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Haroi also known as : “Haroi” “H’roi” and “H’rời”. Most English language scholarship does not use the… Quang, Isvan 2020-06-05

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Poll: Religious Group (v6) Published on: 05 June 2020Date Range: 1470 CE - 2019 CERegion: Cham H'roiRegion tags: Asia, Vietnam, Southeast Asia, CentralVietnamThe Cham H’roi communities have generally been inwhat are now Bình Định and Phú Yên provinces incentral VietnamHaroialso known as “: “Haroi” “H’roi” and “H’rời”. Most English language scholarship does not use theterm ‘Cham H’roi’”, “Bahna Cham”Expert source: William Noseworthy, McNeese State UniversityEntered by Isvan Quang, Van Lang university* Expert Source entry, prepared by a Ph.D. RA or DRH Editor from an expert's published work(s), and then personally editedand approved by the expert.Entry tags: Vietnamese Religions, Vietnam, Animist, Religious GroupContemporary Haroi traditional religion involves the practice polytheistic and animistic beliefs. The originsof the Haroi have been highly debated. One position argues that they were a distinct Bahnaric ethno-linguistic group from the Champā civilization (2nd – 19th centuries). Another argues they were a group offormer Cham people that fled into the uplands after a war with Đại Việt (15th century) and then resettledinto uplands, midlands, and eventually, some lowland areas. The second argument is more pervasive inVietnamese language academia and within the contemporary H’roi community. Oral histories stillcirculate, tying the H’roi to the refugees of the royal court of Vijaya, the Champā polity that was conqueredin 1471 CE by Đại Việt. The also state H’roi had to adopt practices from neighboring ethnic groups to blendin and not be pursued by Đại Việt militaries. Therefore, their spiritual activities became quite similar to theBahnaric groups, while retaining some Chamic (Ede, Churu, etc.) beliefs. Their language is also classified asa Bahnaric language by recent studies in historical linguistics. Regardless of the origins hypothesis, theirroots seem to be in the Champā civilization, followed by a period of becoming a distinct group (15th – 17thcentury), while assimilating into greater Bahnaric communities [perhaps “again,” likely “for the first time”]from the 15th – 20th century. Nonetheless, within Vietnam, they are considered onStatus of Participants:✓ Religious Specialists ✓ Non-elite (common people, general populace)SourcesPrint sources for understanding this subject:Reference: Ái Trần Văn, Ngọc Nguyễn Văn. Người Chăm H'roi và tục dựng trâu cột [The Cham H'roi andthe ritual to erect a buffalo column]. NXB Văn hoá Dân tộc.Source 1: Truong Tinh, Quang Dai Tuyen, Thap Lien Truong, Chau Van Huynh (2016) Culture of ChamH’roi people. Agriculture Publisher, Ho Chi Minh City.—Source 3: Rahcholan Măng Téo & Nguyen Xuan Nhan (1998). Some Issues in Culture and Arts of theCham H'roi in Binh Dinh and Phu Yen Provinces.—DOI: URL: https://religiondatabase.org/browse/752This work is licensed under the Creative CommonsAttribution 4.0 International license.Please see our Terms of Use here:https://religiondatabase.org/about/creditsPage 1 of 31© 2020 Database of Religious History.The University of British Columbia.For any questions contactproject.manager@religiondatabase.orgReference: Hồng Nguyễn Xuân. Văn hoá của các dân tộc thiểu số ở Bình Định [Cultures of ethnicminorities in Binh Dinh Province]. NXB Thuận Hoá, Huê.Reference: Nguyễn Dominique undefined. Từ vựng Hroi-Việt [H'roi - Vietnamese vocabularies].International Office of Champa.Reference: Liễng Kaso. Tiếng cồng Ông bà Hơ Bla Lơ Đa [The Goong sound of Hơ Bla Lơ Đa ]. Hội VNDGPhú Yên.Reference: Kaso Liễng. Trường Ca: Hơ Bia Tà Lúi Kalipu: Dân Tộc Chăm Phú Yên.Online sources for understanding this subject:Relevant online primary textual corpora (original languages and/or translations):General VariablesMembership/Group InteractionsAre other religious groups in cultural contact with target religion:Source 1 URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f2oZR2fDCv0—Source 1 Description: Traditional marriage ceremony of the Cham H'roi in Phu Yen Province—Source 2 URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kcGWrq0RLzc—Source 2 Description: 1998_ Rainmaking ritual of the Cham H'roi in Van Canh, Binh Dinh Province—Source 1 URL: https://gulpataom.files.wordpress.com/2013/02/champaka-3.pdf—Source 1 Description: Dominique Nguyên (2003). H'roi _ Viet Vocabularies, International Office ofChampa, USA—Yes—Is the cultural contact competitive:Yes—Is the cultural contact accommodating/pluralistic:Yes—Is the cultural contact neutral:Yes—Is there violent conflict (within sample region):Notes: 1. There has been open conflict with Vietnamese culture. First, during VietnameseNo—Quang, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 2 of 31Does the religious group have a general process/system for assigning religious affiliation:Does the religious group actively proselytize and recruit new members:conquest of Champā. After 1472, this community escaped by moving closely to the uplanders.They then hid, 'disappeared' and became a 'new' ethnic group that is similar to other groups inthat area. Their contemporary culture is also struggling to maintain its distinct character in theface of assimilation into Vietnamese culture.Is there violent conflict (with groups outside the sample region):Notes: Open conflict with Vietnamese culture. Vietnamese conquest of Cham lands. After 1472,this community escaped by moving closely to the highlanders. They then hide, 'disappeared'and became a 'new' ethnic group that is similar to other groups in that area. Their culture isalso facing with the Vietnamese assimilation.Yes—Yes—Assigned at birth (membership is default for this society):Yes—Assigned by personal choice:Yes—Assigned by class:No—Assigned at a specific age:Notes: 1. There are several life cycle rituals from the time an ‘individual’ is still in the womb,through birth, and growth to adulthood. Each stage is marked by a small ritual.Yes—Assigned by gender:No—Assigned by participation in a particular ritual:Yes—Assigned by some other factor:No—Quang, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 3 of 31Does the religion have official political supportNotes: Most are animist and polytheist. They also believe in various nature spirits. The state does notrecognise this belief as an official religion of the Cham H'roi, so that there is no support for this belief,especially the head of village, elders and shamans who conduct the rituals for the villagers. However,the state supports for development projects to enhance the lives of this community. The Cham H'roimay have historically and contemporarily benefitted from meager state support given to Chamcommunities.Is there a conception of apostasy in the religious group:Size and StructureNumber of adherents of religious group within sample region (estimated population,numerical):Number of adherents of religious group within sample region (% of sample regionpopulation, numerical):Notes: Approximately 22% of Cham population in Vietnam, not of general population.Nature of religious group [please select one]:Are there recognized leaders in the religious group:ScriptureDoes the religious group have scriptures:No—No—Yes—Are apostates prosecuted or punished:Notes: 1. Anyone can convert from the traditional religion to Protestantism or any otherreligion. There is no punishment. However, the community members maintain beliefs inAnimism substantially, often even if they have converted. Conversion is not popular.No—Estimated population, numeric: 35000—Estimated population, percentage of sample region: 22—Small religious group (one of many small religious groups in sample region)—No—Quang, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 4 of 31Scripture is a generic term used to designate revered texts that are considered particularly authoritativeand sacred relative to other texts. Strictly speaking, it refers to written texts, but there are also “oralscriptures” (e.g. the Vedas of India).Architecture, GeographyIs monumental religious architecture present:Yes—Are they written:Yes—Are they oral:Notes: The Cham H'roi have only ‘oral scriptures’ traditionally, although many of these oral textswere written down in Romanized Cham H'roi written language in the 2010.Yes—Is there a story (or a set of stories) associated with the origin of scripture:No—Are the scriptures alterable:No—No—Are there formal institutions (i.e. institutions that are authorized by the religiouscommunity or political leaders) for interpreting the scriptures:No—No—Is there a select group of people trained in transmitting the scriptures:Yes—Yes—Is there a codified canon of scriptures:No—No—Yes—Quang, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 5 of 31Notes: 1. There are ancestral graveyards and/or sepulchers called ‘sang thoa’, ‘sang cham’, or ‘sanggaom’ for each village. The sang thoa are for ‘normal’ people, while sang Cham are for those withaccrued wealth, and sang gaom are for those with accrued wealth who also have a high position. Eachcommunity has these three types of burial sites.Are there different types of religious monumental architecture:In the average settlement, what percentage of area is taken up by all religiousmonuments:Field doesn't know—Size of largest single religious monument, square meters:Notes: 1The size of the single monuments varies depending on the type of the graveyard. Thelargest known monument is around 12 square meters.Square meters: 12—Height of largest single religious monument, meters:Height, meters: 4—Size of average monument, square meters:Height, square meters: 6—Height of average monument, meters:Height, meters: 2—In the largest settlement, what percentage of area is taken up by all religiousmonuments:Field doesn't know—Yes—Tombs:No—Cemeteries:Yes—Temples:Yes—Quang, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 6 of 31Is iconography present:Notes: There is a ‘Garih’ symbol that appears on the pillars of graveyards. It includes a crescent moonand a bird.Are there specific sites dedicated to sacred practice or considered sacred:Are pilgrimages present:BeliefsBurial and AfterlifeIs a spirit-body distinction present:Answer “no” only if personhood (or consciousness) is extinguished with death of the physical body.Answering yes does not necessarily imply the existence of Cartesian mind/body dualism, merely thatsome element of personhood (or consciousness) survives the death of the body.Altars:No—Devotional markers:No—Mass gathering point [plazas, courtyard, square. Places permanently demarcatedusing visible objects or structures]:No—Other type of religious monumental architecture:No—No—Yes—Are sacred site oriented to environmental features:"Environmental features" refers to features in the landscape, mountains, rivers, cardinal directionsetc...Yes—No—Yes—Quang, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 7 of 31Belief in afterlife:Reincarnation in this world:Spirit-mind is conceived of as having qualitatively different powers or properties thanother body parts:No—Spirit-mind is conceived of as non-material, ontologically distinct from body:No—Other spirit-body relationship:No—Yes—Is the spatial location of the afterlife specified or described by the religious group:Yes—Afterlife in specified realm of space beyond this world:No—Afterlife in vaguely defined “above” space:No—Afterlife in vaguely defined “below” space:No—Afterlife in vaguely defined horizontal space:Field doesn't know—Afterlife located in "other" space:Yes [specify]: 1. The ‘world of ancestors’ is located parallel to the human realm inhabitedby the living. It is somehow part of the human realm but also unseen.—Yes—In a human form:No—Quang, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 8 of 31Are there special treatments for adherents' corpses:Notes: Like other nearby traditional religions of the Raglai, Churu, and Ede, the dead simply arereincarnated into the ancestor world where they live like living peopleIn animal/plant form:No—In form of an inanimate object(s):No—In non-individual form (i.e. some form of corporate rebirth, tribe, lineage. etc.):No—Reincarnation linked to notion of life-transcending causality (e.g. karma):Yes—Other form of reincarnation in this world:No—Yes—Cremation:No—Mummification:No—Interment:Yes—Corpse is flexed (legs are bent or body is crouched):No—Corpse is extended (lying flat on front or back):Yes—Quang, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 9 of 31Are co-sacrifices present in tomb/burial:Are grave goods present:Corpse is upright (where body is interred in standing position):Field doesn't know—Corpse is interred some other way:No—Cannibalism:No—Exposure to elements (e.g. air drying):No—Feeding to animals:Notes: The Living only offers foods for animals (Birds) while doing the dead Padhi ritual.No—Secondary burial:No—Re-treatment of corpse:No—Other intensive (in terms of time or resources expended) treatment of corpse :No—Yes—Human sacrifices present:No—Animal co-sacrifices present:Notes: Pigs, Buffalos, or Chickens are offered depending on the status/wealth of each family.Yes—Quang, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 10 of 31Are formal burials present:Yes—Personal effects:Yes—Valuable items:Yes—Significant wealth (e.g. gold, jade, intensely worked objects):Yes—Some wealth (some valuable or useful objects interred):Yes—Other valuable/precious items interred:No—Other grave goods:No—Yes—As cenotaphs:No—In cemetery:Yes—Family tomb-crypt:No—Domestic (individuals interred beneath house, or in areas used for normal domesticactivities):No—Quang, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 11 of 31Supernatural BeingsAre supernatural beings present:Other formal burial type:No—Yes—A supreme high god is present:Yes—The supreme high god is anthropomorphic:No—The supreme high god is a sky deity:Yes—The supreme high god is chthonic (of the underworld):No—The supreme high god is fused with the monarch (king=high god):No—The monarch is seen as a manifestation or emanation of the high god:Yes—The supreme high god is a kin relation to elites:No—The supreme high god has another type of loyalty-connection to elites:No—The supreme high god is unquestionably good:Yes—Other feature(s) of supreme high god:Quang, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 12 of 31Yes [specify]: Supreme high gods are very high powerful.—The supreme high god has knowledge of this world:Field doesn't know—The supreme high god has deliberate causal efficacy in the world:Field doesn't know—The supreme high god has indirect causal efficacy in the world:Yes—The supreme high god exhibits positive emotion:Field doesn't know—The supreme high god exhibits negative emotion:Field doesn't know—The supreme high god possesses hunger:Field doesn't know—Is it permissible to worship supernatural beings other than the high god:No—The supreme high god possesses/exhibits some other feature:No—The supreme high god communicates with the living:Yes—In waking, everyday life:Yes—In dreams:Yes—In trance possession:Quang, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 13 of 31Field doesn't know—Through divination practices:Yes—Only through religious specialists:No—Only through monarchNo—Other form of communication with living:I don't know—Previously human spirits are present:Yes—Human spirits can be seen:No—Human spirits can be physically felt:Yes—Previously human spirits have knowledge of this world:Field doesn't know—Human spirits have deliberate causal efficacy in the world:Field doesn't know—Human spirits have indirect causal efficacy in the world:Field doesn't know—Human spirits have memory of life:Notes: The living conduct rituals to ensure the dead do not disturb the life of the living.The dead forget everything about their past life.No—Quang, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 14 of 31Human spirits exhibit positive emotion:Field doesn't know—Human spirits exhibit negative emotion:Field doesn't know—Human spirits possess hunger:Field doesn't know—Human spirits possess/exhibit some other feature:Field doesn't know—Human spirits communicate with the living:Yes—In waking, everyday life:No—In dreams:Yes—In trance possession:Yes—Through divination processes:Yes—Only through specialists:Yes—Only through monarch:Field doesn't know—Communicate with living through other means:No—Quang, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 15 of 31Non-human supernatural beings are present:Yes—These supernatural beings can be seen:No—These supernatural beings can be physically felt:Yes—Non-human supernatural beings have knowledge of this world:Yes—Non-human supernatural beings have knowledge restricted toparticular domain of human affairs:Yes—Non-human supernatural beings have knowledge restricted to (a)specific area(s) within the sample region:Field doesn't know—Non-human supernatural beings have knowledge unrestricted withinthe sample region:Field doesn't know—Non-human supernatural beings have knowledge unrestricted outsideof sample region:Field doesn't know—Non-human supernatural beings can see you everywhere normallyvisible (in public):Field doesn't know—Non-human supernatural beings can see you everywhere (in the dark, athome):Field doesn't know—Non-human supernatural beings can see inside heart/mind (hiddenmotives):Quang, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 16 of 31No—Non-human supernatural beings knows your basic character (personalessence):No—Non-human supernatural beings know what will happen to you, whatyou will do (future sight):Field doesn't know—Non-human supernatural begins have other knowledge of this world:No—Non-human supernatural beings have deliberate causal efficacy in the world:Field doesn't know—These supernatural beings have indirect causal efficacy in the world:Field doesn't know—These supernatural beings exhibit positive emotion:Field doesn't know—These supernatural beings exhibit negative emotion:Field doesn't know—These supernatural beings possess hunger:No—These supernatural beings possess/exhibit some other feature:No—Mixed human-divine beings are present:No—Does the religious group possess a variety of supernatural beings:Yes—Quang, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 17 of 31Supernatural MonitoringIs supernatural monitoring present:This refers to surveillance by supernatural beings of humans’ behaviour and/or thought particularly as itrelates to social norms or potential norm violations.Do supernatural beings mete out punishment:Organized by kinship based on a family model:Yes—Organized hierarchically:Yes—Power of beings is domain specific:Yes—Other organization for pantheon:I don't know—Field doesn't know—Yes—Is the cause or agent of supernatural punishment known:No—Is the reason for supernatural punishment known:Yes—Done to enforce religious ritual-devotional adherence:Field doesn't know—Done to enforce group norms:Field doesn't know—Done to inhibit selfishness:Field doesn't know—Quang, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 18 of 31Do supernatural beings bestow rewards:Messianism/EschatologyAre messianic beliefs present:Is an eschatology present:Norms and Moral RealismAre general social norms prescribed by the religious group:Is there a conventional vs. moral distinction in the religious group:Done randomly:No—Other [specify]No—Supernatural punishments are meted out in the afterlife:No—Supernatural punishments are meted out in this lifetime:Field doesn't know—Field doesn't know—No—Field doesn't know—Yes—Yes—What is the nature of this distinction:Present and clear—Are specifically moral norms prescribed by the religious group:Field doesn't know—Quang, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 19 of 31Are there centrally important virtues advocated by the religious group:Moral norms apply to:All individuals within society—All individuals within contemporary world—All individuals (any time period)—Yes—Honesty / trustworthiness / integrity:Yes—Courage (in battle):Field doesn't know—Courage (generic):Yes—Compassion / empathy / kindness / benevolence:Yes—Mercy / forgiveness / tolerance:Yes—Generosity / charity:Field doesn't know—Selflessness / selfless giving:Field doesn't know—Righteousness / moral rectitude:Field doesn't know—Ritual purity / ritual adherence / abstention from sources of impurity:Field doesn't know—Respectfulness / courtesy:Quang, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 20 of 31Yes—Familial obedience / filial piety:Yes—Fidelity / loyalty:Field doesn't know—Cooperation:Yes—Independence / creativity / freedom:Field doesn't know—Moderation / frugality:Field doesn't know—Forbearance / fortitude / patience:Yes—Diligence / self-discipline / excellence:Yes—Assertiveness / decisiveness / confidence / initiative:Yes—Strength (physical):Field doesn't know—Power / status / nobility:Field doesn't know—Humility / modesty:Field doesn't know—Contentment / serenity / equanimity:Quang, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 21 of 31PracticesMembership Costs and PracticesDoes membership in this religious group require celibacy (full sexual abstinence):Field doesn't know—Joyfulness / enthusiasm / cheerfulness:Yes—Optimism / hope:Yes—Gratitude / thankfulness:Yes—Reverence / awe / wonder:Field doesn't know—Faith / belief / trust / devotion:Yes—Wisdom / understanding:Yes—Discernment / intelligence:Yes—Beauty / attractiveness:No—Cleanliness (physical) / orderliness:Field doesn't know—Other important virtues advocated by the religious group:No—Quang, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 22 of 31Does membership in this religious group require constraints on sexual activity (partial sexualabstinence):Does membership in this religious group require castration:Does membership in this religious group require fasting:Does membership in this religious group require forgone food opportunities (taboos ondesired foods):Does membership in this religious group require permanent scarring or painful bodilyalterations:Does membership in this religious group require painful physical positions or transitorypainful wounds:Does membership in this religious group require sacrifice of adults:No—Yes—Monogamy (males):No—Monogamy (females):No—Other sexual constraints (males):Field doesn't know—Other sexual constraints (females):Field doesn't know—No—No—No—No—No—Quang, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 23 of 31"Adults" here referring to an emic or indigenous category; if that category is different from the popularWestern definition of a human who is 18-years-old or older and who is legally responsible for his/heractions, then please specify that difference in the Comments/Sources: box below.Does membership in this religious group require sacrifice of children:"Children" here referring to an emic or indigenous category; if that category is different from the popularWestern definition, please specify that different in the Comments/Sources: box below.Does membership in this religious group require self-sacrifice (suicide):Does membership in this religious group require sacrifice of property/valuable items:Does membership in this religious group require sacrifice of time (e.g., attendance atmeetings or services, regular prayer, etc.):Notes: Cham H’roi individuals connect to one another through a variety of life cycle rituals (weddings,funerals…) and at least one high holiday (the New Year). They help one another with ceremonies but insome small ceremonies, they are performed by the family themselves, without broader communalsupport.Does membership in this religious group require physical risk taking:No—No—No—Yes—To other in-group members:Yes—To out-groups:No—Destroyed:No—Other:Yes [specify]: foods—Yes—No—Quang, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 24 of 31Does membership in this religious group require accepting ethical precepts:Does membership in this religious group require marginalization by out-group members:Does membership in this religious group require participation in small-scale rituals (private,household):Does membership in this religious group require participation in large-scale rituals:I.e. involving two or more households; includes large-scale “ceremonies” and “festivals.”Are extra-ritual in-group markers present:E.g. special changes to appearance such as circumcision, tattoos, scarification, etc.Does the group employ fictive kinship terminology:Society and InstitutionsLevels of Social ComplexityYes—No—Yes—What is the average interval of time between performances (in hours):Performances here refers to small-scale rituals.Field doesn't know—No—Field doesn't know—Yes—Fictive kinship terminology universal:Field doesn't know—Fictive kinship terminology widespread:Field doesn't know—Fictive kinship terminology employed but uncommon:Field doesn't know—Quang, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 25 of 31The society to which the religious group belongs is best characterized as (please chooseone):Notes: The Cham H'roi self-identify as a subgroup of the Cham ethnic group.WelfareDoes the religious group in question provide institutionalized famine relief:Is famine relief available to the group's adherents through an institution(s) other than thereligious group in question:Does the religious group in question provide institutionalized poverty relief:Is poverty relief available to the group's adherents through an institution(s) other than thereligious group in question:Does the religious group in question provide institutionalized care for the elderly and infirm:Is institutionalized care for the elderly and infirm available to the group's adherents throughan institution(s) other than the religious group in question:EducationDoes the religious group provide formal education to its adherents:Is formal education available to the group’s adherents through an institution(s) other thanthe religious group:Other [specify in comments]—Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—No—Yes—Is extra-religious education open to both males and females:Quang, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 26 of 31BureaucracyDo the group’s adherents interact with a formal bureaucracy within their group:Do the group’s adherents interact with other institutional bureaucracies:Public WorksDoes the religious group in question provide public food storage:Is public food storage provided to the group’s adherents by an institution(s) other than thereligious group in question:Is water management provided to the group’s adherents by an institution(s) other than thereligious group in question:Does the religious group in question provide transportation infrastructure:Is transportation infrastructure provided for the group’s adherents by an institution(s) otherthan the religious group in question:TaxationDoes the religious group in question levy taxes or tithes:Are taxes levied on the group’s adherents by an institution(s) other than the religious group inquestion:Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—No—No—No—No—No—No—Quang, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 27 of 31EnforcementDoes the religious group in question provide an institutionalized police force:Do the group’s adherents interact with an institutionalized police force provided by aninstitution(s) other than the religious group in question:Does the religious group in question provide institutionalized judges:Do the group’s adherents interact with an institutionalized judicial system provided by an aninstitution(s) other than the religious group in question:Does the religious group in question enforce institutionalized punishment:Are the group’s adherents subject to institutionalized punishment enforced by aninstitution(s) other than the religious group in question:Does the religious group in question have a formal legal code:Are the group’s adherents subject to a formal legal code provided by institution(s) other thanthe religious group in question:WarfareDoes religious group in question possess an institutionalized military:Do the group’s adherents participate in an institutionalized military provided byinstitution(s) other than the religious group in question:No—Yes—No—Field doesn't know—No—Field doesn't know—No—Yes—No—Yes—Quang, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 28 of 31Are the group’s adherents protected by or subject to an institutionalized military providedby an institution(s) other than the religious group in question:Written LanguageDoes the religious group in question possess its own distinct written language:Notes: i. A romanized version of the Cham H’roi language was first developed in the 1960s byProtestant missionaries and Cham H’roi head-people. The current romanized script was developedthrough the work of Ka So Liễng and others, especially since 2000. However, the language is notwidely used in published sources, religious or secular. There are some contemporary efforts to publishin Cham H’roi, but not many people can understand or read this script.Is a non-religion-specific written language available to the group’s adherents through aninstitution(s) other than the religious group in question:Notes: Members of the Cham H'roi group will have learned Vietnamese as other ethnic groups inVietnam. Literacy in Vietnamese became increasingly high in the middle of the 20th century throughpublic secular school systems.Is a non-religion-specific written language used by the group’s adherents through aninstitution(s) other than the religious group in question:Notes: Although only a plurality of the members of the group have become recognized for publishedworks in Vietnamese languageCalendarDoes the religious group in question possess a formal calendar:Notes: The Cham H’roi lost their original calendar when they lost aspects of Champā culture. However,they do have a ‘seasonal calendar’ that is similar to other upland Bahnaric groups in this region.Is a formal calendar provided for the group’s adherents by an institution(s) other than thereligious group in question:Notes: As there is a secular state calendar that is used in VietnamYes—Yes—Is use of this distinct written language confined to religious professionals:No—Yes—Yes—No—Yes—Quang, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 29 of 31Food ProductionDoes the religious group in question provide food for themselves:Is food provided to the group’s adherents by an institution(s) other than the religious groupin question:BibliographyGeneral ReferencesReference: Liễng Kaso. Tiếng cồng Ông bà Hơ Bla Lơ Đa [The Goong sound of Hơ Bla Lơ Đa ]. Hội VNDGPhú Yên.Reference: Ái Trần Văn, Ngọc Nguyễn Văn. Người Chăm H'roi và tục dựng trâu cột [The Cham H'roi andthe ritual to erect a buffalo column]. NXB Văn hoá Dân tộc.Reference: Hồng Nguyễn Xuân. Văn hoá của các dân tộc thiểu số ở Bình Định [Cultures of ethnicminorities in Binh Dinh Province]. NXB Thuận Hoá, Huê.Reference: Goschnick H. Haroi Clauses. Presented at Papers in Southeast Asian Linguistics No.4, ChamicStudies, ed. D. Thomas et al., vol. 4, 1977, pp. 105-124, The Australian National University.Reference: Nguyễn Dominique undefined. Từ vựng Hroi-Việt [H'roi - Vietnamese vocabularies].International Office of Champa.Entry/Answer ReferencesYes—Please characterize the forms/level of food production [choose all that apply]:Gathering—Hunting (including marine animals)—Pastoralism—Cannibalism—Small-scale agriculture / horticultural gardens or orchards—Yes—Please characterize the forms/levels of food production [choose all that apply]:Gathering—Hunting (including marine animals)—Fishing—Patoralism—Small-scale agriculture / horticultural gardens or orchards—Quang, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 30 of 31Reference: Liễng Kaso. Tiếng cồng Ông bà Hơ Bla Lơ Đa [The Goong sound of Hơ Bla Lơ Đa ]. Hội VNDGPhú Yên.Reference: Ái Trần Văn, Ngọc Nguyễn Văn. Người Chăm H'roi và tục dựng trâu cột [The Cham H'roi andthe ritual to erect a buffalo column]. NXB Văn hoá Dân tộc.Reference: Hồng Nguyễn Xuân. Văn hoá của các dân tộc thiểu số ở Bình Định [Cultures of ethnicminorities in Binh Dinh Province]. NXB Thuận Hoá, Huê.Reference: Nguyễn Dominique undefined. Từ vựng Hroi-Việt [H'roi - Vietnamese vocabularies].International Office of Champa.Reference: Kaso Liễng. Trường Ca: Hơ Bia Tà Lúi Kalipu: Dân Tộc Chăm Phú Yên.Quang, Database of Religious History, 2020 Page 31 of 31

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