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Sannō Shintō, also known as “Tendai Shintō” Sala, Emanuela 2020-08-02

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Poll: Religious Group (v6) Published on: 02 August 2020Sannō Shintōalso known as “Tendai Shintō”Data source: Own research (PhD) and secondary literatureBy Emanuela Sala, SOAS* Data Source entry, prepared based on data sourced from an external project.Entry tags: Buddhist Traditions, Japanese Religions, Shintō, Religious Group, Kami worshipSannō shintō refers to narratives, doctrinal analyses and artistic depictions related to the “mountainsovereigns” (jp. Sannō), the deities of the Hie shrine, now Hiyoshi taisha, in Sakamoto at the foothills ofMount Hiei. In Sannō shintō, the identity of the Hie deities is chiefly conceptualised with the vocabularyand semiotic framework of Tendai Buddhism, and in special (but not exclusive) relation to the lineagesresiding at the Enryakuji on Mount Hiei, to this day the main Tendai centre in Japan. While the first extantsources relating the Hie deities to the Enryakuji date back to the ninth century, Sannō shintō reached itsapex as a discourse in the middle ages (12th-15th century), throughout which the majority of the materialextensively treating the identities of the deities was collected. More concretely, Sannō shintō can bedefined in two ways. In a narrow sense, it only indicates discourses produced at the Enryakuji, mostlymythological and doctrinal, which establish correspondences between the deities of Hie and specificBuddhas and bodhisattvas. Although Sannō is a collective term for the whole host of deities enshrined inthe twenty-one shrines of Hie, most often the “mountain sovereigns” are three of them: Ōmiya, presidingover the western compound of the shrines; Ninomiya, presiding over the eastern, and Shōshinji, also a deityof the western compound. In the “strict” definition of Sannō shintō, these are considered as emanations of,or identical to, three Buddhas: Śākyamuni, the main Buddha of the Western pagoda area of the Enryakuji(saitō), Yakushi (sskr. Bhaiṣajyaguru), presiding over the Konpon chudo in the Eastern pagoda area, andAmida (sskr. Amitabha), presiding over the Yokawa area. Such correspondences are sanctioned bymonastic treatises such as the Keiranshūyōshū (14th century). At a broader level, however, we can say thatSannō shintō is also made up of discourses on the deities of Hie that do not quite befit the narrowinterpretation. For instance, these might be mythological accounts produced at the Hie shrine, touchingupon subjects such as the origin and enshrinement of the deities; accounts of the festival held each yearfor the deities, as well as monastic discourses which do not quite conceptualise the deities within the samecorrespondences of the narrow definition. In this entry I shall adopt the broader definition for threereasons. Firstly, because the medieval Hie shrines and Enryakuji were closely intertwined from aninstitutional point of view. Secondly, because the correspondences of the narrow definition do notrepresent the full extent of the diachronic evolution of Sannō shintō. Thirdly, because the “narrow”definition of Sannō shintō presupposes the “broader” one, especially from a mythological perspective.Thirdly, because textual material that presents the correspondences of the “narrow” version of Sannōshintō often also includes accounts produced not by monastics, but by priestly lineages at the shrines.Such is the case for two of the the texts which are considered synonymous with Sannō shintō, Yōtenki (13-15th century) and Sange Yōryakki (13th century). Taking account of this, in consulting this entry one shouldkeep in mind at all times that Sannō shintō was not a conscious religious group, but a discursive fieldcomprising various mythologies, ritual and devotional aspects, all joined together by being centred on thesame deities and the same place. Please note that this article focuses on the medieval discourse on the Hiedeities, but not on Sannō ichijutsu shintō, the pre-modern discourse issued from Sannō shintō but focusedon the Tōshōgū, in Nikko.DOI: URL: https://religiondatabase.org/browse/896This work is licensed under the Creative CommonsAttribution 4.0 International license.Please see our Terms of Use here:https://religiondatabase.org/about/creditsPage 1 of 43© 2020 Database of Religious History.The University of British Columbia.For any questions contactproject.manager@religiondatabase.orgDate Range: 800 CE - 1571 CERegion: Lake Biwa area, Kyōto and Mt HieiRegion tags: JapanKyōto, Sakamoto, Mt Hiei, and the Lake Biwa area,where the origin tales on the deities are set, andwhere the festival dedicated to the Sannō deities isconducted.Status of Participants:✓ Elite ✓ Religious Specialists ✓ Non-elite (common people, general populace)SourcesPrint sources for understanding this subject:Notes: For a history of the Hie shrine in English see Breen, John, and Teeuwen, Mark, A New History ofShinto, Chichester; Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010.Online sources for understanding this subject:General VariablesMembership/Group InteractionsAre other religious groups in cultural contact with target religion:Source 1: Sugahara Shinkai 菅原信海, Sannō Shintō no kenkyu ̄ 山王神道の研究, Tōkyō, Shunju ̄sha, 1992—Source 2: Satō Masato, “Sannō shintō no kyōri” 山王神道の教理, Kokubungaku kaiyaku to kanshō 国文学解釈と鑑賞, vol. 52, pp. 32-38—Source 3: Grapard, Allan G. “Linguistic Cubism: A Singularity of Pluralism in the Sannō Cult,” JapaneseJournal of Religious Studies, 14, 2/3, 1987, pp. 211–234—Source 1 URL: http://eos.kokugakuin.ac.jp/modules/xwords/entry.php?entryID=362—Source 1 Description: Encyclopedia of Shintō entry by Satō Masato—Yes—Is the cultural contact competitive:Yes—Is the cultural contact accommodating/pluralistic:Notes: Sannō shintō mythologically relates to other shintō lineages and institutions in differentways. Firstly, on the level of relations among deities. The deities (kami) of the Hie shrine arerecounted to uphold family relations with the deities of other shrines, for instance the twoYes—Sala, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 2 of 43Does the religious group have a general process/system for assigning religious affiliation:Notes: There is an ordination platform for Tendai monastics and high ranking priests are hereditary,but there is no affiliation procedure for those who worship at the shrine or attend the festival.Kamo shrines in Kyoto and the Matsunoo shrine, south of Kyoto. The specific relations vary indifferent sources. In the Yōtenki (12-15th century), the deity of Matsunoo is said by one shrinepriest to be the grandfather of one of the deities of the Western compound of Hie, whosemother is the deity of the Kamo shrine. This mythological kinship reflects kinship claimedwithin the priestly groups. A second kind of relationship is of identity. The deity of the mainshrine of the Western compound of Hie, called Ōmiya, is considered identical to the deity ofthe Miwa shrine, in Yamato, especially in sources issued from a monastic environment. Thisidentity is also claimed in sources issued from the kami-worship tradition of the Miwa shrine(see reference for the latter).Reference: Anna Andreeva. Assembling Shinto: Buddhist Approaches to Kami Worship inMedieval Japan. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Asia Center.Is the cultural contact neutral:Yes—Is there violent conflict (with groups outside the sample region):No—Yes—Assigned at birth (membership is default for this society):Notes: Only in the case of high ranking priests at the Hie shrine (Hafuribe family) and only inthe sense that their position (for instance as high priest, or negi) is hereditary.Yes—Assigned by personal choice:Yes—Assigned by class:Notes: Hafuribe family belongs to a group of priestly families. No such thing for laypeopleworshipping at the shrine (in which case affiliation is not required).Yes—Assigned at a specific age:No—Assigned by gender:Sala, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 3 of 43Does the religious group actively proselytize and recruit new members:Does the religion have official political supportNotes: The primary aim of the Enryakuji/Hie shrine is to protect the imperial palace and the "state".High ranking priests at the shrines from the Hafuribe family are part of an official priestly rankingsanctioned by the Bureau of kami matters (jingikan). The shrine received imperial donations as part ofan imperially-sanctioned system of twenty-two shrines with state sponsorship. Monastic rank (sōi) wasalso sanctioned by the polity. In the Heian period, monastic expeditions to China were funded by thegovernment. This, however, does not mean that the government supported "sannō shintō", and relatesmore broadly to the institutional landscape from which sannō shintō issued but of which it is oneaspect.Notes: But monastics and priests are overwhelmingly male, while there are oracular roles atthe shrine which employ the expertise of shamanesses.No—Assigned by participation in a particular ritual:Notes: In the sense that Enryakuji monastics have ritual initiations (kanjō) whereby they areaffiliated to one or many specific tradition (in this case within Tendai), and there exists a sannōkanjō and other ones related to, among other things, knowledge of kami matters.Yes—Assigned by some other factor:Yes [specify]: Legends on ancestors of priestly lineages tell how their role came about after amanifestation of the deity.—No—Yes—Are the priests paid by polity:Notes: The Hie shrine received imperial offerings.Yes—Is religious infrastructure paid for by the polity:Notes: Sometimes, but sometimes unclear.Yes—Are the head of the polity and the head of the religion the same figure:No—Are political officials equivalent to religious officials:Sala, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 4 of 43Is there a conception of apostasy in the religious group:Size and StructureNumber of adherents of religious group within sample region (estimated population,numerical):Notes: It is difficult to pinpoint adherents, as sannō shintō was a discourse to which one couldparticipate with various levels of involvement (by contributing narratives, performing rituals with ahigh or low religious ranking, participating to the festival as a lay attendant or member of audience,financially sustaining the festival...). If we look at those who manipulated narratives, scholarship largelyassigns this role to one monastic lineage of scholar monks at the Enryakuji, called kike. There are noquantitative studies on this lineage, further complicated by the fact that kike could also belong toother lineages at the same time and we do not know what percentage of the "three thousand monks"of the medieval Enryakuji actively participated in the sannō cult. If we extend the count to highranking priests at the Hie shrine, who were involved in the production of documents on the deities, theYōtenki (12-15th century) reports that there are thirty "current" shrine attendants (shashi) under theshrine's high priest (negi) in 1223. It is more difficult to determine the numbers of the lower rankingpriests at the shrines, but sources on the matsuri talk about hundreds of people involved in skirmishes.Hundreds of people were reported to participate in the festival and sermons on the deities.Number of adherents of religious group within sample region (% of sample regionpopulation, numerical):Nature of religious group [please select one]:Are there recognized leaders in the religious group:No—Is religious observance enforced by the polity:No—Polity legal code is roughly coterminous with religious code:No—Polity provides preferential economic treatment (e.g. tax, exemption)Yes—No—Field doesn't know—Field doesn't know—Small religious group (seen as being part of a related larger religious group)—Sala, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 5 of 43Notes: There is not a sannō shintō- specific structure, but Tendai hierarchies apply. Priestly hierarchiesat the Hie shrine sactioned by the Council of kami affairs (jingikan).ScriptureDoes the religious group have scriptures:Scripture is a generic term used to designate revered texts that are considered particularly authoritativeand sacred relative to other texts. Strictly speaking, it refers to written texts, but there are also “oralscriptures” (e.g. the Vedas of India).Notes: Tendai scriptural sources are employed to determine the relation of the Hie deities to Buddhasand bodhisattvas. For instance, where the deities are considered emanations of specific Buddhas andbodhisattvas, oracles issued by the deities are compared to scriptural sources to determine exactlywhich Buddha or bodhisattva emanated which deity. Tendai doctrine underlies understandings onhow the deities act in the world and what kind of benefits they bestow. Sannō shintō has a thrivingmythological tradition. Narratives and practices connected to the Hie shrines and their relation toEnryakuji are recorded in collections such as the Sange Yōryakki, Yōtenki and Keiranshūyoshū. None ofthese, however, offer inctontrovertible prescriptions on the deities.Yes—Is there a hierarchy among these leaders:Yes—Are leaders believed to possess supernatural powers or qualities:No—Are religious leaders chosen:No—Are leaders considered fallible:Yes—Are close followers or disciples of a religious leader required to obediently andunquestionably accept the leader's pronouncements on all matters:No—Yes—Are they written:Yes—Are they oral:Sala, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 6 of 43Notes: Traditions on the deities and shrines, where written, often say that they are reporting anoral tradition, heard from an authoritative figure (for instance, in texts such as the Yōtenki andSange yōryakki, this figure can be an elderly Hafuribe priest.Yes—Is there a story (or a set of stories) associated with the origin of scripture:Yes—Revealed by a high god:Notes: Only insofar as sutras, which are framed as sermons issued from the BuddhaŚākyamuni, are present at the doctrinal and hermeneutical background of sannōshintō.No—Revealed by other supernatural being:No—Inspired by high god:No—Inspired by other supernatural being:No—Originated from divine or semi-divine human beings:No—Originated from non-divine human being:Notes: Traditions transmitted within monastic or priestly lineages.Yes—Are the scriptures alterable:Yes—Are there formal institutions (i.e. institutions that are authorized by the religiouscommunity or political leaders) for interpreting the scriptures:Notes: Editing texts on traditions on the deities is the realm of experts, such as scholar monksor priestly authoritative figures.Yes—Sala, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 7 of 43Architecture, GeographyIs monumental religious architecture present:Notes: The Hie deities each have dedicated shrine buldings and palanquins, temporary shrines werebuilt around the Biwa lake for the festival. In most narratives, specific deities are connected to specificareas and architectural structures of the Enryakuji. For instance, the deity of the Western compound ofthe Hie shrine, Ōmiya, is considered identical to the Buddha Śākyamuni, and as such presided over theWestern pagoda area of the Enryakuji. The main deity of the Eastern compound of the Hie shrine,Ninomiya, identified with the Buddha Bhaiṣajyaguru (jp. Yakushi), presided over the Konponchudo inthe Eastern pagoda area of the Enryakuji. Shōshinji, another deity of the Western compound, and thethird of the main sannō deities, was identified with the Buddha Amitabha and thus presided over theYokawa area of the Enryakuji. The shrine buildings (as most part of the Enryakuji) were destroyed byOda Nobunaga's troops in 1571, so the current shrine buildings were largely reconstructed in the Edoperiod (1600-1868). The shrine structure (e.g. name of the shrines, identities of the deities enshrined)was also dramatically reorganised in the Meiji period (1868), after the state imposed a separation ofBuddhism from shinto. Reference is a video showing the current shrine structures, which can becompared to its medieval configuration in the mandala linked.Reference: Important Cultural Property Mandala of Hie Sannō Shrine (J., Sannō Miya Mandara)Hanging scroll; ink and colors on silk H 120.7, W 68.1 Muromachi period 15th centuryReference: 日吉大社 Hiyoshi Taisha ShrineCan interpretation also take place outside these institutions:Notes: Writings attributed to lay people, such as Ōe no Masafusa (1041 -1111 ) areconsidered authoritative and quoted as sources, e.g. in the Yōtenki and Sange Yōryakki.Yes—Interpretation is only allowed by officially sanctioned figures:Notes: Insofar as the extant textual sources on the traditions of the Hie shrines werelargely produced by Enryakuji monastics or high ranking priests.Yes—Yes—In the average settlement, what percentage of area is taken up by all religiousmonuments:Notes: The Hie shrines were completely burned by Oda Nobunaga in 1571, it is thus difficult toknow their medieval surface area. However, we do have medieval depictions of the shrines.The landscape of the shrine area appears in mandalas which focus on the shrine structure- adepiction of sacred spaces which was popularised throughout the middle ages.Reference: 日吉の神と祭Field doesn't know—Size of largest single religious monument, square meters:Field doesn't know—Sala, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 8 of 43Are there different types of religious monumental architecture:Notes: We do not know for the medieval structure.Height of largest single religious monument, meters:Notes: We do not know for the medieval structure.Field doesn't know—Size of average monument, square meters:Notes: We do not know for the medieval structure.Field doesn't know—Height of average monument, meters:Notes: We do not know for the medieval structure.Field doesn't know—In the largest settlement, what percentage of area is taken up by all religiousmonuments:Notes: We do not know for the medieval structure. However, an idea (for the space occupied byshrine buildings within the precincts of the Hie shrine) can be garnered from the mandalalinked above.Field doesn't know—Yes—Tombs:No—Cemeteries:No—Temples:Yes—Altars:Yes—Devotional markers:Yes—Sala, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 9 of 43Is iconography present:Mass gathering point [plazas, courtyard, square. Places permanently demarcatedusing visible objects or structures]:Yes—Other type of religious monumental architecture:Notes: Also, shrine buildings and temple buildings are different. Shrine precincts are clearlydelimited with gates (torii).Yes [specify]: Temporary architecture. Temporary shrines erected during the festival, to hostthe palanquins of the deities in the precincts of shrines (e.g. Karasaki on the Biwa lake).—Yes—Where is iconography present [select all that apply]:Notes: Also in religious private space. Figurines of the deities are hidden from view.At home—Only religious public space—Are there distinct features in the religious group's iconography:Notes: Sannō mandala are representations of the Sannō deities (or some of them), and/or theshrine precincts. Present in private and public spaces, commissioned by devotees and religiousspecialists.Reference: 日吉の神と祭Reference: Meri Arichi. Hie-Sannō Mandara: The Iconography of Kami and Sacred Landscape inMedieval Japan. SOAS University of London, PhD dissertation.Yes—Eyes (stylized or not):No—Supernatural beings (zoomorphic):Notes: Monkeys are the messengers of the Hie deities, feature prominently indepictions of shrines. One of the Hie deities, Daigyōji, is often represented as one inmandalas.Yes—Supernatural beings (geomorphic):Notes: No, but mount Hiei (where the Enryakuji is located) and mount Hachioji (theNo—Sala, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 10 of 43Are there specific sites dedicated to sacred practice or considered sacred:small peak in the shrine precinct) feature prominently in iconography.Supernatural beings (anthropomorphic):Notes: Deities represented as specific Buddhas and bodhisattvas, of which they are theemanation/with whom they are identified.Yes—Yes—Supernatural beings (abstract symbol):No—Portrayals of afterlife:No—Aspects of doctrine (e.g. cross, trinity, Mithraic symbols):No—Humans:Notes: Deities represented as Buddhist monastics, Japanese courtiers and in Chinesehabit.Yes—Other features of iconography:Notes: Representation of shrines and shrine area as a sacred space.Yes—Yes—Are sacred site oriented to environmental features:"Environmental features" refers to features in the landscape, mountains, rivers, cardinal directionsetc...Notes: The shrine buildings constituting the Hie shrine are sprawled over the area at thefoothills of a small peak, called Mount Hachiōji (381 meters), on whose top are two shrines,Sannomiya and Ushio. The peak features prominently in iconography, and is often equated tothe Vulture peak of Buddhist scriptures. Mt Hiei and its mountain range also featureprominently in discourses related to the Hie deities, as a site of worship and apparition. LakeBiwa has a prominent role in legends as the apparition site of some of the sannō deities, butYes—Sala, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 11 of 43Are pilgrimages present:Notes: The act of going to the Hie shrine is highly emphasised.BeliefsBurial and AfterlifeIs a spirit-body distinction present:Answer “no” only if personhood (or consciousness) is extinguished with death of the physical body.Answering yes does not necessarily imply the existence of Cartesian mind/body dualism, merely thatsome element of personhood (or consciousness) survives the death of the body.Notes: Sannō shintō does not have a specific vision of death and rebirth, but is part of the widerBuddhist discourse. However, a favourable rebirth is part of the boons that the deities may bestow onthose who visit the shrines.Belief in afterlife:notably of the most important one, the deity of the Western compound Ōmiya. The palanquinsof the deities were (and are) transported on the lake by boat during the festival.Yes—How strict is pilgrimage:Optional (common)—Yes—Spirit-mind is conceived of as having qualitatively different powers or properties thanother body parts:Yes—Spirit-mind is conceived of as non-material, ontologically distinct from body:No—Yes—Is the spatial location of the afterlife specified or described by the religious group:Yes—Afterlife in specified realm of space beyond this world:Notes: Buddhist pure lands or Buddhist lands are both outcomes described in sannōYes—Sala, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 12 of 43Reincarnation in this world:shintō material.Afterlife in vaguely defined “above” space:No—Afterlife in vaguely defined “below” space:No—Afterlife in vaguely defined horizontal space:No—Afterlife located in "other" space:Notes: Rebirth may happen elsewhere, in a Pure Land or a hell, but it might alsohappen in this world, with various degrees of success. A successful life in thephenomenal world is part of the boons granted by the Hie deities.No—Yes—In a human form:Yes—In animal/plant form:Notes: Although a possibility, appropriate worship of the deities should avoid this unfavourablerebirth.Yes—In form of an inanimate object(s):No—In non-individual form (i.e. some form of corporate rebirth, tribe, lineage. etc.):Notes: Rebirth as denizens of hell or angry spirits is a possibility, but appropriate worship of thedeities should avoid this unfavourable rebirth.Yes—Reincarnation linked to notion of life-transcending causality (e.g. karma):Yes—Sala, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 13 of 43Are there special treatments for adherents' corpses:Are co-sacrifices present in tomb/burial:Are grave goods present:Are formal burials present:Supernatural BeingsAre supernatural beings present:Other form of reincarnation in this world:No—No—No—No—No—Yes—A supreme high god is present:Notes: In the sense that the historical Buddha Śākyamuni in some sources and the BuddhaMahāvairocana in others (though sometimes identified with each other) appear as markedlyabove other Buddhas. Deities are emanated from them/identified with them (but also withother Buddhas, who are sometimes considered their emanation/identified with them).Yes—The supreme high god is anthropomorphic:Yes—The supreme high god is a sky deity:No—The supreme high god is chthonic (of the underworld):No—The supreme high god is fused with the monarch (king=high god):Sala, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 14 of 43No—The monarch is seen as a manifestation or emanation of the high god:No—The supreme high god is a kin relation to elites:No—The supreme high god has another type of loyalty-connection to elites:No—The supreme high god is unquestionably good:Yes—Other feature(s) of supreme high god:No—The supreme high god has knowledge of this world:Yes—The supreme god's knowledge is restricted to particular domain ofhuman affairs:No—The supreme high god's knowledge is restricted to (a) specific area(s)within the sample region:No—The supreme high god's knowledge is unrestricted within the sampleregion:Yes—The supreme high god's knowledge is unrestricted outside of sampleregion:Yes—The supreme high god can see you everywhere normally visible (inpublic):Sala, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 15 of 43Yes—The supreme high god can see you everywhere (in the dark, at home):Yes—The supreme high god can see inside heart/mind (hidden motives):Yes—The supreme high god knows your basic character (personal essence):Yes—The supreme high god knows what will happen to you, what you will do(future sight):Yes—The supreme high god has other knowledge of this world:No—The supreme high god has deliberate causal efficacy in the world:Yes—The supreme high god can reward:Yes—The supreme high god can punish:Yes—The supreme high god has indirect causal efficacy in the world:Yes—The supreme high god exhibits positive emotion:Yes—The supreme high god exhibits negative emotion:Yes—Sala, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 16 of 43The supreme high god possesses hunger:No—Is it permissible to worship supernatural beings other than the high god:Yes—The supreme high god possesses/exhibits some other feature:No—The supreme high god communicates with the living:Notes: Śākyamuni is frequently recounted to issue oracles in guise of deity, butidentified as Śākyamuni.Yes—In waking, everyday life:Yes—In dreams:Yes—In trance possession:Yes—Through divination practices:Yes—Only through religious specialists:No—Only through monarchNo—Other form of communication with living:Yes [specify]: Dreams—Previously human spirits are present:No—Sala, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 17 of 43Non-human supernatural beings are present:Yes—These supernatural beings can be seen:Notes: Deities manifest themselves to selected few. Especially the deity of the mainshrine of the Western compound, Ōmiya.Yes—These supernatural beings can be physically felt:Yes—Non-human supernatural beings have knowledge of this world:Yes—Non-human supernatural beings have knowledge restricted toparticular domain of human affairs:No—Non-human supernatural beings have knowledge restricted to (a)specific area(s) within the sample region:No—Non-human supernatural beings have knowledge unrestricted withinthe sample region:Yes—Non-human supernatural beings have knowledge unrestricted outsideof sample region:Yes—Non-human supernatural beings can see you everywhere normallyvisible (in public):Yes—Non-human supernatural beings can see you everywhere (in the dark, athome):Yes—Sala, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 18 of 43Non-human supernatural beings can see inside heart/mind (hiddenmotives):Yes—Non-human supernatural beings knows your basic character (personalessence):Yes—Non-human supernatural beings know what will happen to you, whatyou will do (future sight):Yes—Non-human supernatural begins have other knowledge of this world:No—Non-human supernatural beings have deliberate causal efficacy in the world:Yes—These supernatural beings can reward:Yes—These supernatural beings can punish:Yes—These supernatural beings have indirect causal efficacy in the world:Yes—These supernatural beings exhibit positive emotion:Yes—These supernatural beings exhibit negative emotion:Yes—Mixed human-divine beings are present:No—Does the religious group possess a variety of supernatural beings:Sala, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 19 of 43Supernatural MonitoringIs supernatural monitoring present:This refers to surveillance by supernatural beings of humans’ behaviour and/or thought particularly as itrelates to social norms or potential norm violations.Yes—Organized by kinship based on a family model:Notes: Sometimes some of the Hie deities as narrated as part of a family configuration(main deity of the Western compound father of other deity of Western compound), butnot strict and not in all sources. Sometimes family relationship with other main shrinesin the area (for instance Kamo and Matsunoo shrines).Yes—Organized hierarchically:Notes: Shrines are ranked into seven upper, seven median and seven lower shrines.Deities are ranked accordingly. The main deity of the shrines is the main one of theWestern compound, Ōmiya.Yes—Power of beings is domain specific:No—Other organization for pantheon:No—Yes—There is supernatural monitoring of prosocial norm adherence in particular:Prosocial norms are norms that enhance cooperation among members of the group, includingobviously “moral” or “ethical” norms, but also extending to norms concerning honouring contractsand oaths, providing hospitality, coming to mutual aid in emergencies, etc.No—Supernatural beings care about taboos:Yes—Food:No—Sala, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 20 of 43Sacred space(s):Yes—Sacred object(s):No—Supernatural beings care about other:Yes [specify]: Idea of deities disliking death is present and addressed in sources.—Supernatural beings care about murder of coreligionists:Yes—Supernatural beings care about murder of members of other religions:No—Supernatural beings care about murder of members of other polities:Yes—Supernatural beings care about sex:No—Supernatural beings care about lying:No—Supernatural beings care about honouring oaths:Yes—Supernatural beings care about laziness:Notes: "Laziness" identified in sources as a characteristic of all sentient beings in Japan. Thelaziness of Japanese people, who are not psychologically prepared to obtain Buddhist salvationwith their own efforts, is the basic prerequisite for the appearance of Buddhist deities in theworld in the guise of deities. This process is seen to facilitate Japanese people's readiness toembrace Buddhist teachings. This is not an idea specific to sannō shintō, it is common to othermedieval discourses on deities (e.g. kami), however it is very strongly addressed in sannō shintōsources.Yes—Supernatural beings care about sorcery:Sala, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 21 of 43No—Supernatural beings care about non-lethal fighting:Yes—Supernatural beings care about shirking risk:No—Supernatural beings care about disrespecting elders:No—Supernatural beings care about gossiping:No—Supernatural beings care about property crimes:Yes—Supernatural beings care about proper ritual observance:Yes—Supernatural beings care about performance of rituals:Yes—Supernatural beings care about conversion of non-religionists:No—Supernatural beings care about economic fairness:Yes—Supernatural beings care about personal hygiene:Yes—Supernatural beings care about other:Yes [specify]: Buddhist ethical principles also apply (as deities are avatars of Buddhas andbodhisattvas)—Sala, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 22 of 43Do supernatural beings mete out punishment:Yes—Is the cause or agent of supernatural punishment known:Notes: It is made known through oracles.Yes—Done only by high god:No—Done by many supernatural beings:Notes: Although in some sources the many supernatural beings are clearly framed asbeing emanated by one Buddha.Yes—Done through impersonal cause-effect principle:Notes: Disease or even death caused by wrath of deities, unfavourable rebirth can be aresult of neglecting to worship them.Yes—Done by other entities or through other means [specify]No—Is the reason for supernatural punishment known:Yes—Done to enforce religious ritual-devotional adherence:No—Done to enforce group norms:No—Done to inhibit selfishness:No—Done randomly:No—Sala, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 23 of 43Other [specify]Notes: The wrath of the deities can result from an offense to their priests of to theEnryakuji monastics. The person incurring the wrath is not necessarily the one who hascommitted the offense in the first place. In the Heike monogatari, the regent Fujiwarano Moromichi falls ill as a result of the wrath of the sannō deities. The events leading tothe disease are the following: 1. Fujiwara no Yoshitsuna, the governor of Mino province,kills an Enryakuji monk. 2. Some Hie shrine and Enryakuji temple officials petition tothe imperial gates for Yoshtsuna's punishment. 3. The regent Fujiwara no Moromichiorders to disperse them. 4. Eight of them are killed. English translation of the episodein McCullough, Helen C., The Tale of the Heike, Stanford, California, Stanford UniversityPress, 1988, pp. 49-50.Reference: Helen McCullough Craig. The Tale of the Heike. Stanford, California, StanfordUniversity Press.Reference: Helen McCullough Craig. The Tale of the Heike. Stanford, California, StanfordUniversity Press.Yes—Supernatural punishments are meted out in the afterlife:Yes—Supernatural punishments in the afterlife are highly emphasized by thereligious group:No—Punishment in the afterlife consists of mild sensory displeasure:Yes—Punishment in the afterlife consists of extreme sensory displeasure:Yes—Punishment in the afterlife consists of reincarnation as an inferior life form:Yes—Punishment in the afterlife consists of reincarnation in an inferior realm:Yes—Other [specify]No—Supernatural punishments are meted out in this lifetime:Sala, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 24 of 43Yes—Supernatural punishments in this life are highly emphasized by the religiousgroup:No—Punishment in this life consists of bad luck:Yes—Punishment in this life consists of political failure:Yes—Punishment in this life consists of defeat in battle:Yes—Punishment in this life consists of crop failure or bad weather:No—Punishment in this life consists of disaster on journeys.No—Punishment in this life consists of mild sensory displeasure:Yes—Punishment in this life consists of extreme sensory displeasure:Yes—Punishment in this life consists of sickness or illness:Yes—Punishment in this life consists of impaired reproduction:No—Punishment in this life consists of bad luck visited on descendants:No—Sala, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 25 of 43Do supernatural beings bestow rewards:Other [specify]No—Yes—Is the cause/purpose of supernatural rewards known:Yes—Done only by high god:No—Done by many supernatural beings:Yes—Done through impersonal cause-effect principle:Yes—Done to enforce religious ritual-devotional adherence:Yes—Done to enforce group norms:No—Done to inhibit selfishness:Yes—Done randomly:Notes: It depends on sources, but the ones praising the benefic activity of the Hiedeities as agents of Buddhas emphasise the blanket character of their benevolence, nomatter how much of a desperate case the person seeking help is.Yes—Supernatural rewards are bestowed out in the afterlife:Yes—Supernatural rewards in the afterlife are highly emphasized by the religiousSala, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 26 of 43group:Yes—Reward in the afterlife consists of mild sensory pleasure:Yes—Reward in the afterlife consists of extreme sensory pleasure:Yes—Reward in the afterlife consists of eternal happiness:Yes—Reward in the afterlife consists of reincarnation as a superior life form:Yes—Reward in the afterlife consists of reincarnation in a superior realm:Yes—Other [specify]No—Supernatural rewards are bestowed out in this lifetime:Yes—Supernatural rewards in this life are highly emphasized by the religious group:Yes—Reward in this life consists of good luck:Yes—Reward in this life consists of political success or power:Yes—Reward in this life consists of success in battle:Yes—Sala, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 27 of 43Messianism/EschatologyAre messianic beliefs present:Notes: Only in the sense that there is an expectation for a future Buddha, Miroku, to eventually restorethe prime of Buddhist teachings to the world. In the Yōtenki (12-15th century), he is identified as actingReward in this life consists of peace or social stability:Yes—Reward in this life consists of healthy crops or good weather:Notes: Especially in Heian-period sources (794-1185).Reference: Masato 眞人 Satō 佐藤. “Heian shoki Tendaishū no shinbutsu shūgō: Saichō toEnnin wo chūshin ni” 平安初期天台宗の神仏習合思想ー最澄と円珍を中心にー. (HirotoYoshihara , Yong Wang), Umi wo wataru Tendai bunka 海を渡る天台文. Tōkyō, BenseiShuppan.Yes—Reward in this life consists of success on journeys:Yes—Reward in this life consists of mild sensory pleasure:Yes—Reward in this life consists of extreme sensory pleasure:Yes—Reward in this life consists of enhanced health:Yes—Reward in this life consists of enhanced reproductive success:No—Reward in this life consists of fortune visited on descendants:Yes—Other [specify]No—Yes—Sala, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 28 of 43in the world as a bodhisattva under the guise of one of the Hie deities, Jūzenji. However, "messianic"beliefs are not emphasised in sannō shintō.Is the messiah's whereabouts or time of coming known?Yes—Alive, identified:Notes: Alive in the sense that he is acting in this world as a bodhisattva under the guiseof the Hie deity Jūzenji. He is not a Buddha yet, so has not fulfilled his escathologicalrole.Yes—Coming in this lifetime:No—Coming on specified date:No—Coming in unspecified time in near future:No—Coming in unspecified time in distant future:Yes—Coming has already passed:No—One in a line of many past and future messiahs:Notes: If we broadly consider Buddhas messiahs. He is the Buddha who followsthehistorical one, Śākyamuni.Yes—Is the messiah's purpose known:Yes—Messiah is a political figure who restores political rule:No—Sala, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 29 of 43Is an eschatology present:Notes: We might say there is an escathologiy ONLY in the sense that Miroku exists. My answer isnegative because there is no emphasis in the material on the coming of future Buddhas. Even moreso because, within a context of correct worship, the Hie shrines are already, in the phenomenal world,a Buddhist Pure Land.Norms and Moral RealismAre general social norms prescribed by the religious group:Notes: But not emphasised.Is there a conventional vs. moral distinction in the religious group:Are there centrally important virtues advocated by the religious group:Notes: See additional questions. It is important to note that virtues are not always expected to beupheld by those who worship at the Hie shrines. On the contrary, a certain kind of wretchedness isframed as expected from them. This is because 1. Discourses on the position of Japan in the Buddhistworld at the time rather considered Japan a "desperate case", where the consciences of its inhabitantswere unsuited to receive Buddhist teachings. This was because of their temporal and spatial distancefrom the "prime time" of Buddhism, when Śākyamuni was active in the world. Some discoursesconnected to sannō shintō (but not all) emphasise this first aspect. 2. The Hie shrine is framed (e.g. inthe Yōtenki 12th-15th century) as being especially powerful because of its capacity to bring benefit topeople who might be considered "hopeless", for instance because they are especially poor and cannotdonate large amounts of money or because they have various physical issues as a result of theirkarmic hindrances.Messiah is a priestly figure who restores religious traditions:Notes: Political stability comes as an effect of religious stability.Yes—Other purpose:No—No—Yes—No—Yes—Honesty / trustworthiness / integrity:No—Courage (in battle):Sala, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 30 of 43No—Courage (generic):No—Compassion / empathy / kindness / benevolence:Notes: Insofar as compassion is a primary Mahayana virtue it is highly emphasised, however itis mostly the compassion of the deities which is essential to achieve salvation.Yes—Mercy / forgiveness / tolerance:Notes: These are all virtues emphasised as belonging to the deities, but not necessarilyrequired of the adherents.No—Generosity / charity:Notes: Giving alms to the shrines grants benefits in this life or the next.Yes—Selflessness / selfless giving:Notes: Insofar selfless giving is a Mahayana principle.Yes—Righteousness / moral rectitude:No—Ritual purity / ritual adherence / abstention from sources of impurity:Notes: Ritual adherence: going to the Hie shrines and giving offers is seen as the way to obtainworldly and otherworldly benefits (for instance ensuring one a favourable rebirth in a Buddhistparadise). However, the ritual in question might be as simple as giving alms or offerings.Yes—Respectfulness / courtesy:No—Familial obedience / filial piety:No—Sala, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 31 of 43Fidelity / loyalty:No—Cooperation:No—Independence / creativity / freedom:No—Moderation / frugality:No—Forbearance / fortitude / patience:No—Diligence / self-discipline / excellence:No—Assertiveness / decisiveness / confidence / initiative:No—Strength (physical):No—Power / status / nobility:Notes: These are more described as ideal outcome of worshipping the deities.No—Humility / modesty:No—Contentment / serenity / equanimity:No—Joyfulness / enthusiasm / cheerfulness:No—Sala, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 32 of 43PracticesMembership Costs and PracticesDoes membership in this religious group require celibacy (full sexual abstinence):Optimism / hope:No—Gratitude / thankfulness:Notes: In the sense that the mercy of the deities and the benefits they bestow are seen (andwritten about) as "something to be thankful for".Yes—Reverence / awe / wonder:Yes—Faith / belief / trust / devotion:Yes—Wisdom / understanding:No—Discernment / intelligence:No—Beauty / attractiveness:Notes: Though it is a positive outcome of good karma and correct worship (e.g. in Yōtenki, 13-15th century).No—Cleanliness (physical) / orderliness:Notes: It depends. For priests at the shrine, ideally yes, but for worshippers, no.No—Other important virtues advocated by the religious group:No—No—Sala, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 33 of 43Does membership in this religious group require constraints on sexual activity (partial sexualabstinence):Does membership in this religious group require castration:Does membership in this religious group require fasting:Does membership in this religious group require forgone food opportunities (taboos ondesired foods):Does membership in this religious group require permanent scarring or painful bodilyalterations:Does membership in this religious group require painful physical positions or transitorypainful wounds:Does membership in this religious group require sacrifice of adults:"Adults" here referring to an emic or indigenous category; if that category is different from the popularWestern definition of a human who is 18-years-old or older and who is legally responsible for his/heractions, then please specify that difference in the Comments/Sources: box below.Does membership in this religious group require sacrifice of children:"Children" here referring to an emic or indigenous category; if that category is different from the popularWestern definition, please specify that different in the Comments/Sources: box below.Does membership in this religious group require self-sacrifice (suicide):Does membership in this religious group require sacrifice of property/valuable items:No—No—No—No—No—No—No—No—No—Yes—Sala, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 34 of 43Does membership in this religious group require sacrifice of time (e.g., attendance atmeetings or services, regular prayer, etc.):Notes: Visiting shrines is encouragedDoes membership in this religious group require physical risk taking:Does membership in this religious group require accepting ethical precepts:Notes: General Buddhist ones apply.Does membership in this religious group require marginalization by out-group members:Does membership in this religious group require participation in small-scale rituals (private,household):Does membership in this religious group require participation in large-scale rituals:I.e. involving two or more households; includes large-scale “ceremonies” and “festivals.”Other:Yes [specify]: Valuable goods offered to the shrines (money)—Yes—No—No—No—No—Yes—On average, for large-scale rituals how many participants gather in one location:Notes: Sources mention participants in the thousands for sermons and festivals, however it isnot confirmed whether the numbers are accurate.Number of participants: 1000—What is the average interval of time between performances (in hours):Performances here refers to large-scale rituals.Notes: If for a "large scale ritual" we intend the festivals, then the recurrence is annual. If weintend, for instance, Buddhist sermons which drew big crowds, it is harder to know. We do nothave documentations for all the occurrences.Field doesn't know—Sala, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 35 of 43Are extra-ritual in-group markers present:E.g. special changes to appearance such as circumcision, tattoos, scarification, etc.Does the group employ fictive kinship terminology:Notes: But the Hafuribe priests at the Hie shrine employ actual kinship terminology, in the sense thatthey are a line of priesthood transmitted from father to son or from uncle to nephew.Society and InstitutionsLevels of Social ComplexityThe society to which the religious group belongs is best characterized as (please chooseone):WelfareDoes the religious group in question provide institutionalized famine relief:Are there orthodoxy checks:Orthodoxy checks are mechanisms used to ensure that rituals are interpreted in a standardizedway, e.g. through the supervisory prominence of a professionalized priesthood or other system ofgovernance, appeal to texts detailing the proper interpretation, etc.Notes: Many texts on Sannō shintō report many different "options" for the identity of a deity orthe origin of a rite.No—Are there orthopraxy checks:Orthopraxy checks are mechanisms used to ensure that rituals are performed in a standardizedway, e.g. through the supervisory prominence of a professionalized priesthood or other system ofgovernance, appeal to texts detailing the proper procedure, etc.Yes—Does participation entail synchronic practices:No—Is there use of intoxicants:No—No—No—A state—Sala, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 36 of 43Is famine relief available to the group's adherents through an institution(s) other than thereligious group in question:Does the religious group in question provide institutionalized poverty relief:Is poverty relief available to the group's adherents through an institution(s) other than thereligious group in question:Does the religious group in question provide institutionalized care for the elderly and infirm:Is institutionalized care for the elderly and infirm available to the group's adherents throughan institution(s) other than the religious group in question:EducationDoes the religious group provide formal education to its adherents:Notes: The Enryakuji is an education facility for monastics.Is formal education available to the group’s adherents through an institution(s) other thanthe religious group:Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—Is formal education restricted to religious professionals:Notes: Because of above.Yes—Is such education open to both males and females:Notes: No ordination platform for nuns at Enryakuji.No—Yes—Sala, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 37 of 43BureaucracyDo the group’s adherents interact with a formal bureaucracy within their group:Notes: Hie shrine is part of the broader Enryakuji administrative machine.Do the group’s adherents interact with other institutional bureaucracies:Notes: Court, government.Public WorksDoes the religious group in question provide public food storage:Is public food storage provided to the group’s adherents by an institution(s) other than thereligious group in question:Does the religious group in question provide water management (irrigation, flood control):Notes: Where water sources are present in the Enryakuji/Hie shrine's estates.Is water management provided to the group’s adherents by an institution(s) other than thereligious group in question:Does the religious group in question provide transportation infrastructure:Notes: If a road is in the Enryakuji/Hie shrine estate, which is authorised to exact tolls. However this ismore linked to the general institutional context than with sannō shintō, which only constitutes onediscursive area of it.Is transportation infrastructure provided for the group’s adherents by an institution(s) otherthan the religious group in question:Is extra-religious education open to both males and females:No—Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—Sala, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 38 of 43TaxationDoes the religious group in question levy taxes or tithes:Notes: Yes, for instance the above mentioned passage tolld. Low ranking priests affiliated to the Hieshrine enforced moneylending.Reference: Mamoru 守 Shimosaka 下坂. Chu ̄sei jiin shakai to minshu ̄ : shuto to bashaku jininkawaramono 中世寺院社会と民衆 : 衆徒と馬借・神人・河原者. Kyōto, Shibunkakushuppan.Reference: Suzanne Gay Marie. The Moneylenders of Late Medieval Kyoto. Honolulu: University ofHawai'i Press.Are taxes levied on the group’s adherents by an institution(s) other than the religious group inquestion:EnforcementDoes the religious group in question provide an institutionalized police force:Do the group’s adherents interact with an institutionalized police force provided by aninstitution(s) other than the religious group in question:Do the group’s adherents interact with an institutionalized judicial system provided by an aninstitution(s) other than the religious group in question:Are the group’s adherents subject to institutionalized punishment enforced by aninstitution(s) other than the religious group in question:Yes—Yes—No—No—Yes—Yes—Do the institutionalized punishments include execution:No—Do the institutionalized punishments include exile:Yes—Do the institutionalized punishments include corporal punishments:Sala, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 39 of 43Does the religious group in question have a formal legal code:Notes: The Tendai ordination platform is legally recognised by the polity. It is however more relevantfor the wider institutional (Buddhist and Tendai) context than for sannō shintō, which is only adiscursive area within it.Are the group’s adherents subject to a formal legal code provided by institution(s) other thanthe religious group in question:WarfareDoes religious group in question possess an institutionalized military:Notes: Warrior monks at Enryakuji.Do the group’s adherents participate in an institutionalized military provided byinstitution(s) other than the religious group in question:Notes: Enryakuji participated in the Genpei war (1180-1185).No—Do the institutionalized punishments include ostracism:No—Do the institutionalized punishments include seizure of property:Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—Does the religious group in question have the power to conscript:No—Does the religious group in question maintain a full-time military corps (e.g. SwissGuard):Yes—Does the religious group in question maintain a standing army:Yes—Yes—Sala, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 40 of 43Are the group’s adherents protected by or subject to an institutionalized military providedby an institution(s) other than the religious group in question:Written LanguageDoes the religious group in question possess its own distinct written language:Is a non-religion-specific written language available to the group’s adherents through aninstitution(s) other than the religious group in question:Is a non-religion-specific written language used by the group’s adherents through aninstitution(s) other than the religious group in question:CalendarDoes the religious group in question possess a formal calendar:Notes: There is a shrine-specific ritual calendar, but only in the sense that the dates for the deities'festival are fixed. The calendar used is the "civilian" one.Is a formal calendar provided for the group’s adherents by an institution(s) other than thereligious group in question:Food ProductionDoes the religious group in question provide food for themselves:Is food provided to the group’s adherents by an institution(s) other than the religious groupin question:Yes—No—Yes—Yes—No—Yes—Yes—Please characterize the forms/level of food production [choose all that apply]:Notes: Enryakuji/Hie shrine have land holdings.Other [specify in comments]—Sala, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 41 of 43BibliographyGeneral ReferencesReference: Meri Arichi. Hie-Sannō Mandara: The Iconography of Kami and Sacred Landscape in MedievalJapan. SOAS University of London, PhD dissertation.Reference: John Breen , Mark Teeuwen. A New History of Shinto. Wiley-Blackwell. isbn: 9781405155151.Reference: Masato 眞人 Satō 佐藤. “Futatabi sannō nanasha no seiritsu ni tsuite” 再び山王七社の成立について.Reference: Masato Satō. “Hiesha Ōmiya engi no kōsatsu” 日吉社大宮縁起の考察.Reference: Masato 眞人 Satō 佐藤. “Heian shoki Tendaishū no shinbutsu shūgō: Saichō to Ennin wochūshin ni” 平安初期天台宗の神仏習合思想ー最澄と円珍を中心にー. (Hiroto Yoshihara , Yong Wang), Umi wowataru Tendai bunka 海を渡る天台文. Tōkyō, Bensei Shuppan.Reference: Suzanne Gay Marie. The Moneylenders of Late Medieval Kyoto. Honolulu: University of Hawai'iPress.Reference: Mamoru 守 Shimosaka 下坂. Chu ̄sei jiin shakai to minshu ̄ : shuto to bashaku jinin kawaramono中世寺院社会と民衆 : 衆徒と馬借・神人・河原者. Kyōto, Shibunkakushuppan.Entry/Answer ReferencesReference: Meri Arichi. Hie-Sannō Mandara: The Iconography of Kami and Sacred Landscape in MedievalJapan. SOAS University of London, PhD dissertation.Reference: Masato Satō. “Hiesha Ōmiya engi no kōsatsu” 日吉社大宮縁起の考察.Reference: Masato 眞人 Satō 佐藤. “Heian shoki Tendaishū no shinbutsu shūgō: Saichō to Ennin wochūshin ni” 平安初期天台宗の神仏習合思想ー最澄と円珍を中心にー. (Hiroto Yoshihara , Yong Wang), Umi wowataru Tendai bunka 海を渡る天台文. Tōkyō, Bensei Shuppan.Reference: Anna Andreeva. Assembling Shinto: Buddhist Approaches to Kami Worship in MedievalJapan. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Asia Center.Reference: Helen McCullough Craig. The Tale of the Heike. Stanford, California, Stanford University Press. ,Reference: Suzanne Gay Marie. The Moneylenders of Late Medieval Kyoto. Honolulu: University of Hawai'iPress.Reference: Mamoru 守 Shimosaka 下坂. Chu ̄sei jiin shakai to minshu ̄ : shuto to bashaku jinin kawaramono中世寺院社会と民衆 : 衆徒と馬借・神人・河原者. Kyōto, Shibunkakushuppan.Reference: 日吉の神と祭Reference: 日吉の神と祭Yes—Please characterize the forms/levels of food production [choose all that apply]:Large-scale agriculture (e.g., monocropping, organized irrigation systems)—Sala, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 42 of 43Reference: 日吉大社 Hiyoshi Taisha ShrineReference: Important Cultural Property Mandala of Hie Sannō Shrine (J., Sannō Miya Mandara) Hangingscroll; ink and colors on silk H 120.7, W 68.1 Muromachi period 15th centurySala, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 43 of 43

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