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Temple of Hatshepsut at Deir el-Bahri Iwaszczuk, Jadwiga


The temple of queen Hatshepsut at Deir el-Bahari was a terraced ancient Egyptian temple of millions of years. It was dedicated to the cult of Amun, as well as Hathor and Anubis, Hatshepsut herself and her father Thutmose I also had their chapels here. Its construction started in the 7th year of the reign of Thutmose III and continued through all her life. It was situated in the valley at the foot of the mountain. The whole complex consisted of the Valley Temple, 1km-long processional alley and the main temple. The Hathor Shrine was a separate element, with its own architectural arrangement and a priest. The temple was oriented to the east, towards the 8th pylon in Karnak. It has undergone many architectural changes, although some elements have never been finished. Its architect was Senenmut, one of the queen's most trusted officials. In the late years of the reign of Thutmose III, the temple lost importance in favour of his temple built right next to it, on the south side. The decoration of the temple suffered many alterations, Thutmose III removed figures of the queen and her royal protocol or replaced them with those of his father, Thutmose II. During the Amarna period, almost all representations of gods and gods' barks were chiselled out. In the post-Amarna times, most of the gods' depictions were restored. In the Third Intermediate Period, the serious earthquake destroyed the Upper Terrace and the temple space began to be used as a graveyard for high officials and their families. During the Graeco-Roman period, the parts of the temple not damaged by the earthquake served as a place of the cult of Amenhotep son of Hapu and Imhotep, and a sanatory.

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