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The Politics of Electronic Publishing: New Developments in Scholarly Communication & Publishing 2009

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Publishing Trends in the Digital Era presentation by Joy Kirchner is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution- Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.5 Canada License 1 㻷㼋㼈㻃㻳㼒㼏㼌㼗㼌㼆㼖㻃㼒㼉㻃㻨㼏㼈㼆㼗㼕㼒㼑㼌㼆㻃㻳㼘㼅㼏㼌㼖㼋㼌㼑㼊 㻱㼈㼚㻃㻧㼈㼙㼈㼏㼒㼓㼐㼈㼑㼗㼖㻃㼌㼑㻃㻶㼆㼋㼒㼏㼄㼕㼏㼜 㻦㼒㼐㼐㼘㼑㼌㼆㼄㼗㼌㼒㼑㻃㻉㻃㻳㼘㼅㼏㼌㼖㼋㼌㼑㼊 㻨㼑㼊㼏㼌㼖㼋㻃㻘㻓㻓㻃㻶㼈㼐㼌㼑㼄㼕 㻤㼓㼕㼌㼏㻃㻕㻏㻃㻕㻓㻓㻜㻑 Joy Kirchner Project Manager, Scholarly Communications & Sciences Collections Librarian for Sciences (STM) Libraries University of British Columbia Library 2 What is scholarly communications? 3 New Developments  Author rights & copyright  Open Access & Open Access Mandates  New models of scholarly publishing & scholarly communication  Institutional repositories 㻷㼋㼈㻃㼗㼕㼄㼇㼌㼗㼌㼒㼑㼄㼏㻃㼐㼒㼇㼈㼏 5  Public granting agencies and universities fund research via tax dollars  Faculty member does the research, writes the article/book, and initially owns the copyright  Publishers require authors to sign over their copyright in return for publication 㻷㼋㼈㻃㻷㼕㼄㼇㼌㼗㼌㼒㼑㼄㼏㻃㻰㼒㼇㼈㼏 㻫㼒㼚㻃㼗㼋㼈㻃㼏㼌㼉㼈㼆㼜㼆㼏㼈㻃㼒㼉㻃㼖㼆㼋㼒㼏㼄㼕㼖㼋㼌㼓㻃㼌㼖㻃㼖㼘㼓㼓㼒㼕㼗㼈㼇 6  Faculty generally provide their work to the publisher for free:  Articles, books, editorial board services, peer review services  Faculty often pay page charges to the publisher for article publication  Later, publishers may charge faculty reprint fees (after all, the publisher owns the copyright) Publishing Trends in the Digital Era presentation by Joy Kirchner is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution- Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.5 Canada License 2 7  Publishers sell scholarly journal subscriptions/licenses to universities (via libraries)  The publishing industry is worth billions of dollars with huge profit margins (applies mostly to STM publishers)  Enormous impact on scholarly book publishing industry  16.1 billion in revenues in 2006;  5.8 billion (36%) earned by top 6:  Elsevier, Kluwer Health, Springer, American Chemical Society, Wiley/Blackwell (merged in 2007)  Publishing in prestigious journals related to tenure & promotion  Citation rates related to tenure/promotion  Libraries provide access to and preserve content - access is restricted to faculty, students, staff of UBC and frequently walk-in users A researcher discovers the perfect article. She clicks on fulltext and gets … …she gets what she wants but now wants to post on her website for a student reading list, share with a colleague at another institution.    Is she permitted do this? What about the author? Is the author? The Online Paradox Web removed barriers by providing global,accessible, reliable, affordable network But more barriers appeared for use of material • license restrictions determined use, • loss of fair dealing provisions for online content, • prohibitive costs CPI up 57% Average serial price up 227% Average book price up 65% 㻷㼋㼈㻃㻷㼕㼄㼇㼌㼗㼌㼒㼑㼄㼏㻃㻤㼆㼆㼈㼖㼖 㻰㼒㼇㼈㼏㻝 㻰㼒㼙㼈㼇㻃㼉㼕㼒㼐㻃㼒㼚㼑㼈㼕㼖㼋㼌㼓㻃㻋㼓㼕㼌㼑㼗㻌㻃㼗㼒 㻯㼌㼆㼈㼑㼖㼌㼑㼊㻃㼐㼒㼇㼈㼏㻃㻋㼒㼑㼏㼌㼑㼈㻌㻝 㻤㼆㼆㼈㼖㼖㻃㻳㼈㼕㼐㼌㼖㼖㼌㼒㼑㼖 㻋㻧㼌㼊㼌㼗㼄㼏㻃㻵㼌㼊㼋㼗㼖㻃㻰㼄㼑㼄㼊㼈㼐㼈㼑㼗㻃㻋㻧㻵㻰㻌 㻶㼘㼅㼖㼆㼕㼌㼓㼗㼌㼒㼑㻃㼆㼒㼖㼗㼖㻃㼉㼒㼕㻃㼄㼆㼆㼈㼖㼖 䇿㻃㻵㼈㼖㼗㼕㼌㼆㼗㼌㼙㼈  Copyright/licensing Permission barriers - too restrictive  Too costly – therefore restrictive  Existing models do not encourage free flow of information sharing. Publishing Trends in the Digital Era presentation by Joy Kirchner is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution- Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.5 Canada License 3 13 What about the author?  Can the Author share his article with others, archive (post) his article on a website or a repository? Is the author? Author Rights and Copyright 15 Copyright & Copyright transfer agreements (publisher agreements)  Author has copyright unless it is signed over to someone else  Copyright transfer agreements/publisher agreements Some or all rights signed over (copyright is a bundle of rights) 16 Journal of Commonwealth Literature Sage Publication Mandated OA 17 Sage Journal Contributor’s Agreement Author Rights Post a version (not published SAGE version) in a repository, reuse in future publication after 12 months, share a photocopy for teaching needs or on, an individual basis, share with other researchers on a not-for-profit basis. Author retains copyright … but grants SAGE exclusive right to publish for the full legal term of copyright 18 Victorian Literature and Culture Cambridge University Press Publishing Trends in the Digital Era presentation by Joy Kirchner is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution- Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.5 Canada License 4 19 American Association of Australian Literary Studies BLUE Publisher 20 Tools for Authors: Author Addenda  SPARC Canadian Author Addendum  http://www.carl-abrc.ca/projects/author/author-e.html  MIT Amendment to Publication Agreement  http://info-libraries.mit.edu/scholarly/mit-copyright-amendment-form/  Scholar’s Copyright Addendum Engine  http://sciencecommons.org/projects/publishing/scae/  JISC/SURF Copyright Toolbox  http://copyrighttoolbox.surf.nl/copyrighttoolbox/authors/ 21 Scholar’s Copyright Addendum Engine Creative Commons Licenses 23 㻲㼓㼈㼑㻃㻤㼆㼆㼈㼖㼖㻃㻉 㻲㼓㼈㼑㻃㻤㼆㼆㼈㼖㼖㻃㻰㼄㼑㼇㼄㼗㼈㼖 Open Access Mandates 㻰㼄㼑㼇㼄㼗㼈㼖㻃㼗㼒㻃㻨㼑㼆㼒㼘㼕㼄㼊㼈㻃㻲㻤㻃㼉㼕㼒㼐㻃㼊㼕㼄㼑㼗㻃㼉㼘㼑㼇㼌㼑㼊㻃㼄㼊㼈㼑㼆㼌㼈㼖 In Canada:  Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) – as of Jan 1, 2008: Research must be deposited in an Institutional Repository or Pubmed Central within 6 months of publication.  (SSHRC, NSERC …) Elsewhere worldwide:  As of October 1, 2006, all Wellcome Trust funded research must be deposited in PubMed Central:  U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) – deposited in OA within 12 months of publication as of April 7, 2008.  Federal Research Public Access Act of 2006 (Senate Bill 2695)  U.K. House of Commons Science & Technology Committee  European Union & DAREnet Publishing Trends in the Digital Era presentation by Joy Kirchner is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution- Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.5 Canada License 5 㻺㼋㼜㻃㻲㼓㼈㼑㻃㻤㼆㼆㼈㼖㼖㻢  Research results are paid for twice over by public tax dollars:  Research grants/faculty salaries  Journal subscriptions  Access to research is restricted to institutions that can afford the journals  Public Access to information  Authors rights restrictions  Conflict of interest Eg. Smith R (2005) Medical Journals Are an Extension of the Marketing Arm of Pharmaceutical Companies. PLoS Med 2(5): e138 Published: May 17, 2005 Technological advancement … new authoring & publishing technologies Pressure for change:  132 PROVOSTS support Open Access: http://www.arl.org/sparc/advocacy/frpaa/institutions.html “If universities pay the salaries of researchers and provide them with labs, and the federal government provides those researchers with grants for their studies, why should those same universities feel they can’t afford to have access to research findings?” http://insidehighered.com/news/2006/07/28/provosts  Researchers are putting pressure on Societies: (e.g. Royal Society members); PLoS’ Open letter: http://www.plos.org/support/openletter.shtml  OA publications are more often cited: Eysenbach G. Citation advantage of open access articles. PLoS Biol 2006;4(5):e157. 27 Faculty Mandates: ie. Harvard’s OA Policy 㻤㼇㼙㼒㼆㼄㼗㼌㼑㼊㻃㻦㼋㼄㼑㼊㼈 29 Student Activism 㻷㼋㼈㻃㻪㼒㼏㼇㻃㻵㼒㼄㼇㻃䇬 㻲㼓㼈㼑㻃㻤㼆㼆㼈㼖㼖㻃㻳㼘㼅㼏㼌㼖㼋㼈㼕㼖  Directory of Open Access Journals  Biomed Central - 189 peer-reviewed open access  Public Library of Science (PLOS):  Free Medical Journals  PubMed Central  UBC’s Public Knowledge Project: OJS Publishing Trends in the Digital Era presentation by Joy Kirchner is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution- Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.5 Canada License 6 㻫㼜㼅㼕㼌㼇㻃㼒㼓㼈㼑㻃㼄㼆㼆㼈㼖㼖  American Chemical Society  American Institute of Physics  American Physical Society  BMJ (British Medical Journal)  Blackwell  Cambridge University Press  Elsevier  Oxford University Press  Royal Society (UK)  SAGE Open  Springer  Taylor and Francis Publishers offering article by article payment for open accessibility 32 Traditional subscription access model Open Access Publishing 33 2 Paths to Open Access manuscript …. Open Access journal (Directory of Open Access Journals) Open access copy in online archive (cIRcle; SSRN) Traditional subscription  access journals Articles can be made OA by publishing in an OA journal or archiving OA copies from a traditional publication gold Open Access Publishing New Models of Scholarly Publishing green 34 35 IR’s around the world … 36 Subject Disciplinary Repositories  arXiv.org: Open access to 419,855 e-prints in Physics, Mathematics, Computer Science and Quantitative Biology  Pubmed Central: Free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature at the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH)  Social Science Research Network: Social Science Research Network (SSRN) is devoted to the rapid worldwide dissemination of social science research and is composed of a number of specialized research networks in each of the social sciences.  NELLCO Legal Scholarship Repository Consortium of 100 (law school) institutions  The Alexandria Archive Institute http://www.alexandriaarchive.org/ The Alexandria Archive Institute works to build an open, Internet-based, knowledge commons of world cultural heritage. Includes documentation of archaeological and related research, including: reports, observations, maps, plans, analyses, digital files and images of excavations and surveys Publishing Trends in the Digital Era presentation by Joy Kirchner is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution- Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.5 Canada License 7 37 38 㻷㼋㼈㻃㼈㼐㼈㼕㼊㼈㼑㼆㼈㻃㼒㼉㻃㼑㼈㼚㻃㼐㼒㼇㼈㼏㼖㻃㼒㼉 㼖㼆㼋㼒㼏㼄㼕㼏㼜㻃㼓㼘㼅㼏㼌㼖㼋㼌㼑㼊 㻷㼕㼈㼑㼇㻃㼗㼒㻃㻲㼓㼈㼑㼏㼜㻃㻤㼙㼄㼌㼏㼄㼅㼏㼈 Open Source Open Textbooks Open Data Open Education Open Access Open access “flavors” Gold and green Back issues open Hybrid open access Public access Notion of authorship & scholarly publishing is rapidly evolving  㻱㼈㼚㻃㼗㼈㼆㼋㼑㼒㼏㼒㼊㼌㼈㼖㻏㻃㼌㼑㼗㼈㼕㼄㼆㼗㼌㼙㼈㻃㼐㼘㼏㼗㼌㼐㼈㼇㼌㼄㻏㻃㼒㼑㼏㼌㼑㼈㻐㼒㼑㼏㼜㻃㼖㼆㼋㼒㼏㼄㼕㼏㼜 㼕㼈㼖㼒㼘㼕㼆㼈㼖  㻷㼋㼈㻃㼌㼇㼈㼄㻃㼒㼉㻃䇵㼌㼑㻐㼓㼕㼒㼊㼕㼈㼖㼖䇶㻃㼆㼒㼐㼐㼘㼑㼌㼆㼄㼗㼌㼒㼑㻃㼕㼄㼗㼋㼈㼕㻃㼗㼋㼄㼑㻃㼄㻃㼉㼌㼑㼄㼏 㼄㼕㼆㼋㼌㼙㼄㼏㻃㼓㼘㼅㼏㼌㼆㼄㼗㼌㼒㼑㻑  㻶㼆㼋㼒㼏㼄㼕㼏㼜㻃㼓㼕㼒㼇㼘㼆㼗㼖㻃㼄㼕㼈㻃㼗㼄㼎㼌㼑㼊㻃㼒㼑㻃㼐㼄㼑㼜㻃㼑㼈㼚㻃㼉㼒㼕㼐㼖㻝㻃㼇㼄㼗㼄㼅㼄㼖㼈㼖㻏 㼇㼄㼗㼄㼖㼈㼗㼖㻏㻃㼇㼌㼊㼌㼗㼄㼏㻃㼗㼈㼛㼗㻏㻃㼌㼐㼄㼊㼈㼖㻏㻃㼖㼌㼐㼘㼏㼄㼗㼌㼒㼑㼖㻏㻃㼙㼌㼖㼘㼄㼏㼌㼝㼄㼗㼌㼒㼑㻏㻃㼄㼑㼌㼐㼄㼗㼌㼒㼑㻏 㼖㼓㼈㼆㼌㼄㼏㼌㼝㼈㼇㻃㼖㼒㼉㼗㼚㼄㼕㼈㻃䇿 㻤㻃㼆㼋㼄㼑㼊㼌㼑㼊㻃㼓㼌㼆㼗㼘㼕㼈㻃㼉㼒㼕㻃㼄㼏㼏㻃㼗㼋㼒㼖㼈㻃㼌㼑㼙㼒㼏㼙㼈㼇㻃㼌㼑㻃㼖㼘㼓㼓㼒㼕㼗㼌㼑㼊㻃㼗㼋㼈㻃㼏㼌㼉㼈㻐㼆㼜㼆㼏㼈㻃㼒㼉 㼖㼆㼋㼒㼏㼄㼕㼖㼋㼌㼓㻃㻋㼕㼈㼖㼈㼄㼕㼆㼋㼈㼕㼖㻏㻃㼄㼘㼗㼋㼒㼕㼖㻏㻃㼈㼇㼌㼗㼒㼕㼖㻏㻃㼕㼈㼙㼌㼈㼚㼈㼕㼖㻏㻃㼓㼘㼅㼏㼌㼖㼋㼈㼕㼖㻏 㼏㼌㼅㼕㼄㼕㼌㼈㼖㻏㻃㼉㼘㼑㼇㼈㼕㼖㻏㻃㼕㼈㼄㼇㼈㼕㼖㻌 㻺㼋㼄㼗䇲㼖㻃㼄㻃㼑㼈㼚㻃㼐㼒㼇㼈㼏㻢  Internet enabled  New genres: new forms of presentation, new information blends  New mode for interaction  New business models  New relationships to peer review 42 㻤㻵㻯㻒㻬㼗㼋㼄㼎㼄㻃㻵㼈㼓㼒㼕㼗㻃䇬㻃䇵㻦㼘㼕㼕㼈㼑㼗㻃㻰㼒㼇㼈㼏㼖㻃㼒㼉㻃㻧㼌㼊㼌㼗㼄㼏㻃㻶㼆㼋㼒㼏㼄㼕㼏㼜㻃㻦㼒㼐㼐㼘㼑㼌㼆㼄㼗㼌㼒㼑䇶 http://www.arl.org/bm~doc/current-models-report.pdf Highlights from the study's findings include:  While some disciplines seem to lend themselves to certain formats of digital resource more than others, examples of innovative resources can be found across the humanities, social sciences, and scientific/technical/medical subject areas.  Most original scholarly work operates under some form of peer review or editorial oversight.  Some of the resources with greatest impact are those that have been around a long while.  Some resources serve very large audiences, some are small & tailored to niche groups.  Innovations relating to multimedia content and Web 2.0 functionality appear in some.  Projects of all sizes--especially open-access sites and publications--employ a range of support strategies in the search for financial sustainability. Faculty choices, original, scholarly, evaluated Publishing Trends in the Digital Era presentation by Joy Kirchner is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution- Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.5 Canada License 8 43 Top Reasons Faculty Use New Models 1. Provides access to current research 2. Facilitates exchanges among scholars 3. Supplies useful co-location of works 44 Disciplinary Differences Humanities & Social Sciences o More often cited the value of models that facilitate exchange of ideas - E-only journals most commonly cited genre, then discussion forums STM o More often cited the value of models that provided access to new research - More often cited the value of data sites & e-only journals Faculty at all stages of their career are experimenting with new models 45 Preprints & working papers New distribution model; peer review 46 E-only journals Experiments with new peer review models 47 Discussion Forums http://www.h-france.net/forum/h-franceforum.html 48 Blogs Use of Web 2.0 technologies; New mode of interaction http://researchblogging.org/ Publishing Trends in the Digital Era presentation by Joy Kirchner is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution- Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.5 Canada License 9 49 Encyclopedias, dictionaries, annotated content Dynamic, constantly updated, in progress 50 Encyclopedias, dictionaries, annotated content  New genre/ new information blend? 51 Categories?  -- or new genres/information blends? 52 Category? Book? Blog?-- or new genre? 53 Professional & Academic Hubs New Genres/New information blends?  New containers for content (also for storage & interface)  Notion that information is harvestable  Can be repurposed, repackaged from wherever it exists…  New groupings of information   hubs 54 Data Sources Publishing Trends in the Digital Era presentation by Joy Kirchner is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution- Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.5 Canada License 10 㻣㻸㻥㻦㻃㻯㼌㼅㼕㼄㼕㼜  Infrastructure Support for New Models  IR – cIRcle  E-journal Hosting using PKP’s OJS software  Digitization projects  UBC Library Supports memberships to OA publications  PLOS,  BMC,  DOAJ  Scholarly Communication Steering Committee Engaging in Research  Environmental Scan of SC activities on our campus  New Publishing Models Study  ARL, UBC Library, Cornell University Library and the University of Washington Library - Ithaka sponsorship.  Purpose of the project:  Learn how faculty/researchers are involved in new models of scholarship on 44 campuses  Develop a database of new models 㻶㼆㼋㼒㼏㼄㼕㼏㼜㻃㻦㼒㼐㼐㼘㼑㼌㼆㼄㼗㼌㼒㼑㼖㻃㻶㼗㼈㼈㼕㼌㼑㼊 㻦㼒㼐㼐㼌㼗㼗㼈㼈  Began March 2008, includes:  faculty, librarians, and other stakeholders  Mandate includes:  considering a long term view of issues/trends in scholarly publishing and sustainability of new models  Facilitating formalized discussion and education of these issues with faculty, research and publishing constituencies on our campus.  In discussions with Office of Research Services & others about setting up infrastructure support for the CIHR mandate  Journal Editors Forum  Partnership with UBC Press 㻦㼒㼑㼗㼄㼆㼗㻃㻬㼑㼉㼒㼕㼐㼄㼗㼌㼒㼑 Joy Kirchner Project Manager, Scholarly Communications & Sciences Collections Librarian for Science (STM) Libraries (604) 827-3644 joy.kirchner@ubc.ca

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