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Introduction to Open Access and Connected Open Movements Vessey, Mark; Kirchner, Joy Oct 18, 2010

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Introduction to Open Access and Connected Open Movements Joy Kirchner, Collections, Licensing & Digital Scholarship UBC Library  • Openness as a principle • Open access • Public access  • Other connected movements: open source, open education, open data, open science • Open Access Examples  Open Movement  Open Movement access grows impact  Open Movement taxpayers should have access to the research they fund  Open Movement universities create new knowledge for the good of society  Open Movement there’s more than one way to fund a scholarly distribution system  What do we mean by open? Open to contributions and participation Open and free to access Open to use & reuse w/few or no restrictions Transparency  Open to contributions and participation  As opposed to…  Open and free to access  As opposed to…  Open to use and reuse with few or no restrictions  As opposed to…  Transparency  As opposed to…  Commonalities • Generally enabled by technology • Works both inside and outside of traditional models • Supported by a variety of business models – Open ≠ Free  Open movements • Open access – Public access • Open source • Open content • Open education – Open Textbook  • Open data • Open science  Open Access By 'open access„ to literature, we mean its free availability on the public internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. The only constraint on reproduction and distribution, and the only role for copyright in this domain, should be to give authors control over the integrity of their work and the right to be properly acknowledged and cited. -Budapest Open Access Initiative2002  Some common misconceptions • Open access means no copyright • Open access is free  • Open access always means the author pays • Open access will destroy peer review • Open access will destroy publishers  2 Paths to Open Access manuscript ….  Open Access journal (PLOS Medicine; Biomedcentral, DOAJ)  Open access copy in online archive  New Models of Scholarship  Traditional subscription access journals  green  (cIRcle; Pubmed Central)  Articles can be made OA by publishing in an OA journal or self archiving OA copies from a traditional publication  Open Access Publishing („Gold‟) • Publication that is free & open for anyone to access • Share all characteristics with “Toll Access” journals except free, open, and generally only electronic • Supported by variety of models – Institution / funder supported OR author-supported (2006 – 47% author supported)  • Generally allow authors to retain copyright and/or license under creative commons • 4380 number of OA journals according to Directory of Open Access Journals across all disciplines  Examples  Open Access via Archiving/Repositories („Green‟) • Literature published through traditional channels that is made openly available through deposit in a repository or placing on web site • Institutional, departmental, or discipline based repository • Range of publisher policies on deposit – Often post-prints (final author manuscript) can be deposited but publisher version cannot  Disciplinary Repository  Hybrid open access The author is given the option to pay a publication charge to make his or her article Open Access immediately on publication. Access to articles by authors who choose not to pay (and other content) require a subscription.  • American Chemical Society •  • • • •  • • American Institute of • Physics • American Physical Society • BMJ (British Medical • Journal) Blackwell Cambridge University Press  Elsevier Oxford University Press Royal Society (UK) SAGE Open Springer Taylor and Francis  Open Source • Free to download • Open to modify • Contribute back code  Open Content • Licensed to permit reuse & remixing • Anything that‟s copyrightable can become open content: images, text, music, video • Open content license examples include Creative Commons, GNU General Public License, Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD)  Open Content – MIT Visualizing Cultures  Open Education  Open Data • Open access to data not just papers • Data should be available in reusable forms (not tied up in pdfs for example) – Data wants to be acted upon • Working Group on Open Data in Science ( and Science Commons (  Open Data Examples Dynamic, constantly updated, in progress Evaluation criteria  Open Data Examples (Partnerships with the community)  Open Science  Summary • Principle of openness not just about „free‟ – Ability to reuse – Ability to contribute to and participate in – Transparency  • Multiple methods for open access and multiple business models to support • Public access generally different argument than open access • Range of movements around „openness‟ in higher education  Pressure for change: • 132 PROVOSTS support Open Access: “If universities pay the salaries of researchers and provide them with labs, and the federal government provides those researchers with grants for their studies, why should those same universities feel they can‟t afford to have access to research findings?” • Researchers are putting pressure on Societies: (e.g. Royal Society members); PLoS‟ Open letter: • OA publications are more often cited: Eysenbach G. Citation advantage of open access articles. PLoS Biol 2006;4(5):e157.  Other Pressures: Mandates to Encourage OA from Government Agencies  In Canada: • Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) – as of Jan 1, 2008: Research must be deposited in an Institutional Repository or Pubmed Central within 6 months of publication. •  (SSHRC, NSERC …)  Elsewhere worldwide: • As of October 1, 2006, all Wellcome Trust funded research must be deposited in PubMed Central: •  U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) – deposited in OA within 12 months of publication as of April 7, 2008.  •  Federal Research Public Access Act of 2006 (Senate Bill 2695)  •  U.K. House of Commons Science & Technology Committee  •  European Union & DAREnet  Faculty(Institutional) Mandates: ie. Harvard‟s OA Policy  mission …is to build a bottom-up, participatory structure to society and culture, rather than a top-down, closed, proprietary structure. Through the democratizing power of digital technology and the Internet, we can place the tools of creation and distribution, communication and collaboration, teaching and learning into the hands of the common person  We refuse to accept a future of digital feudalism where we do not actually own the products we buy, but we are merely granted limited uses of them as long as we pay the rent. We believe that culture should be a two-way affair, about participation, not merely consumption. We will not be content to sit passively at the end of a one-way media tube.  We will make, share, adapt, and promote open content. We will listen to free music, look at free art, watch free film, and read free books. All the while, we will contribute, discuss, annotate, critique, improve, improvise, remix, mutate, and add yet more ingredients into the free culture soup.  @UBC Library  Step One Select publishers that comply with the CIHR mandate – Check the Sherpa Romeo site to see which publishers comply with the CIHR Mandate:  – Consider publishing in a peer reviewed open access publication. UBC Library subsidizes many of these. See:  – Read publisher‟s publication agreement or enquire how the publisher complies with mandate  Open Journal Systems  UBC Library Innovative Dissemination of Research Award Established by the Library in 2010, this Award focuses on new and innovative ways of communicating and disseminating knowledge.  The Award honors UBC faculty, staff and students who are expanding the boundaries of research through the creative use of new tools and technologies that enhance the research findings being disseminated.  Contact Information Joy Kirchner Librarian for Collections, Licensing & Digital Scholarship University of British Columbia Library 604-827-3644  Attribution Slide 11: Super Secret Slide 15: Door Slide 17: Arrows  All photos used under a Creative Commons 3.0 Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 license  This presentation was based on the work created by Sarah Shreeves and Joy Kirchner August 11, 2009 for ACRL Scholarly Communications 101 program under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 United States License It was updated and revised by Joy Kirchner, October 17, 2010 for Open Access@UBC.  Special thanks goes to … Tim Atkinson Buck Buckwald Hilde Colenbrander Paula Farrar Garry Der Jens Haeusser Brian Lamb Julie Mitchell Trish Rosseel Julia Thompson Sandra Singh & IKBLC technical team Suzan Zager  


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