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What Matters to Student Success Kuh, George, D. 2009-06-09

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What Matters to Student Success George D. KuhUniversity of British ColumbiaMay 7, 2009Javier				Sarah NicoleWe all want the same thing--an undergraduate experience that results in high levels of learning and personal development for all students.   OverviewWhat students and the world need nowWhy engagement mattersLessons from high-performing institutions ImplicationsPonder ThisTo what extent do UBC students engage in productive learning activities, inside and outside the classroom? How do we get students to take greater advantage of UBC’s resources for learning? What can UBC do differently -- or better -- to enhance student learning and success?Student Success in University	Academic achievement, engagement in educationally purposeful activities, satisfaction, acquisition of desired knowledge, skills and competencies, persistence, attainment of educational objectives, and post-university performance Ponder ThisTo what extent do UBC students engage in productive learning activities, inside and outside the classroom? How do we get students to take greater advantage of UBC’s resources for learning? What can UBC do differently -- or better -- to enhance student learning and success?For what shall UBC be known? UBC CommitmentsThe University provides a rich learning experience that develops communication skills, critical thinking and creativity, facilitates social engagement and service, and helps individuals be global citizens.The University supports innovative and transformative teaching that actively engages students in building their own learning experience.UBC CommitmentsThe University promotes connections among faculties and units to create, develop, and share vital initiatives that advance the interests of UBC and its many communities.The University engages in reflection and action to build cross-cultural aptitudes, create a strong sense of inclusion, and enrich our intellectual and social life.Association of American Colleges and UniversitiesNarrow Learning is Not Enough:The Essential Learning Outcomes  	Knowledge of Human Cultures 	and the 	Physical & Natural World 	Intellectual and Practical Skills	 	Personal and Social Responsibility 	“Deep” Integrative Learning   Deep, Integrative LearningAttend to the underlying meaning of information as well as contentIntegrate and synthesize different  ideas, sources of informationDiscern patterns in evidence or phenomenaApply knowledge in different situationsView issues from multiple perspectivesMost Important Skills According to Employers and Recent GraduatesTeamwork skillsCritical thinking/ reasoningOral/written communicationAbility to assemble/ organize informationInnovative/thinking creativelyAble to work with numbers/statisticsForeign language proficiencyRecent Grads*38%37%37%10%21%  4%   6%* Skills/abilities recent graduates think are the two most important to employersPre-university Characteristics Associated with Student SuccessAcademic preparationAbility and college-level skillsFamily education and supportFinancial wherewithal Early University Indicators of Persistence and Success Goal realization Psycho-social fit Credit hours completed Academic and social support Involvement in the “right” kinds      	of activitiesWhat Really Matters in University: Student Engagement	Because individual effort and involvement are the critical determinants of impact,  institutions should focus on the ways they can shape their  academic, interpersonal, and extracurricular offerings to encourage student engagement. Pascarella & Terenzini, 2005, p. 602Student Engagement TrifectaWhat students do -- time and energy devoted to educationally purposeful activitiesWhat institutions do -- using effective educational practices to induce students to do the right thingsEducationally effective institutions channel student energy toward the right activitiesGood Practices in Undergraduate Education (Chickering & Gamson, 1987; Pascarella & Terenzini, 2005)Student-faculty contactActive learningPrompt feedbackTime on taskHigh expectationsRespect for diverse learning stylesCooperation among studentsNational Survey of Student Engagement(pronounced “nessie”)Community College Survey of Student Engagement(pronounced “cessie”)	Student surveys that assess the extent to which students engage in educational practices associated with high levels of learning and developmentNSSE Project ScopeSince 2000:2,000,000+ students from 1,334 different schools 80+% of 4-yr U.S. undergraduate FTE  50 states, Puerto Rico59 Canadian IHEs100+ consortiaNSSE QuestionnaireStudent Behaviors Institutional Actions & RequirementsReactions to CollegeStudent BackgroundInformationStudent Learning & Development Effective Educational PracticesLevel of Academic ChallengeActive & Collaborative LearningEnrichingEducational ExperiencesSupportiveCampusEnvironmentStudent-Faculty Interaction  Key findings  	Grades, persistence, student satisfaction, and engagement go hand in handUBC Comparison GroupsG-13Dalhousie UniversityUniversity of AlbertaUniversity of CalgarySelected US PeersUniversity of Texas at AustinUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignUniversity of Minnesota-Twin CitiesUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillUniversity of VirginiaUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonCarnegie Canadian PeersConcordia UniversityMcGill UniversityMcMaster UniversityUniversity of AlbertaUniversity of CalgaryUniversity of TorontoYork UniversityAcademic Challenge		What percent of UBC seniors study 10 or fewer hours per week?	(a) 7% (b) 12% (c) 20% (d) 26% (e) 35%Student Engagement Quize. 35%  (34% 1st years) 		What percent of UBC seniors frequently (often or very often) come to class unprepared?	(a) 9% (b) 17% (c) 29% (d) 40% (e) none of the aboveStudent Engagement Quizd. 40%  (37% 1st years) Come to class without completing readings or assignmentsSeniorsActive and Collaborative Learning		What percent of UBC 1st years never did a service learning project? 	(a) 12% (b) 29% (c) 42% (d) 59% (e) 71%Student Engagement Quize. 71%  (70% seniors) Participated in a community-based project (e.g. service learning) as part of a regular courseFirst-Year StudentsAsked questions in class or contributed to class discussionsFirst-Year StudentsStudent-Faculty Interaction		What percent of UBC first years never discussed ideas from readings or classes with a faculty member outside of class? 	(a) 14% (b) 28% (c) 39% (d) 47% 	(e) none of the aboveStudent Engagement Quizd. 47%  (39% seniors)  Received prompt feedback from faculty on your academic performanceFirst-Year StudentsEnriching Educational ExperiencesSupportive Campus Environment	Student engagement varies more within than between institutions.  Academic Challenge: Fourth-Years at Doc-Extensive Schools020406080100123456789101112131415Doc-Extensive InstitutionsPercentile 10Percentile 50Percentile 90		Worth Pondering	How do we reach our least engaged students?It’s more complicated than this… Many of the effects of college are “conditional”  Some are compensatory NSSE: Who’s more engaged?WomenFull-time studentsStudents who live on campusStudents with diversity experiencesStudents who start and stay at the same school	What does an educationally effective university look like? Project DEEP	To discover, document, and describe what high performing institutions do to achieve their notable level of effectiveness.DEEP Schools*Doctoral Extensives  University of Kansas  University of MichiganDoctoral IntensivesGeorge Mason UniversityMiami University (Ohio)University of Texas El PasoMaster’s Granting   Fayetteville State University  Gonzaga University  Longwood University  Liberal Arts    California State, Monterey Bay   Macalester College   Sweet Briar College   The Evergreen State College   Sewanee: University of the South   Ursinus College   Wabash College    Wheaton College (MA)   Wofford CollegeBaccalaureate General   Alverno College    University of Maine at Farmington	   Winston-Salem State University	*Higher-than predicted NSSE scores and graduation ratesResearch Approach		Case study method Team of 24 researchers review institutional documents and conduct multiple-day site visitsObserve individuals, classes, group meetings, activities, events 2,700+ people, 60 classes, 30 events Discover and describe effective practices and programs, campus cultureWorth Noting	Many roads to an engaging institutionNo one best modelDifferent combinations of complementary, interactive, synergistic conditionsAnything worth doing is worth doing well at scaleSix Shared Conditions “Living” Mission and “Lived” Educational PhilosophyUnshakeable Focus on Student Learning   Environments Adapted for Educational EnrichmentClearly Marked Pathways to Student SuccessImprovement-Oriented EthosShared Responsibility for Educational Quality Ponder ThisWhich of these areas needs attention right now at UBC??What might you or others do about it? 	Creating Conditions That Matter to Student Success                                                     DEEP Lessons    						We can’t leave serendipity to chance1. Lay out the path to student successIntentionality mattersEngagement early is criticalFront load resources to smooth transitions Teach newcomers about academic culture & expectationsFocus on underengaged studentsIf something works, maybe require it? Lessons from National Center for Academic TransformationIf doing something is important, require it (first-year students don’t do ‘optional’)Assign course points to the activityMonitor and intervene when necessary    http://www.thencat.org/Newsletters/Apr06.htm#1Targets of OpportunityRequire advising and orientationUse valid placement testsReduce D/W/F ratesDeploy early warning systemsCommunicate with at-risk student family membersFayetteville StateFaculty members “teach the students they have, not those they wish they had”Center for Teaching and Learning sponsors development activities on diverse learning needsCal State Monterey Bay“Assets” philosophy acknowledges students’ prior knowledge“Meet students where they are”Mentoring	U of Michigan Mentorship Program matches groups of four first-year students with an older student and a faculty or staff member who share similar academic interests. The goal is to provide students with mentoring relationships, networking opportunities, yearlong guidance and support, and in general to help ease the transition to college. It Takes a Whole Campus to Educate a StudentSomething Else That Really Matters in University  The greatest impact appears to stem from students’ total level of campus engagement, particularly when academic, interpersonal, and extracurricular involvements are mutually reinforcing…Pascarella & Terenzini, 2005, p. 6472. Recruit, socialize and reward competent people Recruit faculty and staff committed to student learning Emphasize a relentless focus on student success in faculty and staff orientation Reward and support competent staff to insure high quality student support services “Difference Makers” Student success is the product of thousands of small gestures extended on a daily basis by caring, supportive educators sprinkled throughout the institution who enact a talent development philosophy.  	            “Miss Rita”3. Promote and reward collaborationTighten the philosophical and operational linkages between academic and student affairs Potential collaborations:Peer tutoring and mentoring First year seminarsLearning communities4. Put money where it will make a               difference to student success “…in professional baseball it still matters less how much you have than how well you spend it”4. Put money where it will make a    difference to student success Align resources and reward system with institutional mission, values, and prioritiesSunset redundant and ineffective programsInvest in “high-impact” activities that contribute to student success www.aacu.orgHigh Impact Activities First-Year Seminars and Experiences  Common Intellectual Experiences Learning Communities Writing-Intensive Courses Collaborative Assignments and Projects “Science as Science Is Done”;     	    	    Undergraduate Research Diversity/Global Learning Service Learning, Community-Based 	    Learning Internships Capstone Courses and ProjectsIntegrating ideas or information from various sourcesIncluded diverse perspectives in class discussions/writing Put together ideas from different courses Discussed ideas with faculty members outside of classDiscussed ideas with others outside of classAnalyzing the basic elements of an idea, experience, or theoryEssential Learning Outcome: NSSE Deep/Integrative LearningSynthesizing & organizing ideas, info., or experiencesMaking judgments about the value of informationApplying theories to practical problems or in new situationsExamined the strengths and weaknesses of your own viewsTried to better understand someone else's viewsLearned something that changed how you understand an issueEffects of Participating in High-Impact Activitieson Deep/Integrative Learning and GainsEffects of Participating in High-Impact Activitieson Student EngagementHigh Impact Activities Increase Odds Students Will:Invest time and effort Interact with faculty and peers about substantive mattersExperience diversityGet more frequent feedbackReflect & integrate learningDiscover relevance of learning through real-world applicationsCommunity service or volunteer workFirst-Year StudentsCommunity service or volunteer workSeniorsLearning community or some other formal programFirst-Year StudentsResearch project with a faculty member outside of course requirementsSeniorsStudy abroadSeniorsPracticum, internship, field experience, co-op experience, or clinical assignmentSeniorsCulminating senior experience (capstone course, senior project/thesis, comp exam, etc.)SeniorsHigh-Impact Practices and the Disparities Within…1st Years: Service Learning and LCs Parity among racial/ethnic groupsFewer 1st gen students Fewer part-time studentsFewer transfer studentsFewer older students				High-Impact Practices and the Disparities Within…	4th Years in All HIPsFewer 1st gen studentsFewer students of colorFewer transfer studentsFewer part-time studentsFewer older students  Assessing Student Engagement in  High-Impact Practices	To what extent does your institution provide these experiences? 	[√ = have on campus; √ = required; estimate the % of various 	student populations in these activities]NSSE and FSSE Data4th Years’ Participation in High Impact Activities0%10%20%30%40%50%Somewhat ImportantImportantVery ImportantAverage Importance Faculty Placed on the ExperiencePercentage of Seniors Who Had the ExperienceCulminating ExperienceResearch with a Faculty MemberService LearningNSSE and FSSE Data5. Focus on culture sooner than later	Ultimately, it’s all about the culture…Expand the number of cultural practitioners on campusIdentify and address cultural properties that impede successInstill an ethic of positive restlessness Positive RestlessnessConfident, responsive, but never quite satisfied… “We know who we are and what we aspire to.”Self-correcting orientationContinually question, “are we performing as well as we can?” 6.  Put someone in charge 	When everyone is responsible for something, no one is accountable for it…Senior leadership is keySome individual or group (high profile ‘think force’) must coordinate, monitor and report the status of initiativesThose ‘in charge’ not solely responsible for bringing about change7. Stay the course  The good-to-great-transformations never happened in one fell swoop. There was no single defining action, no grand program, no one killer innovation, no solitary lucky break, no miracle moment.  Sustainable transformations follow a predictable pattern of buildup and breakthrough…      (Collins, 2001, p. 186)7. Stay the courseAcademic leadershipIntentionalityScale up effective practicesIf it works, consider requiring itBeware the implementation dipJavier				Sarah NicoleClassroom Engaging Pedagogies One minute papers (variations)Case studiesDebatesSmall group problem sets…OthersIf We Could Do Four Things…3. Make it possible for every student to do at least one “high-impact” experience in the first year and another later linked to the major  If We Could Do Four Things…4.  Ensure programs are of high quality.  	What is your evidence for effectiveness?Last WordWe must embrace the lineage of our students. Campus cultures do not change easily or willingly. To foster more student success we must use promising policies and practices more consistently throughout the institution.Do we have the will to do so?to consider & discussTo what extent are students’ academic performance and out-of-class lives consistent with the institution’s expectations? In what ways do students’ out-of-class lives facilitate and inhibit their learning and success? What’s working well to foster student engagement at UBC? What needs to improve? How could you influence this change? What structures and processes are in place to identify students who are less engaged in educationally-purposeful activities than they should be to succeed? Photo by: stephenccwu.  Used under Creative Commons license.Questions & Discussion ***********************Extensive research indicates that good educational practices in the classroom and interactions with others, such as faculty and peers, are directly related to high-quality student outcomesThey also record their perceptions of features of the college environment that are associated with achievement, satisfaction, and persistence including the extent to which the institution offers the support students need to succeed academically and the quality of relations between various groups on campus such as faculty and students (Astin, 1993; Pascarella & Terenzini, 1991; Tinto, 1993). Responses to the Educational and Personal Growth items in The Report have been shown to be generally consistent with other evidence, such as results from achievement tests (Brandt, 1958; Davis & Murrell, 1990; DeNisi & Shaw, 1977; Hansford & Hattie, 1982; Lowman & Williams, 1987; Pike, 1995; Pace, 1985). As with all college student surveys, the NSSE relies on student self-reports.  For self-reported information to be valid, five conditions must be met: (1) the information requested is known to the respondents, (2) the questions are phrased clearly and unambiguously (Laing, Sawyer, & Noble, 1988), (3) the questions refer to recent activities (Converse & Presser, 1989); (4) the respondents think the questions merit a serious and thoughtful response (Pace, 1985), and (5) answering the questions does not threaten, embarrass, or violate the privacy of the respondent or encourage the respondent to respond in socially desirable ways (Bradburn & Sudman, 1988).  The survey was designed to satisfy all these conditions. The items are clearly worded, well defined, have high face validity, and acceptable reliability (Kuh 2000). *************************2,700 people—including about 1,300 students, 750 faculty members, and 650“others” (such as administrators, student affairs professionals, librarians,and instructional technology staff).We met with some of these people morethan once. In addition to traversing these campuses on foot and by bus andauto, we also sat in on about 60 classes, attended more than 30 campusevents, including faculty senate meetings, lectures, candlelight vigils, campusforums, and student government meetings, dined in about 20 campuslocations, and visited student centers at least two dozen times.******Bullet 1: DEEP Schools are confident enough of who they are and what they are striving for that they are willing to question whether they are performing as well as they can. This sense of institutional efficacy contributes to a collaborative culture of improvement. Bullet 2: DEEP schools are never quite satisfied with their level of performance.  They continually revisit and rework policies and practices to make them marginally better.  Bullet 3: Confidence combined with a focus on improved performance makes DEEP schools dynamic organizations.  Because they are not afraid to experiment and invest in ideas, they are inclined toward innovation.   Even those that are cash strapped typically find small amounts of money to fuel the flame of innovation.  **CETalOffers workshops on instructional techniques, including problem-based learning and techniques for cooperative learningFSUCenter for Teaching and Learning sponsors faculty development activities, early exposure to students’ diverse learning needs.DEEP Insights Into the First College Year: Creating Pathways for Student Success - 2005 *A faculty participant in the program glowed as she spoke of the close relationship she has developed with her co-mentor, a senior student.  The faculty mentor takes the role seriously, commenting that it benefits her “to keep connected with what’s going on with students” and provides a ready means to interact with undergraduates informally—at plays, trips to a Detroit ballet, or just for coffee.  The role also enables her to help students to be part of a smaller community within the large University and to learn more about faculty and their academic interests.  From our conversation with this faculty mentor as well as students, the program is not used as often as it could be.  However, another interviewee told us, “Everyone who wants one [faculty mentor] gets one,” suggesting that at least students are informed about the opportunity and can choose the resource if desired.*****Among these collaborative activities are (p. 203): Peer tutoring and mentoring First year seminarsLearning communities ********Bullet 1: DEEP Schools are confident enough of who they are and what they are striving for that they are willing to question whether they are performing as well as they can. This sense of institutional efficacy contributes to a collaborative culture of improvement. Bullet 2: DEEP schools are never quite satisfied with their level of performance.  They continually revisit and rework policies and practices to make them marginally better.  Bullet 3: Confidence combined with a focus on improved performance makes DEEP schools dynamic organizations.  Because they are not afraid to experiment and invest in ideas, they are inclined toward innovation.   Even those that are cash strapped typically find small amounts of money to fuel the flame of innovation.  ********Bullet 1: DEEP Schools are confident enough of who they are and what they are striving for that they are willing to question whether they are performing as well as they can. This sense of institutional efficacy contributes to a collaborative culture of improvement. Bullet 2: DEEP schools are never quite satisfied with their level of performance.  They continually revisit and rework policies and practices to make them marginally better.  Bullet 3: Confidence combined with a focus on improved performance makes DEEP schools dynamic organizations.  Because they are not afraid to experiment and invest in ideas, they are inclined toward innovation.   Even those that are cash strapped typically find small amounts of money to fuel the flame of innovation.  *Bullet 1: DEEP Schools are confident enough of who they are and what they are striving for that they are willing to question whether they are performing as well as they can. This sense of institutional efficacy contributes to a collaborative culture of improvement. Bullet 2: DEEP schools are never quite satisfied with their level of performance.  They continually revisit and rework policies and practices to make them marginally better.  Bullet 3: Confidence combined with a focus on improved performance makes DEEP schools dynamic organizations.  Because they are not afraid to experiment and invest in ideas, they are inclined toward innovation.   Even those that are cash strapped typically find small amounts of money to fuel the flame of innovation.  ****Bullet 1: DEEP Schools are confident enough of who they are and what they are striving for that they are willing to question whether they are performing as well as they can. This sense of institutional efficacy contributes to a collaborative culture of improvement. Bullet 2: DEEP schools are never quite satisfied with their level of performance.  They continually revisit and rework policies and practices to make them marginally better.  Bullet 3: Confidence combined with a focus on improved performance makes DEEP schools dynamic organizations.  Because they are not afraid to experiment and invest in ideas, they are inclined toward innovation.   Even those that are cash strapped typically find small amounts of money to fuel the flame of innovation.  ********Advisory committees to faculty searches and in some cases even tenure review committeesKansas has a requirement that 20% of all university committee seats must be held by students.University of KansasAlverno CollegeGeorge MasonMacalester College* What Matters to Student Success  George D. Kuh University of British Columbia May 7, 2009  Javier  Sarah Nicole  We all want the same thing--an undergraduate experience that results in high levels of learning and personal development for all students.  Overview  What students and the world need now  Why engagement matters  Lessons from highperforming institutions  Implications  Ponder This To what extent do UBC students engage in productive learning activities, inside and outside the classroom? How do we get students to take greater advantage of UBC’s resources for learning? What can UBC do differently -- or better -- to enhance student learning and success?  Student Success in University Academic achievement, engagement in educationally purposeful activities, satisfaction, acquisition of desired knowledge, skills and competencies, persistence, attainment of educational objectives, and postuniversity performance  Ponder This  To what extent do UBC students engage in productive learning activities, inside and outside the classroom?  How do we get students to take greater advantage of UBC’s resources for learning?  What can UBC do differently -- or better -- to enhance student learning and success?  For what shall UBC be known?  UBC Commitments he University provides a rich learning experience that develops communication skills, critical thinking and creativity, facilitates social engagement and service, and helps individuals be global citizens. he University supports innovative and transformative teaching that actively engages students in building their own  UBC Commitments he University promotes connections among faculties and units to create, develop, and share vital initiatives that advance the interests of UBC and its many communities. he University engages in reflection and action to build cross-cultural aptitudes, create a strong sense of inclusion, and enrich our intellectual and social life.  Association of American Colleges and Universities  Narrow Learning is Not Enough: The Essential Learning Outcomes  Knowledge of Human Cultures and the Physical & Natural World  Intellectual and Practical Skills    Personal and Social Responsibility  “Deep” Integrative Learning  Deep, Integrative Learning  Attend to the underlying meaning of information as well as content  Integrate and synthesize different ideas, sources of information  Discern patterns in evidence or phenomena  Apply knowledge in different situations  View issues from multiple perspectives  Most Important Skills According to Employers and Recent Graduates  Recent Grads*  Teamwork skills Critical thinking/ reasoning Oral/written communication Ability to assemble/ organize information Innovative/thinking creatively Able to work with numbers/statistics Foreign language proficiency  44% 33% 30% 21% 20% 9% 3%  * Skills/abilities recent graduates think are the two most important to employers  38% 37% 37% 10% 21% 4% 6%  Pre-university Characteristics Associated with Student Success Academic preparation Ability and college-level skills Family education and support Financial wherewithal  Early University Indicators of Persistence and Success  Goal realization  Psycho-social fit  Credit hours completed  Academic and social support  Involvement in the “right” kinds of activities  What Really Matters in University: Student Engagement Because individual effort and involvement are the critical determinants of impact, institutions should focus on the ways they can shape their academic, interpersonal, and extracurricular offerings to encourage student engagement. Pascarella & Terenzini, 2005, p. 602  Student Engagement Trifecta  What students do -- time and energy devoted to educationally purposeful activities  What institutions do -- using effective educational practices to induce students to do the right things  Educationally effective institutions channel student energy toward the right activities  Good Practices in Undergraduate Education (Chickering & Gamson, 1987; Pascarella & Terenzini, 2005)          Student-faculty contact Active learning Prompt feedback Time on task High expectations Respect for diverse learning styles Cooperation among students  National Survey of Student Engagement (pronounced “nessie”)  Community College Survey of Student Engagement (pronounced “cessie”)  Student surveys that assess the extent to which students engage in educational practices associated with high levels of learning and development  NSSE Project Scope Since 2000: 2,000,000+ students from 1,334 different schools 80+% of 4-yr U.S. undergraduate FTE 50 states, Puerto Rico  59 Canadian IHEs 100+ consortia  NSSE Questionnaire Student Behaviors Institutional Actions & Requirements Reactions to College Student Background Information  Student Learning & Development  Effective Educational Practices Level of Academic Challenge  Enriching Educational Experiences  StudentFaculty Interaction  Active & Collaborative Learning  Supportive Campus Environment  Key findings  Grades, persistence, student satisfaction, and engagement go hand in hand  UBC Comparison Groups G-13  Selected US Peers  Dalhousie University University of Alberta University of Calgary  University of Texas at Austin University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign University of MinnesotaTwin Cities University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill University of Virginia University of WisconsinMadison  Carnegie Canadian Peers Concordia University McGill University McMaster University University of Alberta University of Calgary University of Toronto York University  Academic Challenge  Student Engagement Quiz What percent of UBC seniors study 10 or fewer hours per week? (a) 7% (b) 12% (c) 20% (d) 26% (e) 35% e. 35% (34% 1st years)  Student Engagement Quiz What percent of UBC seniors frequently (often or very often) come to class unprepared? (a) 9% (b) 17% (c) 29% (d) 40% (e) none of the above d. 40% (37% 1st years)  Come to class without completing readings or assignments Seniors  Active and Collaborative Learning  Student Engagement Quiz What percent of UBC 1st years never did a service learning project? (a) 12% (b) 29% (c) 42% (d) 59% (e) 71% e. 71% (70% seniors)  Participated in a community-based project (e.g. service learning) as part of a regular course First-Year Students  Asked questions in class or contributed to class discussions First-Year Students  Student-Faculty Interaction  Student Engagement Quiz What percent of UBC first years never discussed ideas from readings or classes with a faculty member outside of class? (a) 14% (b) 28% (c) 39% (d) 47% (e) none of the above d. 47% (39% seniors)  Received prompt feedback from faculty on your academic performance First-Year Students  Enriching Educational Experiences  Supportive Campus Environment  Student engagement varies more within than between institutions.  Academic Challenge: Fourth-Years at Doc-Extensive Schools  Percentile 10 Percentile 50 Percentile 90  100 80 60 40 20 0 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  Doc-Extensive Institutions  12  13  14  15  Student-Faculty Interaction: First-Year Students at Liberal Arts Institutions  Percentile 10 Percentile 50 Percentile 90  100 80 60 40 20 0 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  Liberal Arts Institutions  9  10  11  12  Worth Pondering How do we reach our least engaged students?  It’s more complicated than this…  Many of the effects of college are “conditional”  Some are compensatory  NSSE: Who’s more engaged?  Women  Full-time students  Students who live on campus  Students with diversity experiences  Students who start and stay at the same school  What does an educationally effective university look like?  Project DEEP To discover, document, and describe what high performing institutions do to achieve their notable level of effectiveness.  DEEP Schools* Schools Doctoral Extensives University of Kansas University of Michigan Doctoral Intensives George Mason University Miami University (Ohio) University of Texas El Paso Master’s Granting  * Hi gher - t han pr edi c t ed NSSE s c or es and gr aduat i on Liberal Arts r at es California State, Monterey Bay Macalester College Sweet Briar College The Evergreen State College Sewanee: University of the South Ursinus College Wabash College Wheaton College (MA) Wofford College Baccalaureate General  Fayetteville State University  Alverno College  Gonzaga University  University of Maine at Farmington  Longwood University  Winston-Salem State University  Research Approach Case study method Team of 24 researchers review institutional documents and conduct multiple-day site visits Observe individuals, classes, group meetings, activities, events • 2,700+ people, 60 classes, 30 events Discover and describe effective practices and programs, campus culture  Worth Noting Many roads to an engaging institution  No one best model  Different combinations of complementary, interactive, synergistic conditions  Anything worth doing is worth doing well at scale  Six Shared Conditions  “Living” Mission and “Lived” Educational Philosophy  Unshakeable Focus on Student Learning  Environments Adapted for Educational Enrichment  Clearly Marked Pathways to Student Success  Improvement-Oriented Ethos  Shared Responsibility for Educational Quality  Ponder This 1. Which of these areas needs attention right now at UBC?? 2. What might you or others do about it?  Creating Conditions That Matter to Student Success  DEEP Lessons We can’t leave serendipity to chance  1. Lay out the path to student success a. Intentionality matters b. Engagement early is critical c. Front load resources to smooth transitions d. Teach newcomers about academic culture & expectations e. Focus on underengaged students f. If something works, maybe require it?  Lessons from National Center for Academic Transformation  If doing something is important, require it (first-year students don’t do ‘optional’)  Assign course points to the activity  Monitor and intervene when necessary http://www.thencat.org/Newsletters/Apr06.htm#1  Targets of Opportunity       Require advising and orientation Use valid placement tests Reduce D/W/F rates Deploy early warning systems Communicate with at-risk student family members  “Meet students where they are” Fayetteville State Faculty members “teach the students they have, not those they wish they had” Center for Teaching and Learning sponsors development activities on diverse learning needs Cal State Monterey Bay “Assets” philosophy acknowledges students’ prior knowledge  Mentoring U of Michigan Mentorship Program matches groups of four first-year students with an older student and a faculty or staff member who share similar academic interests. The goal is to provide students with mentoring relationships, networking opportunities, yearlong guidance and support, and in general to help ease the transition to college.  It Takes a Whole Campus to Educate a Student  Something Else That Really Matters in University The greatest impact appears to stem from students’ total level of campus engagement, particularly when academic, interpersonal, and extracurricular involvements are mutually reinforcing…  Pas c ar el l a & Ter enz i ni , 2005, p. 647  2. Recruit, socialize and reward competent people a. Recruit faculty and staff committed to student learning b. Emphasize a relentless focus on student success in faculty and staff orientation c. Reward and support competent staff to insure high quality student support services  “Difference Makers” Student success is the product of thousands of small gestures extended on a daily basis by caring, supportive educators sprinkled throughout the institution who enact a talent development philosophy. “Miss Rita”  3. Promote and reward collaboration a. Tighten the philosophical and operational linkages between academic and student affairs b. Potential collaborations: – Peer tutoring and mentoring – First year seminars – Learning communities  4. Put money where it will make a difference to student success “…in professional baseball it still matters less how much you have than how well you spend it”  4. Put money where it will make a difference to student success a. Align resources and reward  system with institutional mission, values, and priorities b. Sunset redundant and ineffective programs c. Invest in “high-impact” activities that contribute to student success  www.aacu.org  High Impact Activities  First-Year Seminars and Experiences  Common Intellectual Experiences  Learning Communities  Writing-Intensive Courses  Collaborative Assignments and Projects  “Science as Science Is Done”; Undergraduate Research  Diversity/Global Learning  Service Learning, Community-Based Learning  Internships  Capstone Courses and Projects  Essent i al Lear ni ng Out come:  NSSE Deep/ I nt egr at i ve Lear ni ng  Integrating ideas or information from various sources  Included diverse perspectives in class discussions/writing  Put together ideas from different courses  Discussed ideas with faculty members outside of class  Discussed ideas with others outside of class  Analyzing the basic elements of an idea, experience, or theory   Synthesizing & organizing ideas, info., or experiences  Making judgments about the value of information  Applying theories to practical problems or in new situations  Examined the strengths and weaknesses of your own views  Tried to better understand someone else's views  Learned something that changed how you understand an issue  Ef f ec t s of Par t i c i pat i ng i n Hi ghI mpac t Ac t i v i t i es Deep Gains Gains Gains on Deep/ I nt egr at i v e Lear ni ng and Learning General Personal Practical Gai ns First Year Learning Communities Service Learning  +++ +++  ++ ++  ++ +++  ++ ++  Fourth Year  Study Abroad Student-Faculty Research Internship  ++ +++ ++  + ++ ++  ++ ++ ++  ++ ++  Service Learning Culminating Experience  +++ ++  ++ ++  +++ ++  ++ ++  + p < .001, ++ p < .001 & Unstd B > .10, +++ p < .001 & Unstd B > .30  Ef f ec t s of Par t i c i pat i ng i n Hi ghI mpac t Ac t i v i t i es Level of Active and Student- Supportive on St udent Engagem ent Campus Academic Collab. Faculty Challenge  Learning  Interaction  Env.  +++  +++  ++  ++ +++ Fourth Year  +++  ++  First Year Learning Communities Service Learning  ++  Study Abroad Student-Faculty Research Internship  ++ +++ ++  ++ +++ +++  ++ +++ +++  + ++ ++  Service Learning Culminating Experience  ++ ++  +++ ++  +++ +++  ++ ++  + p < .001, ++ p < .001 & Unstd B > .10, +++ p < .001 & Unstd B > .30  High Impact Activities Increase Odds Students Will:  Invest time and effort  Interact with faculty and peers about substantive matters  Experience diversity  Get more frequent feedback  Reflect & integrate learning  Discover relevance of learning through real-world applications  Community service or volunteer work First-Year Students  Community service or volunteer work Seniors  Learning community or some other formal program First-Year Students  Research project with a faculty member outside of course requirements Seniors  Study abroad Seniors  Practicum, internship, field experience, co-op experience, or clinical assignment Seniors  Culminating senior experience (capstone course, senior project/thesis, comp exam, etc.) Seniors  High-Impact Practices and the Disparities Within… 1st Years: Service Learning and LCs  Parity among racial/ethnic groups  Fewer 1st gen students  Fewer part-time students  Fewer transfer students  Fewer older students  High-Impact Practices and the Disparities Within…        4th Years in All HIPs Fewer 1st gen students Fewer students of color Fewer transfer students Fewer part-time students Fewer older students  Assessing Student Engagement in High-Impact Practices To what extent does your institution provide these experiences? [√ = have on campus; √ = required; estimate the % of various student populations in these activities]  4th Years’ Participation in High Impact Activities Per cent age of Seni or s Who Had t he Exper i ence  50%  40%  Cul mi nat i ng Ex per i enc e Res ear c h wi t h a Fac ul t y Member Ser v i c e Lear ni ng  30%  20%  10%  0%  Somewhat I mpor t ant  I mpor t ant  Ver y I mpor t ant  Aver age I mpor t anc e Fac ul t y Pl ac ed on t he Ex per i enc e NSSE and FSSE Data  5. Focus on culture sooner than later Ultimately, it’s all about the culture… a. Expand the number of cultural practitioners on campus b. Identify and address cultural properties that impede success c. Instill an ethic of positive restlessness  Positive Restlessness Confident, responsive, but never quite satisfied… “We know who we are and what we aspire to.” Self-correcting orientation Continually question, “are we performing as well as we can?”  6. Put someone in charge  a. b.  c.  When everyone is responsible for something, no one is accountable for it… Senior leadership is key Some individual or group (high profile ‘think force’) must coordinate, monitor and report the status of initiatives Those ‘in charge’ not solely responsible for bringing about change  7. Stay the course The good-to-great-transformations never happened in one fell swoop. There was no single defining action, no grand program, no one killer innovation, no solitary lucky break, no miracle moment. Sustainable transformations follow a predictable pattern of buildup and breakthrough… (Collins, 2001, p. 186)  7. Stay the course  Academic leadership  Intentionality  Scale up effective practices  If it works, consider requiring it  Beware the implementation dip  Javier  Sarah Nicole  Classroom Engaging Pedagogies 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  One minute papers (variations) Case studies Debates Small group problem sets… Others  If We Could Do Four Things… 3. Make it possible for every student to do at least one “high-impact” experience in the first year and another later linked to the major  If We Could Do Four Things… 4. Ensure programs are of high quality. What is your evidence for effectiveness?  Last Word We must embrace the lineage of our students. Campus cultures do not change easily or willingly. To foster more student success we must use promising policies and practices more consistently throughout the institution. Do we have the will to do so?  t o consi der & di scuss  To what ext ent ar e st udent s’ academi c per f or mance and out - of - cl ass l i ves consi st ent wi t h t he i nst i t ut i on’ s expect at i ons?  I n what ways do st udent s’ out - of - cl ass l i ves f aci l i t at e and i nhi bi t t hei r l ear ni ng and success? What ’ s wor ki ng wel l t o f ost er st udent engagement at UBC? What needs t o i mpr ove? How coul d you i nf l uence t hi s change? What st r uct ur es and pr ocesses ar e i n pl ace t o i dent i f y st udent s who ar e l ess engaged i n educat i onal l y- pur posef ul act i vi t i es  Photo by: stephenccwu. Used under Creative Commons  Questions & Discussion  

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