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Manus Pitek, Emily 2018-12-17

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Poll: Religious Group (v6) Published on: 17 December 2018Date Range: 1918 CE - 1945 CERegion: Village of Peri, Manus Province, Papua NewGuineaRegion tags: Oceania, Melanesia, Papua New GuineaVillage of Peri, Manus Province, Papua New Guineaca. 1929ManusData source: eHRAFSecondary sourceEntered by Emily Pitek, Human Relations Area Files* Data Source entry, prepared based on data sourced from an external project.* Secondary Source entry, prepared from a literature review by a Ph.D. RAEntry tags: Religion, Oceanic ReligionsThe Manus are people native to Manus Province, Papua New Guinea. This entry focuses on those living inthe village of Peri, around the time of 1929. At this time, Manus Province was under Australian control(1915-1975). The influence of Christian missionaries had not yet reached the Manus; this entry focuses onthe traditional beliefs of the Manus. These beliefs centered around the spirits of recently deceasedancestors, who protect and monitor the family. The religious sphere of life was integrated with mostaspects of society, so the religious group is considered coterminous with the society at large.Status of Participants:✓ Elite ✓ Religious Specialists ✓ Non-elite (common people, general populace)SourcesPrint sources for understanding this subject:Online sources for understanding this subject:Source 1: Divale, W. 2004. Codebook of Variables for the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample. World Cultures:The Journal of Cross-Cultural and Comparative Research.—Source 2: Tuden, A. & Marshall, C. (Oct., 1972). Political organization: Cross-cultural codes 4. Ethnology,11(4), 436-464.—Source 3: Murdock, G.P. (1967). Ethnographic Atlas. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press.—Source 1: Murdock, G.P. & Wilson, S.F. (Jul., 1972). Settlement patterns and community organization:Cross-Cultural Codes 3. Ethnology, 11(3), 254-295.—Source 1 URL: http://ehrafworldcultures.yale.edu/document?id=om06-001—Source 1 Description: Mead, M. (1930). Growing Up In New Guinea: A Comparative Study Of PrimitiveEducation. New York: W. Morrow & company—Source 2 URL: http://ehrafworldcultures.yale.edu/document?id=om06-000—Source 2 Description: Carrier, J. G., Skoggard, I. A., & Beierle, J. (2005). Culture Summary: Manus. New—DOI: URL: https://religiondatabase.org/browse/650This work is licensed under the Creative CommonsAttribution 4.0 International license.Please see our Terms of Use here:https://religiondatabase.org/about/creditsPage 1 of 19© 2019 Database of Religious History.The University of British Columbia.For any questions contactproject.manager@religiondatabase.orgNotes: Mead (1930) Growing Up In New Guinea will be noted as Mead, 1930b in this entry.General VariablesMembership/Group InteractionsAre other religious groups in cultural contact with target religion:Notes: "The greatest effect which white culture has had upon the lives of the Manus people has been,as we have seen, in the realm of economic life. Religiously white culture has not yet touched theManus people importantly except in the case of the natives of Papitalai and the very recentintroduction of services by a catechist in Mbunei. Papitalai is on the North Coast, too far away to haveany influence in the villages of the South Coast; the beginnings of mission work in Mbunei by a nativecatechist occurred while we were in Peri. A few boys have returned from work, nominal adherents ofsome religious faith, but too unversed in its ways to teach it to their people" (Mead, 1930b:317).Haven, Conn.: HRAF.Source 3 URL: http://ehrafworldcultures.yale.edu/document?id=om06-005—Source 3 Description: Mead, M. (1932). Investigation Of The Thought Of Primitive Children With SpecialReference To Animism. Journal Of The Royal Anthropological Institute Of Great Britain And Ireland, 62,173–190.—Source 1 URL: http://ehrafworldcultures.yale.edu/document?id=om06-003—Source 1 Description: Fortune, Reo, and Australian National Research Council. “Manus Religion: AnEthnological Study Of The Manus Natives Of The Admiralty Islands.” Memoirs Of The AmericanPhilosophical Society … 1935: x, 391 , plates. Web. 10 Dec. 2018.—Source 2 URL: http://ehrafworldcultures.yale.edu/document?id=om06-001—Source 2 Description: Mead, M. (1930). Growing Up In New Guinea: A Comparative Study Of PrimitiveEducation. New York: W. Morrow & company.—Source 3 URL: http://ehrafworldcultures.yale.edu/document?id=om06-006—Source 3 Description: Mead, M. (1937). Manus Of The Admiralty Islands. Cooperation And CompetitionAmong Primitive Peoples. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company.—Source 1 URL: http://ehrafworldcultures.yale.edu/document?id=om06-002—Source 1 Description: Mead, M. (1956). New Lives For Old: Cultural Transformation--Manus, 1928-1953.New York: Morrow.—Yes—Is there violent conflict (within sample region):Notes: SCCS Variable 1654, Pacification, indicates that the Manus were "pacified before the 25year ethnographic present" (Ember and Ember, 1992; Retrieved from Divale, 2004).No—Is there violent conflict (with groups outside the sample region):No—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 2 of 19Does the religious group have a general process/system for assigning religious affiliation:Notes: Other than being born into a specific family with a corresponding Sir Ghost (spirit of a recentlydeceased relative, who guards and monitors the family), there is no process for assigning religiousaffiliation among the Manus.Does the religious group actively proselytize and recruit new members:Notes: No ethnographic evidence for the active recruitment of new members.Does the religion have official political supportNotes: Because the Manus do not have an official political office, it cannot be said that the religiousgroup has official political support. "The Manus tribe, which is a cultural and linguistic unit, consists ofsome two thousand people. They are scattered in eleven completely autonomous villages. Because thevillage is the largest administrative unit found among them the Manus can be said to have no politicalunity" (Mead, 1937:211). Additionally, the Manus have no political authority beyond the localcommunity, which is reflective of autonomous bands and villages (Ethnographic Atlas column 33,Murdock, 1967; retrieved from Divale, 2004). However, the religious sphere is not distinguished fromother spheres of life among the Manus. In this sense, the society is coterminous with the religiousgroup. "Manus culture is singularly integrated. Every institution is bent to the single emphasis of theattainment of personal success through the manipulation of property. Behind (and below) this ideallies the sanction of the supernatural world. The ghosts insist upon the kind of efficiency which resultsfrom the manipulation of material things, upon good houses, good exchanges, good economicplanning...The religious life is completely integrated with the economic. Its main elements are magicalcharms and ancestral blessings which make individuals successful in handling property and ensurethat they will not disrupt the peaceful exchange of valuables by sexual offenses. The religious systemdepends on methods of placating the ghosts with slight formal offerings and attention, and methodsfor discovering causes of illness and misfortune and remedying these causes" (Mead, 1937:230).Is there a conception of apostasy in the religious group:Notes: No ethnographic evidence for a conception of apostasy among the Manus.Size and StructureNumber of adherents of religious group within sample region (estimated population,numerical):Notes: "The Manus tribe, which is a cultural and linguistic unit, consists of some two thousand people"Notes: SCCS Variable 1654, Pacification, indicates that the Manus were "pacified before the 25year ethnographic present" (Ember and Ember, 1992; Retrieved from Divale, 2004).No—No—No—No—Estimated population, numeric: 2000—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 3 of 19(Mead, 1937:211).Are there recognized leaders in the religious group:Notes: Diviners and oracles are present, but are not recognized/official religious leaders. "Divining invarious ways is common, and many villages have two or three practitioners, who are not distinguishedby special title or ritual. Some people are thought to control malevolent spirits, but few admit to thisactivity" (Carrier, Skoggard, & Beierle, 2005).ScriptureDoes the religious group have scriptures:Scripture is a generic term used to designate revered texts that are considered particularly authoritativeand sacred relative to other texts. Strictly speaking, it refers to written texts, but there are also “oralscriptures” (e.g. the Vedas of India).Notes: No ethnographic evidence indicating the presence of scriptures.Architecture, GeographyIs monumental religious architecture present:Notes: No ethnographic evidence indicating the presence of monumental religious architecture.Are there different types of religious monumental architecture:Notes: No ethnographic evidence indicating the presence of monumental religious architecture.Is iconography present:Notes: No ethnographic evidence indicating the presence of iconography.Are pilgrimages present:Notes: No ethnographic evidence indicating the presence of pilgrimages.BeliefsBurial and AfterlifeNo—No—No—No—No—No—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 4 of 19Is a spirit-body distinction present:Answer “no” only if personhood (or consciousness) is extinguished with death of the physical body.Answering yes does not necessarily imply the existence of Cartesian mind/body dualism, merely thatsome element of personhood (or consciousness) survives the death of the body.Notes: "Although soul stuff, so wrested finally from the body, becomes a single indivisible ghost, it isdivisible before the body becomes a corpse; so that several different angry ghosts can, and often do,each possess a piece of the same mortal's soul stuff" (Fortune and Council, 1935:16).Belief in afterlife:Notes: "In Manus there is neither heaven nor hell; there are simply two levels of existence. On one levellive the mortals all of whose acts, each of whose words, are known to the spirits, provided the spirit ispresent and paying attention" (Mead, 1930b:100). "Personality survives death in Manus. A man's houseis still his after death. If he is a member of the native constabulary appointed by the AustralianAdministration, he is still a policeman among the ghosts after his death" (Fortune and Council, 1935:9).Notes: "The immortality of the soul is not in Manus a source of comfort to a human being in trying toface his possible obliteration. In fact, obliteration does follow in Manus belief. A dead man does his dutyto his descendants as their ghostly father. Then he fails in it when he allows his son to die. He thenbecomes a ghost of the island edges, then a nameless ghost of the middle sea spaces for a time, butfinally turns to a sea-slug" (Fortune and Council, 1935:6).Reincarnation in this world:Yes—Spirit-mind is conceived of as having qualitatively different powers or properties thanother body parts:Notes: "Within each mortal is mwelolo, soul stuff. It is divisible into many parts, and thereforesemi-material. If a ghost wishes ill to a mortal, he takes the soul stuff from the mortal. Loss ofsoul stuff renders a mortal unwell, or if the loss is permanent, dead. A ghost takes the soul stufffrom one of his mortal kin only in disapproval of secret sin or laxity amongst that kin, and ifthat trouble is repaired by the mortals the ghost will normally restore the soul stuff to the bodyfrom which he took it, before a permanent loss of soul stuff stiffens that body in death"(Fortune and Council, 1935:10).Yes—Spirit-mind is conceived of as non-material, ontologically distinct from body:Notes: (Fortune and Council, 1935:10)Yes—Yes—Is the spatial location of the afterlife specified or described by the religious group:No—No—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 5 of 19Notes: No ethnographic evidence for the presence of a belief in reincarnation.Are there special treatments for adherents' corpses:Notes: Ethnographic evidence indicates that the bones of the dead are cleaned and buried. Limitedinformation is available on burial practices. See questions below for available information.No—Yes—Cremation:Notes: No ethnographic evidence for the presence of cremation.No—Mummification:Notes: No ethnographic evidence indicating the presence of mummification.No—Interment:Notes: "The pin papu, women descending in the uterine line from the woman married into themale line three generations above, watch over a person's corpse, wash the decaying flesh fromthe bones and are the principal mourners, even today, when burial is practiced by Governmentdecree" (Fortune and Council, 1935:79).Yes—Cannibalism:Notes: No ethnographic evidence for the presence of cannibalism.No—Exposure to elements (e.g. air drying):Notes: "Here and there, around the village borders, are small abrupt islands, without level land,and unfit for cultivation. Here the women spread out leaves to dry for weaving, the childrenscramble precariously from rock to rock. Bleaching on the farther islands lie the white bones ofthe dead" (Mead, 1930b:9)."The government regulation against keeping the corpse for twentydays while it was washed daily in the sea, has been enforced with very little difficulty becauseof the feuds between individuals and villages which lead to any derelictions being reported.The time for keeping the corpse has been shortened to three days; the old requirement ofkilling a man to end mourning, or at least taking a prisoner and using his ransom in thefuneral payments, has been abridged to the requirement of killing a large turtle. The bodiesare exposed on the more remote little islands until the bones have been washed clean, whenthe skull and certain other bones are recovered and installed in the ceremonial skull bowl"(Mead, 1930b:318).Yes—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 6 of 19Are co-sacrifices present in tomb/burial:Notes: No ethnographic evidence for the presence of co-sacrifices.Are grave goods present:Notes: Insufficient ethnographic evidence on burial practices.Are formal burials present:Notes: Burials were practiced by (Australian) Government decree at the time this entry focuses on(Fortune and Council, 1935:79).Supernatural BeingsAre supernatural beings present:Notes: "Manus religion is a special combination of spiritualism and ancestor worship. The spirits of thedead males of the family become its guardians, protectors, censors, dictators after death. The skull andfinger bones are suspended from the roof in a carved bowl, and the desires and preferences of thespirit of the house consulted upon all important occasions" (Mead, 1930b:99).Feeding to animals:Notes: No ethnographic evidence for the presence of feeding corpses to animals.No—No—I don't know—Yes—Yes—A supreme high god is present:Notes: SCCS Variable 238 (Note, identical to Ethnographic Atlas Column 34), Religion: highgods, indicates that "a high god is absent or not reported in substantial descriptions of religiousbeliefs" (Murdock, 1962-1971; Retrieved from Divale, 2004).No—Previously human spirits are present:Notes: "Manus religion is a special combination of spiritualism and ancestor worship. The spiritsof the dead males of the family become its guardians, protectors, censors, dictators afterdeath" (Mead, 1930:99).Yes—Human spirits can be seen:No—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 7 of 19Notes: "Spirits are invisible, only rarely are they seen by mortals, but they occasionallymake their presence manifest by whistling in the night" (Mead, 1930:100).Human spirits can be physically felt:I don't know—Previously human spirits have knowledge of this world:Notes: "The spirit is not conceived as omniscient. He, like a living man, can only see andhear within the range of his senses. A spirit will disclaim knowledge of what went on ina house during his absence" (Mead, 1930:100).Yes—Human spirits' knowledge unrestricted within the sample region:No—Human spirits' knowledge unrestricted outside of sample region:No—Human spirits have deliberate causal efficacy in the world:Notes: "When misfortune visits a house with illness or failure in fishing, this isunderstood to be due to the righteous anger of the ghostly father, and oracles statethe acts that have aroused it" (Fortune and Council, 1935:1).Yes—Human spirits can reward:Notes: "Finally their religion is genuinely ethical; it is a spiritualistic cult of therecently dead ancestors who supervise jealously their descendants' economicand sexual lives, blessing those who abstain from sin and who labour to growwealthy, visiting sickness and misfortune on violators of the sexual code and onthose who neglect to invest the family capital wisely. In many ways, the Manusideal is very similar to our historical Puritan ideal, demanding from menindustry, prudence, thrift and abstinence from worldly pleasures, with thepromise that God will prosper the virtuous man" (Mead, 1930b:9).Yes—Human spirits can punish:Notes: "When misfortune visits a house with illness or failure in fishing, this isunderstood to be due to the righteous anger of the ghostly father, and oraclesstate the acts that have aroused it" (Fortune and Council, 1935:1).Yes—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 8 of 19Human spirits exhibit negative emotion:Notes: "All ghosts are conceived as being dangerous to mortals. They are conceived asbeing angry and outraged at finding themselves suddenly translated from theircorporeal form and into a bare, cold and lonely immateriality. This is especially so whenthey are still new to it" (Fortune and Council, 1935:15).Yes—Human spirits possess hunger:I don't know—Human spirits communicate with the living:Notes: "The will of the spirits is conveyed to mortals through séances, women withdead male children acting as mediums. The spirit child acts as a messenger boy uponthe spirit plane. He speaks through his mother's mouth, in a whistling sound which shetranslates to the assembled questioners. At her bidding he goes about interrogatingthe various spirits who may be responsible for the illness, misfortune, or death, or hecollects the bits of purloined soul stuff and returns them to the sick person" (Mead,1930:102).Yes—In trance possession:Notes: (Mead, 1930:102)Yes—Through divination processes:Notes: "A man communicates with his Sir Ghost through a medium, or adiviner. Through the medium he asks his Sir Ghost's opinions, and receives longand detailed replies. Through his divining bones, or those of another diviner, heasks his Sir Ghost questions which can be answered by signs meaning yes orno. If he is not a bone diviner he may still consult his Sir Ghost by asking him aquestion, spitting on a betel leaf and watching which side of the leaf the juiceruns down. Before this latter type of communication a man may chat aloudamiably with his Sir Ghost for several minutes. Similarly a man gives his SirGhost verbal orders to accompany other members of his household ondangerous expeditions. If asked, a man can tell at once where his Sir Ghost is"(Mead, 1932:182).Yes—Only through specialists:Notes: "It is any male's privilege to talk to his Sir Ghost at any length. But onlythe privileged diviners and mediums can receive communications from theother plane. For a complete conversation with a Sir Ghost or with ghosts adiviner or a medium is an absolutely necessary accessory" (Fortune andYes—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 9 of 19Supernatural MonitoringIs supernatural monitoring present:This refers to surveillance by supernatural beings of humans’ behaviour and/or thought particularly as itrelates to social norms or potential norm violations.Notes: "Each Manus man worships his Father, not in Heaven, but in his house front rafters, not oneFather for all, but each man his own. The skull of the father of the house owner has an honoured placein a finely carved wooden bowl hung high above, and just inside, the entry at the front of the house.The spiritual presence, of which the skull is the material relic, guards the house and supervises themorals of its people" (Fortune and Council, 1935:1).Council, 1935:29).Only through monarch:Notes: No monarch is present among the Manus.No—Non-human supernatural beings are present:Notes: No ethnographic evidence indicating the presence of non-human supernatural beings.No—Yes—There is supernatural monitoring of prosocial norm adherence in particular:Prosocial norms are norms that enhance cooperation among members of the group, includingobviously “moral” or “ethical” norms, but also extending to norms concerning honouring contractsand oaths, providing hospitality, coming to mutual aid in emergencies, etc.Notes: "Each Manus household is governed by a ghost of a recently dead male relative. Inconception this ghost is a father, but a son may actually be raised to this position after death.The skull of the ghost is kept in the house and presides over the moral and economic life of thehousehold. He punishes sex offenses, scandalmongering, obscenity, failure to pay debts, failureto help relatives, and failure to keep one's house in repair. For derelictions in these duties, hesends illness and misfortune" (Mead, 1937:219).Yes—Supernatural beings care about sex:Notes: "The first and greatest offence which Sir Ghost punishes is loose sexual conduct"(Fortune and Council, 1935:40).Yes—Adultery:Yes—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 10 of 19Do supernatural beings mete out punishment:Notes: "When misfortune visits a house with illness or failure in fishing, this is understood to be due tothe righteous anger of the ghostly father, and oracles state the acts that have aroused it" (Fortune andCouncil, 1935:1).Notes: (Fortune and Council, 1935:40)Supernatural beings care about disrespecting elders:Notes: "Again, Sir Ghost punishes any disobedience shown towards the head of the householdby the head's younger brothers or sisters, or by economic dependents adopted by the head,thus entrenching the right of the senior capitalist to his dependent's free service for him"(Fortune and Council, 1935:50).Yes—Supernatural beings care about performance of rituals:Notes: "Sir Ghost is also believed to punish other offences besides those against the code of sexmanners. These are, notably, not paying debts in time, or not making the funerary feastsquickly enough for the dead" (Fortune and Council, 1935:49).Yes—Supernatural beings care about economic fairness:Notes: "Finally their religion is genuinely ethical; it is a spiritualistic cult of the recently deadancestors who supervise jealously their descendants' economic and sexual lives, blessing thosewho abstain from sin and who labour to grow wealthy, visiting sickness and misfortune onviolators of the sexual code and on those who neglect to invest the family capital wisely"(Mead, 1930b:9).Yes—Supernatural beings care about other:Notes: "Sir Ghost is also believed to punish other offences besides those against the code of sexmanners. These are, notably, not paying debts in time, or not making the funerary feastsquickly enough for the dead" (Fortune and Council, 1935:49).Notes: "Again, Sir Ghost may punish his ward for not keeping their mutual house in the best ofrepair" (Fortune and Council, 1935:50).Yes [specify]: Paying debts in time—Yes [specify]: Keeping the home in order—Yes—Is the cause or agent of supernatural punishment known:Notes: The only agents of supernatural punishment described in ethnographic evidence areYes—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 11 of 19the spirits of deceased humans.Done only by high god:Notes: SCCS Variable 238 (Note, identical to Ethnographic Atlas Column 34), Religion:high gods, indicates that "a high god is absent or not reported in substantialdescriptions of religious beliefs" (Murdock, 1962-1971; Retrieved from Divale, 2004).No—Is the reason for supernatural punishment known:Notes: "In other words, the spirits enforce, by a withdrawal of aid and by punitive measureswhich are felt in failure of fishing devices, hurricanes, and, most particularly, in sickness andaccident, a stern puritanical moral code of saving, working, and abstinence from all unlawfulfleshly indulgence" (Mead, 1935:191).Yes—Done to enforce group norms:Notes: "The first and greatest offence which Sir Ghost punishes is loose sexual conduct"(Fortune and Council, 1935:40).Yes—Supernatural punishments are meted out in the afterlife:Notes: No ethnographic evidence for supernatural punishments meted out in the afterlife.No—Supernatural punishments are meted out in this lifetime:Notes: "Each Manus household is governed by a ghost of a recently dead male relative. Inconception this ghost is a father, but a son may actually be raised to this position after death.The skull of the ghost is kept in the house and presides over the moral and economic life of thehousehold. He punishes sex offenses, scandalmongering, obscenity, failure to pay debts, failureto help relatives, and failure to keep one's house in repair. For derelictions in these duties, hesends illness and misfortune" (Mead, 1937:219).Yes—Punishment in this life consists of bad luck:Notes: "Finally their religion is genuinely ethical; it is a spiritualistic cult of the recentlydead ancestors who supervise jealously their descendants' economic and sexual lives,blessing those who abstain from sin and who labour to grow wealthy, visiting sicknessand misfortune on violators of the sexual code and on those who neglect to invest thefamily capital wisely" (Mead, 1930b:9).Yes—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 12 of 19Do supernatural beings bestow rewards:Notes: "Finally their religion is genuinely ethical; it is a spiritualistic cult of the recently dead ancestorswho supervise jealously their descendants' economic and sexual lives, blessing those who abstain fromsin and who labour to grow wealthy, visiting sickness and misfortune on violators of the sexual codeand on those who neglect to invest the family capital wisely" (Mead, 1930b:9).Punishment in this life consists of crop failure or bad weather:Notes: "In other words, the spirits enforce, by a withdrawal of aid and by punitivemeasures which are felt in failure of fishing devices, hurricanes, and, most particularly,in sickness and accident, a stern puritanical moral code of saving, working, andabstinence from all unlawful fleshly indulgence" (Mead, 1935:191).Yes—Punishment in this life consists of sickness or illness:Notes: "When misfortune visits a house with illness or failure in fishing, this isunderstood to be due to the righteous anger of the ghostly father, and oracles statethe acts that have aroused it" (Fortune and Council, 1935:1).Yes—Yes—Is the cause/purpose of supernatural rewards known:Notes: See questions below for more details on supernatural rewards.Yes—Done only by high god:Notes: SCCS Variable 238 (Note, identical to Ethnographic Atlas Column 34), Religion:high gods, indicates that "a high god is absent or not reported in substantialdescriptions of religious beliefs" (Murdock, 1962-1971; Retrieved from Divale, 2004).No—Done by many supernatural beings:Notes: The spirits of deceased humans bestow blessings. "Finally their religion isgenuinely ethical; it is a spiritualistic cult of the recently dead ancestors who supervisejealously their descendants' economic and sexual lives, blessing those who abstainfrom sin and who labour to grow wealthy, visiting sickness and misfortune on violatorsof the sexual code and on those who neglect to invest the family capital wisely" (Mead,1930b:9).Yes—Done to enforce group norms:Notes: "Finally their religion is genuinely ethical; it is a spiritualistic cult of the recentlyYes—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 13 of 19Messianism/EschatologyAre messianic beliefs present:Notes: No ethnographic evidence for the presence of messianic beliefs.Is an eschatology present:Notes: No ethnographic evidence for the presence of an eschatology.Norms and Moral RealismIs there a conventional vs. moral distinction in the religious group:dead ancestors who supervise jealously their descendants' economic and sexual lives,blessing those who abstain from sin and who labour to grow wealthy, visiting sicknessand misfortune on violators of the sexual code and on those who neglect to invest thefamily capital wisely" (Mead, 1930b:9).Supernatural rewards are bestowed out in the afterlife:Notes: No ethnographic evidence for supernatural rewards bestowed in the afterlife.No—Supernatural rewards are bestowed out in this lifetime:Yes—Reward in this life consists of good luck:Notes: "Finally their religion is genuinely ethical; it is a spiritualistic cult of the recentlydead ancestors who supervise jealously their descendants' economic and sexual lives,blessing those who abstain from sin and who labour to grow wealthy, visiting sicknessand misfortune on violators of the sexual code and on those who neglect to invest thefamily capital wisely" (Mead, 1930b:9).Yes—Other [specify]Notes: Blessing. "Finally their religion is genuinely ethical; it is a spiritualistic cult of therecently dead ancestors who supervise jealously their descendants' economic andsexual lives, blessing those who abstain from sin and who labour to grow wealthy,visiting sickness and misfortune on violators of the sexual code and on those whoneglect to invest the family capital wisely" (Mead, 1930b:9).Yes—No—No—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 14 of 19Notes: "In other words, the spirits enforce, by a withdrawal of aid and by punitive measures which arefelt in failure of fishing devices, hurricanes, and, most particularly, in sickness and accident, a sternpuritanical moral code of saving, working, and abstinence from all unlawful fleshly indulgence" (Mead,1935:191).PracticesMembership Costs and PracticesDoes membership in this religious group require castration:Notes: No ethnographic evidence for the presence of castration.Does membership in this religious group require sacrifice of adults:"Adults" here referring to an emic or indigenous category; if that category is different from the popularWestern definition of a human who is 18-years-old or older and who is legally responsible for his/heractions, then please specify that difference in the Comments/Sources: box below.Notes: No ethnographic evidence for the presence of human sacrifice.Yes—Are specifically moral norms prescribed by the religious group:Notes: "Finally their religion is genuinely ethical; it is a spiritualistic cult of the recently deadancestors who supervise jealously their descendants' economic and sexual lives, blessing thosewho abstain from sin and who labour to grow wealthy, visiting sickness and misfortune onviolators of the sexual code and on those who neglect to invest the family capital wisely. Inmany ways, the Manus ideal is very similar to our historical Puritan ideal, demanding frommen industry, prudence, thrift and abstinence from worldly pleasures, with the promise thatGod will prosper the virtuous man" (Mead, 1930b:9).Yes—Specifically moral norms are linked in some way to an anthropomorphicbeing:Notes: "Finally their religion is genuinely ethical; it is a spiritualistic cult of the recentlydead ancestors who supervise jealously their descendants' economic and sexual lives,blessing those who abstain from sin and who labour to grow wealthy, visiting sicknessand misfortune on violators of the sexual code and on those who neglect to invest thefamily capital wisely. In many ways, the Manus ideal is very similar to our historicalPuritan ideal, demanding from men industry, prudence, thrift and abstinence fromworldly pleasures, with the promise that God will prosper the virtuous man" (Mead,1930b:9).Yes—No—No—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 15 of 19Does membership in this religious group require sacrifice of children:"Children" here referring to an emic or indigenous category; if that category is different from the popularWestern definition, please specify that different in the Comments/Sources: box below.Notes: No ethnographic evidence for the presence of human sacrifice.Does membership in this religious group require self-sacrifice (suicide):Notes: No ethnographic evidence for the presence of human sacrifice.Does membership in this religious group require physical risk taking:Notes: No ethnographic evidence for the presence of required physical risk taking.Does membership in this religious group require participation in small-scale rituals (private,household):Notes: No ethnographic evidence indicating that the Manus are required to participate in small-scalerituals.Does membership in this religious group require participation in large-scale rituals:I.e. involving two or more households; includes large-scale “ceremonies” and “festivals.”Notes: No ethnographic evidence indicating that the Manus are required to participate in large-scalerituals.Society and InstitutionsLevels of Social ComplexityThe society to which the religious group belongs is best characterized as (please chooseone):Notes: "The Manus tribe, which is a cultural and linguistic unit, consists of some two thousand people.They are scattered in eleven completely autonomous villages. Because the village is the largestadministrative unit found among them the Manus can be said to have no political unity" (Mead,1937:211). Additionally, the Manus have no political authority beyond the local community, which isreflective of autonomous bands and villages (Ethnographic Atlas column 33, Murdock, 1967; retrievedfrom Divale, 2004). However, Murdock and Wilson (1972; Column 10: Descent), indicates that theManus have double descent (both matrilineal and patrilineal) with localized lineages. Further, theManus live in segmented communities, with both matrilineal and patrilineal lineages of modest size.Source of information: Ethnographic Atlas (Murdock, 1967), Columns 19, 20, 22.No—No—No—No—No—A tribe—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 16 of 19EducationDoes the religious group provide formal education to its adherents:Notes: "Children are taught early and painstakingly how to walk, swim, climb, handle a canoe, shoot abow and arrow, and throw a spear accurately. They are taught to talk. But they are not given anyinstruction in the social and religious aspects of adult life, beyond occasional threatenings with ghostsor tchinals, which, occurring only in this particular context, the children soon learn to recognize asbogies only" (Mead, 1932:188).BureaucracyDo the group’s adherents interact with other institutional bureaucracies:Notes: At the time this entry focuses on, the Manus occupied Australian-controlled Papua New Guinea,and interacted with the Australian bureaucracy (see Carrier, Skoggard, and Beierle, 2005).Public WorksDoes the religious group in question provide public food storage:Notes: SCCS variable 20, food storage, indicates that there is no food storage (Murdock and Morrow,1970; Retrieved from Divale, 2004).Does the religious group in question provide transportation infrastructure:Notes: It can be assumed that transportation infrastructure is not present, as routes of land transportare "unimproved trails", according to Murdock and Morrow (1970; Retrieved from Divale, 2004; SCCSVariable 14).TaxationDoes the religious group in question levy taxes or tithes:Are taxes levied on the group’s adherents by an institution(s) other than the religious group inquestion:Notes: "A government station was established in the Admiralties in 1912. Since that date thearchipelago has been under government control, taxes have been collected, war, head hunting,capturing foreign women for purposes of prostitution, the maintenance of a public prostitute in theNo—Yes—No—No—No—Yes—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 17 of 19men's house, are all banned by law and offenders subject to punishment by imprisonment.Government officers make patrols several times a year, sometimes for purposes of medical inspection,once a year for tax collecting, and at other times" (Mead, 1930b:302).EnforcementDoes the religious group in question provide an institutionalized police force:Notes: Tuden and Marshall (1972) column 10, Police (note, equivalent to SCCS variable 90, Police)indicates that "police functions are not specialized or institutionalized at any level of politicalintegration, the maintenance of law and order being left exclusively to informal mechanisms of socialcontrol, to private retaliation, or to sorcery."Does the religious group in question provide institutionalized judges:Notes: According to Tuden and Marshall, 1972, (column 9, judiciary), indicates that "supreme judicialauthority is lacking at any level above that the local community."Do the group’s adherents interact with an institutionalized judicial system provided by an aninstitution(s) other than the religious group in question:Notes: "Government officers make patrols several times a year, sometimes for purposes of medicalinspection, once a year for tax collecting, and at other times. Civil cases are heard during patrols. Anative is furthermore permitted to take complaints either criminal or civil to the district officer at anytime" (Mead, 1930b:302).Does the religious group in question have a formal legal code:Notes: Because there is no formal social control among the Manus, it can be assumed that there is noformal legal code. Additionally, no ethnographic evidence indicates that a formal legal code is present.WarfareDoes religious group in question possess an institutionalized military:Notes: SCCS Variable 1654, Pacification, indicates that the Manus were "pacified before the 25 yearethnographic present" (Ember and Ember, 1992; Retrieved from Divale, 2004).Written LanguageDoes the religious group in question possess its own distinct written language:No—No—Yes—No—No—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 18 of 19Notes: The Manus do not possess a written language (See Mead, 1956:21).Food ProductionDoes the religious group in question provide food for themselves:Notes: At the time this entry focuses on, the Manus relied primarily on fishing for subsistence. Animalhusbandry provided a supplemental food source. Source of information from Ethnographic Atlas(Murdock, 1962-1971), retrieved from Divale, 2004; Variables 203-207, 232.No—Yes—Please characterize the forms/level of food production [choose all that apply]:Notes: At the time this entry focuses on, the Manus relied primarily on fishing for subsistence.Animal husbandry provided a supplemental food source. Source of information fromEthnographic Atlas (Murdock, 1962-1971), retrieved from Divale, 2004; Variables 203-207, 232.Fishing—Pastoralism—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 19 of 19

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