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Roman Divination Robertson, Paul Jan 18, 2018

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Poll: Religious Group (v5) Published on: 18 January 2018Date Range: 800 BCE - 380 CERegion: Roman EmpireRegion tags: Europe, Southeastern Europe, SouthernEurope, Middle EastGreek, Etruscan, Roman, like others (Egypt, Cyprus,etc.)Roman DivinationBy Paul Robertson, University of New HampshireEntry tags: Religion, Hellenistic Religions, Greek Religions, Roman Religious Traditions, Roman StateReligions, Greek Religions in Rome, Italic ReligionsAugury refers narrowly to officially-sanctioned divination via the flights of birds. More broadly, it can refer todivination of a variety of natural sorts, ranging from weather phenomena, to different animals, to othersigns. Such divination was not predictive of future events, but rather evaluative about the gods' will.Augurs were official, elite positions in the Roman world. However, there is evidence for non-official, non-elite (but still specialized) augurs long before Roman times (Egypt, Etruscan, Greek) as well as during theheight of the Empire.Status of Participants:✓ Elite ✓ Religious SpecialistsSourcesPrint sources for understanding this subject:Online sources for understanding this subject:Relevant online primary textual corpora (original languages and/or translations):Source 1: Cicero, "On Divination", "On the Nature of the Gods", "On the Laws"—Source 2: Titus Livius (Livy), "On the History of Rome (Ab Urbe Condita)"—Source 3: Pliny the Elder, "Natural History"—Source 1 URL: http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/e/roman/texts/secondary/smigra*/augurium.html—Source 1 Description: William Smith, "A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities" (London: JohnMurray, 1875)—Source 2 URL: http://www.societasviaromana.net/Collegium_Religionis/augury.php—Source 2 Description: Societas Via Romana—Source 3 URL: https://www.britannica.com/topic/augury—Source 3 Description: Encyclopedia Britannica—Source 1 URL: http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Cicero/de_Divinatione/2*.html—DOI: URL: https://religiondatabase.org/browse/492This work is licensed under the Creative CommonsAttribution 4.0 International license.Please see our Terms of Use here:https://religiondatabase.org/about/creditsPage 1 of 41© 2019 Database of Religious History.The University of British Columbia.For any questions contactproject.manager@religiondatabase.orgGeneral VariablesMembership/Group InteractionsAre other religious groups in cultural contact with target religion:Does the religious group have a general process/system for assigning religious affiliation:Source 1 Description: Cicero, "On Divination"—Source 2 URL: http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/txt/ah/Livy/—Source 2 Description: Livy, "On the History of Rome"—Source 3 URL: http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Plin.+Nat.+toc—Source 3 Description: Pliny the Elder, "Natural History"—Yes—Is the cultural contact competitive:Yes—Is the cultural contact accommodating/pluralistic:Yes—Is the cultural contact neutral:Yes—Is there violent conflict (within sample region):Yes—Is there violent conflict (with groups outside the sample region):Yes—Yes—Assigned at birth (membership is default for this society):No—Assigned by personal choice:Yes—Robertson, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 2 of 41Does the religious group actively proselytize and recruit new members:Does the religion have official political supportAssigned by class:Yes—Assigned at a specific age:No—Assigned by gender:Yes—Assigned by participation in a particular ritual:Yes—Assigned by some other factor:Yes [specify]: Specialized training—No—Yes—Are the priests paid by polity:Yes—Is religious infrastructure paid for by the polity:Yes—Are the head of the polity and the head of the religion the same figure:Yes—Are political officials equivalent to religious officials:Yes—Is religious observance enforced by the polity:Yes—Robertson, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 3 of 41Is there a conception of apostasy in the religious group:Polity legal code is roughly coterminous with religious code:Yes—Polity provides preferential economic treatment (e.g. tax, exemption)Field doesn't know—Yes—Are apostates prosecuted or punished:Yes—Apostates are socially shunned and/or publicly vilified:Yes—Wealth, civil rights, and/or social capital are taken by authorities:Yes—Do apostates receive corporal punishment:Yes—Do apostates receive divine punishment:Yes—Punished in the afterlife:No—Cursed by "high god":Field doesn't know—Cursed by other supernatural being(s):Yes—Other divine punishment:Yes [specify]: General misfortune stemming from nature, e.g. natural disasters,disease—Robertson, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 4 of 41Size and StructureNumber of adherents of religious group within sample region (estimated population,numerical):Notes: Official Roman augurs numbered four (4) and then nine (9); other augurs across empire variedwidely by time, regionNumber of adherents of religious group within sample region (% of sample regionpopulation, numerical):Notes: Nearly entire population in Roman Empire adhered to differing degrees to polytheisticstructure and related divinatory practicesNature of religious group [please select one]:Are there recognized leaders in the religious group:Field doesn't know—Estimated population, percentage of sample region: 99—Small religious group (trying to be organized-controlled by larger religious group)—Yes—Is there a hierarchy among these leaders:Yes—A single leader of a local community:No—Multiple religious communities each with its own leader, no hierarchy amongthese leaders:No—"Regional" leaders who oversee one or more local leader(s) (e.g. bishops):No—A single leader for the religious group that oversees all other leaders in thesample region:Yes—A council or group of leaders for the religious group that oversees all otherleaders in the sample region:Robertson, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 5 of 41Field doesn't know—Estimate how many levels there are in the hierarchy of religious leadership:Field doesn't know—Are leaders believed to possess supernatural powers or qualities:No—Are religious leaders chosen:Yes—A leader chooses his/her own replacement:No—A leader’s retinue or ministers chooses the new leader:Yes—Other leaders in the religious group choose that leader:Yes—A political leader chooses the leader:Yes—Other members of the leader’s congregation choose the leader:Yes—All members of the religious group in the sample region participate inchoosing the leader:No—Communication with supernatural power(s) believed to be part of theselection process:No—Are leaders considered fallible:Yes—Robertson, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 6 of 41ScriptureDoes the religious group have scriptures:Scripture is a generic term used to designate revered texts that are considered particularly authoritativeand sacred relative to other texts. Strictly speaking, it refers to written texts, but there are also “oralscriptures” (e.g. the Vedas of India).Notes: No official "scriptures", but the augurs would take notes and refer to past such books that wereconsidered somewhat holyArchitecture, GeographyIs monumental religious architecture present:Notes: Present in Roman religion, but not around the augurs themselvesAre there different types of religious monumental architecture:Is iconography present:Are there specific sites dedicated to sacred practice or considered sacred:Charges of fallibility made by a leader's own followers:Yes—Charges of fallibility made by other leaders in the religious group:Yes—Charges of fallibility made by a political ruler:Yes—No—No—No—No—Yes—Are sacred site oriented to ecological features:Notes: Cardinal directions, as well as the direction of various notable urban points in RomeYes—Robertson, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 7 of 41Are pilgrimages present:BeliefsBurial and AfterlifeIs a spirit-body distinction present:Answer “no” only if personhood (or consciousness) is extinguished with death of the physical body.Answering yes does not necessarily imply the existence of Cartesian mind/body dualism, merely thatsome element of personhood (or consciousness) survives the death of the body.Belief in afterlife:No—Yes—Spirit-mind is conceived of as having qualitatively different powers or properties thanother body parts:Yes—Spirit-mind is conceived of as non-material, ontologically distinct from body:No—Other spirit-body relationship:Yes [specify]: Body was considered to persist in some diminished form after death in theunderworld—Yes—Is the spatial location of the afterlife specified or described by the religious group:Yes—Afterlife in specified realm of space beyond this world:Yes—Afterlife in vaguely defined “above” space:No—Afterlife in vaguely defined “below” space:Yes—Robertson, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 8 of 41Reincarnation in this world:Are there special treatments for adherents' corpses:Afterlife in vaguely defined horizontal space:Yes—Afterlife located in "other" space:No—No—Yes—Cremation:Yes—Mummification:No—Interment:Yes—Corpse is flexed (legs are bent or body is crouched):No—Corpse is extended (lying flat on front or back):Yes—Corpse is upright (where body is interred in standing position)::No—Corpse is interred some other way:No—Cannibalism:No—Robertson, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 9 of 41Are co-sacrifices present in tomb/burial:Are grave goods present:Exposure to elements (e.g. air drying):No—Feeding to animals:No—Secondary burial:Notes: Rarely; possible with heroic individualsNo—Re-treatment of corpse:No—Other intensive (in terms of time or resources expended) treatment of corpse :Yes [specify]: High status individuals would have a large feast and monument erected—Field doesn't know—Yes—Personal effects:Yes—Valuable items:Yes—Significant wealth (e.g. gold, jade, intensely worked objects):Notes: Depending on status of individualYes—Some wealth (some valuable or useful objects interred):Yes—Other valuable/precious items interred:Robertson, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 10 of 41Are formal burials present:Supernatural BeingsAre supernatural beings present:Yes [specify]: Weapons, priestly effects—Other grave goods:Notes: Vestments especially holy itemsYes—Yes—As cenotaphs:Yes—In cemetery:Yes—Family tomb-crypt:Yes—Domestic (individuals interred beneath house, or in areas used for normal domesticactivities):No—Other formal burial type:Yes [specify]: Some monumental structures—Yes—A supreme high god is present:Yes—The supreme high god is anthropomorphic:Yes—The supreme high god is a sky deity:Robertson, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 11 of 41Yes—The supreme high god is chthonic (of the underworld):No—The supreme high god is fused with the monarch (king=high god):No—The monarch is seen as a manifestation or emanation of the high god:No—The supreme high god is a kin relation to elites:Notes: More so heroes than elitesYes—The supreme high god has another type of loyalty-connection to elites:Yes [specify]: Patron of cities—The supreme high god is unquestionably good:No—Other feature(s) of supreme high god:Yes [specify]: Olympian deities themselves overthrew previous "high deities"—The supreme high god has knowledge of this world:Yes—The supreme god's knowledge is restricted to particular domain ofhuman affairs:Notes: Jupiter sometimes knows; at other times does notYes—The supreme high god's knowledge is restricted to (a) specific area(s)within the sample region:Notes: Jupiter can seemingly not see everywhere at once; he pays moreattention to notable placesYes—Robertson, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 12 of 41The supreme high god's knowledge is unrestricted within the sampleregion:Notes: In theory there are no specific restrictionsYes—The supreme high god's knowledge is unrestricted outside of sampleregion:Notes: Jupiter presumably can influence areas outside of Roman Empire'sboundariesYes—The supreme high god can see you everywhere normally visible (inpublic):Yes—The supreme high god can see you everywhere (in the dark, at home):Yes—The supreme high god can see inside heart/mind (hidden motives):Yes—The supreme high god knows your basic character (personal essence):Yes—The supreme high god knows what will happen to you, what you will do(future sight):No—The supreme high god has other knowledge of this world:Yes [specify]: Can predict future, but not perfectly—The supreme high god has deliberate causal efficacy in the world:Yes—The supreme high god can reward:Yes—The supreme high god can punish:Robertson, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 13 of 41Yes—The supreme high god has indirect causal efficacy in the world:Yes—The supreme high god exhibits positive emotion:Yes—The supreme high god exhibits negative emotion:Yes—The supreme high god possesses hunger:Yes—Is it permissible to worship supernatural beings other than the high god:Yes—The supreme high god possesses/exhibits some other feature:Yes [specify]: Shape-shifting; amorous desires—The supreme high god communicates with the living:Yes—In waking, everyday life:Yes—In dreams:Yes—In trance possession:No—Through divination practices:Yes—Only through religious specialists:Robertson, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 14 of 41No—Only through monarchNo—Other form of communication with living:Yes [specify]: Divinatory practices around animals, natural world, other portents—Previously human spirits are present:Yes—Human spirits can be seen:Yes—Human spirits can be physically felt:Yes—Previously human spirits have knowledge of this world:Yes—Human spirits' knowledge restricted to particular domain of humanaffairs:Yes—Human spirits' knowledge restricted to (a) specific area(s) within thesample region:Notes: Heroes or human spirits often tied to particular placesYes—Human spirits' knowledge unrestricted within the sample region:Notes: In theory, spirits can move a variety of placesYes—Human spirits' knowledge unrestricted outside of sample region:Notes: In theory, heroes / spirits can influence affairs outside of Roman EmpireYes—Robertson, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 15 of 41Human spirits can see you everywhere normally visible (in public):Yes—Human spirits can see you everywhere (in the dark, at home):Yes—Human spirit's can see inside heart/mind (hidden motives):Notes: Potentially, but not necessarilyYes—Human spirits know your basic character (personal essence):Notes: Potentially, but not necessarilyYes—Human spirits know what will happen to you, what you will do (futuresight):No—Human spirits have other form(s) of knowledge regarding this world:Yes [specify]: Events past especially—Human spirits have deliberate causal efficacy in the world:Yes—Human spirits can reward:Yes—Human spirits can punish:Yes—Human spirits have indirect causal efficacy in the world:Yes—Human spirits have memory of life:Yes—Human spirits exhibit positive emotion:Robertson, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 16 of 41Yes—Human spirits exhibit negative emotion:Yes—Human spirits communicate with the living:Yes—In waking, everyday life:Yes—In dreams:Yes—In trance possession:No—Through divination processes:Yes—Only through specialists:Yes—Only through monarch:No—Communicate with living through other means:Yes [specify]: Natural portents—Non-human supernatural beings are present:Yes—These supernatural beings can be seen:Yes—These supernatural beings can be physically felt:Robertson, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 17 of 41Yes—Non-human supernatural beings have knowledge of this world:Yes—Non-human supernatural beings have knowledge restricted toparticular domain of human affairs:Yes—Non-human supernatural beings have knowledge restricted to (a)specific area(s) within the sample region:Yes—Non-human supernatural beings have knowledge unrestricted withinthe sample region:No—Non-human supernatural beings have knowledge unrestricted outsideof sample region:No—Non-human supernatural beings have can see you everywhere normallyvisible (in public):Yes—Non-human supernatural beings can see you everywhere (in the dark, athome):No—Non-human supernatural beings can see inside heart/mind (hiddenmotives):Yes—Non-human supernatural beings knows your basic character (personalessence):Yes—Non-human supernatural beings know what will happen to you, whatyou will do (future sight):Robertson, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 18 of 41No—Non-human supernatural begins have other knowledge of this world:Yes [specify]: Past events especially—Non-human supernatural beings have deliberate causal efficacy in the world:Yes—These supernatural beings can reward:Yes—These supernatural beings can punish:Yes—These supernatural beings have indirect causal efficacy in the world:Yes—These supernatural beings exhibit positive emotion:Yes—These supernatural beings exhibit negative emotion:Yes—These supernatural beings possess hunger:Yes—These supernatural beings possess/exhibit some other feature:Yes [specify]: Some can shape-shift; others tied to particular geographic features—Mixed human-divine beings are present:Yes—These mixed human-divine beings can be seen:Yes—These mixed human-divine beings can be physically felt:Robertson, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 19 of 41Yes—Mixed human-divine beings have knowledge of this world:Yes—These mixed human-divine beings have deliberate causal efficacy in the world:Yes—These mixed human-divine beings can reward:Yes—These mixed human-divine beings can punish:Yes—These mixed human-divine beings have indirect causal efficacy in the world:Yes—These mixed human-divine beings exhibit positive emotion:Yes—These mixed human-divine beings exhibit negative emotion:Yes—These mixed human-divine beings possess hunger:Yes—These mixed human-divine beings possess/exhibit some other feature:Yes [specify]: Often tied to particular geographic feature—Mixed human-divine beings communicate with the living:Yes—In waking, everyday life:Yes—In dreams:Robertson, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 20 of 41Supernatural MonitoringIs supernatural monitoring present:Yes—In trance possession:No—Through divination practices:Yes—Only through religious specialists:No—Only through monarch:No—Other form of communication with living:Yes [specify]: In Underworld; at particular geographic locations—Does the religious group possess a pantheon of supernatural beings:Yes—Organized by kinship based on a family model:Yes—Organized hierarchically:Yes—Power of beings is domain specific:Notes: Mostly; crossover is possibleYes—Other organization for pantheon:Yes [specify]: Also highly diffuse at certain times; non-systematic understanding ofpantheon—Robertson, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 21 of 41This refers to surveillance by supernatural beings of humans’ behaviour and/or thought particularly as itrelates to social norms or potential norm violations.Yes—There is supernatural monitoring of prosocial norm adherence in particular:Prosocial norms are norms that enhance cooperation among members of the group, includingobviously “moral” or “ethical” norms, but also extending to norms concerning honouring contractsand oaths, providing hospitality, coming to mutual aid in emergencies, etc.No—Supernatural beings care about taboos:Yes—Food:No—Sacred space(s):Yes—Sacred object(s):Yes—Supernatural beings care about other:Yes [specify]: They can compete with or help one another—Supernatural beings care about murder of coreligionists:Yes—Supernatural beings care about murder of members of other religions:No—Supernatural beings care about murder of members of other polities:No—Supernatural beings care about sex:Yes—Robertson, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 22 of 41Adultery:Yes—Incest:Yes—Other sexual practices:Yes [specify]: Animalphilia—Supernatural beings care about lying:No—Supernatural beings care about honouring oaths:Yes—Supernatural beings care about laziness:No—Supernatural beings care about sorcery:No—Supernatural beings care about non-lethal fighting:No—Supernatural beings care about shirking risk:No—Supernatural beings care about disrespecting elders:Yes—Supernatural beings care about gossiping:No—Supernatural beings care about property crimes:Yes—Robertson, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 23 of 41Do supernatural beings mete out punishment:Supernatural beings care about proper ritual observance:Yes—Supernatural beings care about performance of rituals:Yes—Supernatural beings care about conversion of non-religionists:No—Supernatural beings care about economic fairness:No—Supernatural beings care about personal hygiene:Yes—Supernatural beings care about other:Yes [specify]: Compete or aid one another—Yes—Is the cause or agent of supernatural punishment known:Notes: Cause is usually but not always known; it is frequently inferredYes—Done only by high god:No—Done by many supernatural beings:Yes—Done through impersonal cause-effect principle:Yes—Done by other entities or through other means [specify]Yes—Robertson, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 24 of 41Notes: Other, lesser entities can do the will of higher godsIs the reason for supernatural punishment known:Yes—Done to enforce religious ritual-devotional adherence:Yes—Done to enforce group norms:No—Done to inhibit selfishness:No—Done randomly:Yes—Other [specify]Notes: Can be done as part of proxy war against other gods or groupsYes—Supernatural punishments are meted out in the afterlife:Notes: Underworld is for all people; some believe that there is a sort of paradise after death(Elysium Fields); matter of debateField doesn't know—Supernatural punishments are meted out in this lifetime:Yes—Supernatural punishments in this life are highly emphasized by the religiousgroup:Yes—Punishment in this life consists of bad luck:Yes—Punishment in this life consists of political failure:Robertson, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 25 of 41Do supernatural beings bestow rewards:Yes—Punishment in this life consists of defeat in battle:Yes—Punishment in this life consists of crop failure or bad weather:Yes—Punishment in this life consists of disaster on journeys.Yes—Punishment in this life consists of mild sensory displeasure:No—Punishment in this life consists of extreme sensory displeasure:No—Punishment in this life consists of sickness or illness:Yes—Punishment in this life consists of impaired reproduction:Yes—Punishment in this life consists of bad luck visited on descendants:Yes—Other [specify]Notes: Direct harm or death possible, especially via natureYes—Yes—Is the cause/purpose of supernatural rewards known:Yes—Robertson, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 26 of 41Done only by high god:No—Done by many supernatural beings:Yes—Done through impersonal cause-effect principle:Yes—Done to enforce religious ritual-devotional adherence:Yes—Done to enforce group norms:No—Done to inhibit selfishness:No—Done randomly:Yes—Supernatural rewards are bestowed out in the afterlife:Yes—Supernatural rewards in the afterlife are highly emphasized by the religiousgroup:No—Reward in the afterlife consists of mild sensory pleasure:Field doesn't know—Reward in the afterlife consists of extreme sensory pleasure:Field doesn't know—Reward in the afterlife consists of eternal happiness:Yes—Robertson, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 27 of 41Reward in the afterlife consists of reincarnation as a superior life form:No—Reward in the afterlife consists of reincarnation in a superior realm:Yes—Other [specify]Notes: See note on punishments after death; Elysium Fields are subject to debate as tobreadth of beliefYes—Supernatural rewards are bestowed out in this lifetime:Yes—Supernatural rewards in this life are highly emphasized by the religious group:Yes—Reward in this life consists of good luck:Yes—Reward in this life consists of political success or power:Yes—Reward in this life consists of success in battle:Yes—Reward in this life consists of peace or social stability:Yes—Reward in this life consists of healthy crops or good weather:Yes—Reward in this life consists of success on journeys:Yes—Reward in this life consists of mild sensory pleasure:No—Robertson, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 28 of 41Messianism/EschatologyAre messianic beliefs present:Is an eschatology present:Norms and Moral RealismAre general social norms prescribed by the religious group:Is there a conventional vs. moral distinction in the religious group:Reward in this life consists of extreme sensory pleasure:No—Reward in this life consists of enhanced health:Yes—Reward in this life consists of enhanced reproductive success:Yes—Reward in this life consists of fortune visited on descendants:Yes—Other [specify]Notes: Material wealth; enhanced beauty; long life; worshipped after death as hero; etc.Yes—No—No—Yes—Yes—What is the nature of this distinction:Present (but not emphasized)—Are specifically moral norms prescribed by the religious group:Yes—Robertson, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 29 of 41Are there centrally important virtues advocated by the religious group:Specifically moral norms are implicitly linked to vague metaphysical concepts:Yes—Specifically moral norms are explicitly linked to vague metaphysical entities:Yes—Specifically moral norms are linked to impersonal cosmic order (e.g. karma):No—Specifically moral norms are linked in some way to an anthropomorphicbeing:Yes—Specifically moral norms are linked explicitly to commands ofanthropomorphic being:No—Specifically moral norms are have no special connection to metaphysical:Yes—Moral norms apply to:Only specialized religious class—Only one class of society—Only one gender—All individuals within society (excepting slaves, aliens)—All individuals within society—Yes—Honesty / trustworthiness / integrity:Yes—Courage (in battle):Yes—Courage (generic):Robertson, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 30 of 41Yes—Compassion / empathy / kindness / benevolence:Yes—Mercy / forgiveness / tolerance:No—Generosity / charity:No—Selflessness / selfless giving:Yes—Righteousness / moral rectitude:Yes—Ritual purity / ritual adherence / abstention from sources of impurity:Yes—Respectfulness / courtesy:No—Familial obedience / filial piety:Yes—Fidelity / loyalty:Yes—Cooperation:No—Independence / creativity / freedom:No—Moderation / frugality:Robertson, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 31 of 41Yes—Forbearance / fortitude / patience:Yes—Diligence / self-discipline / excellence:Yes—Assertiveness / decisiveness / confidence / initiative:Yes—Strength (physical):Yes—Power / status / nobility:Yes—Humility / modesty:No—Contentment / serenity / equanimity:No—Joyfulness / enthusiasm / cheerfulness:Yes—Optimism / hope:Yes—Gratitude / thankfulness:Yes—Reverence / awe / wonder:Yes—Faith / belief / trust / devotion:Robertson, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 32 of 41PracticesMembership Costs and PracticesDoes membership in this religious group require celibacy (full sexual abstinence):Does membership in this religious group require constraints on sexual activity (partial sexualabstinence):Does membership in this religious group require castration:Does membership in this religious group require fasting:Does membership in this religious group require forgone food opportunities (taboos ondesired foods):Yes—Wisdom / understanding:Yes—Discernment / intelligence:Yes—Beauty / attractiveness:Yes—Cleanliness (physical) / orderliness:Yes—Other important virtues advocated by the religious group:Yes [specify]: Militarism—No—No—No—Yes—No—Robertson, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 33 of 41Does membership in this religious group require permanent scarring or painful bodilyalterations:Does membership in this religious group require painful physical positions or transitorypainful wounds:Does membership in this religious group require sacrifice of adults:"Adults" here referring to an emic or indigenous category; if that category is different from the popularWestern definition of a human who is 18-years-old or older and who is legally responsible for his/heractions, then please specify that difference in the Comments/Sources: box below.Does membership in this religious group require sacrifice of children:"Children" here referring to an emic or indigenous category; if that category is different from the popularWestern definition, please specify that different in the Comments/Sources: box below.Does membership in this religious group require self-sacrifice (suicide):Does membership in this religious group require sacrifice of property/valuable items:Does membership in this religious group require sacrifice of time (e.g., attendance atmeetings or services, regular prayer, etc.):Does membership in this religious group require physical risk taking:Does membership in this religious group require accepting ethical precepts:Does membership in this religious group require marginalization by out-group members:No—No—No—No—No—No—Yes—No—No—No—Robertson, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 34 of 41Does membership in this religious group require participation in small-scale rituals (private,household):Does membership in this religious group require participation in large-scale rituals:I.e. involving two or more households; includes large-scale “ceremonies” and “festivals.”Yes—What is the average interval of time between performances (in hours):Performances here refers to large-scale rituals.Field doesn't know—Yes—On average, for large-scale rituals how many participants gather in one location:Notes: This can and did vary widelyNumber of participants: 100—What is the average interval of time between performances (in hours):Performances here refers to small-scale rituals.Field doesn't know—Are there orthodoxy checks:Orthodoxy checks are mechanisms used to ensure that rituals are interpreted in a standardizedway, e.g. through the supervisory prominence of a professionalized priesthood or other system ofgovernance, appeal to texts detailing the proper interpretation, etc.Yes—Are there orthopraxy checks:Orthopraxy checks are mechanisms used to ensure that rituals are performed in a standardizedway, e.g. through the supervisory prominence of a professionalized priesthood or other system ofgovernance, appeal to texts detailing the proper procedure, etc.Yes—Does participation entail synchronic practices:No—Is there use of intoxicants:No—Robertson, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 35 of 41Are extra-ritual in-group markers present:E.g. special changes to appearance such as circumcision, tattoos, scarification, etc.Does the group employ fictive kinship terminology:Society and InstitutionsLevels of Social ComplexityThe society to which the religious group belongs is best characterized as (please chooseone):Yes—Tattoos/scarification:No—Circumcision:No—Food taboos:No—Hair:No—Dress:Yes—Ornaments:Yes—Archaic ritual language:Yes—Other:Field doesn't know—No—Robertson, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 36 of 41Notes: Augurs were a specific class of diviners, within the broader societyWelfareDoes the religious group in question provide institutionalized famine relief:Is famine relief available to the group's adherents through an institution(s) other than thereligious group in question:Does the religious group in question provide institutionalized poverty relief:Is poverty relief available to the group's adherents through an institution(s) other than thereligious group in question:Does the religious group in question provide institutionalized care for the elderly and infirm:Is institutionalized care for the elderly and infirm available to the group's adherents throughan institution(s) other than the religious group in question:EducationDoes the religious group provide formal education to its adherents:An empire—A state—Other [specify in comments]—No—Yes—No—Yes—No—Field doesn't know—Yes—Is formal education restricted to religious professionals:No—Is such education open to both males and females:No—Robertson, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 37 of 41Is formal education available to the group’s adherents through an institution(s) other thanthe religious group:BureaucracyDo the group’s adherent’s interact with a formal bureaucracy within their group:Do the group’s adherents interact with other institutional bureaucracies:Public WorksDoes the religious group in question provide public food storage:Is public food storage provided to the group’s adherents by an institution(s) other than thereligious group in question:Does the religious group in question provide water management (irrigation, flood control):Is water management provided to the group’s adherents by an institution(s) other than thereligious group in question:Does the religious group in question provide transportation infrastructure:Is transportation infrastructure provided for the group’s adherents by an institution(s) otherthan the religious group in question:Yes—Is extra-religious education open to both males and females:Yes—Yes—Yes—No—Yes—No—Yes—No—Yes—Robertson, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 38 of 41TaxationDoes the religious group in question levy taxes or tithes:Are taxes levied on the group’s adherents by an institution(s) other than the religious group inquestion:EnforcementDoes the religious group in question provide an institutionalized police force:Do the group’s adherents interact with an institutionalized police force provided by aninstitution(s) other than the religious group in question:Does the religious group in question provide institutionalized judges:Do the group’s adherents interact with an institutionalized judicial system provided by an aninstitution(s) other than the religious group in question:Does the religious group in question enforce institutionalized punishment:Are the group’s adherents subject to institutionalized punishment enforced by aninstitution(s) other than the religious group in question:No—Yes—No—Yes—No—Yes—No—Yes—Do the institutionalized punishments include execution:Yes—Do the institutionalized punishments include exile:Yes—Robertson, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 39 of 41Does the religious group in question have a formal legal code:Are the group’s adherents subject to a formal legal code provided by institution(s) other thanthe religious group in question:WarfareDoes religious group in question possess an institutionalized military:Do the group’s adherents participate in an institutionalized military provided byinstitution(s) other than the religious group in question:Are the group’s adherents protected by or subject to an institutionalized military providedby an institution(s) other than the religious group in question:Written LanguageDoes the religious group in question possess its own distinct written language:Is a non-religion-specific written language available to the group’s adherents through aninstitution(s) other than the religious group in question:Do the institutionalized punishments include corporal punishments:Yes—Do the institutionalized punishments include ostracism:Yes—Do the institutionalized punishments include seizure of property:Yes—No—Yes—No—No—Yes—No—Yes—Robertson, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 40 of 41Is a non-religion-specific written language used by the group’s adherents through aninstitution(s) other than the religious group in question:CalendarDoes the religious group in question possess a formal calendar:Is a formal calendar provided for the group’s adherents by an institution(s) other than thereligious group in question:Food ProductionDoes the religious group in question provide food for themselves:Is food provided to the group’s adherents by an institution(s) other than the religious groupin question:Yes—No—Yes—No—Yes—Please characterize the forms/levels of food production [choose all that apply]:Notes: Rome received tithes in the form of food (often grain) from its subject statesFishing—Patoralism—Small-scale agriculture / horticultural gardens or orchards—Large-scale agriculture (e.g., monocropping, organized irrigation systems)—Other [specify in comments]—Robertson, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 41 of 41

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