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Applying ATLAS.ti and Nesstar WebView to the LibQUAL+® Results at UBC Library: Getting Started Friesen, Margaret 2009

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Applying ATLAS.ti and Nesstar WebView to the LibQUAL+® Results at UBC Library: Getting Started Margaret Friesen University of British Columbia, Canada  Abstract  We asked survey respondents: How can the UBC Library serve you better? Please tell us! The respondents replied: By making it easier to FIND resources, people, places, and help. The University of British Columbia (UBC) Library participated in the LibQUAL+® survey for the first time in January/February 2007. The preliminary quantitative data from ARL (notebooks, including radar charts; LibQUAL+® Analytics-Institution Explorer; other worksheets and templates, etc.) were used and shared with over 200 library staff in open sessions. To get started with the qualitative analysis and to enhance the quantitative data, we used two analytical tools: ATLAS.ti and Nesstar WebView. We downloaded the “comments” from LibQUAL+® to ATLAS.ti and the SPSS files to Nesstar WebView. These tools enabled us to analyze the qualitative and quantitative data systematically, to expose and explore relationships between the qualitative and quantitative data, and to focus the results of the survey on specific user groups, places and services.  The two largest libraries are the Koerner Library (Humanities & Social Sciences, including government publications, maps, microforms, circulation) and The Irving K. Barber Learning Centre (Barber). Barber was in a state of being re-constructed during the 2007 survey period. At the time of the survey, it housed Art+Architecture+Planning, Science and Engineering, Rare Books & Special Collections, University Archives, the Automated Storage Retrieval System, and Circulation. In spring 2008, the newly renovated heritage core and a new wing were opened, including the Learning Commons, meeting rooms, multi-purpose classrooms, social spaces, café, and more. Other branch libraries are Asian, David Lam (management), Education, Law, Music, Robson Square, Woodward (life sciences), Xwi7xwa (First Nations) and three off-site hospital libraries: Biomedical Branch, Hamber, St. Paul's.  A. General LibQUAL+® Results  The preliminary quantitative data revealed that, in general, undergraduates were satisfied with library services, with some exceptions, but that the library did not meet the minimum service level for the “Information Control” dimension (collections, Introduction: The Environment access to collections) for graduate students and The University of British Columbia Vancouver faculty. campus sprawls over an area of 993 acres (402 A preliminary perusal of the “comments” hectares), encompasses 12 faculties, enrolls nearly 45,000 students at its Vancouver campus and nearly survey question (qualitative data) revealed two 5,000 at its Okanagan campus. Of the nearly 50,000 divergent sets of perceptions. LibQUAL+® respondents commented students, 9,000 are graduate students and 6,000 are positively on these issues: international students. Over 3,500 faculty and 300 x the library's “transition to online” program FTE library staff work at UBC. (moving from print to electronic journals); The library system is highly decentralized, with x liaison services by subject librarians; nine libraries on the Vancouver Point Grey site, four libraries off-site in Vancouver and one library x teaching and learning programs; at the UBC-Okanagan campus in Kelowna. UBC-O x their many positive encounters with staff; and Library conducted its own LibQUAL+® survey in x the Interlibrary Loan/Document Delivery 2007, the results of which are not discussed in this services (this was not a survey question, but the paper. service received a noteworthy “write-in” vote of confidence). 449  2008 Library Assessment Conference  However, respondents frequently used the word “difficult” to describe their experiences in finding resources, people, places, and help: x resources are often hidden/invisible/lost, not where they are “supposed” to be; x service points are hidden, especially in the two largest branch libraries; x people are sometimes hard to find, subject specialists are too scarce; x policies and procedures are sometimes difficult to find online; x online help is hard to find or presented inconsistently; x some libraries are hard to find; x some places within libraries are hard to find; and x some content is hard to find.  individual ideas in the comments to over 3,600 snippets (parts of comments or subtopics). The coding scheme included the three LibQUAL+® dimensions, codes for all 22 core questions and demographics. In addition, we assigned free coding, using simple keywords from the respondents' own words or concepts that would be meaningful to librarians. The process of coding allowed for serendipitous discovery and was iterative. As we entered more codes, we discovered connections between codes, eliminated repetitious codes, and substituted better terms.  2. The process: analyzing the codes We sorted the codes by frequency of occurrence and streamlined the coding further by dropping codes, re-coding some comments/snippets, and adding others. The frequency of codes, sorted high to low, began to reveal the potential importance of common themes. For example, we were surprised B. ATLAS.ti: Discovering “What” and “Why” by the number of concerns about the physical ATLAS.ti enabled us to analyze the comments in a access to collections and the range of perceived systematic way, to uncover patterns, to consolidate gaps in collections. The analysis of the codes also common threads, and to focus on the most pointed to a number of issues related to access, one important concerns. of many signs that the collections gaps may have several causes, not only “real” gaps in holdings, but 1. The process: coding the comments also findability gaps. We assigned 126 codes to the 369 comments received from respondents, expanding the  Table 1. ATLAS.ti Codes - Frequency in Descending Order Demographics Issues Library Used Codes (#) Codes (#) Codes (#) Faculty (242) Services (177) Koerner - HSS (242) Grad (232) Collections (136) Woodward - LifeSci ( 64) SocSci ( 88) Positive (116) IKBLC - SciEng, FA ( 58) Humanities ( 77) Instruction (105) Educ ( 34) Undergrad ( 77) Physical access ( 98) Science/Math Gaps - Collections ( 97) HealthSci Reference Age 23-30* Library Web site Age to 22* E-journals AppSci Books Access *over 30 not coded Negative (63) Number of respondents: 755 Number of comments: 369 Number of codes: 126 Number of snippets: 3,656  450  Friesen  3. The Process: Creating Code Families Using the Code Manager in ATLAS.ti, we combined codes into code “families,” representing both broad and narrow concerns. For example,  when combined, the codes in the "collections family" connected the specific detailed examples of collections gaps to the broader collections concerns.  Table 2. Code Families Collections Family Codes # 12print 37 13e-info res 12 17journals 13 A/V 15 Asian lang 2 Books 73 Browsing 11 Collections 136 Datafiles 1 e-books 7 e-journals 81 Exhibits 2 Gaps 97 ILL/DD 25 Microforms 7 Missing 18 Newspapers 3 Preservation 4 Print journals 28 RBSC 1 Reserves 8 Theses 3 Total codes 584 Individual codes could "belong" to more than one family, creating the possibility of overlap and/or links between themes, e.g., the code “browsing” relates to the ”collections family” and “teaching and learning family” and the “physical access” family, depending on the context of the code.  and code families, creating “queries” and manageable reports (“query reports”).  The 3,656 snippets of comments could now be assembled into manageable printed reports by broad themes. We called for volunteers to assist with the analysis of the “comments” and their 4. Theme Teams Discover “What” and “Why” associated codes. Thirty-two volunteers responded Three ATLAS.ti tools helped us to tailor the from across the library system. All three employee comments to specific audiences: groups participated, librarians, library assistants, x Code Manager: simplifies the process of coding, and “management and professional” staff (systems, circulation supervisors). sorting the codes, revealing the most frequent The initial sorting of codes, creation of code codes; families, and query reports indicated that four x Network Editor: enables understanding the Theme Teams might be appropriate: connections between codes; and x Query Tool: enables sorting, combining codes 451  2008 Library Assessment Conference  x  Customer services (behaviours, skills, expertise, x What issues might be addressed in the longer teaching & learning); term (might require additional staffing or funding resources)? x Access to information and access to collections; x Is this a collections gap? x Collections and gaps; and x Is this an access to collections question? x Place and physical access. x Is this a findability/navigation question? In addition, a few individual analysts also x Is this a policy/procedural issue? volunteered to look at the comments from specific x Is this a physical access issue (signage, user groups and disciplines. Some tailored query findability, arrangement, missing/misshelved)? reports were also distributed to branch heads and x Is this a teaching and learning issue? standing committees (on public services, e-Library x How can we best communicate the results from services, reference, and instruction). your team to the library administration, staff, The four Theme Teams were asked to consider the users? following questions: x What are the 3-5 main themes/concerns? The Theme Teams perused their respective x Why are these concerns? reports and identified 14 dominant themes. When x What issues might be addressed in the short all teams assembled to share their stories and term? compare their findings, four main themes emerged, x What issues cannot be addressed now (but as follows. might be explained/clarified)?  Table 3. Theme Teams Identify Main Themes (“What” and “Why”) Team 1 Team 2 Team 3 Customer Services Access to Information Collections -behaviours, skills, and and expertise Access to Collections Gaps -teaching & learning Top 4 Themes: Findability Findability Findability Education (teaching & Education (teaching & Education (teaching &  Findability Education (teaching &  Visibility  Visibility  learning)  learning)  Visibility Accessibility  learning)  Access to collections Access to information  Team 4 Place and Physical Access  learning)  Finally, a common overarching word emerged. The one big idea was “findability.”  to address these service gaps, at least in part, either in the short term or longer term.  LibQUAL+® respondents said: make it easier to find: x the people (in-person helpers, subject expertise); x information (about the resources, about contacts, about the places, about help on the Web site); x resources (the content, access to the content); and x places (the libraries and inside the libraries).  C. Nesstar: Discovering “Who” and “Where”  In response, the Theme Teams recommended ways 452  We turned to Nesstar WebView for a more detailed analysis of the quantitative data. This analysis would allow us to pinpoint more closely “who” was most concerned and “where”—which libraries, places, disciplines, or functions required attention the most. In LibQUAL+® terms, the advantages of using Nesstar WebView for this purpose include: x usability by novice and expert alike; x a choice of universal or limited access;  Friesen  x x x x x  x  ability to search by survey or by survey variable; ability to download any statistical program, SPSS, SAS, or other program; ability to create user-defined variables; ability to view and manipulate selected data only (layers, subsets, filters); ability to customize output for specific audiences and purposes o view online tables, charts, pdf format o export data to spreadsheets, export pdf files; and perhaps most important, with Web access, assessment teams can view the data online and create/manipulate the tables and charts in consultation with each other.  1. Exploring Data, Searching Surveys, and Variables We loaded the SPSS data for three datasets: x UBC Library (UBC-Vancouver and UBCOkanagan); x UBC West; and  x  UBC CARL (Canadian Association of Research Libraries consortium).  2. Customizing Data: Browsing, Analyzing, Computing, Re-coding Since UBC Vancouver and UBC-Okanagan data were initially combined into one dataset, we created two new “user-defined” variables: UBCVancouver and UBC-Okanagan. The new variable “UBC-Vancouver” allowed us to isolate the data for UBC-V only. We explored the LibQUAL+® story in more detail through the application of layers, filters, subsets, and additional user-defined variables (recoding), for example: x layers (survey, branch library); x filters (user group, disciplines); x subsets (the four largest branch libraries or benchmark libraries); and x user-defined variables (combined branches: Koerner, Barber). This is illustrated by the following two Nesstar tables:  Table 4. Nesstar WebView Window  User defined variables  Data  Key: Left column = survey data and variables, including user-defined variables, selecting layers, selecting row/column tables for output Center column = description, tabulation, analysis views Top right column = buttons to weight data, make graphs, create subsets, view/print/download output 453  2008 Library Assessment Conference  Table 5. Branch Libraries and Age Group (UBC-V Survey)  Key: Layer = UBCV (University of British Columbia Vancouver survey) User-defined variable = “combined branches” Tabulation = LibQUAL+® variables: branch library, age of respondent Subset = selected 4 libraries 3. Customizing the Output Customized tables were viewed online or printed out in several ways: x previewing, viewing and printing PDF files in Nesstar WebView; x exporting tables to spreadsheets; x exporting tables as PDF files; and x downloading data and manipulating spreadsheets.  specialized materials in Koerner for data services, map information, social science literature, browsing, attending information literacy classes, or meeting friends? Will this “gate count” change when Barber gets rediscovered by students and faculty? 2. Why are e-resources so difficult to find? Is the collections “gap” really a resource issue or is it perhaps a findability issue? Which resources are hidden? Does usage increase with better visibility on the Web site? D. Steps to Assessment These customized statistical reports and the Theme 3. How can physical access be improved? How can we make the big small(er)? How can we Teams' reports point us to the next stage of overcome the complexities of a multi-branch, assessment planning and programming. Some decentralized library system? Can the arrangement possible investigations to pursue are as follows. of materials be made more consistent between 1. Why are respondents in the sciences using the Koerner Library (the “humanities & social sciences” buildings? Can better signage and online information improve wayfinding? library) in such high numbers? It's a long walk from most science teaching and lab 4. How will the results of the next LibQUAL+® survey (2009) compare with the 2007 survey? classrooms to the Koerner Library. Is this usage a Specifically, what difference will the opening of sign of increasing interdisciplinarity in research? Are science students and faculty using the 454  Friesen  Barber have made to perceptions of “library as place”?  Conclusion  In summary, use of both analytical tools, ATLAS.ti and Nesstar, and the Theme Teams' insightful interpretation of the data helped us to understand the LibQUAL+® story. The clear message from  users was to make it easier for them to find people, information, resources, places (and inside the places). This directive informs our assessment plans and programs to improve customer services, the library Web site, access to collections, and to address gaps in our collections. —Copyright 2008 Margaret Friesen  Nesstar: A Brief Description Nesstar (Networked Social Science Tools and Resources) http://www.nesstar.com Contact: Norwegian Social Science Data Services (NSD) http://www.nsd.uib.no/nsd/english/index.html Nesstar is a Web-based software system used to publish and share statistical data. The tools enable finding, browsing, visualizing and analyzing data online, as well as publishing various kinds of survey data. Nesstar is a complete metadata authoring tool (description of the various elements of the data resource, including documentation) and is DDI compliant (a metadata standard used for documenting datasets developed in European and North American agencies). http://www.nesstar.com/software/publisher.html Nesstar WebView is used to view data and metadata that have been published with Nesstar Publisher via a Nesstar Server. Nesstar WebView incorporates the following features: 1. searching and browsing x simple and advanced search x ability to browse data and accompanying documentation 2. analytical tools x display of descriptive statistics x crosstabulations x correlations x regressions x compute and recode x graphical representations of data in customizable forms x application of variable weights 3. data access x support for datasets to be downloaded in various statistical formats x subset functionality for customizing data according to users' needs http://www.nesstar.com/sofware/webview.html  455   ®  Getting Started: Applying ATLAS.ti and NESSTAR WebView to the LibQUAL+® Results at UBC Library  by Margaret Friesen, Assessment Librarian, University of British Columbia Library  1  The Environment UBC Vancouver Campus 9 libraries on campus, 5 off campus  Barber (IKBLC)  Koerner  Off-site: 3 hospital libraries, Robson Square Library, UBC Okanagan (Kelowna)  2  • • • • •  nearly 50,000 students 3,500 faculty 9,000 graduate students 6,000 international students 300 library staff  3  LibQUAL respondents Transition to Online program Liaison services Teaching and learning programs People Undergrads – generally satisfactory ? Grads/faculty – Information Control concerns ? Place concerns 4  What and why? Exploring themes (ATLAS.ti)  369 comments 126 separate codes 3656 snippets (quotations)  5  ATLAS.ti  ®  Workspaces Query tool Query tool  Survey comments  Coding  Relationships  6  The Process Coding the comments Frustrated?  Comments  Add codes iterative  7  The Process: analysing the codes  - code frequencies  Surprise 1  GROUNDED DESCENDING Koerner Faculty Service Grad Collections positive InfoContPhys Gaps Undergrad negative etc TOTAL:  242 232 177 164 136 116 98 97 77 63 3656  -code families  ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !  COLLECTIONS FAMILY 12print 13e-info res 17journals A/V Asian lang Books Browsing Collections Datafiles e-Books e-jnls Exhibits Gaps ILL/DD Microforms Missing Newspapers Preservation Print jnls RBSC Reserves Theses  37 12 13 15 2 73 11 136 1 7 81 2 97 25 7 18 3 4 28 1 8 3  22 codes  8  The Process: Output to Theme Teams  Query Report “17journals” 13 (quotations) found for Query Codes: [10e-res access] [11libweb][17journals][AppSci][Grad]…. Quotation: …but sometimes I have difficulty finding proceedings…published in journals  9  What and Why? Theme Teams’ Process Identify main concerns Theme teams (4) 1. Customer Services  2. - Access to -behaviours/skills/expertise Information -teaching & learning  3. Collections and 4. Place and Physical Access Gaps  - Access to Collections  Themes (top 4) Findability  Findability  Education  Education  Visibility  Visibility  Findability physical Education  Findability Education Visibility  Accessibility Access to collections/ Access to information 10  What and Why?  The one big idea = Findability  Resources (content, access to) People (in person, expertise) Places (physical access) Information (help in person, website) 11  Who? where? (NESSTAR WebView)*  Streamlines finding/accessing/analyzing statistical information  Anyone can use Search survey/variable Any statistics program User defined variables To begin. . . Click on the small plus sign beside The UBC Data Services Collection in the area on the the left.  (Surprise 2!)  Layers Subsets  *Networked Social Science Tools and Resources (NESSTAR) Norwegian Social Science Data Services NSD -web-based software to publish/share statistical data http://www.nsd.uib.no/nsd/english/index.html  Filters Output  12  Customizing the data and output  Layers (UBC-V) Subsets (branch-Koerner)  Filters User defined variables  Data  (disc – sciences; users-ug’s)  Output  13  The Process: 2 tools (ATLAS.ti, NESSTAR) + 4 theme teams = clear message from users info/people resources places  “make it easier to find” Thank you !  14  

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