The Open Collections website will be unavailable July 27 from 2100-2200 PST ahead of planned usability and performance enhancements on July 28. More information here.

UBC Community, Partners, and Alumni Publications

Aymara Pitek, Emily 2019-04-10

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Notice for Google Chrome users:
If you are having trouble viewing or searching the PDF with Google Chrome, please download it here instead.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
52387-Pitek_Emily_Aymara_2019.pdf [ 271.88kB ]
Metadata
JSON: 52387-1.0380263.json
JSON-LD: 52387-1.0380263-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 52387-1.0380263-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 52387-1.0380263-rdf.json
Turtle: 52387-1.0380263-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 52387-1.0380263-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 52387-1.0380263-source.json
Full Text
52387-1.0380263-fulltext.txt
Citation
52387-1.0380263.ris

Full Text

Poll: Religious Group (v6) Published on: 10 April 2019Date Range: 1915 CE - 1940 CERegion: Chuchito, PeruRegion tags: South America, PeruChuchito, Peru ca. 1940AymaraData source: eHRAFSecondary sourceEntered by Emily Pitek, Human Relations Area Files* Data Source entry, prepared based on data sourced from an external project.* Secondary Source entry, prepared from a literature review by a Ph.D. RAEntry tags: South American Religions, ReligionThe Aymara are located on the Bolivian and Peruvian altiplano near Lake Titicaca. This entry focusesspecifically on the ayllu (the Aymara’s largest political unit, roughly comparable to a village or town) nearChucuito, Peru around the time of 1940. Since 1820, the Aymara have been under rule by the Bolivian andPeruvian Republics. Historically, the Aymara have faced pressure by dominant groups, beginning withtheir conquest by the Inca around 1430, and later the Spanish Conquest in the 1530’s. With the Spaniardscame missionaries and the Aymara soon had contact with First Dominicans, Jesuits, Catholics, andProtestants. Spanish Catholicism was particularly influential, and has been incorporated into the Aymara’straditional beliefs. Consequently, the Aymara have a variety of supernatural beings, including Christiandeities (God/Christ, the Virgin, and Saints), as well as aboriginal deities (guardians, place spirits,physiographical and meteorological spirits, and demons). Further, there are several types of religiousspecialists (see Tschopik, 1951:219d). The paqo (magician) is selected by God, communicates withsupernatural beings, practices divination, and leads private rituals and public ceremonies. This entryconsiders the Aymara religious group to be coterminous with the society itself.Status of Participants:✓ Elite ✓ Religious Specialists ✓ Non-elite (common people, general populace)SourcesPrint sources for understanding this subject:Online sources for understanding this subject:Source 1: Murdock, G.P. & Wilson, S.F. (Jul., 1972). Settlement patterns and community organization:Cross-Cultural Codes 3. Ethnology, 11(3), 254-295.—Source 1: Tuden, A. & Marshall, C. (Oct., 1972). Political organization: Cross-cultural codes 4. Ethnology,11(4), 436-464.—Source 2: Divale, W. 2004. Codebook of Variables for the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample. World Cultures:The Journal of Cross-Cultural and Comparative Research.—Source 3: Murdock, G.P. (1967). Ethnographic Atlas. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press.—Source 1 URL: https://ehrafworldcultures.yale.edu/document?id=sf05-002—DOI: URL: https://religiondatabase.org/browse/674This work is licensed under the Creative CommonsAttribution 4.0 International license.Please see our Terms of Use here:https://religiondatabase.org/about/creditsPage 1 of 23© 2019 Database of Religious History.The University of British Columbia.For any questions contactproject.manager@religiondatabase.orgGeneral VariablesMembership/Group InteractionsAre other religious groups in cultural contact with target religion:Notes: "Less than a century after its conquest by the Inca, the first Spanish explorers and missionariesarrived in Chucuito, and by 1550 monasteries and houses of the Dominican Order were established inall the large Aymara towns around Lake Titicaca" (Tschopik, 1951:151a). "In keeping with othercontemporary Indian cultures from Mexico to Bolivia, the religion of the Aymara is neither whollynative nor entirely orthodox Catholic, but rather an intricate blending of these two traditions"(Tschopik, 1951:188a).Source 1 Description: Tschopik Jr, H. (1951). Aymara Of Chucuito, Peru: 1. Magic. Anthropological Papers.New York: American Museum of Natural History.—Source 2 URL: https://ehrafworldcultures.yale.edu/document?id=sf05-000—Source 2 Description: Johnsson, M. (1995). Culture Summary: Aymara. New Haven, Conn.: HRAF.—Source 3 URL: https://ehrafworldcultures.yale.edu/document?id=sf05-001—Source 3 Description: Tschopik Jr, H. (1946). Aymara. Bulletin. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution.—Yes—Is the cultural contact competitive:Notes: "In the case of the Aymara, it is known that many ancient patterns have persistedlargely intact, in spite of four centuries of vigorous missionary effort on the part of the CatholicChurch. Indeed, it is clear that Catholicism has attained no more than nominal acceptanceamong the Chucuito Aymara and that, in a sense, it is merely a superficial veneer grafted ontothe body of ancient magico-religious beliefs" (Tschopik, 1951:147b).Yes—Is there violent conflict (within sample region):Notes: SCCS Variable 1649, Frequency of Internal Warfare (Resolved Rating), originally codedthe Aymara as a 1.5, which is between internal warfare seems to be absent or rare, and internalwarfare occurs once every 3-10 years. Additionally, SCCS Variable 1654, Pacification, indicatesthat the culture is part of a state society; since the culture is not independent, pacificationcannot be judged. Source of information: Ember and Ember, 1992; Retrieved from Divale,2004.I don't know—Is there violent conflict (with groups outside the sample region):Notes: SCCS Variable 1650, Frequency of External Warfare (Resolved Rating), indicates thatexternal warfare seems to be absent or rare (original code 1). Additionally, SCCS Variable 1654,Pacification, indicates that the culture is part of a state society; since the culture is notNo—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 2 of 23Does the religious group have a general process/system for assigning religious affiliation:Notes: Because the Aymara religious group is coterminous with Aymara society, there is no process forassigning religious affiliation aside from being born into a lineage.Does the religious group actively proselytize and recruit new members:Notes: No ethnographic evidence for active recruitment of new members.Does the religion have official political supportNotes: The Aymara religious sphere of life is not distinct from other facets of society (when examiningthe Aymara as their own societal group, not in terms of the Peruvian government). Religious beliefsand practices are bound up with the functioning of the society as a whole. Because the religious groupis coterminous with the society itself, it can be said that the religion has official political support.Is there a conception of apostasy in the religious group:Notes: No ethnographic evidence for a conception of apostasy.Size and StructureNumber of adherents of religious group within sample region (estimated population,numerical):Notes: "Chucuito is today the capital of a district of the same name, an administrative divisioncorresponding to a township within the Department of Puno. The district is somewhat over 200square kilometers in area. According to the 1940 Peruvian census, the population of the District ofChucuito was 15,107, of whom 14,848 were classed as Indians and 259 as Whites and Mestizos. Withvery few exceptions, the Indians speak only Aymara, while the Mestizos are bilingual, speaking Aymaraand Spanish. The population of the village proper, according to the writer's own census figures, was554 Aymara Indians and 98 Mestizos" (Tschopik, 1951:152a).Are there recognized leaders in the religious group:Notes: "...the powers to divine the unknown, to cure disease, and to induce the spirits to act are sharedby several categories of individuals who possess a greater or lesser degree of specialized training. Forthe village of Chucuito, these 'professional' statuses can be listed as follows: (1) paqo , 'magician'; (2)laiqa , 'sorcerer'; (3) qolasiri , 'doctor'; (4) yatiri , 'diviner'; (5) t'aliri , 'chiropractor'; (6) usuiri , 'midwife'"independent, pacification cannot be judged. Source of information: Ember and Ember, 1992;Retrieved from Divale, 2004.No—No—Yes—No—Estimated population, numeric: 554—Yes—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 3 of 23(Tschopik, 1951:219d).Are leaders believed to possess supernatural powers or qualities:Notes: "...both the laiqa and the paqo are in direct contact with the supernatural beings andmay manipulate them for their own professional ends, while the paqo and yatiri alike have theability to discover the whereabouts of lost property and to identify thieves" (Tschopik,1951:219d).Yes—Are religious leaders chosen:Notes: Religious leaders are chosen by God. "Informants were unanimously agreed that, inorder to become a magician, a man must be struck by two successive bolts of lightning, thefirst of which is thought to kill him and the second to restore him to life" (Tschopik, 1951:225b).Quoting an informant, Tschopik (1951:225b) indicated that, "A man can only be a magicianafter he has been struck by lightning. God is in the lightning bolt. If it were not for God in thelightning, it would kill him for good; he would never come back to life. That is why we say thata magician is a man chosen by God."Yes—A leader chooses his/her own replacement:No—A leader’s retinue or ministers chooses the new leader:No—Other leaders in the religious group choose that leader:No—A political leader chooses the leader:No—Other members of the leader’s congregation choose the leader:No—All members of the religious group in the sample region participate inchoosing the leader:No—Communication with supernatural power(s) believed to be part of theselection process:Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 4 of 23ScriptureDoes the religious group have scriptures:Scripture is a generic term used to designate revered texts that are considered particularly authoritativeand sacred relative to other texts. Strictly speaking, it refers to written texts, but there are also “oralscriptures” (e.g. the Vedas of India).Notes: No ethnographic evidence for the presence of scriptures. Although the Aymara are presumablyfamiliar with the Bible as a result of Christian missionary contact, the Aymara do not appear to utilizebiblical scriptures in their religious practices.Architecture, GeographyIs monumental religious architecture present:Notes: "There are no structures in the community that are appreciably larger or more impressive thanthe usual residential dwellings" (Murdock and Wilson, 1972, column 6; note, identical to SCCS Variable66).Are there different types of religious monumental architecture:Notes: See questions below for more details regarding different types of religious architecture.Notes: "The magician does not actively seek a supernatural experience; rather it isthrust upon him 'by God' and at times he is reluctant to accept this supernaturalcalling. In effect, he becomes a magician through no choice of his own, almost as if byaccident" (Tschopik, 1951:295a).Yes—No—No—Yes—Tombs:Notes: Formerly, tombs were made for important individuals. "The Aymara formerly interred atleast their chiefs and important persons in chullpes. These burial towers, which were usuallylocated on hills near the towns, were square or round, made of dressed stone or of stone andadobe, and variously roofed" (Tschopik, 1946:552).No—Temples:Notes: No ethnographic evidence indicating the presence of temples.No—Altars:Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 5 of 23Is iconography present:Notes: "Skills and crafts are poorly developed in Chucuito, and there is no tradition of finecraftsmanship. Although felt hats, shoes, and some textiles are produced in the village proper forbarter or sale, as well as for local consumption, the financial rewards from such manufactures areinsignificant, and the Chucuito Aymara are famous neither as artisans nor as traders" (Tschopik,1951:158b).Are there specific sites dedicated to sacred practice or considered sacred:Notes: "Atoja Mountain spirit is mentioned in virtually every ritual incantation. The summit of the peakitself is occupied by two altars or shrines that were doubtless constructed in pre-Hispanic times andare employed today chiefly in rain-bringing rites" (Tschopik, 1951:196a).Are pilgrimages present:Notes: No ethnographic evidence for the presence of pilgrimages.BeliefsBurial and AfterlifeNotes: "Atoja Mountain spirit is mentioned in virtually every ritual incantation. The summit ofthe peak itself is occupied by two altars or shrines that were doubtless constructed in pre-Hispanic times and are employed today chiefly in rain-bringing rites" (Tschopik, 1951:196a).Yes—Devotional markers:Notes: "Cairns are situated at points where roads cross sandy desert wastes and on thesummits of high mountain passes. Many of these rock piles, which often attain giganticproportions and contain thousands of tons of stones, must have been begun centuries ago,and some probably date from pre-Columbian times. At the present time, each is usuallytopped by a crude wooden crucifix. The spirits that inhabit these places are the special patronsof traders and travelers" (Tschopik, 1951:194a).Yes—No—Yes—Are sacred site oriented to environmental features:"Environmental features" refers to features in the landscape, mountains, rivers, cardinal directionsetc...Notes: Tschopik, 1951:196aYes—No—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 6 of 23Is a spirit-body distinction present:Answer “no” only if personhood (or consciousness) is extinguished with death of the physical body.Answering yes does not necessarily imply the existence of Cartesian mind/body dualism, merely thatsome element of personhood (or consciousness) survives the death of the body.Notes: "With the advent of death, the soul escapes from the mouth of the corpse, and remains aroundthe house compound of the deceased throughout the funeral proceedings until formally dispatchedduring a rite, alma despacena, which occurs eight days later...They do this so that the soul (alma) willnot stay around the house and will go to heaven" (Tschopik, 1951:217a).Belief in afterlife:Notes: "The ultimate fate of the souls of adults, however, appears to depend more upon the manner ofdeath than upon their behavior when alive. Sorcerers, suicides, and women who die in childbirth areburied face down, and their souls go to hell (11, 26, 66). The soul of a person who has drowned in a rivercannot escape until it reaches a point where the river flows into another body of water (72). Souls ofthose who die by violence remain earthbound until avenged. It appears, however, that the souls ofordinary individuals who die naturally spend the first year after death in hell, and take their final leavefor 'heaven' only after the lapse of three years (43). For three successive years after death the soulrevisits Chucuito at noon on All Saints Day (November 1) and departs at the same time on All Souls Day(November 2). The day on which the souls arrive is called hiwirinakna urupa , 'day of the dead,' whilethe day of departure is known as alma despac uru , 'day when the soul leaves.' The principal aim ofthese mourning anniversaries, it would seem, is to assure the soul that it is remembered, to speed itsjourney to heaven, and to make certain that it does not return to molest the living" (Tschopik,1951:218a).Yes—Spirit-mind is conceived of as non-material, ontologically distinct from body:Notes: "The soul may leave the body of a living person and be lost or kidnapped" (Tschopik,1946:552).Yes—Yes—Is the spatial location of the afterlife specified or described by the religious group:Notes: "The current beliefs about the afterworld are Christian-derived. By and large, however,the Aymara appear to be little interested in the question of life after death. There is a 'heaven'cielo , located in the sky, and a 'hell,' infierno, situated under the earth (24, 66). Yet thereappears to be no deep conviction regarding ultimate retribution (either reward orpunishment) nor, for that matter, any very clear notions of the mode of life in the hereafter"(Tschopik, 1951:217a).Yes—Afterlife in vaguely defined “above” space:Notes: Tschopik, 1951:217aYes—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 7 of 23Reincarnation in this world:Notes: No ethnographic evidence for the presence of a belief in reincarnation.Are there special treatments for adherents' corpses:Notes: "Burial today is in cemeteries which, in more remote regions, are located at crossroads"(Tschopik, 1946:551).Afterlife in vaguely defined “below” space:Notes: Tschopik, 1951:217aYes—No—Yes—Cremation:Notes: No ethnographic evidence for the presence of cremation.No—Mummification:Notes: No ethnographic evidence for the presence of mummification.No—Interment:Yes—Corpse is extended (lying flat on front or back):Notes: "Sorcerers, suicides, and women who die in childbirth are buried face down..."(Tschopik, 1951:218a).Yes—Cannibalism:Notes: No ethnographic evidence for the presence of cannibalism.No—Exposure to elements (e.g. air drying):Notes: No ethnographic evidence for the presence of exposing corpses to the elements.No—Feeding to animals:Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 8 of 23Are co-sacrifices present in tomb/burial:Notes: "Although in the village proper no burial offerings are now placed with adults, animals are stillsacrificed to accompany their souls, and a child is interred with a broom, a pottery jug, but no food"(Tschopik, 1951:217b).Are grave goods present:Notes: "Although in the village proper no burial offerings are now placed with adults, animals are stillsacrificed to accompany their souls, and a child is interred with a broom, a pottery jug, but no food"(Tschopik, 1951:217b).Are formal burials present:Notes: For a description of burial practices, see questions below and Tschopik, 1951:211-218.Notes: No ethnographic evidence for the presence of feeding corpses to animals.No—Secondary burial:Notes: SCCS Variable 1850, Secondary Bone/Body Treatment: Original Scale, indicates thatsecondary bone/body treatment is absent (Schroeder, 2001; Retrieved from Divale, 2004).No—Yes—Human sacrifices present:No—Animal co-sacrifices present:Notes: Tschopik, 1951:217bYes—No—Yes—In cemetery:Notes: "After the interment, the funeral procession returns to the house of the deceased by aroute other than that taken to the cemetery to prevent the ghost from following" (Tschopik,1951:216b). "Burial today is in cemeteries, which in remote regions are often located atcrossroads" (Johnsson, 1995).Yes—Family tomb-crypt:Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 9 of 23Supernatural BeingsAre supernatural beings present:Notes: "The District of Chucuito is so densely populated with supernatural beings that it is literallyimpossible to enumerate all of them. They inhabit every mountain peak, every lake, every stream. Theylive under houses, churches, and fields, and lurk in caves, ruins, and in irregularly shaped rockformations...Although they range in concreteness from inconsequential shadowy spirits to powerfuland clearly personified supernatural beings, most of them are vaguely conceptualized place spirits...Inaddition to the place spirits that exist almost everywhere in nature, there are the ghosts and souls ofthe dead, a variety of demons, and, finally, the many saints whose images stand in the churches for allto see. Since animals and plants are thought to be owned by a higher order of supernatural being,there is a general dearth of plant and animal spirits" (Tschopik, 1951:189a).Notes: No ethnographic evidence for the presence of family tomb-crypts.No—Domestic (individuals interred beneath house, or in areas used for normal domesticactivities):Notes: No ethnographic evidence suggesting that individuals are interred beneath the house.No—Yes—A supreme high god is present:Notes: SCCS Variable 238, Religion: High Gods [Note, identical to Ethnographic Atlas column34], indicates that a high god is present, active, and specifically supportive of human morality(Murdock, 1962-1971; Retrieved from Divale, 2004).Yes—The supreme high god is anthropomorphic:Notes: "God, on the other hand, is envisaged along conventional European lines as arobust, elderly white man with a long, flowing beard and flashing eyes" (Tschopik,1951:206b).Yes—The supreme high god is a sky deity:Notes: "It was unanimously agreed that God lives in the sky" (Tschopik, 1951:206b).Yes—The supreme high god is chthonic (of the underworld):No—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 10 of 23The supreme high god is fused with the monarch (king=high god):Notes: No monarch is present among the Aymara.No—The monarch is seen as a manifestation or emanation of the high god:Notes: No monarch is present among the Aymara.No—The supreme high god is unquestionably good:I don't know—The supreme high god has deliberate causal efficacy in the world:Notes: "...only once during the course of the Chucuito study did an informant attributemisfortune to punishment by God, and in no case was outstanding success or goodfortune attributed to God's benevolence. Although, as is shown below, God is thoughtto be the source of supernatural power (through lightning), He confers this power in anextremely arbitrary fashion. It is never purposefully sought or invoked by anyone. Norcan it be maintained that the Aymara fear Judgment or retribution after death, forthey have almost no interest in the Hereafter, and no very clear conception of eitherHeaven or Hell. In short, God has little or nothing to do with reward and punishment"(Tschopik, 1951:207b).No—The supreme high god exhibits positive emotion:I don't know—The supreme high god exhibits negative emotion:I don't know—The supreme high god possesses hunger:I don't know—The supreme high god communicates with the living:I don't know—Previously human spirits are present:Notes: "Not only is the ghost a malevolent phantom, wandering earthbound among thedwellings of the living, spreading sickness and death, but the soul itself is at best indifferent tothe fate of its surviving relatives, if indeed it does not seek to do them harm. It is of no benefitYes—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 11 of 23to the community, a constant source of danger, and a financial burden for three years"(Tschopik, 1951:218b).Human spirits can be seen:Notes: "The Aymara are terrified of ghosts, and these supernatural beings, as describedin folk tales, are dreadful creatures indeed. Their faces resemble skulls, their eyesglitter, and their gaunt bodies are clothed in black shrouds; they live in graveyards,their candles are flaming human bones, and they feed upon human flesh, especiallythe bodies of children. According to other informants, ghosts may appear as shadowycats and dogs" (Tschopik, 1951:216a).Yes—Human spirits can be physically felt:I don't know—Human spirits have memory of life:I don't know—Human spirits exhibit positive emotion:I don't know—Human spirits exhibit negative emotion:Notes: "...all ghosts of adults, irrespective of the dispositions of their former earthlycounterparts, are naturally malevolent, and may send disease or, according to folktales, cause death in other ways" (Tschopik, 1951:213b).Yes—Human spirits possess hunger:I don't know—Human spirits communicate with the living:I don't know—Non-human supernatural beings are present:Notes: "The spirits recognized by the Aymara of Chucuito can he classed roughly as placespirits (those inhabiting fixed localities) or nature spirits (those of, or controlling, naturalphenomena). For descriptive purposes, however, the writer proposes to assign the Chucuitospirits to the following categories: (1) gúardians; (2) place spirits; (3) physiographical spirits; (4)meteorological spirits; and (5) owners" (Tschopik, 1951:190b).Yes—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 12 of 23These supernatural beings can be seen:Notes: Place spirits can not be seen, only heard (Tschopik, 1951:192a).No—Non-human supernatural beings have knowledge of this world:Notes: "The guardian is like a father; he watches over the people in the house andguards them" (Tschopik, 1951:191a).Yes—Non-human supernatural beings have deliberate causal efficacy in the world:Notes: "The guardian is like a father; he watches over the people in the house andguards them. He is always good. Sometimes the place spirit is evil and then you can'tbuild your house there; but the guardian is always good. But if you don't live properly inthe house, the guardian may punish you with sickness" (Tschopik, 1951:191a). "It iswithin the sphere of human affairs, however, that the place spirit functions mostimportantly; in his constant attempts to direct and control the behavior of men, he is avery real force, continually to be reckoned with" (Tschopik, 1951:192b).Yes—These supernatural beings can punish:Notes: "The guardian is like a father; he watches over the people in the houseand guards them. He is always good. Sometimes the place spirit is evil andthen you can't build your house there; but the guardian is always good. But ifyou don't live properly in the house, the guardian may punish you withsickness" (Tschopik, 1951:191a).Yes—These supernatural beings have indirect causal efficacy in the world:Notes: "Although cultivated plants are thought to be controlled by pacamama, anancient earth fertility spirit (today confused with the Virgin), and while domesticatedanimals are believed to be owned by other supernatural beings, the place spiritsnevertheless exert some influence on the growth and well-being of plants and animalsalike" (Tschopik, 1951:192b).Yes—These supernatural beings possess hunger:Notes: "In every way, except that they possess supernatural power, the place spiritsresemble humans. The libations are their drink, the offerings their food; in addition,they chew coca" (Tschopik, 1951:192a).Yes—Mixed human-divine beings are present:Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 13 of 23Notes: "Although the Virgin is allotted a high place in the supernatural hierarchy, herrelationship with God and Christ is, at best, ambiguous. Some informants agreed that she wasthe mother of Christ and cited Church images and paintings of the Nativity to prove theirpoint, others, however, believed that she was, at the same time, God's wife. In any event, it iscertain that the Virgin is a major deity..." (Tschopik, 1951:208a).Yes—These mixed human-divine beings can be seen:I don't know—These mixed human-divine beings have deliberate causal efficacy in the world:Notes: "Thus, although kindly disposed towards man, the Virgin is as remote as Godand, possibly because she is a woman, appears to have little actual influence and rarelyintervenes in human affairs" (Tschopik, 1951:209a).No—These mixed human-divine beings have indirect causal efficacy in the world:I don't know—These mixed human-divine beings exhibit positive emotion:Notes: "The attitude of the Virgin towards mankind is one of casual and patronizingbenevolence" (Tschopik, 1951:209a).Yes—These mixed human-divine beings exhibit negative emotion:I don't know—These mixed human-divine beings possess hunger:I don't know—Mixed human-divine beings communicate with the living:I don't know—Does the religious group possess a variety of supernatural beings:Notes: "Although they range in concreteness from inconsequential shadowy spirits to powerfuland clearly personified supernatural beings, most of them are vaguely conceptualized placespirits...In addition to the place spirits that exist almost everywhere in nature, there are theghosts and souls of the dead, a variety of demons, and, finally, the many saints whose imagesstand in the churches for all to see. Since animals and plants are thought to be owned by aYes—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 14 of 23Supernatural MonitoringIs supernatural monitoring present:This refers to surveillance by supernatural beings of humans’ behaviour and/or thought particularly as itrelates to social norms or potential norm violations.Notes: "The place spirit is also a staunch supporter of current morals and mores. He chastises andpunishes socially disapproved behavior, discloses theft, marital infidelity, and the like, and condemnslaziness, carelessness, and greed. No misdeed, minor or major, escapes his vigilant eye" (Tschopik,1951:193a). "The guardian is like a father; he watches over the people in the house and guards them. Heis always good. Sometimes the place spirit is evil and then you can't build your house there; but theguardian is always good. But if you don't live properly in the house, the guardian may punish you withsickness" (Tschopik, 1951:191a).higher order of supernatural being, there is a general dearth of plant and animal spirits"(Tschopik, 1951:189a).Organized hierarchically:Notes: "The supernatural beings of Chucuito are ranked in a hierarchy depending upontheir powers for good or evil and upon their intelligence" (Tschopik, 1951:190a).Yes—Yes—There is supernatural monitoring of prosocial norm adherence in particular:Prosocial norms are norms that enhance cooperation among members of the group, includingobviously “moral” or “ethical” norms, but also extending to norms concerning honouring contractsand oaths, providing hospitality, coming to mutual aid in emergencies, etc.Notes: "The place spirit is also a staunch supporter of current morals and mores. He chastisesand punishes socially disapproved behavior, discloses theft, marital infidelity, and the like, andcondemns laziness, carelessness, and greed. No misdeed, minor or major, escapes his vigilanteye" (Tschopik, 1951:193a). "Feliciano Cruz always fought with and beat his wife. He neverbought her any clothes and they lived very badly. For this reason the guardian made him sickand he finally died because he was so weak" (Tschopik, 1951:191a).Yes—Supernatural beings care about sex:Yes—Adultery:Notes: "The place spirit is also a staunch supporter of current morals and mores. Hechastises and punishes socially disapproved behavior, discloses theft, marital infidelity,and the like, and condemns laziness, carelessness, and greed. No misdeed, minor ormajor, escapes his vigilant eye" (Tschopik, 1951:193a).Yes—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 15 of 23Do supernatural beings mete out punishment:Notes: "Although an individual may flaunt the authority of his family and may successfully conceal acrime from the legal authorities, no Aymara escapes the critical scrutiny of the powerful supernaturalswho observe his every action and do not hesitate to punish misdeeds" (Tschopik, 1951:172a).Supernatural beings care about laziness:Notes: "The place spirit is also a staunch supporter of current morals and mores. He chastisesand punishes socially disapproved behavior, discloses theft, marital infidelity, and the like, andcondemns laziness, carelessness, and greed. No misdeed, minor or major, escapes his vigilanteye" (Tschopik, 1951:193a).Yes—Supernatural beings care about proper ritual observance:Notes: "It is Aymara belief, however, that a negligent attitude towards certain nativesupernaturals provokes immediate retaliation in the form of illness or misfortune, and that, inparticular, guardians and place spirits take a keen interest in human conduct and morality"(Tschopik, 1951:170a).Yes—Supernatural beings care about performance of rituals:Notes: According to an informant, a magician was punished by a place spirit after drunkenlymaking an offering to the spirit and performing the ritual incorrectly. The magician wasparalyzed as a result. (See Tschopik, 1951:193a).Yes—Yes—Is the cause or agent of supernatural punishment known:Notes: See questions below for more information regarding the cause of supernaturalpunishment.Yes—Done only by high god:Notes: "It is Aymara belief, however, that a negligent attitude towards certain nativesupernaturals provokes immediate retaliation in the form of illness or misfortune, andthat, in particular, guardians and place spirits take a keen interest in human conductand morality" (Tschopik, 1951:170a).No—Done by many supernatural beings:Notes: "It is Aymara belief, however, that a negligent attitude towards certain nativesupernaturals provokes immediate retaliation in the form of illness or misfortune, andYes—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 16 of 23that, in particular, guardians and place spirits take a keen interest in human conductand morality" (Tschopik, 1951:170a).Done by other entities or through other means [specify]Notes: "Over and above all else, the place spirit demands respect, attention, andunquestioned obedience, and, when angered by disrespect, negligence, or slights, hedoes not hesitate to mete out punishment" (Tschopik, 1951:193a).Yes—Is the reason for supernatural punishment known:Notes: See questions below for details concerning the reasons for supernatural punishment.Yes—Done to enforce religious ritual-devotional adherence:Notes: "It is Aymara belief, however, that a negligent attitude towards certain nativesupernaturals provokes immediate retaliation in the form of illness or misfortune, andthat, in particular, guardians and place spirits take a keen interest in human conductand morality" (Tschopik, 1951:170a).Yes—Done to enforce group norms:Notes: "The place spirit is also a staunch supporter of current morals and mores. Hechastises and punishes socially disapproved behavior, discloses theft, marital infidelity,and the like, and condemns laziness, carelessness, and greed. No misdeed, minor ormajor, escapes his vigilant eye" (Tschopik, 1951:193a).Yes—Supernatural punishments are meted out in the afterlife:Notes: "The current beliefs about the afterworld are Christian-derived. By and large, however,the Aymara appear to be little interested in the question of life after death. There is a 'heaven'cielo , located in the sky, and a 'hell,' infierno, situated under the earth (24, 66). Yet thereappears to be no deep conviction regarding ultimate retribution (either reward orpunishment) nor, for that matter, any very clear notions of the mode of life in the hereafter"(Tschopik, 1951:217a).No—Supernatural punishments are meted out in this lifetime:Yes—Punishment in this life consists of bad luck:Yes—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 17 of 23Do supernatural beings bestow rewards:Notes: Insufficient evidence to make a conclusive answer, but presumably, supernatural beings aremore concerned with meting punishment than bestowing rewards.Messianism/EschatologyAre messianic beliefs present:Notes: No ethnographic evidence for the presence of messianic beliefs.Is an eschatology present:Notes: No ethnographic evidence for the presence of an eschatology.PracticesMembership Costs and PracticesDoes membership in this religious group require celibacy (full sexual abstinence):Notes: No ethnographic evidence for the presence of required celibacy.Notes: "It is Aymara belief, however, that a negligent attitude towards certain nativesupernaturals provokes immediate retaliation in the form of illness or misfortune, andthat, in particular, guardians and place spirits take a keen interest in human conductand morality" (Tschopik, 1951:170a).Punishment in this life consists of crop failure or bad weather:Notes: "If a man is a thief, the guardian will make him poor and make his crops andanimals poor" (Tschopik, 1951:191b).Yes—Punishment in this life consists of sickness or illness:Notes: "The guardian is like a father; he watches over the people in the house andguards them. He is always good. Sometimes the place spirit is evil and then you can'tbuild your house there; but the guardian is always good. But if you don't live properly inthe house, the guardian may punish you with sickness" (Tschopik, 1951:191a).Yes—I don't know—No—No—No—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 18 of 23Does membership in this religious group require castration:Notes: No ethnographic evidence for the presence of required castration.Does membership in this religious group require fasting:Notes: "At the present time, although post-parturient women are forbidden salt and ají peppers duringtheir period of confinement, fasting appears to be entirely absent in Aymara ceremonial practice. Itshould also be noted that few Aymara in Chucuito follow the Catholic custom of abstaining from meatduring Holy Week" (Tschopik, 1951:259b).Does membership in this religious group require permanent scarring or painful bodilyalterations:Notes: No ethnographic evidence for the presence of required permanent scarring or painful bodilyalterations.Does membership in this religious group require sacrifice of adults:"Adults" here referring to an emic or indigenous category; if that category is different from the popularWestern definition of a human who is 18-years-old or older and who is legally responsible for his/heractions, then please specify that difference in the Comments/Sources: box below.Notes: No ethnographic evidence for the presence of human sacrifice.Does membership in this religious group require sacrifice of children:"Children" here referring to an emic or indigenous category; if that category is different from the popularWestern definition, please specify that different in the Comments/Sources: box below.Notes: No ethnographic evidence for the presence of human sacrifice.Does membership in this religious group require self-sacrifice (suicide):Notes: "Suicide is likewise unusual, and the three instances reported suggest that the Aymaraattempts to take his life only under the severest emotional stress, and that suicide is, generallyspeaking, non-institutionalized and unpatterned" (Tschopik, 1951:170a).Does membership in this religious group require participation in small-scale rituals (private,household):Notes: Small-scale rituals are present, but it is unclear if participation is mandatory. "In mostceremonies at which the magician officiates the small number of participants is ordinarily limited toNo—No—No—No—No—No—I don't know—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 19 of 23the members of the client's biological and/or extended family. Women regularly attend, children areadmitted provided that they remain quiet, and infants, slung in cloths, usually are carried by theirmothers. Ceremonies are ordinarily held for single individuals. In remote regions, however, whereresident magicians are few or lacking, or where visiting magicians are rare, two individuals or twofamilies may pool their resources to hold a ceremony jointly" (Tschopik, 1951:233a).Does membership in this religious group require participation in large-scale rituals:I.e. involving two or more households; includes large-scale “ceremonies” and “festivals.”Notes: Large-scale rituals are present and important, but it is unclear if participation is mandatory. Forexamples of public ceremonies, see Tschopik, 1951:259b-261a.Society and InstitutionsLevels of Social ComplexityThe society to which the religious group belongs is best characterized as (please chooseone):Notes: The Aymara are a part of Peru, and not their own political unit. According to Tuden and Marshall(1972; Column 1, Political Autonomy), "the society is politically dependent, being governed directly byfunctionaries of a dominant society of alien culture, e.g., through direct rule" [Note, equivalent to SCCSVariable 81].EducationDoes the religious group provide formal education to its adherents:Notes: Insufficient ethnographic informationIs formal education available to the group’s adherents through an institution(s) other thanthe religious group:Notes: Insufficient ethnographic informationBureaucracyDo the group’s adherents interact with other institutional bureaucracies:Notes: "From around 1820 to the present time, the Aymara have been under the rule of the Peruvianand Bolivian Republics..." (Johnsson, 1995).I don't know—Other [specify in comments]—I don't know—I don't know—Yes—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 20 of 23Public WorksDoes the religious group in question provide public food storage:Notes: SCCS Variable 20, Food Storage, indicates that food is stored in individual households (Murdockand Morrow, 1970; Retrieved from Divale, 2004).Is public food storage provided to the group’s adherents by an institution(s) other than thereligious group in question:Notes: SCCS Variable 20, Food Storage, indicates that food is stored in individual households (Murdockand Morrow, 1970; Retrieved from Divale, 2004).Does the religious group in question provide transportation infrastructure:Notes: SCCS Variable 14, Routes of Land Transport, indicates that among the Aymara, routes of landtransport included unimproved trails (Murdock and Morrow, 1970; Retrieved from Divale, 2004).TaxationDoes the religious group in question levy taxes or tithes:Notes: Insufficient ethnographic information.EnforcementDoes the religious group in question provide an institutionalized police force:Notes: "Police functions are not specialized or institutionalized at any level of political integration, themaintenance of law and order being left exclusively to informal mechanisms of social control, toprivate retaliation, or to sorcery" (Column 10: Police; Tuden and Marshall, 1972).Does the religious group in question provide institutionalized judges:Notes: "Supreme judicial authority is lacking at any level above that of the local community" (Column9: Judiciary; Tuden and Marshall, 1972).Do the group’s adherents interact with an institutionalized judicial system provided by an aninstitution(s) other than the religious group in question:No—No—No—I don't know—No—No—Yes—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 21 of 23Notes: "All crimes, if brought to public attention, are tried in the local court of Chucuito, and thepenalties meted out range from fines to imprisonment. In cases of major crimes, the police are calledin from Puno and the culprit is usually taken there for trial" (Tschopik, 1951:171b).WarfareDo the group’s adherents participate in an institutionalized military provided byinstitution(s) other than the religious group in question:Notes: "Similarly, far more [Aymara] Indians than Mestizos have fulfilled their period of compulsorymilitary service" (Tschopik, 1951:159b).CalendarDoes the religious group in question possess a formal calendar:Notes: No ethnographic evidence for the presence of a formal calendar among the Aymara. (SeeTschopik, 1951:186b).Food ProductionDoes the religious group in question provide food for themselves:Notes: "The basis of subsistence in Chucuito is farming, supplemented by the breeding of livestock, andby fishing in Lake Titicaca. The gathering of wild products is unimportant in the total economy,although totora shoots, wild greens, cactus fruit, honey, and the like are collected and utilized atcertain seasons. Hunting, likewise, is of little consequence, and although lake birds, tinamous, andviscachas are taken occasionally, traps and hunting techniques generally are unelaborated" (Tschopik,1951:155b). Additional source of information from Ethnographic Atlas (Murdock, 1962-1971), retrievedfrom Divale, 2004; Variables 203-207, 232.Yes—No—Yes—Please characterize the forms/level of food production [choose all that apply]:Notes: "The basis of subsistence in Chucuito is farming, supplemented by the breeding oflivestock, and by fishing in Lake Titicaca. The gathering of wild products is unimportant in thetotal economy, although totora shoots, wild greens, cactus fruit, honey, and the like arecollected and utilized at certain seasons. Hunting, likewise, is of little consequence, andalthough lake birds, tinamous, and viscachas are taken occasionally, traps and huntingtechniques generally are unelaborated" (Tschopik, 1951:155b). Additional source of informationfrom Ethnographic Atlas (Murdock, 1962-1971), retrieved from Divale, 2004; Variables 203-207,232.Fishing—Pastoralism—Large-scale agriculture (e.g., monocropping, organized irrigation systems)—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 22 of 23Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 23 of 23

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            data-media="{[{embed.selectedMedia}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.52387.1-0380263/manifest

Comment

Related Items