (Institute for the Study of Teaching and Learning), Skylight, Student Horizons in Education, Carl Wieman Science Education initiative, Writing Centre, Student Services, Housing and Recruitment,). By enlisting the support of the Senate Teaching and Learning Committee, the library could formalize its contribution to curriculum development committees and partner with faculty at the planning stages of new course/program/school development or revision.Furthermore, an institution-wide policy could be developed to ensure that library and information instruction is present in all credit programs -- perhaps beginning in online courses. The library could create a database of learning objects to support online and face-to-face courses and develop shared ownership of students’ competencies by working with faculty on a range of collaborative activities, from assessment of assignments to serving on graduate thesis committees.Information TechnologiesInformation technologies are critical to and the subject of library instructional programs (Association of College and Research Libraries, 2000). With an emphasis on convergence, the trend in many academic libraries has given rise to information or learning commons -- collaborative spaces in the library, where instruction, technology and research support are provided by library, computing, writing centre and student services staff. As new ways to seek information evolve, it is necessary to continuously scan the environment, initiate, experiment and test new technologies in the delivery of information services. New technologies affect the Library’s web page, online catalogue, e-journals and databases; and they often are the subject of and the vehicle for our teaching.ChallengesToo much instructional time is spent educating users on how to navigate the UBC Library’s web site and databases - at the expense of time that should be spent on conceptual issues.  Our catalogue has one of the least intuitive search interfaces and the several hundred bibliographic databases to which we subscribe do not share software, field names, or limits. Our users expect simplicity and immediate reward. Amazon, Google and iTunes are the standards against which we are judged (Bibliographic Services Task Force. University of California Libraries, 2005). There is a disjuncture between library Information Systems and Technology services and public services, reflected in inappropriate timing for planned changes and in the way information systems are designed. There is a lack of consistency across campus in the setup of computer workstations and even in user authentication. A university wide technology plan involving IT Services, Student Services, UBC Library, and Distance Education and Technology units has not been implemented.Opportunities:By reducing system complexity and redirecting resources to improve our users' experience of the online catalogue and library web pages, there is a great opportunity to make access to our high quality resources as Google-like as possible. Consulting with users in all phases of the process will help profile critical electronic library resources and may result in more staff deployed to handle these resources. Library (or university) portals for users could be developed to personalize their information environment and provide tools that allow for cross-platform/federated searching. As such there would be multiple opportunities for students to employ well-supported information literacy skills.The Agile and Flexible Learning Organization:To support teaching and learning, the Library needs to become a learning organization itself. A learning organization is one that is “skilled at creating, acquiring, and transferring knowledge and modifying its behavior to reflect new knowledge and insights. Flexibility...is a core value….” (Giesecke & McNeil, 2004, p.tba).There is no right model or wrong structure for a learning organisation. Instead, a learning organisation seeks to create “values, practices and procedures in which learning and working are synonymous throughout the organisation”. Learning is a core part of all operations, and one in which the learning strategy is more than a human resource or staff development strategy (Rowley, 1997, p.tba).Even the most radical call for change in the operation of libraries has not proposed that libraries abandon collections or attention to standards or neglect core values. Instead, there is a call to re-examine how we do things in the light of external shifts and to identify key areas that require training and education. For example, in order to be user-centered, library staff who engage in teaching and learning need to be free to work in a variety of settings, virtual and electronic, to be able to determine what those settings will be on a term-to-term basis, and to plan around users.ChallengesUBC Library is organized and administered around physical spaces. Insofar as library branches reflect the subject interests of our users, this is appropriate. However, it may not be the most efficient, effective or accessible way to deliver services to our users. We need to be prepared to examine how we do things.Training and development is in transition at UBC Library. While it is reasonable for branches to train new hires in the duties they will carry out at the branch, there is also a need for centralized planning for training that prepare for staff innovation and experimentation.Library data collection continues to be rooted in traditional quantitative patterns and may not provide insight into how and why things have changed.Opportunities“Demonstrate and model a commitment to learning” (Giesecke & McNeil, 2004, p.61). Accelerate and enrich the training of all staff to extend beyond immediate job skills, and incorporate new technologies in training where appropriate.Foster staff innovation by creating a culture where experimentation is encouraged and failure accepted as a practical teacher.Reframe the collection and analysis of data to identify areas of improvement and apply to decision-making.Summary and Evaluation of Planning ChoicesWhat planning choices does UBC Library have with respect to teaching and learning?1. Continue in our current ad hoc way.Implications:This will not serve the mandate of the University and will relegate the Library to irrelevancy. Individual subject librarians will continue to struggle to be effective; budget and planning decisions would continue to lack focus and opportunities to partner with faculties to embed research skills in the curriculum will be missed. The strong leadership needed to champion the Library’s critical role in the academic enterprise will continue to be absent.2. Ensure that there are Library and university-wide policies that establish the Library’s program of teaching and learning as fundamental to the university’s broader mission of research, teaching and learning.Implications:Requires a strong commitment from all members of the library management team to develop a plan for teaching and learning and to advocate for its adoption as university policy. Allocate existing staff resources to develop and sustain an information literacy program that is integrated into the university’s instructional program. Partner with faculty to seek joint funding opportunities to maximize existing resources. Begin a program of retraining all library staff to understand that every library encounter is a teaching encounter.3. To become a full-fledged teaching department and offer courses in information literacy to be required by all students (Perhaps as a part of SLAIS). To develop undergraduate and graduate required courses.Implications:Expensive to implement, difficult to get buy-in from other departments of the university, competition with faculties for teaching time, pedagogically less engaging and effective.4. Devolve all information literacy instruction to the faculties and concentrate on working to improve electronic access to resources, making access as user-friendly as possible and keeping pace with the increasing variety and methods of access to information.Implications:Difficult to enumerate the implications because this has not been tried and studied. We can assume there would a decline in use of some resources, a lack of promotion of new resources, and the loss of opportunity to design, adapt or compile electronic resources to meet user needs.Conclusion:The UBC Library has always served the teaching and learning needs of students, teaching faculty and researchers. Now, compelled by technological innovations affecting research; changes in undergraduate and graduate education; and services demanded by learners located in physical and virtual space, it is imperative that the Library be prepared to adopt new and expanding roles.It is clear to this working group that we have reached a critical moment in the delivery of library services at UBC Library. To do nothing would not serve the mandate of the University and would relegate the Library to irrelevancy, where it would no longer be a legitimate participant in the University’s teaching and learning activities.In order to remain vital to the University’s teaching and learning, we must be prepared to take on new and expanding roles in the provision of learning support. In these new roles we will have the opportunity to demonstrate the value of all of our services. However, this can only happen if we become a more flexible and agile organization, where everyone in the organization is working towards a common goal. It will only be in this kind of atmosphere, that the Library’s role in teaching and learning will be able to flourish and grow.Works CitedAssociation of College and Research Libraries. (2000). Information literacy competency standards for higher education (http://www.ala.org/ala/acrl/acrlstandards/informationliteracycompetency.htm#f4 ed.). 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Vancouver, British Columbia: UBC Library.  42  Whitlatch, J. B. (2003). Reference futures: Outsourcing, the web, or knowledge counseling. Reference Services Review, 31(1), 26-30. Wildemuth, B. M., & Oneill, A. L. (1995). The known in known-item searches empirical support for user-centered design. College & Research Libraries, 56(3), 265-281. Williams, D. E. (2004). Leadership, higher education and the information age: A new era for information technology and libraries, and: Organizing and managing information resources on your campus (review). Portal: Libraries and the Academy, 4(2), 305307. Wilson, L. A. (1995). Building the user-centered library. Rq, 34(3), 297-302. Wilson, L. A. (2004). What a difference a decade makes: Transformation in academic library instruction. Reference Services Review, 32(4), 338-346. Wong, G., Chan, D., & Chu, S. (2006). Assessing the enduring impact of library instruction programs. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 32(4), 384-395. Wu, Y. D., & Kendall, S. L. (2006). Teaching faculty's perspectives on business information literacy. Reference Services Review, 34(1), 86-96. Zhang, D. (2005). Evaluating user information needs through a library portal environment: New opportunity and new challenges. Advances in Librarianship, 29, 247-268.  43   Appendix C Consultation with Committees and Individuals •  • •  •  Reference and Instruction Committee (RIC), July 24th, 2006. Present: Lee Ann Bryant, Linda Dunbar, Jan Gattrell (UBCO, by telephone) Dean Giustini, Kimberley Hintz, Katherine Kalsbeek, Vanessa Kam, Simon Neame, Elim Wong, Lorna Adcock, and Ellen George. Lea Starr (Acting Head of Systems), August 21st, 2006. PSC Subcommittee on Information Literacy, Sept 6th, 2006. Present: Hilde Colenbrander, Lorna Adcock, Vanessa Kam, Margaret Friesen, with input from Dean Giustini.* Public Service Heads (PSC), September 13th, 2006. Present: Lorna Adcock, Chris Ball, Melody Burton (conference call), Margaret Friesen, Rita Dahlie, Lea Starr, Vanessa Kam, Ralph Stanton, Jan Wallace, Tricia Yu, Eleanor Yuen, Kirsten Walsh, and Sandra Wilkins.  Consultation Questions 1. Why should the library support teaching and learning as a core service? 2. How could the library better support teaching and learning? 3. What are the greatest challenges facing the library in supporting teaching and learning? Consultation Notes Notes from the meetings are available on the Working Group on Teaching and Learning Blog at: http://weblogs.elearning.ubc.ca/wgtl/.  *Additional name added to those present at this consultation, updated December 15, 2006.  16   Appendix B Decline in Demand for In-Person Reference Assistance (ARL Libraries and UBC Library) ACRL Reference Statistics (August 16th 2004 revision) ACRL #reporting 04  #reporting 2004 03 249 124,414  #reporting 2003 02  Presentation to Groups: Median Presentation to Groups: Total  296  Reference Transactions: Median Reference Transactions: Total  22, 368 286 12,256,232  27,402 357 18,314,913  2004  2003  2002  249  245  243  1,244  1,609  1,312  22368  27,402  26,832  122,562  183,149  165,040  376  245 160,857  2002  320 305  243 131,212 26,832 16,504,011  ACRL Presentation to Groups: Median Presentation to Groups: Total* (x100) Reference Transactions: Median Reference Transactions: Total* (x100)  13  ACRL 2002-2004 Presentations to Groups  1800 1600  # of sessions  1400 1200 1000  Median # of sessions  800  Total # of participants (divided by 100)  600 400 200 0  2002  2003  2004  Year  Reference Transactions  Transactions (in thousands)  200 180 160 140 120  Median  100  Total (multiply by 100 for actual figure)  80 60 40 20 0  2002  2003  2004  Year  14  2000/2001 Classes/Orientation: Sessions Classes/Orientation: Participants Total Questions Research Reference Directional  2001/2002  2002/2003  2003/2004  1,587  1377  1471  1,536  21,411  26,276  28230  31,383  372,270 24,423 176,564 171,283  329,445 24,827 162,625 141,993  286,267 18,801 162,703 104,763  254,633 11,433 144,210 98,990  2000/01 - 2003/04 UBC 200 180  Questions (in thousands)  160 140 120 Total Questions Research Total Questions Reference Total Questions Directional  100 80 60 40 20 0 2000/2001  2001/2002  2002/2003  2003/2004  Year  15   Appendix A Graphic Organizer  Teaching and Learning UBC Environment  Relationships Curriculum support  Authentic connection  Students  Student success  Partnering  User centred Know how they think  Evaluation  MURP MUGS  LEAP  Distance Distributed  Curriculum committees Open Access  Scholarly  Programmes  Collaboration  Library publishing Leadership  PBL  Planning  Global  WebCT  Outreach  Information literacy  Time  Knowledge based economy Globalization Pedagogy  Accountability  Faculty  Internationalization  Instructional skills  Refreshers  Teaching and Learning  Interlibrary loan  Resources required  Circulation  Technology  Services Technical support  Synergy  Monographs  Instruction  Evaluation  Databases  Reference  Collections eJournals  Coordination Maximize resources  Librarians’ Role  Quiet study  Improved library services  Group study  Space and Equipment  Library Role  Life-long learning Creative thinking  Laptop lending  12   Report of the Working Group on Teaching and Learning November 2006 Sheryl Adam Charlotte Beck Aleteia Greenwood Amber Lannon Jo-Anne Naslund  1  Table of Contents  Report 1-11 Overview: Retrospective Summary Teaching and Learning at UBC Library  1-2  Focus on User-Centeredness  2-3  Committed Leadership  3-4  Strong Teaching Collaboration with Faculty  4-5  Information Technologies  5-6  The Agile and Flexible Organization  6-7  Summary and Evaluation of Planning Choices  7-8  Conclusion  8  Works Cited  9-11  Appendix A: Teaching and Learning: Graphic Organizer  12  Appendix B: Decline in Demand for In-Person Reference Assistance (ARL Libraries and UBC Library)  13-15  Appendix C: Consultation with Committees and Individuals  16  Appendix D: Teaching and Learning: Background Reading  17-46  2  Report of the Working Group on Teaching and Learning November 2006 Sheryl Adam, Charlotte Beck, Aleteia Greenwood, Amber Lannon, Jo-Anne Naslund Introduction UBC strives to graduate students able to participate effectively in the information society and the knowledge economy; to fulfill the requirements demanded by professional bodies and industry; and to be lifelong learners. In the words of Trek 2010, “[t]he graduates of UBC will have developed strong analytical, problem-solving and critical thinking abilities; they will have excellent research and communication skills” (University of British Columbia, 2006). Within the changing landscape of scholarly communication and electronic resources, critical thinking, active learning, problem-based instruction and effective research require a range of skills defined as information literacy (Association of College and Research Libraries, 2000). By teaching information literacy, the Library promotes academic quality and serves the mandate of the University. In this discussion paper, “teaching and learning” refers to teaching by library staff and learning by students and faculty to become competent in finding, using and evaluating information resources. Overview: Retrospective Summary Teaching and Learning at UBC Library UBC Library has always supported teaching and learning activities in the faculties through its collections, catalogues and the provision of reference service from desks throughout the library. Library tours, print handouts and presentations to classes about library materials and services were later additions, as part of the library’s “bibliographic instruction” program (Hutchins, Fister, & MacPherson, 2002). By the mid-eighties, as information resources expanded to include electronic formats, academic libraries moved toward the provision of instruction based on concepts about information, rather than on physical locations or tools such as the card catalogue and print indexes (Grassian & Kaplowitz, 2001). As librarians became mindful of pedagogical practices that involved combining conceptual-based teaching with assignment-anchored topics and assessed students as they achieved a number of standard skills which came to embody the Information Literacy initiative. Throughout North America and beyond, librarians worked with faculty, instructors, administrators and students to establish information literacy instruction as part of their institutions’ curricula. UBC Library’s program of teaching and learning was consolidated into the “Information Connections” program of the late nineties (supported in large part for more than seven years by a Teaching and Learning Enhancement Fund grant). 3  At the same time, initiatives by individual subject librarians led to the routine inclusion of library instruction in many courses. The American and Canadian Library Associations adopted the ACRL Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education in 1999. Information literacy was identified as a component of lifelong learning and as such was central to the mission of higher education. (Association of College and Research Libraries, 2000; Hughes & Hughes, 1996). Incorporating information literacy across disciplines became a responsibility to be shared by faculty and academic librarians (Cunningham & Lanning, 2002; Dorner, Taylor, & Hodson-Carlton, 2001). In contrast, similar recommendations by the UBC Library Task Group on Information Literacy (Whitehead, Adam, Neame, Rosseel, & Taylor, 2002) were accepted by the Library Administration only in part, and those that were accepted were never fully implemented. Critical Elements for Teaching and Learning We have identified the following primary elements •  focus on user-centeredness  •  committed leadership  •  strong teaching collaboration with faculty  •  supportive information systems and technologies  •  being an agile and flexible learning organization  Focus on User-Centeredness User-centeredness is an underlying theme and fundamental for teaching and learning activities. Almost every activity that librarians endeavor to accomplish is in some way related to user-centeredness. Although definitions of user-centeredness vary widely (Childs, 2006; Dalrymple, 2001; Gust & Haka, 2006; Kupersmith, 2006), the broad acceptance of this approach to many aspects of librarianship reflects the transition of the library from a place to an idea, from a building with a collection, to a virtual and physical learning commons. Given the range of current users, how can the UBC Library meet their teaching and learning needs? As an entity, the UBC Library must focus on the way in which our users access and utilize information (Nahl, 1999). Tools and resources are needed that allow for flexibility so librarians can anticipate, grow with, and adapt to the users’ changing needs, wants and demands. This means being where users are (physically and virtually), designing library tools that use terms that patrons understand, (Kupersmith, 2006) and operate in the way users expect them to operate, i.e. with a Google-like simplicity. Challenges It is difficult to act on suggestions we have already received from user focus groups, and surveys. We have not adopted a process that accommodates change, in part because of a culture that seems to be inwardly focused. 4  Opportunities There are many opportunities for the UBC Library’s teaching and learning program to become more responsive to student needs. For example, we could reorient our planning process so that user needs drive the library’s planning for delivery of teaching and research instruction. This would entail building in regular “conversations” with our users and acting on their answers. For example, ensure that there are student members on library advisory committees, and/or establish a separate library-wide “Students’ advisory committee to the Library”, and make sure that clinical, adjunct and sessional faculty have representation. We could include questions on standard course evaluation forms about library instruction and services and add user testing in the development phase of all locally-controlled library systems. With such information in mind, we could design innovative programs to serve students and faculty more effectively. This could involve participation in program/course orientation sessions, service learning projects, LEAP portal (www.leap.ubc.ca), and interdisciplinary programs and institutes. Committed Leadership When teaching and learning is central to the library’s mission, then information literacy needs are endorsed and re-affirmed both within and outside the library. As faculty struggle to rethink and repackage teaching for the digital world, active leadership from the library could make a significant contribution. It would serve to align our pedagogy with that of the faculties and the library would be part of problem-based, evidence-based, and multidisciplinary instruction. With strong library leadership, there would be opportunities to incorporate information literacy as an institutional goal (Hutchins et al., 2002; Somerville, Schader, & Huston, 2005). Faculty and librarians would have opportunities to develop a shared definition of information literacy that harmonizes with the University’s strategic vision and is endorsed by Senate. Library leadership supports participation of librarians in campus programs and initiatives and establishes mechanisms by which librarians are automatically included as members of faculty/institute committees (Breivik & Gee, 2006). When library administrators who possess a progressive educational vision for the library are recruited, the result is an institutional commitment to teaching and learning activities. Challenges The UBC Library Administration has endorsed the ALA information literacy standards (Association of College and Research Libraries, 2000), as per meeting with the Information Literacy Subcommittee (Kam, Colenbrander, & Giustini, 2006), but no person, unit or committee within the library is charged with leading or co-ordinating information literacy activities. No member of the library administration has been assigned the task of promoting information literacy at the University-wide level. Across the library, administrators and managers communicate uneven expectations about librarians’  5  involvement in teaching and faculty liaison. Opportunities The University's focus on teaching (for example, the creation of the Carl Weiman Science Education Initiative), provides the Library administration and management with a tremendous opportunity to embrace teaching and learning as a core activity of the library. The acknowledgement that this activity is an integral support to the university community as researchers and key participants in the creation of knowledge, positions the University Librarian/Deputy University Librarian to advocate for the teaching role that librarians can play in the academic enterprise. Internally, the adoption of this mission can unite all levels of the UBC Library management team in a common vision and inform decisions around staff and other resource allocation. The UBC Library has a dedicated and trained staff whose further development in light of this vision will ensure that the library “can respond to the ever changing set of workplace skills for both librarians and library staff” (Breivik & Gee., 2006, p.tba). Strong Teaching Collaboration with Faculty Successful information literacy programs begin with early collaboration and the design of learning objectives that are fully integrated into the courses. Teaching collaboration with individual faculty members is based on a strong relationship where faculty perceive the instruction with the librarian as critical to the academic enterprise “[t]o produce socially engaged critical thinkers who are equipped not to be better workers …but to engage in that ongoing curiosity and conversation that helps us understand the world.” (Hutchins et al., 2002, p.tba). Challenges At UBC, collaboration with faculty is generally ad hoc and based on the relationship each subject liaison librarian is able to forge with individual faculty members. With few exceptions, the concepts taught by the librarian form their own syllabus, and library instruction is perceived as an intellectually trivial but helpful support of real academic efforts. While librarians have faculty status at UBC, they are perceived as lacking credentials and/or in-depth knowledge. When librarian and faculty workplaces are in different locations, it is challenge to form collaborative relations, and “shared understanding” (Bruce, 2001) of students, curriculum, assignments. While most library instruction currently takes place in a particular class, the instruction is not integrated into the course. Librarians have had some success in establishing a presence in courses offered in whole or in part on WebCT. Again, this has varied by relationship, with some faculties assigning designer access to librarians as a matter of course, while others simply overlook librarians and access to information altogether during the development and delivery of a WebCT course. If librarians are expected to teach and to liaise with faculty, they require training in educational theory, learning styles, computer interface design, active teaching methods, negotiation skills, public speaking and presentation skills, and should receive incentives  6  and rewards for increasing competencies in teaching and in their subject areas. Opportunities As undergraduate and graduate programs are reviewed, revised and re-designed for online and mixed mode delivery there are many opportunities for collaborative planning and teaching with faculty. The library has the opportunity to partner with several campus units (such as TAG; IsoTL (Institute for the Study of Teaching and Learning), Skylight, Student Horizons in Education, Carl Wieman Science Education initiative, Writing Centre, Student Services, Housing and Recruitment,). By enlisting the support of the Senate Teaching and Learning Committee, the library could formalize its contribution to curriculum development committees and partner with faculty at the planning stages of new course/program/school development or revision. Furthermore, an institution-wide policy could be developed to ensure that library and information instruction is present in all credit programs -- perhaps beginning in online courses. The library could create a database of learning objects to support online and face-to-face courses and develop shared ownership of students’ competencies by working with faculty on a range of collaborative activities, from assessment of assignments to serving on graduate thesis committees. Information Technologies Information technologies are critical to and the subject of library instructional programs (Association of College and Research Libraries, 2000). With an emphasis on convergence, the trend in many academic libraries has given rise to information or learning commons -- collaborative spaces in the library, where instruction, technology and research support are provided by library, computing, writing centre and student services staff. As new ways to seek information evolve, it is necessary to continuously scan the environment, initiate, experiment and test new technologies in the delivery of information services. New technologies affect the Library’s web page, online catalogue, e-journals and databases; and they often are the subject of and the vehicle for our teaching. Challenges Too much instructional time is spent educating users on how to navigate the UBC Library’s web site and databases - at the expense of time that should be spent on conceptual issues. Our catalogue has one of the least intuitive search interfaces and the several hundred bibliographic databases to which we subscribe do not share software, field names, or limits. Our users expect simplicity and immediate reward. Amazon, Google and iTunes are the standards against which we are judged (Bibliographic Services Task Force. University of California Libraries, 2005). There is a disjuncture between library Information Systems and Technology services and public services, reflected in inappropriate timing for planned changes and in the way information systems are designed. There is a lack of consistency across campus in the setup of computer workstations and even in user authentication. A university wide technology plan involving IT Services, Student Services, UBC Library, and Distance Education and Technology units has not been implemented. 7  Opportunities: By reducing system complexity and redirecting resources to improve our users' experience of the online catalogue and library web pages, there is a great opportunity to make access to our high quality resources as Google-like as possible. Consulting with users in all phases of the process will help profile critical electronic library resources and may result in more staff deployed to handle these resources. Library (or university) portals for users could be developed to personalize their information environment and provide tools that allow for cross-platform/federated searching. As such there would be multiple opportunities for students to employ well-supported information literacy skills. The Agile and Flexible Learning Organization: To support teaching and learning, the Library needs to become a learning organization itself. A learning organization is one that is “skilled at creating, acquiring, and transferring knowledge and modifying its behavior to reflect new knowledge and insights. Flexibility...is a core value….” (Giesecke & McNeil, 2004, p.tba). There is no right model or wrong structure for a learning organisation. Instead, a learning organisation seeks to create “values, practices and procedures in which learning and working are synonymous throughout the organisation”. Learning is a core part of all operations, and one in which the learning strategy is more than a human resource or staff development strategy (Rowley, 1997, p.tba). Even the most radical call for change in the operation of libraries has not proposed that libraries abandon collections or attention to standards or neglect core values. Instead, there is a call to re-examine how we do things in the light of external shifts and to identify key areas that require training and education. For example, in order to be usercentered, library staff who engage in teaching and learning need to be free to work in a variety of settings, virtual and electronic, to be able to determine what those settings will be on a term-to-term basis, and to plan around users. Challenges UBC Library is organized and administered around physical spaces. Insofar as library branches reflect the subject interests of our users, this is appropriate. However, it may not be the most efficient, effective or accessible way to deliver services to our users. We need to be prepared to examine how we do things. Training and development is in transition at UBC Library. While it is reasonable for branches to train new hires in the duties they will carry out at the branch, there is also a need for centralized planning for training that prepare for staff innovation and experimentation. Library data collection continues to be rooted in traditional quantitative patterns and may not provide insight into how and why things have changed.  8  Opportunities “Demonstrate and model a commitment to learning” (Giesecke & McNeil, 2004, p.61). Accelerate and enrich the training of all staff to extend beyond immediate job skills, and incorporate new technologies in training where appropriate. Foster staff innovation by creating a culture where experimentation is encouraged and failure accepted as a practical teacher. Reframe the collection and analysis of data to identify areas of improvement and apply to decision-making. Summary and Evaluation of Planning Choices What planning choices does UBC Library have with respect to teaching and learning? 1. Continue in our current ad hoc way. Implications: This will not serve the mandate of the University and will relegate the Library to irrelevancy. Individual subject librarians will continue to struggle to be effective; budget and planning decisions would continue to lack focus and opportunities to partner with faculties to embed research skills in the curriculum will be missed. The strong leadership needed to champion the Library’s critical role in the academic enterprise will continue to be absent. 2. Ensure that there are Library and university-wide policies that establish the Library’s program of teaching and learning as fundamental to the university’s broader mission of research, teaching and learning. Implications: Requires a strong commitment from all members of the library management team to develop a plan for teaching and learning and to advocate for its adoption as university policy. Allocate existing staff resources to develop and sustain an information literacy program that is integrated into the university’s instructional program. Partner with faculty to seek joint funding opportunities to maximize existing resources. Begin a program of retraining all library staff to understand that every library encounter is a teaching encounter. 3. To become a full-fledged teaching department and offer courses in information literacy to be required by all students (Perhaps as a part of SLAIS). To develop undergraduate and graduate required courses. Implications: Expensive to implement, difficult to get buy-in from other departments of the university, competition with faculties for teaching time, pedagogically less engaging and effective.  9  4. Devolve all information literacy instruction to the faculties and concentrate on working to improve electronic access to resources, making access as user-friendly as possible and keeping pace with the increasing variety and methods of access to information. Implications: Difficult to enumerate the implications because this has not been tried and studied. We can assume there would a decline in use of some resources, a lack of promotion of new resources, and the loss of opportunity to design, adapt or compile electronic resources to meet user needs. Conclusion: The UBC Library has always served the teaching and learning needs of students, teaching faculty and researchers. Now, compelled by technological innovations affecting research; changes in undergraduate and graduate education; and services demanded by learners located in physical and virtual space, it is imperative that the Library be prepared to adopt new and expanding roles. It is clear to this working group that we have reached a critical moment in the delivery of library services at UBC Library. To do nothing would not serve the mandate of the University and would relegate the Library to irrelevancy, where it would no longer be a legitimate participant in the University’s teaching and learning activities. In order to remain vital to the University’s teaching and learning, we must be prepared to take on new and expanding roles in the provision of learning support. In these new roles we will have the opportunity to demonstrate the value of all of our services. However, this can only happen if we become a more flexible and agile organization, where everyone in the organization is working towards a common goal. It will only be in this kind of atmosphere, that the Library’s role in teaching and learning will be able to flourish and grow.  10  Works Cited Association of College and Research Libraries. (2000). Information literacy competency standards for higher education (http://www.ala.org/ala/acrl/acrlstandards/informationliteracycompetency.htm#f4 ed.). Chicago: American Library Association. Retrieved October 23, 2006, from http://www.ala.org/acrl/ilcomstan.html Bibliographic Services Task Force. University of California Libraries. (2005). Rethinking how we can provide bibliographic services for University of California Libraries. Bibliographic Services Task Force. University of California Libraries. Retrieved August 28, 2006, from http://libraries.universityofcalifornia.edu/sopag/BXTF/Final.pdf Breivik, P. S., & Gee, E. G. (2006). Higher education in the internet age : Libraries creating a strategic edge. Westport, Conn.: Praeger Publishers. Bruce, C. (2001). Faculty-librarian partnerships in Australian higher education: Critical dimensions. [Electronic version]. Reference Services Review, 29(2), 106-115. Retrieved October 21, 2006, http://www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/ViewContentServlet? Filename=Published/EmeraldFullTextArticle/Pdf/2400290203.pdf Childs, P. (2006). Shhh! The quiet revolution. New Library World, 107(3/4), 149-156. Cunningham, T. H., & Lanning, S. (2002). New frontier trail guides: Faculty-librarian collaboration on information literacy. Reference Services Review, 30(4), 343-348.  11  Dalrymple, P. W. (2001). A quarter century of user-centered study - the impact of Zweizig and Dervin on LIS research. Library & Information Science Research, 23(2), 155-165. Dorner, J. L., Taylor, S. E., & Hodson-Carlton, K. (2001). Faculty-librarian collaboration for nursing information literacy: A tiered approach. Reference Services Review, 29(2), 132-141. Giesecke, J., & McNeil, B. (2004). Transitioning to the learning organization. Library Trends, 53(1), 54-67. Grassian, E. S., & Kaplowitz, J. R. (2001). Information literacy instruction : Theory and practice. New York: Neal-Schuman. 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