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The Failure of Access : Rethinking Open Education Abeywardena, Ishan; Alperin, Juan Pablo; Hendricks, Christina; Omassi, Jenna; Robertson, Tara; Yano, Brady Mar 28, 2017

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Ishan Abeywardena, PhDAdviser: Open Educational ResourcesSFU, Harbour Centre, VancouverMarch 28, 2017Failure of Access:Rethinking Open EducationUnless otherwise specified, this presentation is available under CC BY-SA 4.0 InternationalOpen Education• Open as to people, • Open as to places, • Open as to methods, and, finally, • Open as to ideas– Lord CrowtherPhilosophy of ‘Open-ness’Attribution: Kanwar, Mishra & Cheng. (2016). Open Education in Asia: Changing Perspectives. http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/2444Open Education• Education for All• Open access to courses or programmes• OER • Open textbooks• Open research• Open data– Bates, 2015EducationOpennessEducation without Barriersi.e• No entry qualifications• Credit banking• Cafeteria approach to courses• Anytime, anywhere‘Open-ness’ in PracticeAttribution: Kanwar, Mishra & Cheng. (2016). Open Education in Asia: Changing Perspectives. http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/2444; Thom Cochrane https://flic.kr/p/8zpYEJMOOCs in 2010sTechnologyOpen availability of content and resources since 2000sContentOpen means open entry, easier access to study, increased enrollment since 1960s.Access“Open-ness”: an evolving conceptAttribution: Kanwar, Mishra & Cheng. (2016). Open Education in Asia: Changing Perspectives. http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/2444The DemandAttribution: Kanwar, Balasubramanian. (2015). Skilling a Nation’s Future. http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/1737By 20254 new universities to cater to 30,000needed each week to accommodate children who will reach enrolment age by 2025Everitt in Liyanagunawardena et al, 2013Attribution: Kanwar, Balasubramanian. (2015). Skilling a Nation’s Future. http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/17372007 - 150.6 million tertiary students globally2012 - 165 million2025 - 263 million Are OUs helping?3,499,9991,974,3431,326,948800,000650,000 646,467450,000355,240260,079 210,978 173,915 120,000 120,000 101,2180500,0001,000,0001,500,0002,000,0002,500,0003,000,0003,500,0004,000,000 IndiraGandhiNationalOpenUniversity AnadoluUniversity AllamaIqbal OpenUniversity PayameNoorUniversity BangladeshOpenUniversity UniversitasTerbuka Dr. B RAmbedkarOpenUniversity Universityof SouthAfrica NationalUniversityof DistanceEducation KoreaNationalOpenUniversity OpenUniversity NationalCentre forDistanceEducation NationalOpenUniversityof Nigeria ShanghaiOpenUniversityEnrollmentOpen Education InstitutionData source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_largest_universities_by_enrollment (Mar 25, 2017)10.5 million learnersNeed in 2025 will be 263 million OERParis OER DeclarationAttribution: Oer logo EN 1 https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Oer_logo_EN_1.png– reduce barriers and widening access to education at all levels– improve cost efficiency in teaching and learning– encourage teachers to produce and share high quality educational resources, and– enhance quality of teaching and learning.Source: http://www.unesco.org/new/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/HQ/CI/CI/pdf/Events/English_Paris_OER_Declaration.pdf• Foster awareness and use of OER;• Support capacity building for the sustainable development of quality learning materials;• Promote the understanding and use of open licensing Frameworks;• Facilitate the finding, retrieving and sharing of OER.Current Status of Recommendations from 2012Source: http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/24411. To what extent are teachers trained in reusing, revising, remixing and redistributing OER?2. What are the perceptions of the quality and cost-efficiency of OER, and what are the various quality assurance mechanisms used?3. What is the level of facilitation in the reuse, revision, remixing and redistribution of educational materials across the Commonwealth through open licensing?4. What are the opportunities and challenges faced when developing, using, evaluating and recontextualising OER?5. How have institutions taken advantage of evolving technology to create opportunities for sharing materials which have been released under an open licence in diverse media?6. What are the tools used to locate and retrieve OER that are specific and relevant to particular needs?Research Questions• More training is required for teachers• OER need to build more credibility through rigorous QA• Teachers need to be strongly encouraged to share teaching material openly• Allocate more time and resources towards OER development• Make OER easier to find and download(especially open textbooks, courses and videos)Mainstreaming OERKuala Lumpur DeclarationMainstream the use of OER by developing strategies and policies at governmental and institutional levels to enhance quality while potentially reducing the cost of educationSource: https://www.col.org/events/pan-commonwealth-forum/2016-kuala-lumpur-declaration“”Implementation of OERSource: http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/233The Cape Town DeclarationOpen education is not limited to just open educational resources. It also draws upon open technologies that facilitate collaborative, flexible learning and the open sharing of teaching practices that empower educators to benefit from the best ideas of their colleagues. It may also grow to include new approaches to assessment, accreditation and collaborative learning.Source: https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Cape_Town_Open_Education_Declaration“”MOOCMOOCs: Opening up EducationPresent FutureNational or provincial jurisdictionLimited interaction at study centresPrint+ (audio, video, online)Global classroomIncreased use of Peer2Peer learning and social mediaOnline+ (increased use of learning analytics)Attribution: Kanwar, Mishra & Cheng. (2016). Open Education in Asia: Changing Perspectives. http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/2444• Coursera - 23 million learners• edX - 10 million learners• XuetangX - 6 million learners• FutureLearn - 5.3 million learners• Udacity - 4 million learnersMOOCs are GrowingSource: https://www.edsurge.com/news/2016-12-29-monetization-over-massiveness-breaking-down-moocs-by-the-numbers-in-20166,850 MOOCs from over 700 universities (2016)Attribution: Mathieu Plourde {(Mathplourde on Flickr) - http://www.flickr.com/photos/mathplourde/8620174342/sizes/l/in/photostream/The proportion of higher education students taking at least one online course now stands at 33.5 percent for a total of7.1 millionOnline learning: Increasing AccessAttribution: Kanwar, Balasubramanian. (2015). Skilling a Nation’s Future. http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/1737InhibitorsHowever, MOOCsMost MOOC learners are having a first degree(about 70%) Gender participation rate is a function of the subject matter of the MOOCMOOC learners are serial MOOC takersSource: Mcleaod et al, TechTrends, 59 (1), Jan/Feb 2015Attribution: Kanwar, Balasubramanian. (2015). Skilling a Nation’s Future. http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/1737Cost of MOOCsSource: Hollands, F. M., & Tirthali, D. (2014). MOOCs: expectations and reality.Attribution: Kanwar, Balasubramanian. (2015). Skilling a Nation’s Future. http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/1737Do they need OER?Sri Lankan government prints 30 million copies of textbooks a year at a cost of Rs.3,000 million (CAD26.5mil) to provide free textbooks under the “free education policy”.Source: MoE, Sri Lanka School Census Preliminary Reports 2016, in Sri Lanka Attribution: RIBI Image Library https://flic.kr/p/dCUMPS; Sri Lanka Regions Map.png https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sri_Lanka_Regions_Map.pngWhy OER when Textbooks are “Free”?Many governments in developing countries largely subsidize textbooks– the learners and teachers get the textbooks for free (the tax money is hidden from view) – the government owns the copyright, so no royalties are paid– the cost of the textbooks is directly proportionate to the printing, distribution and logistics costsHow to make the case for OER?A question for all of usAttribution: Alberto Vaccaro https://flic.kr/p/6vC9myPercentage of households with Internet access, by level of development, 2005-2014Source: ITU, MIS Reports, 2014. http://www.itu.int/en/newsroom/Pages/wtis14-mis-images.aspxAttribution: Kanwar, Balasubramanian. (2015). Skilling a Nation’s Future. http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/1737; spentrails https://flic.kr/p/5WNnodInternet without Electricity?RegionPopulation without electricity millionsDeveloping countries 1,185Africa 634North Africa 1Sub-Saharan Africa 632Developing Asia 512China 0India 244Latin America 22Middle East 18Transition economies & OECD 1WORLD 1,186Source: IEA, World Energy Outlook 2016 http://www.worldenergyoutlook.org/resources/energydevelopment/energyaccessdatabase/Attribution: Spring Dew https://flic.kr/p/6qFLJThe Incheon DeclarationWe recognize that the success of the 2030 education agenda requires sound policies and planning as well as efficient implementation arrangements. It is also clear that the aspirations encompassed in the proposed SDG 4 cannot be realized without a significant and well-targeted increase in financing, particularly in those countries furthest from achieving quality education for all at all levels. Source: http://en.unesco.org/world-education-forum-2015/incheon-declaration“”Thank Youwww.col.org Ishan Abeywardena, PhDAdviser: Open Educational ResourcesSFU, Harbour Centre, VancouverMarch 28, 2017Failure of Access:Rethinking Open EducationUnless otherwise specified, this presentation is available under CC BY-SA 4.0 InternationalOpen Education• Open as to people, • Open as to places, • Open as to methods, and, finally, • Open as to ideas– Lord CrowtherPhilosophy of ‘Open-ness’Attribution: Kanwar, Mishra & Cheng. (2016). Open Education in Asia: Changing Perspectives. http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/2444Open Education• Education for All• Open access to courses or programmes• OER • Open textbooks• Open research• Open data– Bates, 2015EducationOpennessEducation without Barriersi.e• No entry qualifications• Credit banking• Cafeteria approach to courses• Anytime, anywhere‘Open-ness’ in PracticeAttribution: Kanwar, Mishra & Cheng. (2016). Open Education in Asia: Changing Perspectives. http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/2444; Thom Cochrane https://flic.kr/p/8zpYEJMOOCs in 2010sTechnologyOpen availability of content and resources since 2000sContentOpen means open entry, easier access to study, increased enrollment since 1960s.Access“Open-ness”: an evolving conceptAttribution: Kanwar, Mishra & Cheng. (2016). Open Education in Asia: Changing Perspectives. http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/2444The DemandAttribution: Kanwar, Balasubramanian. (2015). Skilling a Nation’s Future. http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/1737By 20254 new universities to cater to 30,000needed each week to accommodate children who will reach enrolment age by 2025Everitt in Liyanagunawardena et al, 2013Attribution: Kanwar, Balasubramanian. (2015). Skilling a Nation’s Future. http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/17372007 - 150.6 million tertiary students globally2012 - 165 million2025 - 263 million Are OUs helping?3,499,9991,974,3431,326,948800,000650,000 646,467450,000355,240260,079 210,978 173,915 120,000 120,000 101,2180500,0001,000,0001,500,0002,000,0002,500,0003,000,0003,500,0004,000,000 IndiraGandhiNationalOpenUniversity AnadoluUniversity AllamaIqbal OpenUniversity PayameNoorUniversity BangladeshOpenUniversity UniversitasTerbuka Dr. B RAmbedkarOpenUniversity Universityof SouthAfrica NationalUniversityof DistanceEducation KoreaNationalOpenUniversity OpenUniversity NationalCentre forDistanceEducation NationalOpenUniversityof Nigeria ShanghaiOpenUniversityEnrollmentOpen Education InstitutionData source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_largest_universities_by_enrollment (Mar 25, 2017)10.5 million learnersNeed in 2025 will be 263 million OERParis OER DeclarationAttribution: Oer logo EN 1 https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Oer_logo_EN_1.png– reduce barriers and widening access to education at all levels– improve cost efficiency in teaching and learning– encourage teachers to produce and share high quality educational resources, and– enhance quality of teaching and learning.Source: http://www.unesco.org/new/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/HQ/CI/CI/pdf/Events/English_Paris_OER_Declaration.pdf• Foster awareness and use of OER;• Support capacity building for the sustainable development of quality learning materials;• Promote the understanding and use of open licensing Frameworks;• Facilitate the finding, retrieving and sharing of OER.Current Status of Recommendations from 2012Source: http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/24411. To what extent are teachers trained in reusing, revising, remixing and redistributing OER?2. What are the perceptions of the quality and cost-efficiency of OER, and what are the various quality assurance mechanisms used?3. What is the level of facilitation in the reuse, revision, remixing and redistribution of educational materials across the Commonwealth through open licensing?4. What are the opportunities and challenges faced when developing, using, evaluating and recontextualising OER?5. How have institutions taken advantage of evolving technology to create opportunities for sharing materials which have been released under an open licence in diverse media?6. What are the tools used to locate and retrieve OER that are specific and relevant to particular needs?Research Questions• More training is required for teachers• OER need to build more credibility through rigorous QA• Teachers need to be strongly encouraged to share teaching material openly• Allocate more time and resources towards OER development• Make OER easier to find and download(especially open textbooks, courses and videos)Mainstreaming OERKuala Lumpur DeclarationMainstream the use of OER by developing strategies and policies at governmental and institutional levels to enhance quality while potentially reducing the cost of educationSource: https://www.col.org/events/pan-commonwealth-forum/2016-kuala-lumpur-declaration“”Implementation of OERSource: http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/233The Cape Town DeclarationOpen education is not limited to just open educational resources. It also draws upon open technologies that facilitate collaborative, flexible learning and the open sharing of teaching practices that empower educators to benefit from the best ideas of their colleagues. It may also grow to include new approaches to assessment, accreditation and collaborative learning.Source: https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Cape_Town_Open_Education_Declaration“”MOOCMOOCs: Opening up EducationPresent FutureNational or provincial jurisdictionLimited interaction at study centresPrint+ (audio, video, online)Global classroomIncreased use of Peer2Peer learning and social mediaOnline+ (increased use of learning analytics)Attribution: Kanwar, Mishra & Cheng. (2016). Open Education in Asia: Changing Perspectives. http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/2444• Coursera - 23 million learners• edX - 10 million learners• XuetangX - 6 million learners• FutureLearn - 5.3 million learners• Udacity - 4 million learnersMOOCs are GrowingSource: https://www.edsurge.com/news/2016-12-29-monetization-over-massiveness-breaking-down-moocs-by-the-numbers-in-20166,850 MOOCs from over 700 universities (2016)Attribution: Mathieu Plourde {(Mathplourde on Flickr) - http://www.flickr.com/photos/mathplourde/8620174342/sizes/l/in/photostream/The proportion of higher education students taking at least one online course now stands at 33.5 percent for a total of7.1 millionOnline learning: Increasing AccessAttribution: Kanwar, Balasubramanian. (2015). Skilling a Nation’s Future. http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/1737InhibitorsHowever, MOOCsMost MOOC learners are having a first degree(about 70%) Gender participation rate is a function of the subject matter of the MOOCMOOC learners are serial MOOC takersSource: Mcleaod et al, TechTrends, 59 (1), Jan/Feb 2015Attribution: Kanwar, Balasubramanian. (2015). Skilling a Nation’s Future. http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/1737Cost of MOOCsSource: Hollands, F. M., & Tirthali, D. (2014). MOOCs: expectations and reality.Attribution: Kanwar, Balasubramanian. (2015). Skilling a Nation’s Future. http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/1737Do they need OER?Sri Lankan government prints 30 million copies of textbooks a year at a cost of Rs.3,000 million (CAD26.5mil) to provide free textbooks under the “free education policy”.Source: MoE, Sri Lanka School Census Preliminary Reports 2016, in Sri Lanka Attribution: RIBI Image Library https://flic.kr/p/dCUMPS; Sri Lanka Regions Map.png https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sri_Lanka_Regions_Map.pngWhy OER when Textbooks are “Free”?Many governments in developing countries largely subsidize textbooks– the learners and teachers get the textbooks for free (the tax money is hidden from view) – the government owns the copyright, so no royalties are paid– the cost of the textbooks is directly proportionate to the printing, distribution and logistics costsHow to make the case for OER?A question for all of usAttribution: Alberto Vaccaro https://flic.kr/p/6vC9myPercentage of households with Internet access, by level of development, 2005-2014Source: ITU, MIS Reports, 2014. http://www.itu.int/en/newsroom/Pages/wtis14-mis-images.aspxAttribution: Kanwar, Balasubramanian. (2015). Skilling a Nation’s Future. http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/1737; spentrails https://flic.kr/p/5WNnodInternet without Electricity?RegionPopulation without electricity millionsDeveloping countries 1,185Africa 634North Africa 1Sub-Saharan Africa 632Developing Asia 512China 0India 244Latin America 22Middle East 18Transition economies & OECD 1WORLD 1,186Source: IEA, World Energy Outlook 2016 http://www.worldenergyoutlook.org/resources/energydevelopment/energyaccessdatabase/Attribution: Spring Dew https://flic.kr/p/6qFLJThe Incheon DeclarationWe recognize that the success of the 2030 education agenda requires sound policies and planning as well as efficient implementation arrangements. It is also clear that the aspirations encompassed in the proposed SDG 4 cannot be realized without a significant and well-targeted increase in financing, particularly in those countries furthest from achieving quality education for all at all levels. Source: http://en.unesco.org/world-education-forum-2015/incheon-declaration“”Thank Youwww.col.org What else access provides (are we taking advantage of it?)Christina Hendricks, University of British ColumbiaOpen Education Week 2017Except for images licensed otherwise, this presentation is licensed CC BY-SA 4.0HOW DO FACULTY USE OER?2014-2015 survey of BC Faculty0% 20% 40% 60% 80%Ideas and inspirationSupplement courseworkPrepare for teachingLearning resourcesAssets within a lessonOptional self-studyBroaden tchg methodsEngage studentsPurposes of using OERData from Hendricks, Jhangiani, Key, Pitt (2015); see also Jhangiani et al. (2016) 0% 20% 40% 60% 80%Used OERAdapted OERCreated OERPublished OER with openlicenseNot used or created OER2014-2015 survey of BC FacultyUse, adaptation, creation of OERData from Hendricks, Jhangiani, Key, Pitt (2015); see also Jhangiani et al. (2016) 2014-2015 survey of BC FacultyUse, adaptation, creation by type of institutionData from Hendricks, Jhangiani, Key, Pitt (2015); see also Jhangiani et al. (2016) 0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%Rsrch Inst. SPTU Comm. Col.UsedAdaptedCreatedHOW DO/COULD STUDENTS USE OER?Non-disposable Assignments -- David Wiley (2013, 2016)Wikipedia AssignmentsGap Analysis Small Edits UBC Wiki WikiEduWikipediaTranslation AssignmentReview a Wikipedia article for information gapsGrammar edits. Add citations using the Citation Hunt website.Assign groups articles to write in the UBC Wiki.Have students create or edit a Wikipedia article.Translate an article for foreign language Wikipedia site.Beginner AdvancedChart adapted from Engle et al. (2016), licensed CC BY-SA 4.0Students & open textbooksCover page to digital edition of this textbook, Ed. Robin De Rosa, licensed CC BY 4.0See DeRosa’s blog post about this project, “My Open Textbook: Pedagogy & Practice” (2016)Open Case Studies at UBChttp://cases.open.ubc.caContact me if interested in contributing!Thank you!Christina HendricksUniversity of British Columbia-Vancouverc.hendricks@ubc.caWebsite: http://chendricks.orgBlog: http://blogs.ubc.ca/chendricksTwitter: @clhendricksbcCitations• Engle, W. Fields, E., Hendricks, C., Wright, L., Underhill, C. (2016). Open practices: Wikipedia-based assignments in your classroom. Slides for a workshop at the University of British Columbia. Licensed ________. Retrieved from http://wiki.ubc.ca/Documentation:Teaching_With_Wikipedia• Hendricks, C.  Jhangiani, R. Key, J. and Pitt, B. (2015). “Faculty Attitudes Towards and Experiences with Open Educational Resources.” Slides presented at the Open Textbook Summit, May 2015. Slides licensed CC BY-NC-SA  4.0. Retrieved fromhttps://www.slideshare.net/BCcampus/faculty-attitudes-towards-and-experiences-with-oer-open-textbooks• Jhangiani, R., Pitt, R., Hendricks, C., Key, J., & Lalonde, C. (2016). Exploring faculty use of Open Educational Resources in B.C. post-secondary institutions. BCcampus. Retrieved from https://bccampus.ca/2016/01/27/exploring-faculty-use-of-open-educational-resources-in-b-c-post-secondary-institutions/• Wiley, D. (2013, October 21). What is Open Pedagogy? [blog]. Retrieved from http://opencontent.org/blog/archives/2975• Wiley, D. (2016, July 7). Toward Renewable Assessments. Retrieved from http://opencontent.org/blog/archives/4691Image credits• Image on title slide: Lock, licensed CC0 from pixabay.com• Student as producer image from http://studentasproducer.lincoln.ac.uk/, licensed CC BY-SA 2.0 UK• Trash can image and “no” symbol licensed CC0 from pixabay.com• Images on Open Case Studies site screen shoto Clearcutting near Eugene, Oregon, by Calibas, Wikimedia Commons, licensed CC BY-SA 3.0o Drum net seiner in Johnstone Strait, BCby winkyintheuk,WikimediaCommons, licensed CC BY 2.0o Globe in water image licensed CC0 on pixabay.com Ishan Abeywardena, PhDAdviser: Open Educational ResourcesSFU, Harbour Centre, VancouverMarch 28, 2017Failure of Access:Rethinking Open EducationUnless otherwise specified, this presentation is available under CC BY-SA 4.0 InternationalOpen Education• Open as to people, • Open as to places, • Open as to methods, and, finally, • Open as to ideas– Lord CrowtherPhilosophy of ‘Open-ness’Attribution: Kanwar, Mishra & Cheng. (2016). Open Education in Asia: Changing Perspectives. http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/2444Open Education• Education for All• Open access to courses or programmes• OER • Open textbooks• Open research• Open data– Bates, 2015EducationOpennessEducation without Barriersi.e• No entry qualifications• Credit banking• Cafeteria approach to courses• Anytime, anywhere‘Open-ness’ in PracticeAttribution: Kanwar, Mishra & Cheng. (2016). Open Education in Asia: Changing Perspectives. http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/2444; Thom Cochrane https://flic.kr/p/8zpYEJMOOCs in 2010sTechnologyOpen availability of content and resources since 2000sContentOpen means open entry, easier access to study, increased enrollment since 1960s.Access“Open-ness”: an evolving conceptAttribution: Kanwar, Mishra & Cheng. (2016). Open Education in Asia: Changing Perspectives. http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/2444The DemandAttribution: Kanwar, Balasubramanian. (2015). Skilling a Nation’s Future. http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/1737By 20254 new universities to cater to 30,000needed each week to accommodate children who will reach enrolment age by 2025Everitt in Liyanagunawardena et al, 2013Attribution: Kanwar, Balasubramanian. (2015). Skilling a Nation’s Future. http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/17372007 - 150.6 million tertiary students globally2012 - 165 million2025 - 263 million Are OUs helping?3,499,9991,974,3431,326,948800,000650,000 646,467450,000355,240260,079 210,978 173,915 120,000 120,000 101,2180500,0001,000,0001,500,0002,000,0002,500,0003,000,0003,500,0004,000,000 IndiraGandhiNationalOpenUniversity AnadoluUniversity AllamaIqbal OpenUniversity PayameNoorUniversity BangladeshOpenUniversity UniversitasTerbuka Dr. B RAmbedkarOpenUniversity Universityof SouthAfrica NationalUniversityof DistanceEducation KoreaNationalOpenUniversity OpenUniversity NationalCentre forDistanceEducation NationalOpenUniversityof Nigeria ShanghaiOpenUniversityEnrollmentOpen Education InstitutionData source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_largest_universities_by_enrollment (Mar 25, 2017)10.5 million learnersNeed in 2025 will be 263 million OERParis OER DeclarationAttribution: Oer logo EN 1 https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Oer_logo_EN_1.png– reduce barriers and widening access to education at all levels– improve cost efficiency in teaching and learning– encourage teachers to produce and share high quality educational resources, and– enhance quality of teaching and learning.Source: http://www.unesco.org/new/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/HQ/CI/CI/pdf/Events/English_Paris_OER_Declaration.pdf• Foster awareness and use of OER;• Support capacity building for the sustainable development of quality learning materials;• Promote the understanding and use of open licensing Frameworks;• Facilitate the finding, retrieving and sharing of OER.Current Status of Recommendations from 2012Source: http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/24411. To what extent are teachers trained in reusing, revising, remixing and redistributing OER?2. What are the perceptions of the quality and cost-efficiency of OER, and what are the various quality assurance mechanisms used?3. What is the level of facilitation in the reuse, revision, remixing and redistribution of educational materials across the Commonwealth through open licensing?4. What are the opportunities and challenges faced when developing, using, evaluating and recontextualising OER?5. How have institutions taken advantage of evolving technology to create opportunities for sharing materials which have been released under an open licence in diverse media?6. What are the tools used to locate and retrieve OER that are specific and relevant to particular needs?Research Questions• More training is required for teachers• OER need to build more credibility through rigorous QA• Teachers need to be strongly encouraged to share teaching material openly• Allocate more time and resources towards OER development• Make OER easier to find and download(especially open textbooks, courses and videos)Mainstreaming OERKuala Lumpur DeclarationMainstream the use of OER by developing strategies and policies at governmental and institutional levels to enhance quality while potentially reducing the cost of educationSource: https://www.col.org/events/pan-commonwealth-forum/2016-kuala-lumpur-declaration“”Implementation of OERSource: http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/233The Cape Town DeclarationOpen education is not limited to just open educational resources. It also draws upon open technologies that facilitate collaborative, flexible learning and the open sharing of teaching practices that empower educators to benefit from the best ideas of their colleagues. It may also grow to include new approaches to assessment, accreditation and collaborative learning.Source: https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Cape_Town_Open_Education_Declaration“”MOOCMOOCs: Opening up EducationPresent FutureNational or provincial jurisdictionLimited interaction at study centresPrint+ (audio, video, online)Global classroomIncreased use of Peer2Peer learning and social mediaOnline+ (increased use of learning analytics)Attribution: Kanwar, Mishra & Cheng. (2016). Open Education in Asia: Changing Perspectives. http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/2444• Coursera - 23 million learners• edX - 10 million learners• XuetangX - 6 million learners• FutureLearn - 5.3 million learners• Udacity - 4 million learnersMOOCs are GrowingSource: https://www.edsurge.com/news/2016-12-29-monetization-over-massiveness-breaking-down-moocs-by-the-numbers-in-20166,850 MOOCs from over 700 universities (2016)Attribution: Mathieu Plourde {(Mathplourde on Flickr) - http://www.flickr.com/photos/mathplourde/8620174342/sizes/l/in/photostream/The proportion of higher education students taking at least one online course now stands at 33.5 percent for a total of7.1 millionOnline learning: Increasing AccessAttribution: Kanwar, Balasubramanian. (2015). Skilling a Nation’s Future. http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/1737InhibitorsHowever, MOOCsMost MOOC learners are having a first degree(about 70%) Gender participation rate is a function of the subject matter of the MOOCMOOC learners are serial MOOC takersSource: Mcleaod et al, TechTrends, 59 (1), Jan/Feb 2015Attribution: Kanwar, Balasubramanian. (2015). Skilling a Nation’s Future. http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/1737Cost of MOOCsSource: Hollands, F. M., & Tirthali, D. (2014). MOOCs: expectations and reality.Attribution: Kanwar, Balasubramanian. (2015). Skilling a Nation’s Future. http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/1737Do they need OER?Sri Lankan government prints 30 million copies of textbooks a year at a cost of Rs.3,000 million (CAD26.5mil) to provide free textbooks under the “free education policy”.Source: MoE, Sri Lanka School Census Preliminary Reports 2016, in Sri Lanka Attribution: RIBI Image Library https://flic.kr/p/dCUMPS; Sri Lanka Regions Map.png https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sri_Lanka_Regions_Map.pngWhy OER when Textbooks are “Free”?Many governments in developing countries largely subsidize textbooks– the learners and teachers get the textbooks for free (the tax money is hidden from view) – the government owns the copyright, so no royalties are paid– the cost of the textbooks is directly proportionate to the printing, distribution and logistics costsHow to make the case for OER?A question for all of usAttribution: Alberto Vaccaro https://flic.kr/p/6vC9myPercentage of households with Internet access, by level of development, 2005-2014Source: ITU, MIS Reports, 2014. http://www.itu.int/en/newsroom/Pages/wtis14-mis-images.aspxAttribution: Kanwar, Balasubramanian. (2015). Skilling a Nation’s Future. http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/1737; spentrails https://flic.kr/p/5WNnodInternet without Electricity?RegionPopulation without electricity millionsDeveloping countries 1,185Africa 634North Africa 1Sub-Saharan Africa 632Developing Asia 512China 0India 244Latin America 22Middle East 18Transition economies & OECD 1WORLD 1,186Source: IEA, World Energy Outlook 2016 http://www.worldenergyoutlook.org/resources/energydevelopment/energyaccessdatabase/Attribution: Spring Dew https://flic.kr/p/6qFLJThe Incheon DeclarationWe recognize that the success of the 2030 education agenda requires sound policies and planning as well as efficient implementation arrangements. It is also clear that the aspirations encompassed in the proposed SDG 4 cannot be realized without a significant and well-targeted increase in financing, particularly in those countries furthest from achieving quality education for all at all levels. Source: http://en.unesco.org/world-education-forum-2015/incheon-declaration“”Thank Youwww.col.org What else access provides (are we taking advantage of it?)Christina Hendricks, University of British ColumbiaOpen Education Week 2017Except for images licensed otherwise, this presentation is licensed CC BY-SA 4.0HOW DO FACULTY USE OER?2014-2015 survey of BC Faculty0% 20% 40% 60% 80%Ideas and inspirationSupplement courseworkPrepare for teachingLearning resourcesAssets within a lessonOptional self-studyBroaden tchg methodsEngage studentsPurposes of using OERData from Hendricks, Jhangiani, Key, Pitt (2015); see also Jhangiani et al. (2016) 0% 20% 40% 60% 80%Used OERAdapted OERCreated OERPublished OER with openlicenseNot used or created OER2014-2015 survey of BC FacultyUse, adaptation, creation of OERData from Hendricks, Jhangiani, Key, Pitt (2015); see also Jhangiani et al. (2016) 2014-2015 survey of BC FacultyUse, adaptation, creation by type of institutionData from Hendricks, Jhangiani, Key, Pitt (2015); see also Jhangiani et al. (2016) 0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%Rsrch Inst. SPTU Comm. Col.UsedAdaptedCreatedHOW DO/COULD STUDENTS USE OER?Non-disposable Assignments -- David Wiley (2013, 2016)Wikipedia AssignmentsGap Analysis Small Edits UBC Wiki WikiEduWikipediaTranslation AssignmentReview a Wikipedia article for information gapsGrammar edits. Add citations using the Citation Hunt website.Assign groups articles to write in the UBC Wiki.Have students create or edit a Wikipedia article.Translate an article for foreign language Wikipedia site.Beginner AdvancedChart adapted from Engle et al. (2016), licensed CC BY-SA 4.0Students & open textbooksCover page to digital edition of this textbook, Ed. Robin De Rosa, licensed CC BY 4.0See DeRosa’s blog post about this project, “My Open Textbook: Pedagogy & Practice” (2016)Open Case Studies at UBChttp://cases.open.ubc.caContact me if interested in contributing!Thank you!Christina HendricksUniversity of British Columbia-Vancouverc.hendricks@ubc.caWebsite: http://chendricks.orgBlog: http://blogs.ubc.ca/chendricksTwitter: @clhendricksbcCitations• Engle, W. Fields, E., Hendricks, C., Wright, L., Underhill, C. (2016). Open practices: Wikipedia-based assignments in your classroom. Slides for a workshop at the University of British Columbia. Licensed ________. Retrieved from http://wiki.ubc.ca/Documentation:Teaching_With_Wikipedia• Hendricks, C.  Jhangiani, R. Key, J. and Pitt, B. (2015). “Faculty Attitudes Towards and Experiences with Open Educational Resources.” Slides presented at the Open Textbook Summit, May 2015. Slides licensed CC BY-NC-SA  4.0. Retrieved fromhttps://www.slideshare.net/BCcampus/faculty-attitudes-towards-and-experiences-with-oer-open-textbooks• Jhangiani, R., Pitt, R., Hendricks, C., Key, J., & Lalonde, C. (2016). Exploring faculty use of Open Educational Resources in B.C. post-secondary institutions. BCcampus. Retrieved from https://bccampus.ca/2016/01/27/exploring-faculty-use-of-open-educational-resources-in-b-c-post-secondary-institutions/• Wiley, D. (2013, October 21). What is Open Pedagogy? [blog]. Retrieved from http://opencontent.org/blog/archives/2975• Wiley, D. (2016, July 7). Toward Renewable Assessments. Retrieved from http://opencontent.org/blog/archives/4691Image credits• Image on title slide: Lock, licensed CC0 from pixabay.com• Student as producer image from http://studentasproducer.lincoln.ac.uk/, licensed CC BY-SA 2.0 UK• Trash can image and “no” symbol licensed CC0 from pixabay.com• Images on Open Case Studies site screen shoto Clearcutting near Eugene, Oregon, by Calibas, Wikimedia Commons, licensed CC BY-SA 3.0o Drum net seiner in Johnstone Strait, BCby winkyintheuk,WikimediaCommons, licensed CC BY 2.0o Globe in water image licensed CC0 on pixabay.com Students & Open AccessJenna OmassiStrategic Support Advisor, UBCAMS VP Academic & University Affairs (2015-2016)jenna.omassi@ubc.ca Why Open Access? Cost.#textbookbrokeBCTrickle-Down EffectStudent Toolkithttps://opentextbc.ca/studenttoolkit/Students & Open AccessJenna OmassiStrategic Support Advisor, UBCAMS VP Academic & University Affairs (2015-2016)jenna.omassi@ubc.ca  Ishan Abeywardena, PhDAdviser: Open Educational ResourcesSFU, Harbour Centre, VancouverMarch 28, 2017Failure of Access:Rethinking Open EducationUnless otherwise specified, this presentation is available under CC BY-SA 4.0 InternationalOpen Education• Open as to people, • Open as to places, • Open as to methods, and, finally, • Open as to ideas– Lord CrowtherPhilosophy of ‘Open-ness’Attribution: Kanwar, Mishra & Cheng. (2016). Open Education in Asia: Changing Perspectives. http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/2444Open Education• Education for All• Open access to courses or programmes• OER • Open textbooks• Open research• Open data– Bates, 2015EducationOpennessEducation without Barriersi.e• No entry qualifications• Credit banking• Cafeteria approach to courses• Anytime, anywhere‘Open-ness’ in PracticeAttribution: Kanwar, Mishra & Cheng. (2016). Open Education in Asia: Changing Perspectives. http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/2444; Thom Cochrane https://flic.kr/p/8zpYEJMOOCs in 2010sTechnologyOpen availability of content and resources since 2000sContentOpen means open entry, easier access to study, increased enrollment since 1960s.Access“Open-ness”: an evolving conceptAttribution: Kanwar, Mishra & Cheng. (2016). Open Education in Asia: Changing Perspectives. http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/2444The DemandAttribution: Kanwar, Balasubramanian. (2015). Skilling a Nation’s Future. http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/1737By 20254 new universities to cater to 30,000needed each week to accommodate children who will reach enrolment age by 2025Everitt in Liyanagunawardena et al, 2013Attribution: Kanwar, Balasubramanian. (2015). Skilling a Nation’s Future. http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/17372007 - 150.6 million tertiary students globally2012 - 165 million2025 - 263 million Are OUs helping?3,499,9991,974,3431,326,948800,000650,000 646,467450,000355,240260,079 210,978 173,915 120,000 120,000 101,2180500,0001,000,0001,500,0002,000,0002,500,0003,000,0003,500,0004,000,000 IndiraGandhiNationalOpenUniversity AnadoluUniversity AllamaIqbal OpenUniversity PayameNoorUniversity BangladeshOpenUniversity UniversitasTerbuka Dr. B RAmbedkarOpenUniversity Universityof SouthAfrica NationalUniversityof DistanceEducation KoreaNationalOpenUniversity OpenUniversity NationalCentre forDistanceEducation NationalOpenUniversityof Nigeria ShanghaiOpenUniversityEnrollmentOpen Education InstitutionData source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_largest_universities_by_enrollment (Mar 25, 2017)10.5 million learnersNeed in 2025 will be 263 million OERParis OER DeclarationAttribution: Oer logo EN 1 https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Oer_logo_EN_1.png– reduce barriers and widening access to education at all levels– improve cost efficiency in teaching and learning– encourage teachers to produce and share high quality educational resources, and– enhance quality of teaching and learning.Source: http://www.unesco.org/new/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/HQ/CI/CI/pdf/Events/English_Paris_OER_Declaration.pdf• Foster awareness and use of OER;• Support capacity building for the sustainable development of quality learning materials;• Promote the understanding and use of open licensing Frameworks;• Facilitate the finding, retrieving and sharing of OER.Current Status of Recommendations from 2012Source: http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/24411. To what extent are teachers trained in reusing, revising, remixing and redistributing OER?2. What are the perceptions of the quality and cost-efficiency of OER, and what are the various quality assurance mechanisms used?3. What is the level of facilitation in the reuse, revision, remixing and redistribution of educational materials across the Commonwealth through open licensing?4. What are the opportunities and challenges faced when developing, using, evaluating and recontextualising OER?5. How have institutions taken advantage of evolving technology to create opportunities for sharing materials which have been released under an open licence in diverse media?6. What are the tools used to locate and retrieve OER that are specific and relevant to particular needs?Research Questions• More training is required for teachers• OER need to build more credibility through rigorous QA• Teachers need to be strongly encouraged to share teaching material openly• Allocate more time and resources towards OER development• Make OER easier to find and download(especially open textbooks, courses and videos)Mainstreaming OERKuala Lumpur DeclarationMainstream the use of OER by developing strategies and policies at governmental and institutional levels to enhance quality while potentially reducing the cost of educationSource: https://www.col.org/events/pan-commonwealth-forum/2016-kuala-lumpur-declaration“”Implementation of OERSource: http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/233The Cape Town DeclarationOpen education is not limited to just open educational resources. It also draws upon open technologies that facilitate collaborative, flexible learning and the open sharing of teaching practices that empower educators to benefit from the best ideas of their colleagues. It may also grow to include new approaches to assessment, accreditation and collaborative learning.Source: https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Cape_Town_Open_Education_Declaration“”MOOCMOOCs: Opening up EducationPresent FutureNational or provincial jurisdictionLimited interaction at study centresPrint+ (audio, video, online)Global classroomIncreased use of Peer2Peer learning and social mediaOnline+ (increased use of learning analytics)Attribution: Kanwar, Mishra & Cheng. (2016). Open Education in Asia: Changing Perspectives. http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/2444• Coursera - 23 million learners• edX - 10 million learners• XuetangX - 6 million learners• FutureLearn - 5.3 million learners• Udacity - 4 million learnersMOOCs are GrowingSource: https://www.edsurge.com/news/2016-12-29-monetization-over-massiveness-breaking-down-moocs-by-the-numbers-in-20166,850 MOOCs from over 700 universities (2016)Attribution: Mathieu Plourde {(Mathplourde on Flickr) - http://www.flickr.com/photos/mathplourde/8620174342/sizes/l/in/photostream/The proportion of higher education students taking at least one online course now stands at 33.5 percent for a total of7.1 millionOnline learning: Increasing AccessAttribution: Kanwar, Balasubramanian. (2015). Skilling a Nation’s Future. http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/1737InhibitorsHowever, MOOCsMost MOOC learners are having a first degree(about 70%) Gender participation rate is a function of the subject matter of the MOOCMOOC learners are serial MOOC takersSource: Mcleaod et al, TechTrends, 59 (1), Jan/Feb 2015Attribution: Kanwar, Balasubramanian. (2015). Skilling a Nation’s Future. http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/1737Cost of MOOCsSource: Hollands, F. M., & Tirthali, D. (2014). MOOCs: expectations and reality.Attribution: Kanwar, Balasubramanian. (2015). Skilling a Nation’s Future. http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/1737Do they need OER?Sri Lankan government prints 30 million copies of textbooks a year at a cost of Rs.3,000 million (CAD26.5mil) to provide free textbooks under the “free education policy”.Source: MoE, Sri Lanka School Census Preliminary Reports 2016, in Sri Lanka Attribution: RIBI Image Library https://flic.kr/p/dCUMPS; Sri Lanka Regions Map.png https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sri_Lanka_Regions_Map.pngWhy OER when Textbooks are “Free”?Many governments in developing countries largely subsidize textbooks– the learners and teachers get the textbooks for free (the tax money is hidden from view) – the government owns the copyright, so no royalties are paid– the cost of the textbooks is directly proportionate to the printing, distribution and logistics costsHow to make the case for OER?A question for all of usAttribution: Alberto Vaccaro https://flic.kr/p/6vC9myPercentage of households with Internet access, by level of development, 2005-2014Source: ITU, MIS Reports, 2014. http://www.itu.int/en/newsroom/Pages/wtis14-mis-images.aspxAttribution: Kanwar, Balasubramanian. (2015). Skilling a Nation’s Future. http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/1737; spentrails https://flic.kr/p/5WNnodInternet without Electricity?RegionPopulation without electricity millionsDeveloping countries 1,185Africa 634North Africa 1Sub-Saharan Africa 632Developing Asia 512China 0India 244Latin America 22Middle East 18Transition economies & OECD 1WORLD 1,186Source: IEA, World Energy Outlook 2016 http://www.worldenergyoutlook.org/resources/energydevelopment/energyaccessdatabase/Attribution: Spring Dew https://flic.kr/p/6qFLJThe Incheon DeclarationWe recognize that the success of the 2030 education agenda requires sound policies and planning as well as efficient implementation arrangements. It is also clear that the aspirations encompassed in the proposed SDG 4 cannot be realized without a significant and well-targeted increase in financing, particularly in those countries furthest from achieving quality education for all at all levels. Source: http://en.unesco.org/world-education-forum-2015/incheon-declaration“”Thank Youwww.col.org What else access provides (are we taking advantage of it?)Christina Hendricks, University of British ColumbiaOpen Education Week 2017Except for images licensed otherwise, this presentation is licensed CC BY-SA 4.0HOW DO FACULTY USE OER?2014-2015 survey of BC Faculty0% 20% 40% 60% 80%Ideas and inspirationSupplement courseworkPrepare for teachingLearning resourcesAssets within a lessonOptional self-studyBroaden tchg methodsEngage studentsPurposes of using OERData from Hendricks, Jhangiani, Key, Pitt (2015); see also Jhangiani et al. (2016) 0% 20% 40% 60% 80%Used OERAdapted OERCreated OERPublished OER with openlicenseNot used or created OER2014-2015 survey of BC FacultyUse, adaptation, creation of OERData from Hendricks, Jhangiani, Key, Pitt (2015); see also Jhangiani et al. (2016) 2014-2015 survey of BC FacultyUse, adaptation, creation by type of institutionData from Hendricks, Jhangiani, Key, Pitt (2015); see also Jhangiani et al. (2016) 0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%Rsrch Inst. SPTU Comm. Col.UsedAdaptedCreatedHOW DO/COULD STUDENTS USE OER?Non-disposable Assignments -- David Wiley (2013, 2016)Wikipedia AssignmentsGap Analysis Small Edits UBC Wiki WikiEduWikipediaTranslation AssignmentReview a Wikipedia article for information gapsGrammar edits. Add citations using the Citation Hunt website.Assign groups articles to write in the UBC Wiki.Have students create or edit a Wikipedia article.Translate an article for foreign language Wikipedia site.Beginner AdvancedChart adapted from Engle et al. (2016), licensed CC BY-SA 4.0Students & open textbooksCover page to digital edition of this textbook, Ed. Robin De Rosa, licensed CC BY 4.0See DeRosa’s blog post about this project, “My Open Textbook: Pedagogy & Practice” (2016)Open Case Studies at UBChttp://cases.open.ubc.caContact me if interested in contributing!Thank you!Christina HendricksUniversity of British Columbia-Vancouverc.hendricks@ubc.caWebsite: http://chendricks.orgBlog: http://blogs.ubc.ca/chendricksTwitter: @clhendricksbcCitations• Engle, W. Fields, E., Hendricks, C., Wright, L., Underhill, C. (2016). Open practices: Wikipedia-based assignments in your classroom. Slides for a workshop at the University of British Columbia. Licensed ________. Retrieved from http://wiki.ubc.ca/Documentation:Teaching_With_Wikipedia• Hendricks, C.  Jhangiani, R. Key, J. and Pitt, B. (2015). “Faculty Attitudes Towards and Experiences with Open Educational Resources.” Slides presented at the Open Textbook Summit, May 2015. Slides licensed CC BY-NC-SA  4.0. Retrieved fromhttps://www.slideshare.net/BCcampus/faculty-attitudes-towards-and-experiences-with-oer-open-textbooks• Jhangiani, R., Pitt, R., Hendricks, C., Key, J., & Lalonde, C. (2016). Exploring faculty use of Open Educational Resources in B.C. post-secondary institutions. BCcampus. Retrieved from https://bccampus.ca/2016/01/27/exploring-faculty-use-of-open-educational-resources-in-b-c-post-secondary-institutions/• Wiley, D. (2013, October 21). What is Open Pedagogy? [blog]. Retrieved from http://opencontent.org/blog/archives/2975• Wiley, D. (2016, July 7). Toward Renewable Assessments. Retrieved from http://opencontent.org/blog/archives/4691Image credits• Image on title slide: Lock, licensed CC0 from pixabay.com• Student as producer image from http://studentasproducer.lincoln.ac.uk/, licensed CC BY-SA 2.0 UK• Trash can image and “no” symbol licensed CC0 from pixabay.com• Images on Open Case Studies site screen shoto Clearcutting near Eugene, Oregon, by Calibas, Wikimedia Commons, licensed CC BY-SA 3.0o Drum net seiner in Johnstone Strait, BCby winkyintheuk,WikimediaCommons, licensed CC BY 2.0o Globe in water image licensed CC0 on pixabay.com Students & Open AccessJenna OmassiStrategic Support Advisor, UBCAMS VP Academic & University Affairs (2015-2016)jenna.omassi@ubc.ca Why Open Access? Cost.#textbookbrokeBCTrickle-Down EffectStudent Toolkithttps://opentextbc.ca/studenttoolkit/Students & Open AccessJenna OmassiStrategic Support Advisor, UBCAMS VP Academic & University Affairs (2015-2016)jenna.omassi@ubc.ca  The Failure of AccessTara RobertsonAccessibility Librarian, CAPER-BChttp://bit.ly/failureofaccessMedical modelMedical model of disabilitySocial model of disabilityStudents with visual impairments testing BC Open TextbooksAccessibility ToolkitKey concepts: Universal Design for Learning and User personasBest practices: organizing content, images, tables, weblinks, multimedia, forumals, font size, colour contrastThis is why we can’t have nice things...

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