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The Arch of Constantine Rodríguez, Gretel Dec 26, 2018

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Poll: Religious Place (v1) Published on: 26 December 2018Date Range: 312 CE - 315 CERegion: RomeRegion tags: Europe, Western Europe, Rome, ItalyCity of Rome in the late first and early secondcenturies CE.The Arch of ConstantineBy Gretel Rodríguez, Brown UniversityEntry tags: Constantine, Triumphal Arch, Monument, PlaceHonorific arch built in Rome to celebrate the new emperor Constantine, after his victory over Maxentius atthe Battle of the Milvian Bridge (312 CE).Status of Participants:✓ Elite ✓ Religious Specialists ✓ Non-elite (common people, general populace)General VariablesSources and ExcavationsPrint SourcesPrint sources used for understanding this subject:Has this place been the focus of excavation (pre-modern, illicit, or scientific):Answer 'Yes' for each period or type of excavation.Source 1: L'Orange, H. P. and A. von Gerkan. Der Spätantike Bildschmuck Des Konstantinsbogens.Berlin: De Gruyter, 1939—Source 2: Pensabene, P. and C. Panella. Arco di Costantino tra archeologia e archeometria. Roma:"L'Erma" di Bretschneider, 1999—Source 3: Wilson Jones, M. “Genesis and Mimesis: The Design of the Arch of Constantine in Rome.”Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 59 (2000): 50-77—Source 1: Marlowe, E. “Framing the Sun: The Arch of Constantine and the Roman Cityscape.” The ArtBulletin 88 (2006): 223-242.—Source 2: Peirce, P. “The Arch of Constantine: Propaganda and Ideology in Late Roman Art.” Art History12 (1989): 387-418.—Source 3: Frothingham, A. L. “Who Built the Arch of Constantine? Its History from Domitian toConstantine.” AJA 16 (1912): 368-386—Yes—Type of excavation:DOI: URL: https://religiondatabase.org/browse/653This work is licensed under the Creative CommonsAttribution 4.0 International license.Please see our Terms of Use here:https://religiondatabase.org/about/creditsPage 1 of 22© 2019 Database of Religious History.The University of British Columbia.For any questions contactproject.manager@religiondatabase.orgTopographical ContextIs the place associated with a feature in the landscapeNotes: The monument stands in the city of Rome, in what is known today as the "Colosseum Valley" toindicate the low area between the Palatine, Caelian, and Opian hills.Does the place involve human-made features besides structure:Other features might be ground clearing, terracing, other modifications of the local environment.Is the place situated in an urban or siginificantly urbanized area:Notes: The most recent excavations of the monument were carried out concurrently by twoteams of Italian archaeologists. For the results see, Pensabene, P. “The Arch of Constantine:marble samples,” In Classical Marble: Geochemistry, Technology, Trade, edited by N. Herz, 411-18. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1988; Pensabene, P. and C. Panella. Arco di Costantino tra archeologia earcheometria. Roma: "L'Erma" di Bretschneider, 1999; Melucco Vaccaro A. and A. M. Ferroni.“Chi costruì l’Arco di Costantino? Un interrogativo ancora attuale.” Rendiconti. PontificiaAccademia Romana di Archeologia 66 (1993-94): 1-76.Scientific—Years of excavation:Year range: 1990-1999—Name of excavationOfficial or descriptive name: NA—Other [specify]: Valley—Yes—Type of featureNotes: The arch stands in a densely built area in close proximity to the Flavian Amphitheater(Colosseum), and with a fountain dating to the Flavian period (late first century CE), known asthe Meta Sudans. Other nearby buildings include several temples including the Hadrianictemple of Venus and Roma, a sanctuary possibly identified with the Curiae Veteres, and thecolossal statue of Sol. See Panella, C.; Zeggio, S. and Ferrandes, A. F. “Lo scavo delle pendicinord-orientali del Palatino tra dati acquisti e nuove evidenze.” Scienze dell’Antichità 20 (2014):159-210; Panella, C. “La Valle del Colosseo nell’Antichità.” Bollettino di Archeologia 1-2 (1990): 34-88; Panella, C. “Meta Sudans.” LTUR 3 (1996): 247-9; Panella, C. and S. Zeggio. “Indagini traPalatino e valle del Colosseo: nuovi dati.” Workshop di Archeologia Classica 1 (2004): 65-87.Leveling of ground—Water feature—Yes—Rodríguez, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 2 of 22Is the place situated in a rural setting:Is the place situated far removed from non-religious places of habitation:Notes: The built area around this place included residential structures as well as civic buildings.Structures PresentAre there structures or features present:Instructions: Answer for each structure/feature or group that can be differentiated.Is there a distinct boundary between the place and the urban fabric:No—Is the place located significantly within the urban fabric:Is the place centrally located, or at the crossroads of significant pathways?Yes—No—No—Yes—A single structureYes—The structure has a definite shapeOther [specify]: A triple arch structure—One single featureOther [specify]: NA—A group of structures:Yes—Are they part of a single design/construction stage:Notes: This place is the location of an accumulation of buildings over centuries.No—A group of features:Rodríguez, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 3 of 22Yes—Are they part of a single design/construction stage:No—Is it part of a larger place/sanctuary:No—What is the function of the structure/feature or group:Yes—Function:Notes: As with many ancient monuments, it is difficult to define the specific function ofthis monument. It has political, honorific, and religious associations (among others).The imagery seems to point to a primarily commemorative function, to celebrateConstantine's ascension to power after defeating his rival Maxentius.Other [specify]: Commemorative, politcal, honorific.—Is the structure/feature finished:Yes—Was the structure/feature intended to last beyond a generation:Yes—Was the structure/feature modified through time:Notes: Roman buildings tended to be renovated periodically and in later centuries,modified or incorporated into other construction.Yes—Was the structure/feature destroyed:No—Has the structure/feature been reconstructed:Yes—In antiquityNotes: Again, regular reconstructions/repairs were routine.More than once—Rodríguez, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 4 of 22Reasons for Creation/Construction/ConsecrationIs the place used for the worship of/communication with non-human supernatural beings:Is the place used for the worship of a semi-divine human being:Notes: Not strictly speaking, although at this time the emperor was seen as a godly figure in literatureand in visual representation.Is the place used for the worship of non-divine ancestors:Was the place commissioned/built by an official political entity:A political entity is a local power structure that leverages a workforce.Were the Structures built by specific groups of people:In modernityPost-Renaissance—No—No—No—Yes—SpecifyNotes: The inscription on the attic of the arch uses the formula SPQR (Senatus PopulusqueRomanus=the senate and the people of Rome) to indicate the dedication. The text reads: IMPCAES FL CONSTANTINO MAXIMO // P F AVGVSTO S P Q R // QVOD INSTINCTV DIVINITATISMENTIS // MAGNITVDINE CVM EXERCITVS SVO // TAM DE TYRANNO QVAM DE OMNI EIVS //FACTIONE VNO TEMPORE IVSTIS //REM PVBLICAM VLTVS EST ARMIS // ARCUM TRIUMPHISINSIGNEM DICAVIT (To the Emperor Flavius Constantinus Maximus Father of the Homeland,the Senate and the Roman People, because with inspiration from a divinity and the might ofhis intelligence, together with his army he took revenge by just arms on the tyrant and hisfollowing at one and the same time, have dedicated this arch made proud by triumphs) CIL6.1139.Council of elders—Other [specify]: The Roman Senate—Yes—Groups:Slaves—Men—Rodríguez, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 5 of 22Was the place thought to have originated as the result of divine intervention:Was the place created as the birthplace of a supernatural or human being:Was the place created as the result of an event:Was the creation of the place sponsored by external financial/material donation:Was the establishment of the place motivated by:Notes: It would be possible to interpret the dedication as thanks to the unidentified deity expressedwith the phrase "instinctu divinitatis" for Constantine's victory over Maxentius.Was the place built specifically for housing scriptures/sacred texts:Design and Material RemainsNotes: Although there is no evidence for individual workers/artists/architects, artists at thistime tended to be foreigners and non elite individuals.Specialized labourers/craftspeople—Yes—SpecifyNotes: The dedicatory inscription indicates an ambiguous deity which helped Constantine winthe Battle of the Milvian Bridge, the principal event that seems to have motivated theconstruction of the arch. The phrase "instinctu divinitatis" has been interpreted as referring toeither the Christian god or as a more ambiguous reference to a Pagan deity, likely Sol Invictus.For the text see above, CIL 6.1139 and see fig. 3Revealed by other kind of supernatural being(s) [specify]: 'instinctu divinitatis' (see note below)—No—Yes—SpecifyNotes: The arch celebrates Constantine's victory over Maxentius at the Battle of the MilvianBridge in 312. The arch must have been built between that year and the year of the dedication315.War/battle—Field doesn't know—Thanksgiving to a god/gods for favor received—No—Rodríguez, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 6 of 22Overall StructureIs the place made up of multiple built structures:Notes: The arch is a freestanding structure, although it bears close connection with other architecturalmonuments that stand nearby.Is monumental architecture present:Monumental architecture is defined here as a built structure that surpasses average human proportionsand in general is larger and more complex than is necessary to fulfill the structure's utilitarian function(s).Examples of monumental architecture include Mesopotamian Ziggurats, Egyptian Pyramids, Greek andRoman temples, Mesoamerican Pyramids, North American and Aegean burial mounds, etc.Is the structure/feature made out of natural materials:Answer [Yes] for each material typeNo—Yes—In the average place, what percentage of area is taken up by built monuments:Percentage: 100—Footprint of largest single religious monument, square meters:Notes: Approximate area of the plan of the building in metersSquare meters: 116.8—Height of largest single religious monument, meters:Notes: This refers to the arch itself as it looks today. There is the remote possibility that the archsupported statues in the attic, but this is unlikely.Height, meters: 21—Size of average monument, square meters:Field doesn't know—Height of average monument, meters:Notes: Again, referring to one single freestanding arch.Height, meters: 21—Yes—EarthRodríguez, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 7 of 22No—SandNotes: Although sand could have been used in the parts of the monument built of concrete(cement).No—ClayNo—PlasterNo—WoodNotes: Wood was likely used in scaffolding and forms during the construction process and inlater restorations.Yes—Is this material sourced locally:Yes—Is this material lacking in the local natural environment:No—GrassNo—StoneYes—Is this material sourced locally:Notes: Some parts of the marble employed were local, such as the Luna (modernCarrara) marble employed on the frieze and the Hadrianic tondi. Other elements weremade of imported marbles.Yes—Is this material lacking in the local natural environment:No—Rodríguez, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 8 of 22Is the structure/feature made out of human-made materialsDecorationIs decoration present:Notes: The arch is entirely constructed of reused marble elements. Those include the blocksthat form the inside armature as well as the revetment and the spolia. The spolia (reliefs andarchitectural elements taken from other monuments) are composed of different types ofmarble, including: pavonazzetto and cipollino for the statues, giallo antico for the columns andpilasters, and red porphyry for the revetment around the tondi, among others. For the marblessee primarily, Pensabene, P. “The Arch of Constantine: marble samples,” In Classical Marble:Geochemistry, Technology, Trade, edited by N. Herz, 411-18. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1988.Notes: Marble could be easily obtained in Italy after the opening of the Luna quarries(modern Carrara). However, builders often employed imported marble to use in bothstructural and decorative elements. These imported marbles were considered asymbol of the ever expanding power of the empire, which could control valuableresources throughout the Mediterranean. See commentaries in various ancientauthors such as Pliny the Elder (Plin. NH 36.5-7); Seneca (Sen. Ep. 86.6); Statius (Stat.Silv. 1.5). For modern studies see, Kinney, D, “Roman Architectural Spolia.” Proceedingsof the American Philosophical Society 145 (2001): 138-61.No—OtherField doesn't know—Yes [specify]: Concrete (cement) possibly—Yes—Is decoration part of the building (permanent):Yes—On the outside:Yes—On the inside:Notes: Although not visible, many marble blocks that were used inside the structurecontain decoration since they had been previously used in other monuments. SeePensabene, P. “The Arch of Constantine: marble samples,” In Classical Marble:Geochemistry, Technology, Trade, edited by N. Herz, 411-18. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1988.No—Rodríguez, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 9 of 22Is decoration attached to the building, i.e. movable reliefs or tapestriesField doesn't know—Is the decoration figural:A figural representation is defined here as one that contains the depiction of discernible human,anthropomorphic, animal, or zoomorphic forms. In general, it differentiates between animateand inanimate beings, as well as between narrative compositions and still life, landscapes,abstraction, etc. Answer [Yes] for each type of figure depictedYes—Are there gods depicted:Notes: There are gods and personifications depicted in various parts of the monument.The Hadrianic tondi (roundels, fig. 4) feature statues of several gods. These include:Diana, Silvanus, Hercules, and Apollo. There are also depictions of personifications suchas Victory and various allegorical figures (see below). Overall, the arch also seems tohave had a strong association with Sol Invictus. The monument frames a colossalstatue of Sol that stood a few meters beyond, next to the podium of the Temple ofVenus and Roma, see Marlowe, E. “Framing the Sun: The Arch of Constantine and theRoman Cityscape.” The Art Bulletin 88 (2006): 223-242.Yes—Are there other supernatural beings depicted:Notes: There are personifications of Victory in the northwest section of the frieze, thecentral spandrels (both north and south), and the column pedestals (fig. 5). There arealso personifications of the seasons (central spandrels, below Victories) and of rivers inthe lateral spandrels. Another depiction of Victory appears in the central bay relief.There are depictions of Sol and Luna on the tondi in the east and west facadesrespectively.Yes—Are there humans depicted:Notes: These include generic representations of the people of Rome, various depictionsof emperor Constantine and his close followers. On the spoliated reliefs, originally frommonuments commissioned under Trajan, Hadrian, and Marcus Aurelius, the heads ofthese previous emperors were recarved to represent the new emperor.Yes—Are there animals depicted:Notes: Mostly horses in battle and ceremonial scenes, but also oxen, pigs, sheep, andbulls as part of the depictions of sacrifices. See especially sacrificial scene in thesouthwest Aurelian panel (fig. 7)Yes—Rodríguez, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 10 of 22Are there animal-human hybrids depicted:No—Is the decoration non-figural:Yes—Is it geometric/abstractNotes: This includes traditional architectural ornaments in the cornices, archivolts, etc.Yes—Floral motifsYes—Is it writing/caligraphyNotes: Besides the main dedicatory text described above, the arch has severalinscriptions. They appear above the Hadrianic Tondi: VOTIS X and VOTIS XX (repeatedas SIC X, SIC XX), which some interpret as a reference to Constantine's decennial andvicennial jubilees (Richardson, L. Jr "The Date and Program of the Arch of Constantine,"Archeologia Classica 27: (1975), 72-78.). Inside the bay, the reliefs belonging to the so-called Great Trajanic Frieze include the captions: LIBERATORI URBIS (to the liberator ofthe city), and with FUNDATORI QUIETIS (to the founder of peace).Yes—Other [Specify]Other [specify]: Not known—Is the decoration hidden or restricted from view:Yes—Can the decoration be revealed:Notes: This decoration was most likely not intended for viewing. It consists of fragmentsof marble with minor carved decorations which were reused in the internal structureof the monument. Therefore, its presence is the byproduct of the construction process.Field doesn't know—Are there statues present:Yes—Cult statues:Rodríguez, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 11 of 22No—Statues of gods/supernatural beings:Field doesn't know—Statues of humans:Notes: The monument features eight statues of Dacian prisoners above the columnsthat frame the facades (fig. 8). These are similar to statues of Dacians that appear inother Roman moments. These were reused from previous monuments and scholarshave traditionally assumed that they were removed from another structure stillstanding. The Forum of Trajan might have been a source, although it is unlikely thatthe complex was spoliated in the fourth century. Instead, it is possible that the statueswere brought from warehouses where they were being mass-produced or stored forreuse after their original locations were destroyed. Seven of the eight original Dacianstatues were replaced with replicas in the eighteenth century.Yes—Other [Specify]Notes: Scholars debate whether this art had the traditional statue group above theattic. There is numismatic, textual, and archaeological evidence for this regarding otherarches (see for instance coins depicting the Arch of Septimius Severus in the RomanForum). However, the archaeological evidence for this monument suggests it did nothave the traditional statue group, and instead there was a short stone parapet aroundthe attic, see Magi, F. “Il coronamento dell'arco di Costantino.” Rendiconti dellaPontificia Accademia Romana di Archeologia RPAA 29 (1956-1957): 83-110.Other [specify]: Attic statuary (debated)—Are there reliefs present:A relief—as opposed to sculpture carved on the round—is a work of sculpture in which the figuresproject from a background support, generally a flat surface. Reliefs can be carved out of stone,clay, or a similar material.Notes: There are several reliefs attached to the surfaces of the structure. They include foursegments of the so-called Great Trajanic Frieze, eight Hadrianic tondi, eight Aurelian panels, aConstantinian frieze, two Constantinian tondi, as well as carved figures on all the columnpedestals.Yes—Reliefs representing the god(s) worshipped at the place:Notes: There was not formal worship at the place, as far as we know.No—Reliefs representing mythological narratives:Rodríguez, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 12 of 22Notes: Although there are gods and personifications represented often, the narrativeaspects of this arch are primarily concerned with human events.No—Reliefs representing human/historical narratives:Notes: Mostly evident in the Great Trajanic Frieze, where Trajan is crowned by Victory inthe midst of a battle scene, and in the smaller Constantinian frieze that narrates theevents leading to Constantine's victory and entry into Rome after the battle of theMilvian Bridge.Yes—Other [Specify]Other [specify]: na—Are there paintings present:Notes: Although there were probably not paintings in the traditional sense, most of thesculpture attached to the body of the arch was likely painted.No—Are there mosaics present:No—Are there inscriptions as part of the decoration:Yes—Are the inscriptions ornamental:Notes: As is the case in most Roman monuments, the inscriptions attached to thestructures had an aesthetic as well as a declaratory function. The text consisted ofgilded bronze letters, which have since disappeared leaving only the markings wherethey were originally attached (see fig. 3).Yes—Are the inscriptions informative/declarative[e.g. historical narratives, calendars, donor lists etc...Notes: The inscription provides the official version of the monument's dedication aswell as its dedicators (Senate and People of Rome). See above.Yes—Are the inscription a formal dedication:Yes—Rodríguez, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 13 of 22IconographyAre there distinct features in the places iconography:Notes: See fig. 3Other [Specify]Other [specify]: NA—Other type of decoration:Field doesn't know—Yes—Eyes (stylized or not)Notes: On the figures carved in the fourth century (and on those faces that were recarved atthe same time), including the portraits of Constantine, the eyes tend to be wide open and havewhat scholars have called heavenward gaze. See Bardill, J., "Constantine, Divine Emperor of theChristian Golden Age" (New York , 2015), 19 and passim.Yes—Supernatural beings (zoomorphic)No—Supernatural beings (geomorphic)Notes: If we include personifications of rivers.Yes—Supernatural beings (anthropomorphic)Notes: Personifications such as Victory and Sol.Yes—Supernatural being (abstract)Notes: The reference to "a divinity" that inspired Constantine in his victory over Maxentius hasbeen read as an ambiguous reference to the Christian god, which at this time had a strong"abstract" character.Yes—Portrayals of afterlifeRodríguez, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 14 of 22Beliefs and PracticesFunerary AssociationsIs this palce a tomb/burial:Is this a place for the worship of the dead:Is this a place for treatment of the corpse:Are co-sacrifices present in tomb/burial:Co-sacrifices are animal/human sacrifices prompted by the death of the primary occuptant of thetomb/burial.Are grave goods present:No—Aspects of doctrine (e.g. cross, trinity, Mithraic symbols)Field doesn't know—HumansYes—Supernatural narrativesYes—Human narrativesNotes: Mainly the Constantinian frieze (south facade), which narrates events of the Battle ofthe Milvian Bridge (see fig. 8).Yes—Other [Specify]Other [specify]: NA—No—No—No—No—Rodríguez, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 15 of 22Are formal burials present:Supernatural BeingsIs a supreme high god is present:Notes: Not strictly speaking, although the phrase "instinctu divinitatis" in the dedicatory inscription hasbeen interpreted as a reference to the Christian god. There is, however, no direct evidence to supportthis proposition.Does the supreme high god communicates with the living at this place:Are previously human spirits are present:Do human spirits communicate with the living at this place:Are nonhuman supernatural beings are present:Do nonhuman spirits communicate with the living at this place:Are mixed human-divine beings are present:No—No—No—Field doesn't know—Field doesn't know—Field doesn't know—Field doesn't know—Field doesn't know—Yes—Mixed human-divine spirits can be seen:Notes: If we consider the emperor as a semi-divine being, then perhaps. Although Romanemperors were never considered unequivocally divine, by the Late Antique period, theemperor definitely had a more abstract godlike character.Yes—Mixed human-divine spirits can be phyiscally felt:Rodríguez, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 16 of 22Do mixed human-divine beings communicate with the living at this place:Notes: Not in formal terms, although the messages transmitted by the form and decoration of themonument is a form of communication between the emperor, the gods, and humans.Is the supernatural being/high god present in the form of a cult statue(s):Supernatural InteractionsIs supernatural monitoring present:Do visitors communicate with the gods or supernatural beings:Ritual and PerformanceSacrificices, Offerings, and MaintenanceAre sacrifices performed at this place:Notes: Presumably, there were sacrifices performed at the moment of vowing and dedication of thestructure, as well as part of any triumphal processions associated with it. However, there is no directevidence for this, and the exact location of associated sacrifices is impossible to determine.Field doesn't know—No—No—Field doesn't know—Yes—Do visitors communicate with gods:Notes: Potentially, any visitor who comes in contact with the monument becomes a recipientfor the messages transmitted by the reliefs. These include references to various gods of thetraditional Roman pantheon, as well as a potential reference to the Christian god in the phrase"instinctu divinitatis" on the dedicatory inscription.Yes—Do visitors communicate with other supernatural beings:Notes: Yes, if we consider the encounter a form of visual communication between viewers andthe many deities and personifications represented on the reliefs.Yes—Yes—Rodríguez, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 17 of 22Are there self-sacrifices present:Are material offerings present:Is attendance to worship/sacrifice mandatory:Is maintenance of the place performed:Notes: Generally speaking, there was a system in place for regular maintenance/cleansing ofmonuments in Rome. These tasks were likely performed by slaves owned by the state.Are there animal sacrifices:Field doesn't know—Are there human sacrifices:No—Are the sacrified humans associated in some way:No—No—Field doesn't know—No—Yes—Is it required:Field doesn't know—Is there cleansing (for the maintenance)Yes—Are there periodic repairs/reconstructions:Yes—Is the maintenance performed by permanent staffNotes: Possibly state-owned slavesYes—OtherRodríguez, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 18 of 22Pilgrimage and FestivalsAre pilgrimages present:Is this place a venue for feasting:Notes: Triumphal processions and other public spectacles in ancient Rome culminated with a publicfeast. Since the arch might have often been associated with these parades, it is possible that feastingtook place near the structure, but there is no direct evidence for this.Are festivals present:Notes: There is no one festival associated with this structure in particular, but there were manyfestivals in Rome and given its central location, it is safe to assume that the arch participated inthem in some ways.Divination and HealingIs divination present:Other [specify]: na—No—Field doesn't know—Yes—Frequency of festivalsspecify: Not known—Do all members of the society participate in the festival(s):All members—Are festivals a defining element in the construction/decoration of the place:No—On average, how many participants gather at this place:number: 1,000,000—Is feasting part of the festival(s)Field doesn't know—Field doesn't know—Rodríguez, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 19 of 22Is healing present/practiced at this place:Do rituals occur at this place:Institutions and ScripturesReligious SpecialistsAre religious specialists present/in charge of this place:Field doesn't know—Yes—Do large-scale rituals take place:Notes: Considering the Roman Triumph as a ritualYes—Do small-scale rituals take place:Yes—On average how many participants are present in large-scale rituals:Notes: Total average of Roman society at the time of constructionspecify: 1,000,000—How often do these rituals take place:specify: Often, possibly yearly—Are there orthodoxy checks:Yes—Are there orthopraxy checks:Yes—Are there synchonic practices:Field doesn't know—Are there intoxicants used during the ritual:Field doesn't know—Rodríguez, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 20 of 22Religious specialists are individuals who's primary duties within a population group are not concernedwith subsitence or craft production but the maintaince of the religious landscape and culture of thegroup.Does this place incorporate a living space for religious specialists:Is this palce used for the training of religious specialists:Are there formal institutions for the maintenance of the place:institutions that are authorized by the religious community or political leaders)BureaucracyIs there a formal bureaucracy present at this place:A bureaucracy consists of a hierarchical system of accounting and rule maintance primarily concernedwith material wealth.Notes: This applies to the whole of Roman art and architecture, including the bodies in charge ofconstruction and maintenance of buildings such as this arch.Does this place control economic resources (land, goods, tools):Field doesn't know—No—No—Yes—Yes—Is a bureaucracy present permanentlyYes—Is a bureaucracy present temporarily/seasonalyNo—Yes—Is this control the primary supporting income of this placeNo—Does this place lease out landNo—Rodríguez, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 21 of 22Public WorksDoes this place serve as a location for services to the community:Writing/ScripturesIs non-religious writing stored at this place:Economic documents, records etc.Notes: Not stored, but there are several inscriptions associated with this arch (see discussion above).Are there scriptures associated with this placeNotes: Not strictly speaking, although the texts inscribed on this arch have certain religiousassociations.Does this place lease out toolsNo—No—No—No—Rodríguez, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 22 of 22


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