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Zealots, also known as “Sicarii” OConnor, M. John-Patrick 2020-08-04

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Poll: Religious Group (v6) Published on: 04 August 2020Zealotsalso known as “Sicarii”By M. John-Patrick OConnor, North Central UniversityEntry tags: Jewish Traditions, Religious GroupThe Zealots were a Jewish sect of the first-century CE that appeared after the Roman occupation ofPalestine. They are often characterized by their active resistance to Roman rule. Our primary resource fordata concerning the Zealots comes from the Jewish historian, Josephus (War 2.4; 2.13; 2.22; 4.3; Ant. 14.9;14.15; 16.9; 20.9), who offers a biased presentation of certain radical sectarian movements during the FirstJewish Revolt (66-73 CE). For this reason, historical descriptions of the Zealots within Josephus are to beevaluated with caution. Josephus makes reference to a "fourth philosophy" that he speaks of with greatdisdain. In addition to the Pharisees, Sadducees, and Essenes, this philosophy is founded by Judas theGalilean or "of Gaulanitis" (see also Acts 5:37) and a certain Pharisee named Saddok. This philosophyattracted a great many people, some of whom were young and "zealous" (Ant. 18.1). Other characteristicsthat Josephus ascribes to Judas' movement include a close affiliation with the philosophy of the Pharisees,an interest in freedom, and a belief that only God should be their ruler. Elsewhere, early Christian literaturerefers to a disciple of Jesus with the titular Simon "the Zealot" (Luke 6:15; Acts 1:13); however, it is unclear ifthis terms refers to a religious group, a character trait of Simon (e.g., one who possesses zeal), or ageographical references (Matt 10:4; Mark 3:18). The Sicarii are traditionally understood as a more radicaland violent subset of the Zealots led by the descendent of Judas, Eleazar (Josephus calls them a "anothersort of robbers" in War 2.13); however, our sources are not always clear and some have advocated that thetwo groups be viewed as distinct from each other. The Greek term sikarios is a Latin loan word, meaningassassin, originating in Josephus (War 7.8-11; Ant. 20.9) with a lone reference in the book of Acts (21:38). Itappears that the term derives from their weapon of choice, short daggers (see scimitar or sica). Accordingto Josephus, the Sicarii assassinate Jonathan the High Priest and continue on from there to preform"many" other "daily" murders. The Sicarii are traditionally associated with Masada because of our account inJosephus: they are described as holding the fortress at Masada against the Romans (7.8.2), eventuallycommitting mass suicide at the behest of Eleazar ben Yair; an event that some have described asJosephus' own literary invention. A wealth of archaeological discoveries have been made at Masada, whichhas lead some to corroborate Josephus' stories with material data (Yadin, Masada [1966]); however, suchliteral connections have been rightly questioned (see Jodi Magness, Masada: From Jewish Revolt toModern Myth [2019]). One of the challenges in differentiating these groups is the range of terms used inour sources including "robbers" (Greek: lēstai), "sicarii" (Latin: sicarius), "Galileans" (see Acts 5:37; Epictetus,Diss. 4.7.6), the "Barjone" in rabbinic texts, and the Zealots. Especially outside of Josephus in later rabbinicwritings (e.g., Maksh 1.6), these terms appear to take on different meanings. For example, the term Zealotitself has come under scrutiny because the etymology of the semitic term "zeal" (qn') possesses a range ofmeaning outside of Josephus, including one who is zealous for God. With that said, some scholars insistthat distinctions are necessary and important, especially considering the more violent descriptions of theSicarii. Richard Horsley has characterized the Zealots as a group of "non-violent, if active, resistance" instark contrast to the Sicarii (Bandits, Prophets, and Messiahs, 199). In one passage, Josephus appears tomake a clear distinction between the Sicarii and Zealots (esp. War 7.8). Nonetheless, our source material islimited in that Josephus is both inconsistent and also shows contempt for both groups.DOI: URL: https://religiondatabase.org/browse/927This work is licensed under the Creative CommonsAttribution 4.0 International license.Please see our Terms of Use here:https://religiondatabase.org/about/creditsPage 1 of 38© 2020 Database of Religious History.The University of British Columbia.For any questions contactproject.manager@religiondatabase.orgDate Range: 0 CE - 74 CERegion: Roman PalestineRegion tags: Israel, State of Palestine, Middle EastRoman PalestineStatus of Participants:✓ Non-elite (common people, general populace)SourcesPrint sources for understanding this subject:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 63 BCE - 74 CEOnline sources for understanding this subject:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 63 BCE - 74 CERelevant online primary textual corpora (original languages and/or translations):Specific to this answer:Source 1: Mark Brighton. The Sicarii in Josephus's Judean War: Rhetorical Analysis and HistoricalObservations. EJL 27. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2009.—Source 2: Martin Hengel. The Zealots: Investigations into the Jewish Freedom Movement in the Periodfrom Herod I until 70 A.D. Trans. David Smith. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1989.—Source 3: Richard A. Horsley. Bandits, Prophets, and Messiahs: Popular Movements in the Time of Jesus.Minneapolis: Winston Press, 1985.—Source 1 URL: https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/sicarii—Source 1 Description: A short description of the Sicarii sourced from the Encyclopaedia Judaica.—Source 2 URL: https://www.bibleodyssey.org/HarperCollinsBibleDictionary/z/zealot—Source 2 Description: A short description of the Zealots.—Source 3 URL: https://archaeology.huji.ac.il/exhibitions/story-masada-discoveries-excavations—Source 3 Description: The Institute of Archaeology at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem offers picturesof archaeological discoveries at Masada with descriptions.—Source 1 URL: http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/searchresults?q=Josephus—Source 1 Description: A link to Josephus' writings in Greek and English online at Perseus.—Source 2 URL: https://www.academic-bible.com/en/online-bibles/novum-testamentum-graece-na-28/read-the-bible-text/—Source 2 Description: A link to the New Testament and Hebrew Bible with relevant Greek, Hebrew, andEnglish options.—OConnor, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 2 of 38Date Range: 63 BCE - 74 CEGeneral VariablesMembership/Group InteractionsAre other religious groups in cultural contact with target religion:Yes—Is the cultural contact competitive:Notes: In his historical account, Josephus refers to the Zealots as the "fourth philosophy" (Ant.18.1); he pits them in contrast with the Pharisees, Sadducees, and Essenes. One of their co-founders, Saddok, is a former Pharisee, which has led some to believe that the Pharisees andZealots held some philosophical similarities. Elsewhere, the Zealots are described as one's who"imitated every wicked work" (War 7.8.1). The Sicarii are described with arguably more disdainby Josephus. In one example, Jonathan, a member of their group, is described as causingsedition and "accusing men falsely" supposedly in line with the Sicarii way (War 7.11).Yes—Is the cultural contact accommodating/pluralistic:Notes: Whereas cultural accommodation seems to be present in sectors of early Judaism, thisdoes not seem to be the case with either the Zealots or Sicarii. Their groups are defined bystrict cultural opposition.No—Is the cultural contact neutral:No—Is there violent conflict (within sample region):Notes: Our evidence occasionally indicates breaks in terms of internal religious affairs. For theZealots, John of Gischala appears to break away from the main group over an internaldisagreement to form his own faction (see War 4.3).Yes—Is there violent conflict (with groups outside the sample region):Notes: This seems to be especially so among the Sicarii who are said to kill people in "day time"(War 2.13.3). There is scholarly dispute over the nature of the Zealots (and their connection withthe Sicarii. Richard Horsley has contended for a much more tame picture of the Zealots (seeBandits, Prophets, and Messiahs) than the Sicarii. However, even so, there is a scene inJosephus where the Zealots are driven away by Ananus and Jesus son of Gamala (War 4.3.9)Yes—OConnor, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 3 of 38Does the religious group have a general process/system for assigning religious affiliation:Does the religious group actively proselytize and recruit new members:Notes: The answer is likely yes. Our records indicate that for both the Zealots and the Sicarii, theirdoctrine attracted a great many. One is also to assume for the Sicarii that their strategy to overthrowthe Jewish aristocracy by violence needed support. Josephus only tells us that they grew in number,but this seems likely.Yes—Assigned at birth (membership is default for this society):No—Assigned by personal choice:Notes: Especially by Josephus' account, there seems to be a high emphasis on personal choicefor joining either the Zealots or Sicarii. In the case of the Zealots, we have a clear account of a"fourth philosophy" that attracted a great number of the young and "zealous." Some havesuggested that the Sicarii consisted of intellectuals and teachers, attracted members by theirmore radical methods.Yes—Assigned by class:No—Assigned at a specific age:No—Assigned by gender:Notes: The answer is presumably yes, since our source material is limited to male examples.Yes—Assigned by participation in a particular ritual:No—Assigned by some other factor:Yes [specify]: At least in the case of the Sicarii, Josephus tells us that they had their own"daggers," the source of their name. According to Josephus: "They made use of small swords,not much different in length from the Persian Acinacæ, but somewhat crooked, and like theRoman Sicae, [or sickles] as they were called. And from these weapons these robbers got theirdenomination: and with these weapons they slew a great many" (Ant 20.8.10; trans. Whiston).—Yes—OConnor, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 4 of 38Does the religion have official political supportNotes: This stands in contrast with other early Jewish groups, such as the Pharisees and the Sadducees,who did secure political support at various times. Some historians have described the Sicarii as aterrorist group (Horsley), and as such, a frequent threat to local political communities.Is there a conception of apostasy in the religious group:Notes: If we consider the motivations of the Sicarii to assassinate Jonathan the High Priest, it wouldlikely fall under the umbrella of some type of religious apostasy. The doctrine of the Zealots is moreclear on this point. They believed that only God could be king and ruler of the Jewish people.Is proselytizing mandated for religious professionals:No—Is proselytizing mandated for all adherents:No—Is missionary work mandated for religious professionals:No—Is missionary work mandated for all adherents:No—Is proselytization coercive:No—No—Yes—Are apostates prosecuted or punished:Yes—Apostates are socially shunned and/or publicly vilified:Yes—Do apostates receive corporal punishment:Notes: The Zealots and Sicarii would likely have viewed the Jewish aristocracy in termsof apostasy, and the punishment is either directly caused by them (such as theassassination of Jonathan the High Priest) or indirectly by the Romans. From oursources, the method of punishment largely appears to be execution.Yes—OConnor, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 5 of 38Size and StructureNumber of adherents of religious group within sample region (estimated population,numerical):Notes: We do not possess exact numbers for either the Zealots or the Sicarii. Josephus records that theinitial count for Zealots were two thousand four hundred (War 5.6.1). For the Sicarii, there is onepassage in Josephus that tells us, after a long speech by their leader, Eleazar, 960 Sicarii committedmass suicide (men, women, and children) survived by only two women and five children (War 7.8–9).This number does not tell us the total amount of Sicarii. It is also important to note that Josephus isprone to exaggeration in his calculations. In another text, in the Book of Acts, Luke records Paulresponding to the following question: “Aren’t you the Egyptian who started a revolt and led fourthousand terrorists out into the wilderness some time ago? (21:38). The term here "terrorists" in Greek issikariōn.Number of adherents of religious group within sample region (% of sample regionpopulation, numerical):Notes: We do not possess exact numbers for either the Zealots or the Sicarii. Josephus records that theinitial count for Zealots were two thousand four hundred (War 5.6.1). For the Sicarii, there is onepassage in Josephus that tells us, after a long speech by their leader, Eleazar, 960 Sicarii committedmass suicide (men, women, and children) survived by only two women and five children (War 7.8–9).This number does not tell us the total amount of Sicarii. It is also important to note that Josephus isprone to exaggeration in his calculations. In another text, in the Book of Acts, Luke records Paulresponding to the following question: “Aren’t you the Egyptian who started a revolt and led fourthousand terrorists out into the wilderness some time ago? (21:38). The term here "terrorists" in Greek issikariōn.ScriptureApostates are physically marked as such (e.g. branding, mutilation):No—Apostates are executed:Notes: Again, there is a degree of historical speculation here. But theassassination of Jonathan the High Priest by the Sicarii suggests that executionwas the punishment assigned to him, and to other members of the Jewisharistocracy. Josephus is less clear regarding the Zealots on this note.Yes—Other corporal punishment:No—Field doesn't know—Field doesn't know—OConnor, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 6 of 38Does the religious group have scriptures:Scripture is a generic term used to designate revered texts that are considered particularly authoritativeand sacred relative to other texts. Strictly speaking, it refers to written texts, but there are also “oralscriptures” (e.g. the Vedas of India).Yes—Are they written:Notes: Both the Zealots and the Sicarii would have read and studied Torah.Yes—Are they oral:Notes: The evidence suggests that at least the Zealots had ideological connections with thePharisees. This would mean that they were familiar with oral traditions.Yes—Is there a story (or a set of stories) associated with the origin of scripture:Yes—Revealed by a high god:Notes: This would have been a general feature of early Judaism. It is important to keepin mind that Josephus tells us that the "fourth philosophy" believes only God is theirtrue leader.Yes—Revealed by other supernatural being:Notes: The evidence is unclear. From early Judaism, it is possible revelation is mediatedby other supernatural beings, but it properly comes from God.No—Inspired by high god:Notes: For the Sicarii, the speeches of Eleazar are especially telling for understandingthe role of God in their doctrines. A small excerpt: "For the laws of our country, and ofGod himself, have from ancient times, and as soon as ever we could use our reason,continually taught us; and our forefathers have corroborated the same doctrine bytheir actions, and by their bravery of mind; that it is life that is a calamity to men, andnot death" (War 7.8).Yes—Inspired by other supernatural being:No—OConnor, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 7 of 38Architecture, GeographyIs monumental religious architecture present:Notes: Central to Josephus's account for the Zealots is the role of the Jerusalem Temple. Take, forexample, this passage in War 4.3.10 (trans. Whiston): "And now, when the multitude were gottentogether to an assembly, and every one was in indignation at these mens seizing upon the sanctuary;at their rapine and murders; but had not yet begun their attacks upon them: (the reason of which wasthis, that they imagined it to be a difficult thing to suppress these zealots; as indeed the case was),Ananus stood in the midst of them; and casting his eyes frequently at the temple, and having a floodof tears in his eyes, he said, “Certainly it had been good for me to die before I had seen the house ofGod full of so many abominations." Additionally, the Sicarii also aim their attacks at the Temple, killingJonathan the High Priest there.Are there different types of religious monumental architecture:Notes: Whereas we have clear indication of other types of religious architecture in early Judaism (e.g.,graves, synagogues, altars), we do not receive this type of information for the Zealots and Sicarii. Themost data Josephus offers is in regard to the Temple, and either group's attempts to control it.Presumably, they would have used other religious cites, such as graves to bury their loved ones, butour dearth of information allows only speculation.Is iconography present:Notes: It is possible but unclear from the data. One of our best examples for artwork and iconographyin early Judaism is the third-century CE synagogue at Dura-Europos.BeliefsBurial and AfterlifeIs a spirit-body distinction present:Answer “no” only if personhood (or consciousness) is extinguished with death of the physical body.Answering yes does not necessarily imply the existence of Cartesian mind/body dualism, merely thatsome element of personhood (or consciousness) survives the death of the body.Originated from divine or semi-divine human beings:No—Originated from non-divine human being:No—Yes—Field doesn't know—Field doesn't know—Yes—OConnor, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 8 of 38Belief in afterlife:Reincarnation in this world:Are there special treatments for adherents' corpses:Notes: Death and dying occurs somewhat regularly in Josephus's account of the Sicarii. However, thereis virtually no details on care for the dead. If we take Josephus at face value, he states that the fourthphilosophy: does not "heed the deaths of their relations and friends" (Ant. 18.1.6). However, we alsoknow that Josephus does not speak well of these religious groups. As a sect of early Judaism, theZealots and Sicarii would likely have had general protocol for caring for the dead. For example, "burialwith one's fathers" (Gen 25:8) was common practice. Specific customs would have varied dependingon geographic location (Rome, Egypt, Palestine). From the early Christian literature, we learn thatbodies were wrapped in linen according to the "custom of the Jews" (Matt 27:59; John 19:40). It is alsoimportant to note that socio-economic factors would have played a role in the degree to which onewas carefully shrouded in linen, or if one could afford a "family" or "private" burial site.Are co-sacrifices present in tomb/burial:Spirit-mind is conceived of as having qualitatively different powers or properties thanother body parts:Notes: While the spirit/body distinction is present, it is unclear if a spirit/mind distinct exists.The best evidence we have about the Sicarii's understanding of the body/spirit/mind comesfrom Eleazar's speech in War 7.8. See for example, this excerpt: "For while souls are tied downto a mortal body, they are partakers of its miseries: and really, to speak the truth, they arethemselves dead. For the union of what is divine, to what is mortal, is disagreeable. ’Tis true,the power of the soul is great, even when it is imprisoned in a mortal body. For by moving it,after a way that is invisible, it makes the body a sensible instrument; and causes it to advancefarther in its actions than mortal nature could otherwise do" (trans. Whiston).Field doesn't know—Yes—Is the spatial location of the afterlife specified or described by the religious group:Notes: The information about the afterlife is inferred partly from the Pharisees. If theirphilosophical beliefs are shared with the "fourth philosophy" then the Zealots would have aplace for the righteous and the wicked. For the Sicarii, in Eleazar's speech, he says thefollowing: "Let us die before we become slaves under our enemies: and let us go out of theworld, together with our children, and our wives, in a state of freedom" (War 7.8.7). This appearsto imply an afterlife.Field doesn't know—No—Field doesn't know—No—OConnor, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 9 of 38Are grave goods present:Notes: This would be difficult to determine for the Zealots and the Sicarii. By and large, it seems thatgrave good may have been prohibited in some sectors of early Judaism, at least in the literaryevidence; however, this does not mean that grave goods were not present considering it was notuncommon in Greco-Roman culture.Are formal burials present:Notes: This is unclear. If we take Josephus at face value, he states that the fourth philosophy: does not"heed the deaths of their relations and friends" (Ant. 18.1.6). However, we also know that Josephus doesnot speak well of this religious group. According to the archaeological discoveries of Yadin and thelater investigation by Magness and others, no physical remains of Jews were found at Masada. (Therewere five skeleton remains discovered but they were found near pig bones, suggesting they wereRoman not Jewish; see Magness, Masada, 198). One is to assume burials are possible in accordancewith the practices of early Judaism; however, our information is scarce. For the Sicarii, the nature ofJosephus's descriptions of them as fringe marauders makes it difficult to assess the formality of theirdeaths. Even in the description of the mass suicide that takes places at Masda, Josephus does not offerany information about how the bodies were disposed, leaving some to speculate that the Romansmay have burned the bodies.Supernatural BeingsAre supernatural beings present:Field doesn't know—Field doesn't know—Yes—A supreme high god is present:Yes—The supreme high god is anthropomorphic:Notes: In the Hebrew Bible, God can be described with anthropomorphisms.No—The supreme high god is a sky deity:No—The supreme high god is chthonic (of the underworld):No—The supreme high god is fused with the monarch (king=high god):Yes—OConnor, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 10 of 38Notes: This point is distinct to what Josephus describes as the "fourth philosophy. Thesectarian distinctive of this group is a belief that God alone can be ruler of the people.This seems to fuel various attacks by more radical groups, such as the Sicarii, inassassinating the High Priest.The monarch is seen as a manifestation or emanation of the high god:No—The supreme high god is a kin relation to elites:No—The supreme high god has another type of loyalty-connection to elites:Notes: And emphatically so. From the presentation we have, God's loyalty is with thepeople, and members of both the Zealots and Sicarii are growing dissatisfied withRoman rule and the aristocracy's inaction.No—The supreme high god is unquestionably good:Notes: This is the case for most, if not all, forms of early Judaism. The disagreementbetween some of these groups is the degree to which human beings should activelyrebel against the Romans.Yes—Other feature(s) of supreme high god:Yes [specify]: For the most part, it is likely that both Zealots and Sicarii would haveprofessed a monotheistic understanding of God.—The supreme high god has knowledge of this world:Yes—The supreme god's knowledge is restricted to particular domain ofhuman affairs:Notes: While there is nothing in particular about the Zealots or Sicarii, God'sknowledge would not be restricted for most forms of early Judaism.No—The supreme high god's knowledge is restricted to (a) specific area(s)within the sample region:No—OConnor, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 11 of 38The supreme high god's knowledge is unrestricted within the sampleregion:Yes—The supreme high god's knowledge is unrestricted outside of sampleregion:Yes—The supreme high god can see you everywhere normally visible (inpublic):Yes—The supreme high god can see you everywhere (in the dark, at home):Yes—The supreme high god can see inside heart/mind (hidden motives):Yes—The supreme high god knows your basic character (personal essence):Notes: In regard to the Zealots, and most of early Judaism, this would be true.As we see in the doctrine of the Pharisees, an ideology with which the Zealotsmay share, God weighs human action as either righteous or wicked. For theSicarii, Eleazar's speech in Josephus seems to indicate that the ensuing masssuicide is partly a result of God's judgment upon their sins (War 7.8).Yes—The supreme high god knows what will happen to you, what you will do(future sight):Notes: The details for God's future knowledge for the Sicraii is also found inEleazar's speech recorded in Josephus (War 7.8.1): "Accordingly they all metwith such ends as God deservedly brought upon."Yes—The supreme high god has other knowledge of this world:Yes [specify]: God's knowledge would be unlimited for both the Zealots andSicarii.—The supreme high god has deliberate causal efficacy in the world:Notes: Most certainly. A distinctive about the Zealots (and possibly the Sicarii) is theYes—OConnor, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 12 of 38need for human cooperation in executing God's plan. (See Hengel, The Zealots, 81).The supreme high god can reward:Yes—The supreme high god can punish:Notes: This seems especially true through the eyes of the historian Josephuswho describes "impiety toward God" as the human action deserving of greatconsequence.Yes—The supreme high god has indirect causal efficacy in the world:Yes—The supreme high god exhibits positive emotion:Notes: Positive emotion described as love, mercy, compassion, and so forth. The notionof justice would perhaps receive a higher level of emphasis from the Zealots and Sicariiconsidering their political and ideological campaigns against Rome.Yes—The supreme high god exhibits negative emotion:Notes: Negative framed in terms of rightful judgment. While we do not have much toexplain how the Sicarii justify their murders, it would appear that they are enactingGod's will through human cooperation.Yes—The supreme high god possesses hunger:No—Is it permissible to worship supernatural beings other than the high god:Notes: And for these two groups (Zealots and Sicarii), the might perceive inactiontoward the governing Roman powers as a type of idolatry among the Jewisharistocracy. God is the exclusive ruler of the people.No—The supreme high god possesses/exhibits some other feature:No—The supreme high god communicates with the living:OConnor, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 13 of 38Yes—In waking, everyday life:Notes: This seems likely especially considering that God alone is to be theirruler.Yes—In dreams:Notes: We do not possess any evidence of dream communications with theseparticular sects of Judaism. It is possible considering evidence within theHebrew Bible (Num. 12:6-8; Jer. 23:25-28; Dan. 7:1).Field doesn't know—In trance possession:No—Through divination practices:Notes: Prayer would have been a common practice in early Judaism, and likelyamong the Zealots and Sicarii.Yes—Only through religious specialists:Notes: Though, Richard Horsley speculates that the "fourth philosophy" wascomprised of teachers: "The Fourth Philosophy would thus appear to be agroup composed of, or at least led by, Pharisaic and other teachers of a moreactivist bent" (Bandits, Prophets, and Messiahs 198). What percentage of God'srevelation was communicated or taught through these teachers is unclear.No—Only through monarchNotes: Once more, emphatically so. The politically resistant nature of theZealots and Sicarii (however different their strategies may have been) isopposed to earthly rulers over the Jewish population.No—Other form of communication with living:No—Previously human spirits are present:Field doesn't know—OConnor, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 14 of 38Notes: This is unclear, but likely no. The doctrine of the "fourth philosophy" appears to sharewith the Pharisees an understanding of the soul departing the body. It is never articulated inthe form of a lingering spirit, but the soul's transfer from the body is worth considering.Non-human supernatural beings are present:Notes: During the the late Hellenistic and early Roman period, early Judaism by and largepossesses a belief in demons and angels within the literature. Nothing in particular applies tothe Zealots or Sicarii here, but it seems likely that they would have shared these beliefs.Yes—These supernatural beings can be seen:Yes—These supernatural beings can be physically felt:Yes—Non-human supernatural beings have knowledge of this world:Notes: If we extrapolate from the evidence in early Judaism, the answer would be yes.Demons, for example, appear to possess knowledge of the present world; however,Josephus does not provide us with any of these details in regard to the Zealots andSicarii.Field doesn't know—Non-human supernatural beings have deliberate causal efficacy in the world:Yes—These supernatural beings can reward:Notes: We do not have evidence of the Zealots or Sicarii here. We can onlyguess that if angels are involved in rewarding humans, it is facilitated by God.Field doesn't know—These supernatural beings can punish:Notes: Once more, it is better to avoid too much speculation here. Demonsfunction to harm and punish in the literary evidence, but we do not haveaccess to these kinds of beliefs for the Zealots or Sicarii.Field doesn't know—These supernatural beings have indirect causal efficacy in the world:No—OConnor, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 15 of 38Supernatural MonitoringIs supernatural monitoring present:This refers to surveillance by supernatural beings of humans’ behaviour and/or thought particularly as itrelates to social norms or potential norm violations.Notes: This is possible for the Zealots and Sicarii. There are examples of supernatural monitoring inearly Judaism, especially in apocalyptic literature. In the Testament of Abraham, for example,Abraham, guided by an angel/messenger, appears to survey or "monitor" the world, including veryprivate activities. These groups would have interpreted monitoring through the lens of God'sjudgment against inaction or Roman oppression.These supernatural beings exhibit positive emotion:Notes: The nature of emotions exhibited by either angels or demons is hard todetermine from the evidence. The Testament of Solomon would be one source toinvestigate further for early Jewish beliefs.Field doesn't know—These supernatural beings exhibit negative emotion:Notes: The nature of emotions exhibited by either angels or demons is hard todetermine. The Testament of Solomon would be one source to investigate further forearly Jewish beliefs.Field doesn't know—These supernatural beings possess hunger:Notes: The answer is likely no here simply because we do not have the evidence. Inearly Judaism, there is a story told in Tobit chapter six about expelling demons by thesmell of fish odor.No—These supernatural beings possess/exhibit some other feature:Notes: We can only speculate from our literary sources. Demons appear to possesshuman bodies, torment, and harm them. It also appears from the Greek MagicalPapyri and the Testament of Solomon, that demons could also be controlled andexpelled through magical formulae.Field doesn't know—Does the religious group possess a variety of supernatural beings:No—Yes—There is supernatural monitoring of prosocial norm adherence in particular:OConnor, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 16 of 38Prosocial norms are norms that enhance cooperation among members of the group, includingobviously “moral” or “ethical” norms, but also extending to norms concerning honouring contractsand oaths, providing hospitality, coming to mutual aid in emergencies, etc.Notes: Interesting note here is the content of Eleazar's speech. He invokes the idea that theystand before God in their final self-execution (see Josephus, War 7.8).Yes—Supernatural beings care about taboos:Yes—Food:Notes: Food is possible, considering the dietary restrictions we see from the Phariseegroup, and its possible connection to the Fourth Phillosophy.Field doesn't know—Sacred space(s):Notes: Once more, the Jewish aristocracy and their occupation of the Temple wouldhave been perceived by these groups as morally reprehensible.Yes—Sacred object(s):No—Supernatural beings care about other:No—Supernatural beings care about murder of coreligionists:Notes: There is speculation here as to why the Sicarii thought it necessary to kill Jonathan theHigh Priest. We are left only to infer that they saw themselves as carrying out a directive byGod. In their mass suicide at Masada, it appears that God considers this end as punishment fortheir sins.Yes—Supernatural beings care about murder of members of other religions:Notes: Once more, we are left to speculate motivations for the Sicarii here. We might infer thatthey saw themselves as carrying out a directive by God, though it is not always clear.Yes—Supernatural beings care about murder of members of other polities:Yes—OConnor, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 17 of 38Supernatural beings care about sex:Notes: From the evidence in early Judaism and the Hebrew Bible, and the degree to which theSicarii and Zealots desired a theocracy, the answer yes seems likely here.Yes—Adultery:Yes—Incest:Yes—Other sexual practices:Yes [specify]: Sexual intercourse with "pagans" seems to be a discussion among thosewho possess zeal in the Hebrew Bible.—Supernatural beings care about lying:Notes: From the evidence in early Judaism and the Hebrew Bible, and the degree to which theSicarii and Zealots desired a theocracy, the answer yes is possible here, but we do not havespecific evidence for either of these two groups on the subject.Field doesn't know—Supernatural beings care about honouring oaths:Notes: From the evidence in early Judaism and the Hebrew Bible, and the degree to which theSicarii and Zealots desired a theocracy, the answer yes is likely here.Yes—Supernatural beings care about laziness:Notes: From the evidence in early Judaism and the Hebrew Bible, and the degree to which theSicarii and Zealots desired a theocracy, the answer yes is possible here, but we do not havespecific evidence for either of these two groups on the subject. It is worth adding that theZealots were particularly upset with inaction by leading Jewish officials.Yes—Supernatural beings care about sorcery:Notes: There are locations in the Hebrew Bible in which sorcery appears to be condemned (1Sam 28); however, we do not possess evidence for these religious groups.Field doesn't know—Supernatural beings care about non-lethal fighting:Yes—OConnor, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 18 of 38Notes: These fringe groups often engaged in fighting, much of which was lethal, but not all. Wecannot be certain how much God "cared" about these issues, but it is likely that theyunderstood God to be giving them a divine directive in many cases.Supernatural beings care about shirking risk:Notes: The course for justice likely involved "shirking risk." However, "shirking" impliescarelessness, and it would not have been careless risk taking per se. This would seem to be ahallmark of the Zealots: according to Josephus, actionable steps to resist loss of freedom.Yes—Supernatural beings care about disrespecting elders:Notes: This would almost certainly have been engrained in the daily life of any sect of earlyJudaism (Leviticus 19:3).Yes—Supernatural beings care about gossiping:Notes: Gossiping as an immoral practice does not appear directly in Josephus, it would also behard to discern the level that this was enforced in any religious group in early Judaism.Field doesn't know—Supernatural beings care about property crimes:Notes: The Sicarii inflicted damage to individual property, at least according to Josephus. Wecan only speculate the degree to which they understood God to be ordering all of their actions.When Eleazar articulates that the Sicarii's final stand is a result of God's judgment upon theirsins, one could infer much of their previous activities were "sinful" (again, according toJosephus here), but here we move into speculative territory.Yes—Supernatural beings care about proper ritual observance:Yes—Supernatural beings care about performance of rituals:Yes—Supernatural beings care about conversion of non-religionists:Notes: The Zealots and the Sicarri seem less interested in the prospect of converting non-religionists than other early Jewish groups. They are more interested in securing freedom forJudaism.No—OConnor, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 19 of 38Do supernatural beings mete out punishment:Supernatural beings care about economic fairness:Notes: Unfair Roman taxation as impingement upon Jewish freedoms appears to be one causefor resistance.Yes—Supernatural beings care about personal hygiene:Notes: This would be difficult to determine. Washing rituals appear to belong to Essene groups,and there is evidence regarding ritual washing among Pharisees; however, personal hygiene isunclear.Field doesn't know—Supernatural beings care about other:Yes [specify]: The thrust of the Fourth Philosophy would be obtaining freedom. Eleazar'sspeech mentions that death is better than enslavement. One could assume that this is a divineprerogative.—Yes—Is the cause or agent of supernatural punishment known:Yes—Done only by high god:Notes: This one needs further explanation, in that divine punishment appears inJosephus' account of Zealots and Sicarii; however, because of his bias, he does notprovide us with extensive details. It would seem that human beings cooperate withGod's will in some way for these Jewish activists, thus participating in God's divinejudgment. See also the quote in Josephus, War 7.8.1: "Accordingly they all met withsuch ends as God deservedly brought upon them in way of punishment" (trans.Whiston).Yes—Done by many supernatural beings:Notes: It would appear that according to Josephus at least, human beings are theenactors of judgment in this world for these groups, more so for the Sicarii; however,God is the ultimate actor in judgment.No—Done through impersonal cause-effect principle:No—OConnor, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 20 of 38Done by other entities or through other means [specify]Notes: Once more, the role of human beings in executed judgment appears to play arole in how either of these two groups understood themselves. Overall, God is still thefinal judge. This line in Josephus summarizes the point well: "The punishments ofwhich let us not receive from the Romans, but from God himself, as executed by ourown hands" (War 7.8.6)Yes—Is the reason for supernatural punishment known:Notes: In Eleazar's speech, God's judgment is in response to "our manifold sins" (War 7.8.6).Yes—Done to enforce religious ritual-devotional adherence:Notes: We are to infer from context the reason for the Sicarii's assassination of the HighPriest; it would appear that a violation related to ritual-devotional adherence is at play.Yes—Done to enforce group norms:Yes—Done to inhibit selfishness:Notes: At least not directly. Because of the nature and quality of resistance by thesegroups outlined in Josephus, divine punishment is of a more severe variety.No—Done randomly:No—Other [specify]No—Supernatural punishments are meted out in the afterlife:Yes—Supernatural punishments in the afterlife are highly emphasized by thereligious group:Notes: The degree to which the afterlife and its accompanying consequences isemphasized by the Zealots or Sicarii is not available to us. We may infer from thedoctrine of the Pharisees that they had a working belief in the afterlife, however.Field doesn't know—OConnor, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 21 of 38Punishment in the afterlife consists of mild sensory displeasure:Notes: Once more, at least as Josephus presents it, this group appears to emphasizepunishment in the present life over the afterlife. The leader of the Sicarii, Eleazar, in hisfinal speeches considers death to be a good result, and life to be an obstacle in someways.Field doesn't know—Punishment in the afterlife consists of extreme sensory displeasure:Notes: See answer above for this case. We do not have vivid depictions of the afterlifefor these target religious groups.Field doesn't know—Punishment in the afterlife consists of reincarnation as an inferior life form:No—Punishment in the afterlife consists of reincarnation in an inferior realm:No—Other [specify]No—Supernatural punishments are meted out in this lifetime:Yes—Supernatural punishments in this life are highly emphasized by the religiousgroup:Notes: It would seem that the nature of punishment in the present life is a distinctivefeature of at least the Sicarii. They are described as murders and robbers by Josephus.Yes—Punishment in this life consists of bad luck:No—Punishment in this life consists of political failure:Notes: Consider the assassination by the Sicarii of the High Priest, Jonathan. Regardlessof Josephus' accuracy, it seems that both the Zealots and Sicarii were unhappy withthe present political situation.Yes—OConnor, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 22 of 38Punishment in this life consists of defeat in battle:Notes: This is very clear in the Sicarii's last stand at Masada as recorded by Josephus. Asdescribed by Eleazar, the Romans final approach and impending capture is due toGod's judgment upon them for their many sins. He convinces them to commit suiciderather than to be captured.Yes—Punishment in this life consists of crop failure or bad weather:Notes: This is possible from the broader scope of early Judaism, but we do not haveevidence for this among Zealots and Sicarii specifically.Field doesn't know—Punishment in this life consists of disaster on journeys.Notes: This is possible from the broader scope of early Judaism, but we do not haveevidence for this among Zealots and Sicarii specifically.Field doesn't know—Punishment in this life consists of mild sensory displeasure:Notes: The answer here is possibly yes. The Sicarii kill their victims, it is not clear if theyuse torture to prolong the feelings of displeasure.Field doesn't know—Punishment in this life consists of extreme sensory displeasure:Notes: The answer here is possibly yes. The Sicarii kill their victims, it is not clear if theyuse torture to prolong the feelings of displeasure.Field doesn't know—Punishment in this life consists of sickness or illness:Notes: Once more, it is plausible to imagine this type interpretation of illness from ourrange of literary sources in early Judaism, but we do not have specific information forthe target group on this.Field doesn't know—Punishment in this life consists of impaired reproduction:Notes: Once more, it is plausible to imagine this type interpretation of illness from ourrange of literary sources in early Judaism, but we do not have specific information forthe target group on this.Field doesn't know—Punishment in this life consists of bad luck visited on descendants:OConnor, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 23 of 38Do supernatural beings bestow rewards:No—Other [specify]No—Yes—Is the cause/purpose of supernatural rewards known:Yes—Done only by high god:Notes: This seems highly likely based on the literary evidence in Josephus. One'sreward is given in this life through political victory, or victory in battle.Yes—Done by many supernatural beings:No—Done through impersonal cause-effect principle:No—Done to enforce religious ritual-devotional adherence:Yes—Done to enforce group norms:Notes: A distinctive group norm of the "fourth philosophy" is the commitment tofreedom as well as to God's rule of the people. Any reward could be understood in thiscontext according to our limited source material.Yes—Done to inhibit selfishness:Notes: This is possibly an indirect consequence of reward, but not within theboundaries of our source material. Divine reward seems to have a broader, morepolitical scope for these groups.No—Done randomly:OConnor, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 24 of 38No—Supernatural rewards are bestowed out in the afterlife:Yes—Supernatural rewards in the afterlife are highly emphasized by the religiousgroup:Notes: The degree to which reward in the afterlife is emphasized is hard to discernfrom the evidence. We may imply from the doctrine of the Pharisees that it is a centralfeature, since Josephus compares the Pharisees with the "fourth philosophy" of theZealots.Field doesn't know—Reward in the afterlife consists of mild sensory pleasure:Notes: The nature of the reward is difficult to discern from our limited source material.Field doesn't know—Reward in the afterlife consists of extreme sensory pleasure:Notes: The nature of the reward is difficult to discern from our limited source material.Field doesn't know—Reward in the afterlife consists of eternal happiness:Notes: The answer here is likely yes, based on evidence regarding the afterlife incomparative early Judaisms.Yes—Reward in the afterlife consists of reincarnation as a superior life form:No—Reward in the afterlife consists of reincarnation in a superior realm:Notes: It would depend on how one interprets the transmigration of the soul asillustrated in Josephus. If one's soul leaves the body to enter into another body, thiswould not be properly "reincarnation" but there are some similarities here.Field doesn't know—Other [specify]No—Supernatural rewards are bestowed out in this lifetime:OConnor, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 25 of 38Notes: The emphasis we receive from Josephus on these groups is active resistance to Romanrule. For that reason, the reward in this lifetime would be one's freedom. At one point inElezar's speech he declares that death is a better alternative to being enslaved by the Romans.Yes—Supernatural rewards in this life are highly emphasized by the religious group:Notes: However, this would be reward in the singular. The only emphasis we receivefrom our sources is on freedom.Yes—Reward in this life consists of good luck:No—Reward in this life consists of political success or power:Notes: Reward is freedom, debatable how freedom relates to power or freedom frompolitical oppression.No—Reward in this life consists of success in battle:Yes—Reward in this life consists of peace or social stability:Yes—Reward in this life consists of healthy crops or good weather:Notes: This seems plausible, but our source material does not elaborate.Field doesn't know—Reward in this life consists of success on journeys:Field doesn't know—Reward in this life consists of mild sensory pleasure:Notes: The experience of freedom is the main interest of these groups (though, theSicarii seem to take this interest a bit far). The relationship between freedom andpleasure is a question worth debating here.Field doesn't know—Reward in this life consists of extreme sensory pleasure:Field doesn't know—OConnor, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 26 of 38Messianism/EschatologyAre messianic beliefs present:Notes: While there is little evidence of messianic expectations among the Zealots and Sicarii (there is,however, among Simon bar Giora and his followers in the same period), Martin Hengel (The Zealots[1989]) is generous in ascribing eschatological beliefs to the Zealots, outlining the importance ofprophecy to their movement. Horsley's conclusion is more measured: "Thus, Josephus' statement thatthey argued that 'if successful, the Jews would have paved the way for good fortune' would meanmore or less that the Fourth Philosophy believed that by carrying out God's eschatological will theywould be helping to bring about the Kingdom of God" (Bandits, Prophets, and Messiahs, 194).Is an eschatology present:Norms and Moral RealismAre general social norms prescribed by the religious group:Notes: One worth mentioning is the need for "collective leadership" as Horsley calls it (Bandits,Prophets, and Messiahs, 235). It appears as if John of Gischala broke with the Zealots over this issue.Notes: The experience of freedom is the main interest of these groups (though, theSicarii seem to take this interest a bit far). The relationship between freedom andpleasure is a question worth debating here.Reward in this life consists of enhanced health:Field doesn't know—Reward in this life consists of enhanced reproductive success:Field doesn't know—Reward in this life consists of fortune visited on descendants:Notes: Our sources do not provide us with these kinds of details in regard to reward inthe present life. It seems possible from speculation.Field doesn't know—Other [specify]No—Field doesn't know—Yes—Yes—OConnor, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 27 of 38Is there a conventional vs. moral distinction in the religious group:Notes: The degree to which the Zealots or Sicarii would have separated normal social conventions frommoral ones seems unlikely. The literature portrays them as theocratic (and more so than the Phariseesor the Sadducees). The rules that governed their body would have been God-given and timecontingent. Thus, their need to actively resist Roman occupation.PracticesMembership Costs and PracticesDoes membership in this religious group require celibacy (full sexual abstinence):Notes: This is more obviously the case from our evidence for Essenes.Does membership in this religious group require constraints on sexual activity (partial sexualabstinence):Does membership in this religious group require castration:Notes: Circumcision, yes. For the Zealots, Martin Hengel has a brief discussion on the prohibition ofcircumcision, and in some cases, its conflation with castration by outsiders (The Zealots, 52).Field doesn't know—No—Yes—Monogamy (males):Yes—Monogamy (females):Yes—Other sexual constraints (males):Notes: The literature seems to suggest a ban on sexual relations with "pagans." This data isfrom a later rabbinic text and may not refer to some group: "With regard to one who steals akasva, and one who curses with a sorcerer, and one who engages in intercourse with anAramean woman, zealots strike him and kill him" (Sanh. 9.6)Yes—Other sexual constraints (females):Notes: Likely same restraints as above (Sanh. 9.6)Yes—No—OConnor, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 28 of 38Does membership in this religious group require fasting:Notes: We can infer from other sources in Second Temple Judaism that fasting was likely practiced bysome. It is unclear is fasting was a requirement, however.Does membership in this religious group require forgone food opportunities (taboos ondesired foods):Notes: We learn from the Pharisees about strict dietary practices. It is possible these types ofregulations were also up-and-running with the Zealots and Sicarii. According to Josephus, for example,we see strict practices regarding oil: "For [John of Gischala] said, that those Jews who inhabitedCesarea Philippi, and were shut up by the order of the King’s deputy there, had sent to him to desirehim, that, since they had no oil that was pure for their use, he would provide a sufficient quantity ofsuch oil for them: lest they should be forced to make use of oil that came from the Greeks, and therebytransgress their own laws. Now this was said by John, not out of his regard to religion; but out of hismost flagrant desire of gain" (trans. Whiston).Does membership in this religious group require permanent scarring or painful bodilyalterations:Notes: The practice of circumcision.Does membership in this religious group require painful physical positions or transitorypainful wounds:Does membership in this religious group require sacrifice of adults:"Adults" here referring to an emic or indigenous category; if that category is different from the popularWestern definition of a human who is 18-years-old or older and who is legally responsible for his/heractions, then please specify that difference in the Comments/Sources: box below.Notes: Not directly. When the Sicarii are surrounded by the Romans at Masada, they do end up takingtheir own lives according to Josephus.Does membership in this religious group require sacrifice of children:"Children" here referring to an emic or indigenous category; if that category is different from the popularWestern definition, please specify that different in the Comments/Sources: box below.Notes: Once more, Josephus tells us that children are killed at Masada, but not in the traditional childsacrifice manner, but to avoid capture from the Romans.Does membership in this religious group require self-sacrifice (suicide):Field doesn't know—Yes—Yes—No—No—No—OConnor, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 29 of 38Notes: There is an important caveat here. Suicide does not seem to be a requirement to join the Sicarii.However, Josephus' narrative famously depicts a mass suicide 960 men, women, and children (War7.9). The historical authenticity of this event has been questioned by scholars over the years.Does membership in this religious group require sacrifice of property/valuable items:Does membership in this religious group require sacrifice of time (e.g., attendance atmeetings or services, regular prayer, etc.):Notes: One would assume that in addition to liturgical practices of prayer and eating customs, theZealots and Sicarii were more or less activists (and the Sicarii radically so), which would have requiredinvestment of one's time.Does membership in this religious group require physical risk taking:Notes: Especially for the Sicarii, who engage in assassination.Does membership in this religious group require accepting ethical precepts:Does membership in this religious group require marginalization by out-group members:Notes: The "fourth philosophy" as Josephus calls it is marginalized from the start. While the relationshipbetween the Zealots and the Sicarii remains uncertain, they were certainly marginalized by otherJewish sects (e.g., Pharisees and the Sadducees). The more extreme practices of the Sicarii would haveput them even further on the margins of Judaism.Does membership in this religious group require participation in small-scale rituals (private,household):Notes: Our archaeological evidence at Masada suggests that the Sicarii were prepared for everydayliving, likely including daily religious rituals.Does membership in this religious group require participation in large-scale rituals:No—No—Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—What is the average interval of time between performances (in hours):Performances here refers to small-scale rituals.Field doesn't know—OConnor, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 30 of 38I.e. involving two or more households; includes large-scale “ceremonies” and “festivals.”Notes: This question is difficult to answer in some respects. Technically, we know from Josephus thatthe Zealots and Sicarii may have planned particular attacks on the days of festivals (see Hengel,Zealots, 361-62). However, the extent to which they joined in mass gatherings at the Temple peacefullyis unclear.Are extra-ritual in-group markers present:E.g. special changes to appearance such as circumcision, tattoos, scarification, etc.Does the group employ fictive kinship terminology:Field doesn't know—Yes—Tattoos/scarification:No—Circumcision:Yes—Food taboos:Yes—Hair:No—Dress:No—Ornaments:No—Archaic ritual language:No—Other:Yes [specify]: The Sicarri were known for their small daggers.—Field doesn't know—OConnor, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 31 of 38Notes: The employment of fictive kinship terminology seems possible. The indication in Second TempleJudaism is that several forms of Judaism did employ fictive kinship terminology (including earlyChristians). For example, the designation of "children" for the people of Israel and "Father" for Godcould indicate fictive kinship. However, we cannot say for certain or to what extent this applies to theZealots or Sicarii.Society and InstitutionsLevels of Social ComplexityThe society to which the religious group belongs is best characterized as (please chooseone):Notes: During the Roman period, Judea became a Roman province, before which Jews enjoyed adegree of autonomy and self-governance under the High Priest at the Jerusalem Temple. During thisperiod, the role of the High Priest and his connection to the Romans became a source of intra religiousconflict. To this end, the Sicarii eventually assassinate Jonathan the High Priest according to Josephus.It is also worth mentioning that early Jews had a governing body (gerousia) within the state, whichappears to have functioned autonomously prior to Roman rule. For more, see Mary Smallwood, TheJews Under Roman Rule: From Pompey to Diocletian, A Study in Political Relations (Leiden: Brill, 1981).WelfareDoes the religious group in question provide institutionalized famine relief:Notes: We learn from Josephus that the "robbers" (Sicarii?) stole remaining provisions from the massesafter the siege of Jerusalem (War 6.3.3).Is famine relief available to the group's adherents through an institution(s) other than thereligious group in question:Notes: According to Josephus, when famine struck in Judea and Syria, Herod offered charitableassistance (See Ant. 15.9). In another case, Queen Helena, who purportedly worshipped at theJerusalem temple provided famine relief (Ant. 20.2.5). The extent to which this was offered to theZealots or Sicarii is unclear.Does the religious group in question provide institutionalized poverty relief:Notes: Especially for the Sicarii, their potential occupation as "robbers" tells us even if they had accessto funds, they operated by their own fringe strategies.Is poverty relief available to the group's adherents through an institution(s) other than thereligious group in question:A state—No—Field doesn't know—No—OConnor, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 32 of 38Notes: As stated previously: Especially for the Sicarii, their potential occupation as "robbers" tells useven if they had access to funds, they operated by their own fringe strategies.Does the religious group in question provide institutionalized care for the elderly and infirm:Notes: The data does not tell us the extent to which these groups cared for vulnerable populationsamong them. It would have been recommended from their sacred Scriptures (the Torah), but we donot possess enough evidence for these groups in particular.Is institutionalized care for the elderly and infirm available to the group's adherents throughan institution(s) other than the religious group in question:EducationDoes the religious group provide formal education to its adherents:Notes: According to Richard Horsley's account of the Zealots (Bandits, Prophets, and Messiahs), theirfounders would have been religious teachers of some kind. Josephus confirms this in part by telling usof the founders of the Fourth Philosophy, Judas and Saddok.Is formal education available to the group’s adherents through an institution(s) other thanthe religious group:Notes: As inhabitants of the first-century, Greco-Roman world, it is certainly possible that traditionaleducation was available to some. However, our data concerning these fringe groups suggests(especially for the Sicarii), a lower level populace that may not have had access.BureaucracyDo the group’s adherents interact with a formal bureaucracy within their group:Notes: Horsley refers to the Zealots as maintaining a "collective leadership." According to Horsley, thissplits: "For a time there was a three-way battle raging, with the main body of the Zealots in the innercourt of the temple above, John of Gischala and his followers in the temple courtyard in between, andSimon bar Giora in control of most of the rest of the city" (Bandits, 219).Do the group’s adherents interact with other institutional bureaucracies:Notes: The Zealots and Sicarii are recorded as actively resisting Roman rule and Jewish aristocracy; theNo—Field doesn't know—No—Yes—Field doesn't know—Yes—Yes—OConnor, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 33 of 38Sicarii assassinating Jonathan the High Priest.Public WorksDoes the religious group in question provide public food storage:Is public food storage provided to the group’s adherents by an institution(s) other than thereligious group in question:Does the religious group in question provide water management (irrigation, flood control):Is water management provided to the group’s adherents by an institution(s) other than thereligious group in question:Notes: In first-century Judea (as a province of Rome), the water management would be controlled bythe government.Does the religious group in question provide transportation infrastructure:Is transportation infrastructure provided for the group’s adherents by an institution(s) otherthan the religious group in question:Notes: Judaism functioned freely as a legal religion under Roman rule until Emperor Nero and thedestruction of the Temple, and so would have likely had access to transportation infrastructure such asroads.TaxationDoes the religious group in question levy taxes or tithes:Notes: Not the Zealots or Sicarii, but they would have been subject to heavy taxesAre taxes levied on the group’s adherents by an institution(s) other than the religious group inquestion:No—No—No—Yes—No—Yes—No—Yes—OConnor, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 34 of 38Notes: One of the likely reasons that the Zealots and Sicarii form active resistance against Roman ruleis heavy taxation. They desired freedom, and burdensome taxes by the Romans would have a reasonfor resistance.EnforcementDoes the religious group in question provide an institutionalized police force:Notes: Not formally; however, these groups are actively resisting Jewish and Roman leadership, and inthe case of the Sicarii, by way of violence.Do the group’s adherents interact with an institutionalized police force provided by aninstitution(s) other than the religious group in question:Notes: These groups appear to have formed their own vigilante type forces, in opposition to governingauthorities and structures.Does the religious group in question provide institutionalized judges:Do the group’s adherents interact with an institutionalized judicial system provided by an aninstitution(s) other than the religious group in question:Notes: It would appear that at Masada, the Sicarii are awaiting impending prosecution from theRomans (a death sentence), so they end up taking their own lives.Does the religious group in question enforce institutionalized punishment:Notes: Not institutionalized per se, in that these are fringe resistance groups. However, they wouldhave enforced (likely religious) punishment both internally and externally.Are the group’s adherents subject to institutionalized punishment enforced by aninstitution(s) other than the religious group in question:Notes: As subjects of the Roman empire, the Zealots and Sicarii would have been prosecuted to thefull extent of the law, including death. Our events take place primarily during the First Jewish revolt (awar time scenario), so most of the options listed below were likely at play, including death, corporalpunishment, and seizure of property. Death being the most likely of outcomes for active (if not violent)resistance to order.No—No—No—Yes—No—Yes—Do the institutionalized punishments include execution:OConnor, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 35 of 38Does the religious group in question have a formal legal code:Notes: In addition to the Torah, the Fourth philosophy was governed by a commitment to freedom andGod as their ruler.Are the group’s adherents subject to a formal legal code provided by institution(s) other thanthe religious group in question:Notes: Both groups in question would have been subject to Roman rule.WarfareDoes religious group in question possess an institutionalized military:Notes: Likely not "institutionalized" because of the fringe identity of these groups, more appropriately"brigand groups." There were certainly strengths in numbers when going to battle, and Josephus isnotorious for inflating these numbers.Do the group’s adherents participate in an institutionalized military provided byinstitution(s) other than the religious group in question:Are the group’s adherents protected by or subject to an institutionalized military providedby an institution(s) other than the religious group in question:Yes—Do the institutionalized punishments include exile:Yes—Do the institutionalized punishments include corporal punishments:Yes—Do the institutionalized punishments include ostracism:No—Do the institutionalized punishments include seizure of property:Yes—Yes—Yes—No—No—Yes—OConnor, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 36 of 38Notes: They would have been subject to the Roman military.Written LanguageDoes the religious group in question possess its own distinct written language:Notes: Not a distinct semitic dialect for Zealots or Sicarii; however, archeologists did discover ostraca atMasada with Hebrew inscriptions.Is a non-religion-specific written language available to the group’s adherents through aninstitution(s) other than the religious group in question:Notes: Most likely Greek, Latin is possible.Is a non-religion-specific written language used by the group’s adherents through aninstitution(s) other than the religious group in question:Notes: How much Greek the adherent of the Zealots or Sicarii had access to is unclear. Their founders,Judas and Saddok likely would have known and used Greek, but our evidence is scarce on this issue.CalendarDoes the religious group in question possess a formal calendar:Notes: Not distinctly for their group. There is evidence among the Dead Scrolls of sectarian calendars atQumran.Is a formal calendar provided for the group’s adherents by an institution(s) other than thereligious group in question:Food ProductionDoes the religious group in question provide food for themselves:No—Yes—Field doesn't know—No—Yes—Yes—Please characterize the forms/level of food production [choose all that apply]:Gathering—Hunting (including marine animals)—OConnor, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 37 of 38Is food provided to the group’s adherents by an institution(s) other than the religious groupin question:BibliographyGeneral ReferencesReference: Richard Horsley A.. "The Sicarii: Ancient Jewish "Terrorists". The Journal of Religion, 59(4) doi:10.1086/486729.Reference: Mark Andrew Brighton. The Sicarii in Josephus's Judean War. Society of Biblical Lit. isbn:9781589834064.Reference: Richard A. Horsley. Bandits, Prophets, and Messiahs. A&C Black. isbn: 9781563382734.Reference: Jodi Magness. Masada. Princeton University Press. isbn: 9780691186016.Reference: Yigael Yadin. Masada. isbn: 9789652210128.Reference: E. Mary Smallwood. The Jews Under Roman Rule. BRILL. isbn: 9780391041554.Notes: We know from Josephus, that certain radical, fringe groups engaged in stealing foodduring the siege of Jerusalem.Pastoralism—Small-scale agriculture / horticultural gardens or orchards—Other [specify in comments]—No—OConnor, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 38 of 38

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