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Haida Pitek, Emily 2018-12-21

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Poll: Religious Group (v6) Published on: 21 December 2018Date Range: 1870 CE - 1901 CERegion: Haida GwaiiRegion tags: North America, CanadaHaida Gwaii, ca. 1875. Haida Gwaii is located off thecoast of British Columbia, and includes the two mainislands of Graham and Moresby (formerly calledQueen Charlotte Islands).HaidaData source: eHRAFSecondary sourceEntered by Emily Pitek, Human Relations Area Files* Data Source entry, prepared based on data sourced from an external project.* Secondary Source entry, prepared from a literature review by a Ph.D. RAEntry tags: Native American (North American) Religions, Haida, ReligionThe Haida are an Indigenous group who have traditionally occupied Haida Gwaii (now known as Grahamand Moresby Islands, off the coast of British Columbia), and part of the Alexander Archipelago insoutheastern Alaska (Blackman, 2018). This entry focuses on Graham and Moresby Islands, specifically thetown of Masset, around the time of 1875-before extensive contact with Europeans and christianization.Traditionally, the main social and political unit of the Haida was the moiety (the Raven and Eagle),comprised of several lineages. Lineages were not ranked, although some were more powerful than others,and each lineage was led by a matrilineal chief. There was no overarching political unit above the lineage.The traditional religious beliefs of the Haida included a variety of supernatural beings, a belief inreincarnation, and the presence of shamans. Because religion overlaps with many elements of life amongthe Haida, this entry considers the religious group to be coterminous with the society at large.Status of Participants:✓ Elite ✓ Religious Specialists ✓ Non-elite (common people, general populace)SourcesPrint sources for understanding this subject:Online sources for understanding this subject:Source 1: Tuden, A. & Marshall, C. (Oct., 1972). Political organization: Cross-cultural codes 4. Ethnology,11(4), 436-464.—Source 2: Divale, W. 2004. Codebook of Variables for the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample. World Cultures:The Journal of Cross-Cultural and Comparative Research.—Source 3: Murdock, G.P. & Wilson, S.F. (Jul., 1972). Settlement patterns and community organization:Cross-Cultural Codes 3. Ethnology, 11(3), 254-295.—Source 1: Murdock, G.P. (1967). Ethnographic Atlas. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press.—Source 1 URL: http://ehrafworldcultures.yale.edu/document?id=ne09-001—DOI: URL: https://religiondatabase.org/browse/648This work is licensed under the Creative CommonsAttribution 4.0 International license.Please see our Terms of Use here:https://religiondatabase.org/about/creditsPage 1 of 16© 2019 Database of Religious History.The University of British Columbia.For any questions contactproject.manager@religiondatabase.orgGeneral VariablesMembership/Group InteractionsAre other religious groups in cultural contact with target religion:Notes: "It was mainly Englishmen and Americans who sailed their ships to British Columbia to tradethere. After a period of strong American ascendancy, the English dominated the region (i.e., after1830). In the first half of the nineteenth century the Hudson's Bay Company established agencies invarious places. Around the middle of the century British Columbia became a crown colony, and in 1871it joined the Canadian Confederation...Missionary work was not directed primarily at the archipelagoeither. The first mission post in the north was established in the region of the Tsimshian, and it was1876 before a missionary from there was sent to Masset. European administration, too, was originallyapplied from the mainland. The Queen Charlotte Indian Agency dates from 1910, when an IndianAgent at Masset was put in charge. Because they could easily cross to the mainland and travel longdistances by canoe, the Haida Indians cannot be said to have lived in isolation in the century precedingthe establishment of the mission post in 1876, as the records show" (Van den Brink, 1974:6).Source 1 Description: Swanton, J. R. (1905). Contributions To The Ethnology Of The Haida. Memoir Of TheAmerican Museum Of Natural History, New York. Leiden: E. J. Brill ; G. E. Stechert & Co.—Source 2 URL: http://ehrafworldcultures.yale.edu/document?id=ne09-007—Source 2 Description: Van den Brink, J. H. (1974). Haida Indians: Cultural Change Mainly Between 1876-1970. Monographs And Theoretical Studies In Sociology And Anthropology In Honor Of Nels Anderson.Leiden: E. J. Brill.—Source 3 URL: http://ehrafworldcultures.yale.edu/document?id=ne09-000—Source 3 Description: Blackman, M. B. (2018). Culture Summary: Haida. New Haven: Human RelationsArea Files.—Source 1 URL: http://ehrafworldcultures.yale.edu/document?id=ne09-003—Source 1 Description: Murdock, G. P. (1934). Haidas Of British Columbia. Our Primitive Contemporaries.New York: The Macmilliam Company.—Yes—Is there violent conflict (within sample region):Notes: SCCS Variable 1654, Pacification, indicates that there was not enough information tojudge whether the society was pacified in the 25 year ethnographic present or not.Additionally, for SCCS Variable 1649, Frequency of Internal Warfare (Resolved Rating), noresolved rating was made. (Ember and Ember, 1992; Retrieved from Divale, 2004).Field doesn't know—Is there violent conflict (with groups outside the sample region):Notes: SCCS Variable 1654, Pacification, indicates that there was not enough information tojudge whether the society was pacified in the 25 year ethnographic present or not.Additionally, for SCCS Variable 1650, Frequency of External Warfare (Resolved Rating), noresolved rating was made. (Ember and Ember, 1992; Retrieved from Divale, 2004).Field doesn't know—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 2 of 16Does the religious group have a general process/system for assigning religious affiliation:Notes: The religion is coterminous with the society and there is no special assignment of religion. "TheHaida did not show any consciousness of being one people and had no unified government. Theyknow one and the same type of social system in which chiefs also had their place as leaders of clansand households but not as formal leaders of the tribe or its two moieties. The tribe is divided into twomatrilineal exogamous moieties or phratries, the Ravens and the Eagles. Together with their divinities,individuals were classed as one or the other, the Raven phratry being the most important. Eachphratry was subdivided into twenty matrilineal clans, which Murdock considers to be the fundamentalsocial and political units of the Haida" (Van den Brink, 1974:16).Does the religion have official political supportNotes: The Haida do not have an official political office to support the religion (see Van den Brink,1974:16). However, religion is a pervasive element in many aspects of Haida life, making the religiousgroup coterminous with the society at large.Size and StructureNumber of adherents of religious group within sample region (estimated population,numerical):Notes: "The first exact, official population figures date from 1880. It is assumed at present that therewere at least 8,000 Haida inhabiting the archipelago when the explorers and early traders arrived"(Van den Brink, 1974:21).Number of adherents of religious group within sample region (% of sample regionpopulation, numerical):Notes: At the time this entry focuses on, the Haida did not yet have extensive contact with Christianmissionaries. Therefore, 100% of the Haida society adhered to the traditional beliefs.Are there recognized leaders in the religious group:Notes: "In each village certain persons stand in particularly close rapport with the supernatural beings.Besides a class of seeresses, old women who possess the power of prophesy through dreams, there arethe shamans proper or medicine men, who can summon to their aid at any time their familiar spirits,i.e., those spirits, usually of animals, with whom they have established communion" (Murdock,1934a:257). "Close relations with the supernatural were maintained by the shamans, who used theirpower in the treatment of sick people and practised or counteracted magic to influence the weather.To become a shaman, an individual had to observe special rules over a long period. The shamans hadconsiderable herbal lore, but were only called in after the Indians had vainly tried all of the householdremedies, of which there were many" (Van den Brink, 1974:20).No—No—Estimated population, numeric: 8000—Estimated population, percentage of sample region: 100—Yes—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 3 of 16ScriptureDoes the religious group have scriptures:Scripture is a generic term used to designate revered texts that are considered particularly authoritativeand sacred relative to other texts. Strictly speaking, it refers to written texts, but there are also “oralscriptures” (e.g. the Vedas of India).Notes: No ethnographic evidence indicating the presence of scripture.Architecture, GeographyAre leaders believed to possess supernatural powers or qualities:Notes: "Close relations with the supernatural were maintained by the shamans, who used theirpower in the treatment of sick people and practised or counteracted magic to influence theweather. To become a shaman, an individual had to observe special rules over a long period.The shamans had considerable herbal lore, but were only called in after the Indians had vainlytried all of the household remedies, of which there were many" (Van den Brink, 1974:20).Yes—Powers are culturally transmitted from a supernatural being:Notes: "The principal classes of supernatural beings who spoke through shamans werethe Canoe-People, the Ocean-People, the Forest-People, and the Above-People. Spiritswould come down from the Tlingit country and look around a village to find 'one whowas clean,' through whom they would act. To become 'clean,' a man had to abstainfrom food a long time" (Swanton, 1905:38).Yes—Are religious leaders chosen:Notes: "The calling of a shaman was generally hereditary in his family, the order being usuallyfrom maternal uncle to nephew. Before he died he revealed his spirits to his successor, whomight start with a comparatively feeble spirit and acquire stronger and stronger ones"(Swanton, 1905:38).No—Are leaders considered fallible:I don't know—Are close followers or disciples of a religious leader required to obediently andunquestionably accept the leader's pronouncements on all matters:I don't know—No—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 4 of 16Is monumental religious architecture present:Notes: According to Murdock and Wilson (1972), column 6 (large or impressive structures), "There areno structures in the community that are appreciably larger or more impressive than the usualresidential dwellings."Are there different types of religious monumental architecture:Notes: According to Murdock and Wilson (1972), column 6 (large or impressive structures), "There areno structures in the community that are appreciably larger or more impressive than the usualresidential dwellings."Is iconography present:Notes: "This was essentially an applied art, not art for art's sake. It served religion and the socialorganization. The motifs were usually animals or mythical beings who had revealed themselves to theancestors of those who were permitted to depict them. The production, possession, and displaying ofthe figures indicated not only the origin of the individual but also his relations with the supernatural. Intheir carving the Haida filled all of the available space, adapting the subject while preserving itsoriginal shape. On the totem poles, on the façades of houses, on canoes, chests, masks, and manyother objects, they covered the surface with carved or painted figures. Carvings were often painted,chiefly in red and black" (Van den Brink, 1974:14).No—No—Yes—Where is iconography present [select all that apply]:Notes: "In their carving the Haida filled all of the available space, adapting the subject whilepreserving its original shape. On the totem poles, on the façades of houses, on canoes, chests,masks, and many other objects, they covered the surface with carved or painted figures.Carvings were often painted, chiefly in red and black" (Van den Brink, 1974:14).On persons—At home—All public spaces—Are there distinct features in the religious group's iconography:Notes: "This [wood carving] was essentially an applied art, not art for art's sake. It served religionand the social organization. The motifs were usually animals or mythical beings who hadrevealed themselves to the ancestors of those who were permitted to depict them. Theproduction, possession, and displaying of the figures indicated not only the origin of theindividual but also his relations with the supernatural. In their carving the Haida filled all of theavailable space, adapting the subject while preserving its original shape. On the totem poles,on the façades of houses, on canoes, chests, masks, and many other objects, they covered thesurface with carved or painted figures. Carvings were often painted, chiefly in red and black"(Van den Brink, 1974:14).Yes—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 5 of 16Are pilgrimages present:Notes: No ethnographic evidence indicating the presence of pilgrimages.BeliefsBurial and AfterlifeIs a spirit-body distinction present:Answer “no” only if personhood (or consciousness) is extinguished with death of the physical body.Answering yes does not necessarily imply the existence of Cartesian mind/body dualism, merely thatsome element of personhood (or consciousness) survives the death of the body.Notes: "In death 'the soul flies away.' The Haidas believe that every person possesses two souls. One, theshadow-soul, returns at some indefinite time after death to enter the body of a pregnant woman andanimate her child; the quickening marks its appearance. It is with this soul that the idea ofreincarnation is associated. The other soul leaves the body in sleep and experiences the adventuresseen in dreams. If a person is suddenly startled, his dream-soul takes fright, flies away, and its ownersickens and dies. In death the dream-soul 'drops down' to an underworld, where it is welcomed with afeast and dance by the spirits of those who have gone before" (Murdock, 1934a:252).Belief in afterlife:Notes: "In death 'the soul flies away.' The Haidas believe that every person possesses two souls. One, theshadow-soul, returns at some indefinite time after death to enter the body of a pregnant woman andanimate her child; the quickening marks its appearance. It is with this soul that the idea ofreincarnation is associated. The other soul leaves the body in sleep and experiences the adventuresseen in dreams. If a person is suddenly startled, his dream-soul takes fright, flies away, and its ownersickens and dies. In death the dream-soul 'drops down' to an underworld, where it is welcomed with afeast and dance by the spirits of those who have gone before" (Murdock, 1934a:252).Supernatural beings (zoomorphic):Yes—Supernatural beings (anthropomorphic):Yes—No—Yes—Yes—Is the spatial location of the afterlife specified or described by the religious group:Notes: "In death the dream-soul 'drops down' to an underworld, where it is welcomed with afeast and dance by the spirits of those who have gone before" (Murdock, 1934a:252).Yes—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 6 of 16Reincarnation in this world:Notes: "In death 'the soul flies away.' The Haidas believe that every person possesses two souls. One, theshadow-soul, returns at some indefinite time after death to enter the body of a pregnant woman andanimate her child; the quickening marks its appearance. It is with this soul that the idea ofreincarnation is associated" (Murdock, 1934a:252).Are there special treatments for adherents' corpses:Notes: "Then [after funeral ceremonies] the male cross-cousins place the corpse in a cedar chest or aspecial coffin, carry it out of the house through a hole in the side wall, and deposit it in the burial hut ofAfterlife in vaguely defined “above” space:Notes: "The souls of those who are killed in war or feuds go to a third spirit world—abeautiful realm in the sky with eternal summer and an abundance of singing birds"(Murdock, 1934a:252).Yes—Afterlife in vaguely defined “below” space:Notes: "In death the dream-soul 'drops down' to an underworld, where it is welcomedwith a feast and dance by the spirits of those who have gone before" (Murdock,1934a:252).Yes—Afterlife in vaguely defined horizontal space:No—Yes—In a human form:Notes: "In death 'the soul flies away.' The Haidas believe that every person possesses two souls.One, the shadow-soul, returns at some indefinite time after death to enter the body of apregnant woman and animate her child; the quickening marks its appearance. It is with thissoul that the idea of reincarnation is associated" (Murdock, 1934a:252).Yes—In animal/plant form:Notes: "The dream-souls of those who die by drowning become incarnated in killer-whales andinhabit special villages under the sea" (Murdock, 1934a:252).Yes—In form of an inanimate object(s):No—Yes—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 7 of 16the clan" (Murdock, 1934a:253).Are co-sacrifices present in tomb/burial:Notes: No evidence for the presence of co-sacrifices.Are grave goods present:Notes: "No property is placed with or in the coffin, but all garments and other objects touched by thedeceased during his last illness are removed and burned" (Murdock, 1934a:253).Are formal burials present:Cremation:Notes: No ethnographic evidence for the presence of cremation.No—Mummification:Notes: No ethnographic evidence for the presence of mummification.No—Interment:Notes: "Then [after funeral ceremonies] the male cross-cousins place the corpse in a cedarchest or a special coffin, carry it out of the house through a hole in the side wall, and deposit itin the burial hut of the clan" (Murdock, 1934a:253).Yes—Cannibalism:Notes: No ethnographic evidence for the presence of cannibalism.No—Exposure to elements (e.g. air drying):Notes: No ethnographic evidence for the presence of exposing corpses to the elements.No—Feeding to animals:Notes: No ethnographic evidence for the presence of feeding corpses to animals.No—No—No—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 8 of 16Notes: Bodies are buried in family crypts. "Then [after funeral ceremonies] the male cross-cousins placethe corpse in a cedar chest or a special coffin, carry it out of the house through a hole in the side wall,and deposit it in the burial hut of the clan" (Murdock, 1934a:253).Supernatural BeingsAre supernatural beings present:Notes: "The universe is inhabited by human beings and supernatural beings, called collectively thesg ̣ā′na qeda′s. The latter were those for whom land was first created. They inhabit the atmosphere, theocean, the woods, lakes, and streams" (Swanton, 1905:13).Yes—As cenotaphs:No—Family tomb-crypt:Notes: "Then [after funeral ceremonies] the male cross-cousins place the corpse in a cedarchest or a special coffin, carry it out of the house through a hole in the side wall, and deposit itin the burial hut of the clan" (Murdock, 1934a:253).Yes—Domestic (individuals interred beneath house, or in areas used for normal domesticactivities):No—Other formal burial type:Notes: "He [the shaman] is also buried in a separate place and in a special way—on a lowplatform raised above the ground on four posts and covered with a roof" (Murdock, 1934a:257).Specific to this answer:Status of Participants: ✓ Religious SpecialistsYes [specify]: Shamans are interred in a separate crypt—Yes—A supreme high god is present:Notes: SCCS Variable 238 (Note, identical to Ethnographic Atlas Column 34), Religion: highgods, indicates that "a high god is absent or not reported in substantial descriptions of religiousbeliefs" (Murdock, 1962-1971; Retrieved from Divale, 2004).No—Previously human spirits are present:Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 9 of 16Notes: "In death the dream-soul 'drops down' to an underworld, where it is welcomed with afeast and dance by the spirits of those who have gone before. Here it lives a life much like thaton earth. From time to time it returns to earth temporarily as a ghost, and may be seen orheard in a graveyard or a deserted village" (Murdock, 1934a:252).Yes—Human spirits can be seen:Notes: "In death the dream-soul 'drops down' to an underworld, where it is welcomedwith a feast and dance by the spirits of those who have gone before. Here it lives a lifemuch like that on earth. From time to time it returns to earth temporarily as a ghost,and may be seen or heard in a graveyard or a deserted village" (Murdock, 1934a:252).Yes—Human spirits can be physically felt:I don't know—Previously human spirits have knowledge of this world:Notes: "In the Land of Souls they [human spirits] knew what passed in this world, and,when living relatives were poor, the souls sent them property" (Swanton, 1905:35).Yes—Human spirits' knowledge restricted to particular domain of humanaffairs:I don't know—Human spirits' knowledge restricted to (a) specific area(s) within thesample region:I don't know—Human spirits' knowledge unrestricted within the sample region:I don't know—Human spirits' knowledge unrestricted outside of sample region:I don't know—Human spirits can see you everywhere normally visible (in public):I don't know—Human spirits can see you everywhere (in the dark, at home):Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 10 of 16I don't know—Human spirit's can see inside heart/mind (hidden motives):I don't know—Human spirits know your basic character (personal essence):I don't know—Human spirits know what will happen to you, what you will do (futuresight):I don't know—Human spirits have deliberate causal efficacy in the world:I don't know—Non-human supernatural beings are present:Notes: "Other important nature spirits include a great sea deity, a Thunderbird who producesthunder by flapping its wings, a goddess of fire who resides under every hearth, and the Creek-Women, one of whom lives at the source of each stream and presides over all the fish in it"(Murdock, 1934a:256).Yes—These supernatural beings can be seen:Notes: "According to the Haida spirit-theory, every animal was, or might be, theembodiment of a being who, at his own pleasure, could appear in the human form"(Swanton, 1905).Yes—These supernatural beings can be physically felt:I don't know—Non-human supernatural beings have deliberate causal efficacy in the world:I don't know—These supernatural beings have indirect causal efficacy in the world:Notes: "Supernatural beings were particularly averse to urine, blue hellebore andcertain other plants and objects. If one put urine into the sea, and a storm arose inwhich any one was drowned or injured, he who had done so had to pay the injuredYes—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 11 of 16Supernatural MonitoringIs supernatural monitoring present:This refers to surveillance by supernatural beings of humans’ behaviour and/or thought particularly as itrelates to social norms or potential norm violations.Notes: Insufficient ethnographic information.Do supernatural beings mete out punishment:Notes: Insufficient ethnographic information.Do supernatural beings bestow rewards:Notes: Insufficient ethnographic information.Messianism/Eschatologyparty or his family" (Swanton, 1905:18).These supernatural beings possess/exhibit some other feature:Notes: "The thunder-bird (hI′liñA) produces thunder by the rustling of its feathers; andwhen it opens its eyes, there is lightning. The thunder-clouds are its “dressing-up.” Thisbeing occupied a very small place in Haida thought, probably because thunder-stormsare not common" (Swanton, 1905:14).Yes [specify]: Cause thunder and lightning—Mixed human-divine beings are present:Notes: "Not all of the dead went to the Land of Souls. Those who were drowned went to livewith the killer-whales. According to one man, they went to the house of The-One-in-the-Seafirst, where they had their fins fitted on, after which they went round into the houses of theother killers. When killer-whales appeared in front of a town, it was thought that they werehuman beings who had been drowned and took this way to inform the people. These personsthus became supernatural beings; and it appears that several of the great ones, like εadjō′n,had once been men" (Swanton, 1905:35).Yes—These mixed human-divine beings can be seen:Notes: They are seen as killer-whales (see Swanton, 1905:35).Yes—I don't know—I don't know—I don't know—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 12 of 16Are messianic beliefs present:Notes: No ethnographic evidence for the presence of messianic beliefs.Is an eschatology present:Notes: No ethnographic evidence for the presence of an eschatology.PracticesMembership Costs and PracticesDoes membership in this religious group require forgone food opportunities (taboos ondesired foods):Notes: "The shaman, who may be of either sex, leads a life in most respects like that of an ordinaryindividual. He distinguishes himself from his fellows, however, by abstaining from seaweed and whaleblubber and by never combing, washing, or cutting his hair lest, like Samson, he lose his power"(Murdock, 1934a:257).Specific to this answer:Status of Participants: ✓ Religious SpecialistsDoes membership in this religious group require sacrifice of adults:"Adults" here referring to an emic or indigenous category; if that category is different from the popularWestern definition of a human who is 18-years-old or older and who is legally responsible for his/heractions, then please specify that difference in the Comments/Sources: box below.Notes: No ethnographic evidence for the presence of human sacrifices.Does membership in this religious group require sacrifice of children:"Children" here referring to an emic or indigenous category; if that category is different from the popularWestern definition, please specify that different in the Comments/Sources: box below.Notes: No ethnographic evidence for the presence of human sacrifices.Does membership in this religious group require self-sacrifice (suicide):Notes: No ethnographic evidence for the presence of human sacrifices.Society and InstitutionsNo—No—Yes—No—No—No—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 13 of 16Levels of Social ComplexityThe society to which the religious group belongs is best characterized as (please chooseone):Notes: The Haida have no political authority beyond the local community, which is indicative ofautonomous bands and villages (Ethnographic Atlas column 33, Murdock, 1967; retrieved from Divale,2004). "The Haida did not show any consciousness of being one people and had no unifiedgovernment. They know one and the same type of social system in which chiefs also had their place asleaders of clans and households but not as formal leaders of the tribe or its two moieties. The tribe isdivided into two matrilineal exogamous moieties or phratries, the Ravens and the Eagles" (Van denBrink, 1974:16). According to Murdock and Wilson (1972; Column 10: Descent), the Haida havematrilineal descent with dispersed sibs. Further, the Haida live in clan-communities, with matrilinealmoieties. Source of information: Ethnographic Atlas (Murdock, 1967), Columns 19, 20, 22. Because theHaida have kin ties beyond the community, the society is best characterized as a tribe.EducationDoes the religious group provide formal education to its adherents:Notes: The only ethnographic evidence for formal education is that of missionary schools, beginningafter the time that this entry focuses on (see Van den Brink, 1974:45, 80).BureaucracyDo the group’s adherents interact with a formal bureaucracy within their group:Public WorksDoes the religious group in question provide public food storage:Notes: SCCS Variable 20 (Food Storage) indicates that food is stored in individual households (Murdockand Morrow, 1970; Retrieved from Divale, 2004).Is public food storage provided to the group’s adherents by an institution(s) other than thereligious group in question:Notes: SCCS Variable 20 (Food Storage) indicates that food is stored in individual households (Murdockand Morrow, 1970; Retrieved from Divale, 2004).Does the religious group in question provide transportation infrastructure:A tribe—No—No—No—No—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 14 of 16Notes: It can be assumed that transportation infrastructure is not present, as routes of land transportare "unimproved trails", according to Murdock and Morrow (1970; Retrieved from Divale, 2004; SCCSVariable 14).Is transportation infrastructure provided for the group’s adherents by an institution(s) otherthan the religious group in question:Notes: It can be assumed that transportation infrastructure is not present, as routes of land transportare "unimproved trails", according to Murdock and Morrow (1970; Retrieved from Divale, 2004; SCCSVariable 14).EnforcementDoes the religious group in question provide an institutionalized police force:Notes: Tuden and Marshall (1972) column 10, Police (note, equivalent to SCCS variable 90, Police)indicates that "police functions are not specialized or institutionalized at any level of politicalintegration, the maintenance of law and order being left exclusively to informal mechanisms of socialcontrol, to private retaliation, or to sorcery."Does the religious group in question provide institutionalized judges:Notes: "Social control was maintained at the lineage, town, and household levels by the appropriatechiefs. The fairly rigid class system served to reinforce expectations about appropriate behavior"(Blackman, 2018).Does the religious group in question have a formal legal code:Notes: "Social control was maintained at the lineage, town, and household levels by the appropriatechiefs. The fairly rigid class system served to reinforce expectations about appropriate behavior"(Blackman, 2018).WarfareDoes religious group in question possess an institutionalized military:Notes: No ethnographic evidence for the presence of an institutionalized military.Food ProductionNo—No—No—No—No—No—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 15 of 16Does the religious group in question provide food for themselves:Notes: The Haida rely primarily on fishing for subsistence, with a secondary dependence on huntingand gathering. Source of information from Ethnographic Atlas (Murdock, 1962-1971), retrieved fromDivale, 2004; Variables 203-207, 232.Yes—Please characterize the forms/level of food production [choose all that apply]:Notes: The Haida rely primarily on fishing for subsistence, with a secondary dependence onhunting and gathering. Source of information from Ethnographic Atlas (Murdock, 1962-1971),retrieved from Divale, 2004; Variables 203-207, 232.Gathering—Hunting (including marine animals)—Fishing—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 16 of 16

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