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Roman Imperial Cult Rodríguez, Gretel Dec 11, 2018

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Poll: Religious Group (v5) Published on: 11 December 2018Date Range: 42 BCE - 518 CERegion: Roman Empire (Greatest Extent)Region tags: Europe, Western EuropeMost of Western Europe and the Mediterranean, buttagged only as "Western Europe".Roman Imperial CultBy Gretel Rodríguez, Brown UniversityEntry tags: Imperial Cult (emperor worship), Roman State Religions, Roman Religious Traditions, ReligionThe Imperial Cult honored Roman emperors during lifetime and after death, both in Rome and in theprovinces. The first emperor to receive an official deification was Augustus in 14 CE, although thedeification of Julius Caesar, and the establishment of his cult after his assassination in 44 BCE, can be seenas a precursor. Although involving the traditional material and ritual culture of Roman religions—temples,altars, sacrifices, festivals, priesthoods—the cult was not strictly defined, and substantial variations existedacross geographic regions and time periods. The spread of the cult throughout newly acquired territorieswas an important vehicle for the establishment of Roman imperial authority. For the local elites inprovincial cities, the imperial cult offered opportunities to simultaneously express affiliation to Romanvalues, while promoting individual power agendas. Because the Imperial Cult functioned within theboundaries of traditional Roman religious practice, the answers to many of the questions in this entrybroadly apply and make reference to Roman religions as a system.Status of Participants:✓ Elite ✓ Religious Specialists ✓ Non-elite (common people, general populace)SourcesPrint sources for understanding this subject:Online sources for understanding this subject:Relevant online primary textual corpora (original languages and/or translations):Source 1: Beard, Mary, John North, and S R. F. Price. Religions of Rome. Cambridge: Cambridge UniversityPress, 2013.—Source 2: Price, Simon, "From Noble Funerals to Divine Cult: the Consecration of Roman Emperors," inRituals of Royalty: Power and Ceremonial in Traditional Societies. Edited by Cannadine, David, andSimon Price, 56-105. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1999.—Source 3: Fishwick, Duncan. The Imperial Cult in the Latin West: Studies in the Ruler Cult of the WesternProvinces of the Roman Empire. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1987.—Source 1 URL: http://digitalaugustanrome.org—Source 1 Description: Good source for understanding the architecture associated with early cult in Rome.Restricted to the Augustan period.—DOI: URL: https://religiondatabase.org/browse/534This work is licensed under the Creative CommonsAttribution 4.0 International license.Please see our Terms of Use here:https://religiondatabase.org/about/creditsPage 1 of 37© 2019 Database of Religious History.The University of British Columbia.For any questions contactproject.manager@religiondatabase.orgGeneral VariablesMembership/Group InteractionsAre other religious groups in cultural contact with target religion:Notes: As a general rule, the cult of the emperor existed alongside the traditional Greco-Roman andother indigenous cults. The cult was often conflated with the worship of local divinities by simplyadding a cult statue of the emperor to the place of worship. In Gaul, for instance, Augustus seem tohave identified with the local deity Lug, who was also connected to Mercury (Fishwick 1987). Thisintegration of the cult of the emperor and local cults seems particularly clear in Asia Minor, wherethere was a long tradition of worshiping individuals even while alive (Price, S. R. F., Rituals and Power:the Roman Imperial Cult in Asia Minor, Cambridge, 1984).Source 1 URL: http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:2008.01.0593—Source 1 Description: For the Imperial Cult see primarily Cass. Dio. 51.20.7-8—Source 2 URL: http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Cassius_Dio/home.html—Source 2 Description: English translation by Loeb Classical Library—Yes—Is the cultural contact competitive:Notes: At least in what pertains to the material aspects of the cult—dedications in the form ofaltars, temples, statues, inscriptions, votive offerings—there was competition amongparticipants.Yes—Is the cultural contact accommodating/pluralistic:Notes: All members of society were more or less expected to participate.Yes—Is the cultural contact neutral:Notes: No cultural contact is entirely neutral. The imperial cult allowed the establishment ofRoman power in conquered territories, while simultaneously allowing local elites to show theiraffiliation with the Roman state.No—Is there violent conflict (within sample region):Notes: The Imperial Cult appears primarily in provincial contexts, that is territories annexed tothe Roman Empire primarily through conquest.Yes—Is there violent conflict (with groups outside the sample region):Rodríguez, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 2 of 37Does the religious group have a general process/system for assigning religious affiliation:Notes: The Romans do not seem to have been generally concerned with a process/system for religiousaffiliation. There is no evidence for requirements of this type.Does the religious group actively proselytize and recruit new members:Does the religion have official political supportNotes: At least the deification of Julius Caesar in Rome came from a senatorial decree grating himhonors reserved for the gods. As Suetonius reports, “He [Caesar] was numbered among the gods, notonly by a formal decree, but also in the conviction of the common people. For at the first of the gameswhich his heir Augustus gave in honour of his apotheosis, a comet shone for seven successive days,rising about the eleventh hour, and was believed to be the soul of Caesar, who had been taken toheaven; and this is why a star is set upon the crown of his head in his statue. It was voted that the hallin which he was slain [Pompey’s Theater] be walled up, that the Ides of March be called the Day ofParricide, and that a meeting of the senate should never be called on that day.” Suet. Iul. 88.Notes: The borders of the empire were constantly being redifined and expanded throughwarfare.Yes—Field doesn't know—No—Yes—Are the priests paid by polity:Yes—Is religious infrastructure paid for by the polity:Notes: This could come from both the state and private individuals such as magistrates. Thededication of altars, shrines, temples, sanctuaries, cult statues, etc. was an important form ofeuergetism (public munificence).Yes—Are the head of the polity and the head of the religion the same figure:Notes: Starting with Augustus, all Roman emperors adopted the title of pontifex maximus. Assuch, they functioned as head of the state religion.Yes—Are political officials equivalent to religious officials:Notes: These were separate offices, although a single individual could hold both.No—Rodríguez, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 3 of 37Is there a conception of apostasy in the religious group:Size and StructureNumber of adherents of religious group within sample region (estimated population,numerical):Notes: Estimates of the population of Rome during the Augustan period, based primarily on records offood distributions, are around 1 million. Estimates for the whole empire are between 60-100 million.For an analysis see Zissos, Andrew, “A Companion to the Flavian Age of Imperial Rome,” 2016(Appendix 2). We do not know how many within those estimates were actually adherents to theimperial cult, but arguably, the majority of the population participated in the cult in some way.Number of adherents of religious group within sample region (% of sample regionpopulation, numerical):Nature of religious group [please select one]:Are there recognized leaders in the religious group:Is religious observance enforced by the polity:Notes: There is no evidence for strict enforcement, although performance of the worshipseems to have been expected. The emperor Gaius (Caligula) strongly reprimanded the Jewishcommunity of Alexandria for failing to sacrifice to him (Philo Leg. 349-67). Other Julio-Claudianemperors, including Tiberius and Claudius, prohibited sacrifices to themselves or to other livingperson (Cass. Dio. 58.8.4; 59.4.4; 60.5.4).No—Polity legal code is roughly coterminous with religious code:Field doesn't know—Polity provides preferential economic treatment (e.g. tax, exemption)Field doesn't know—No—Field doesn't know—Field doesn't know—Large official religious group with smaller religious groups also openly allowed—Yes—Is there a hierarchy among these leaders:Yes—Rodríguez, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 4 of 37ScriptureDoes the religious group have scriptures:Scripture is a generic term used to designate revered texts that are considered particularly authoritativeand sacred relative to other texts. Strictly speaking, it refers to written texts, but there are also “oralscriptures” (e.g. the Vedas of India).Notes: There were no scriptures in the strict definition of the word (see question prompt). However, onecould consider certain texts as a type of scripture, including the Sibylline Books (divination texts) orsenatorial decrees for deification of Roman emperors.Architecture, GeographyIs monumental religious architecture present:Are leaders believed to possess supernatural powers or qualities:Field doesn't know—Are religious leaders chosen:Yes—A leader chooses his/her own replacement:No—No—Yes—In the average settlement, what percentage of area is taken up by all religiousmonuments:Notes: Many provincial cities included at least one temple and altar(s) dedicated to theImperial Cult but this is difficult to quantify.Field doesn't know—Size of largest single religious monument, square meters:Notes: There is plenty of variation in this regard, as temples were built according to theavailability of funds, space, materials, and skilled labor.Field doesn't know—Height of largest single religious monument, meters:Field doesn't know—Rodríguez, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 5 of 37Are there different types of religious monumental architecture:Size of average monument, square meters:Notes: There was great variation in the size of Imperial Cult temples and altars, depending onthe time period, region, materials and resources available, etc.Field doesn't know—Height of average monument, meters:Field doesn't know—In the largest settlement, what percentage of area is taken up by all religiousmonuments:Field doesn't know—Yes—Tombs:Yes—Cemeteries:Notes: No as we define cemeteries, although burials tended to be clustered in some way.No—Temples:Notes: This is the principal type of structure connected to the Imperial Cult. They tended to belocated in highly visible spots in the city centers and were generally connected to otherstructures such as public fora.Yes—Altars:Yes—Devotional markers:Field doesn't know—Mass gathering point [plazas, courtyard, square. Places permanently demarcatedusing visible objects or structures]:Notes: Most Roman temples had a space in front for public sacrifices. People would notnormally enter the temple space. Many temples dedicated to the Imperial Cult wereYes—Rodríguez, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 6 of 37Is iconography present:associated with a forum area, also a space for public gatherings, markets, etc.Other type of religious monumental architecture:Field doesn't know—Yes—Where is iconography present [select all that apply]:Notes: Imagery was one of the principal means of communication in ancient Rome, andimages associated with the Imperial cult are ubiquitous.On persons—At home—Only religious public space—Some public spaces—All public spaces—Are there distinct features in the religious group's iconography:Yes—Eyes (stylized or not):Yes—Supernatural beings (zoomorphic):Yes—Supernatural beings (geomorphic):Field doesn't know—Supernatural beings (anthropomorphic):Yes—Supernatural beings (abstract symbol):Yes—Portrayals of afterlife:Rodríguez, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 7 of 37Are there specific sites dedicated to sacred practice or considered sacred:Are pilgrimages present:BeliefsBurial and AfterlifeIs a spirit-body distinction present:Answer “no” only if personhood (or consciousness) is extinguished with death of the physical body.Answering yes does not necessarily imply the existence of Cartesian mind/body dualism, merely thatsome element of personhood (or consciousness) survives the death of the body.No—Aspects of doctrine (e.g. cross, trinity, Mithraic symbols):Yes—Humans:Yes—Other features of iconography:Yes—Yes—Are sacred site oriented to ecological features:Notes: For the Imperial Cult this is rare, but generally Roman temples could have connectionswith specific ecological features.Field doesn't know—Field doesn't know—Yes—Spirit-mind is conceived of as having qualitatively different powers or properties thanother body parts:Yes—Spirit-mind is conceived of as non-material, ontologically distinct from body:Field doesn't know—Rodríguez, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 8 of 37Belief in afterlife:Reincarnation in this world:Are there special treatments for adherents' corpses:Notes: The principal method of burial in Rome was cremation until about the mid second century CE,when, for reasons not entirely clear, there was a shift towards inhumation. See Bodel, J. "FromColumbaria to Catacombs: Communities of the Dead in Pagan and Christian Rome," inCommemorating the Dead: Texts and Artifacts in Context, de Gruyter 2008: 177-242.Other spirit-body relationship:Field doesn't know—Yes—Is the spatial location of the afterlife specified or described by the religious group:Yes—Afterlife in specified realm of space beyond this world:Notes: The Romans believed in the underworld realm of the Greek god Hades,although with some variations.Yes—Afterlife in vaguely defined “above” space:Yes—Afterlife in vaguely defined “below” space:Yes—Afterlife in vaguely defined horizontal space:Field doesn't know—Afterlife located in "other" space:Field doesn't know—No—Yes—Cremation:Yes—Rodríguez, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 9 of 37Notes: Cremation was the norm in early Rome until the mid-second century CE, when it isreplaced by inhumation. It continued to be the preferred treatment for the body for Romanemperors.Mummification:Notes: Practiced primarily in Egypt under Roman rule.Yes—Interment:Yes—Corpse is flexed (legs are bent or body is crouched):Yes—Corpse is extended (lying flat on front or back):Yes—Corpse is upright (where body is interred in standing position)::No—Corpse is interred some other way:Field doesn't know—Cannibalism:No—Exposure to elements (e.g. air drying):No—Feeding to animals:No—Secondary burial:Notes: Cenotaph monuments sometimes replaced actual burials.Yes—Re-treatment of corpse:Rodríguez, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 10 of 37Are co-sacrifices present in tomb/burial:Are grave goods present:Field doesn't know—Other intensive (in terms of time or resources expended) treatment of corpse :Field doesn't know—Yes—Human sacrifices present:No—Animal co-sacrifices present:Notes: Animal sacrifices were a common part of Roman religious rituals. The species variedfrom small birds to larger animals such as pigs and bulls. The 'suovetaurilia'--the triple sacrificeof a pig, a ship, and a bull--was traditionally part of Imperial religious ceremonies and appearsin numerous visual representations.Yes—Yes—Personal effects:Yes—Valuable items:Yes—Significant wealth (e.g. gold, jade, intensely worked objects):Yes—Some wealth (some valuable or useful objects interred):Yes—Other valuable/precious items interred:Field doesn't know—Other grave goods:Rodríguez, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 11 of 37Are formal burials present:Supernatural BeingsAre supernatural beings present:Notes: Multiple grave goods including personal objects, weapons, armor, furniture, etc.Yes—Yes—As cenotaphs:Yes—In cemetery:Notes: Not exactly cemeteries, but enclosed collective tombs, yes.Yes—Family tomb-crypt:Yes—Domestic (individuals interred beneath house, or in areas used for normal domesticactivities):Notes: Romans considered dead bodies polluting agents, and toms were, by law, placedoutside city boundaries.No—Other formal burial type:Yes [specify]: In Rome, imperial tombs were a highly important monuments. These include theMausoleum of Augustus, the Column of Trajan (actual burial for the emperor), the mausoleumof Hadrian, among others (See, Davies, P. "Death and the Emperor: Imperial FuneraryMonuments from Augustus to Marcus Aurelius, Cambridge 2000).—Yes—A supreme high god is present:Yes—The supreme high god is anthropomorphic:Yes—Rodríguez, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 12 of 37Notes: Jupiter was the supreme high god and creator for the Romans.The supreme high god is a sky deity:Notes: In a way, since he resides in the heavens.Yes—The supreme high god is chthonic (of the underworld):No—The supreme high god is fused with the monarch (king=high god):Notes: Not exactly, although sometimes there were such implications.No—The monarch is seen as a manifestation or emanation of the high god:Notes: The connections between the two is not entirely clear. For an example, see theimage of the apotheosis of Titus on the Arch of Titus in Rome, where an eagle, symbolof Jupiter, carries the deceased emperor (Titus) to heaven after his death. (See entryThe Arch of Titus on this database).Field doesn't know—The supreme high god is a kin relation to elites:Notes: Although Jupiter was not directly connected to any member of the elite, otherdeities were claimed by members of the aristocracy as ancestors. This was the case ofJulius Caesar and Augustus, who claimed descent from Venus.No—The supreme high god has another type of loyalty-connection to elites:Yes [specify]: In some parts of the empire, especially in the eastern provinces, the figureof the deified emperor might merge with a high god.—The supreme high god is unquestionably good:Field doesn't know—Other feature(s) of supreme high god:Field doesn't know—The supreme high god has knowledge of this world:Yes—Rodríguez, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 13 of 37The supreme god's knowledge is restricted to particular domain ofhuman affairs:No—The supreme high god's knowledge is restricted to (a) specific area(s)within the sample region:No—The supreme high god's knowledge is unrestricted within the sampleregion:Yes—The supreme high god's knowledge is unrestricted outside of sampleregion:Field doesn't know—The supreme high god can see you everywhere normally visible (inpublic):Yes—The supreme high god can see you everywhere (in the dark, at home):Yes—The supreme high god can see inside heart/mind (hidden motives):Field doesn't know—The supreme high god knows your basic character (personal essence):Field doesn't know—The supreme high god knows what will happen to you, what you will do(future sight):Yes—The supreme high god has other knowledge of this world:Field doesn't know—The supreme high god has deliberate causal efficacy in the world:Yes—Rodríguez, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 14 of 37The supreme high god can reward:Yes—The supreme high god can punish:Yes—The supreme high god has indirect causal efficacy in the world:Yes—The supreme high god exhibits positive emotion:Yes—The supreme high god exhibits negative emotion:Yes—The supreme high god possesses hunger:Yes—Is it permissible to worship supernatural beings other than the high god:Yes—The supreme high god possesses/exhibits some other feature:Field doesn't know—The supreme high god communicates with the living:Yes—In waking, everyday life:Yes—In dreams:Yes—In trance possession:Yes—Rodríguez, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 15 of 37Through divination practices:Yes—Only through religious specialists:No—Only through monarchNo—Other form of communication with living:Field doesn't know—Previously human spirits are present:Yes—Human spirits can be seen:Yes—Human spirits can be physically felt:Yes—Previously human spirits have knowledge of this world:Yes—Human spirits' knowledge restricted to particular domain of humanaffairs:Field doesn't know—Human spirits' knowledge restricted to (a) specific area(s) within thesample region:Field doesn't know—Human spirits' knowledge unrestricted within the sample region:Field doesn't know—Human spirits' knowledge unrestricted outside of sample region:Field doesn't know—Rodríguez, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 16 of 37Human spirits can see you everywhere normally visible (in public):Field doesn't know—Human spirits can see you everywhere (in the dark, at home):Field doesn't know—Human spirit's can see inside heart/mind (hidden motives):Field doesn't know—Human spirits know your basic character (personal essence):Field doesn't know—Human spirits know what will happen to you, what you will do (futuresight):Yes—Human spirits have other form(s) of knowledge regarding this world:Field doesn't know—Human spirits have deliberate causal efficacy in the world:Yes—Human spirits can reward:Field doesn't know—Human spirits can punish:Field doesn't know—Human spirits have indirect causal efficacy in the world:Field doesn't know—Human spirits have memory of life:Field doesn't know—Human spirits exhibit positive emotion:Yes—Rodríguez, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 17 of 37Human spirits exhibit negative emotion:Yes—Human spirits communicate with the living:Yes—In waking, everyday life:Field doesn't know—In dreams:Yes—In trance possession:Field doesn't know—Through divination processes:Yes—Only through specialists:No—Only through monarch:No—Communicate with living through other means:Field doesn't know—Non-human supernatural beings are present:Yes—These supernatural beings can be seen:Yes—These supernatural beings can be physically felt:Yes—Rodríguez, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 18 of 37Non-human supernatural beings have knowledge of this world:Yes—Non-human supernatural beings have knowledge restricted toparticular domain of human affairs:Field doesn't know—Non-human supernatural beings have knowledge restricted to (a)specific area(s) within the sample region:Field doesn't know—Non-human supernatural beings have knowledge unrestricted withinthe sample region:Field doesn't know—Non-human supernatural beings have knowledge unrestricted outsideof sample region:Field doesn't know—Non-human supernatural beings have can see you everywhere normallyvisible (in public):Field doesn't know—Non-human supernatural beings can see you everywhere (in the dark, athome):Field doesn't know—Non-human supernatural beings can see inside heart/mind (hiddenmotives):Field doesn't know—Non-human supernatural beings knows your basic character (personalessence):Field doesn't know—Non-human supernatural beings know what will happen to you, whatyou will do (future sight):Yes—Rodríguez, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 19 of 37Non-human supernatural begins have other knowledge of this world:Field doesn't know—Non-human supernatural beings have deliberate causal efficacy in the world:Field doesn't know—These supernatural beings have indirect causal efficacy in the world:Yes—These supernatural beings exhibit positive emotion:Field doesn't know—These supernatural beings exhibit negative emotion:Field doesn't know—These supernatural beings possess hunger:Notes: Many offerings at altars and temples, including those to the lares or spirits of thehome, consisted of food and drink items.Yes—These supernatural beings possess/exhibit some other feature:Field doesn't know—Does the religious group possess a pantheon of supernatural beings:Yes—Organized by kinship based on a family model:Yes—Organized hierarchically:Yes—Power of beings is domain specific:Yes—Other organization for pantheon:No—Rodríguez, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 20 of 37Supernatural MonitoringIs supernatural monitoring present:This refers to surveillance by supernatural beings of humans’ behaviour and/or thought particularly as itrelates to social norms or potential norm violations.Yes—There is supernatural monitoring of prosocial norm adherence in particular:Prosocial norms are norms that enhance cooperation among members of the group, includingobviously “moral” or “ethical” norms, but also extending to norms concerning honouring contractsand oaths, providing hospitality, coming to mutual aid in emergencies, etc.Field doesn't know—Supernatural beings care about taboos:Yes—Food:Yes—Sacred space(s):Yes—Sacred object(s):Yes—Supernatural beings care about other:Field doesn't know—Supernatural beings care about murder of coreligionists:Yes—Supernatural beings care about murder of members of other religions:Yes—Supernatural beings care about murder of members of other polities:Yes—Rodríguez, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 21 of 37Supernatural beings care about sex:Yes—Adultery:Yes—Incest:Yes—Other sexual practices:Field doesn't know—Supernatural beings care about lying:Field doesn't know—Supernatural beings care about honouring oaths:Yes—Supernatural beings care about laziness:Field doesn't know—Supernatural beings care about sorcery:Yes—Supernatural beings care about non-lethal fighting:Field doesn't know—Supernatural beings care about shirking risk:Field doesn't know—Supernatural beings care about disrespecting elders:Yes—Supernatural beings care about gossiping:Field doesn't know—Rodríguez, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 22 of 37Do supernatural beings mete out punishment:Supernatural beings care about property crimes:Yes—Supernatural beings care about proper ritual observance:Yes—Supernatural beings care about performance of rituals:No—Supernatural beings care about conversion of non-religionists:Field doesn't know—Supernatural beings care about economic fairness:No—Supernatural beings care about personal hygiene:Yes—Supernatural beings care about other:Field doesn't know—Yes—Is the cause or agent of supernatural punishment known:Yes—Done only by high god:Yes—Done by many supernatural beings:Yes—Done through impersonal cause-effect principle:Field doesn't know—Rodríguez, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 23 of 37Done by other entities or through other means [specify]Field doesn't know—Is the reason for supernatural punishment known:Yes—Done to enforce religious ritual-devotional adherence:Yes—Done to enforce group norms:Yes—Done to inhibit selfishness:No—Done randomly:Yes—Other [specify]Field doesn't know—Supernatural punishments are meted out in the afterlife:Yes—Supernatural punishments in the afterlife are highly emphasized by thereligious group:No—Punishment in the afterlife consists of mild sensory displeasure:Field doesn't know—Punishment in the afterlife consists of extreme sensory displeasure:Yes—Punishment in the afterlife consists of reincarnation as an inferior life form:Yes—Rodríguez, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 24 of 37Punishment in the afterlife consists of reincarnation in an inferior realm:Yes—Other [specify]Field doesn't know—Supernatural punishments are meted out in this lifetime:Yes—Supernatural punishments in this life are highly emphasized by the religiousgroup:No—Punishment in this life consists of bad luck:Yes—Punishment in this life consists of political failure:Yes—Punishment in this life consists of defeat in battle:Yes—Punishment in this life consists of crop failure or bad weather:Yes—Punishment in this life consists of disaster on journeys.Yes—Punishment in this life consists of mild sensory displeasure:Yes—Punishment in this life consists of extreme sensory displeasure:Yes—Punishment in this life consists of sickness or illness:Yes—Rodríguez, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 25 of 37Do supernatural beings bestow rewards:Punishment in this life consists of impaired reproduction:Yes—Punishment in this life consists of bad luck visited on descendants:Yes—Other [specify]Field doesn't know—Yes—Is the cause/purpose of supernatural rewards known:No—Supernatural rewards are bestowed out in the afterlife:Yes—Supernatural rewards in the afterlife are highly emphasized by the religiousgroup:Field doesn't know—Reward in the afterlife consists of mild sensory pleasure:Yes—Reward in the afterlife consists of extreme sensory pleasure:Yes—Reward in the afterlife consists of eternal happiness:Field doesn't know—Reward in the afterlife consists of reincarnation as a superior life form:Field doesn't know—Reward in the afterlife consists of reincarnation in a superior realm:Yes—Rodríguez, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 26 of 37Other [specify]Field doesn't know—Supernatural rewards are bestowed out in this lifetime:Yes—Supernatural rewards in this life are highly emphasized by the religious group:Yes—Reward in this life consists of good luck:Yes—Reward in this life consists of political success or power:Yes—Reward in this life consists of success in battle:Yes—Reward in this life consists of peace or social stability:Yes—Reward in this life consists of healthy crops or good weather:Yes—Reward in this life consists of success on journeys:Yes—Reward in this life consists of mild sensory pleasure:Yes—Reward in this life consists of extreme sensory pleasure:Yes—Reward in this life consists of enhanced health:Yes—Rodríguez, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 27 of 37Messianism/EschatologyAre messianic beliefs present:Notes: Possibly, if the deified emperor could be considered as such.Is an eschatology present:Norms and Moral RealismAre general social norms prescribed by the religious group:Is there a conventional vs. moral distinction in the religious group:Reward in this life consists of enhanced reproductive success:Yes—Reward in this life consists of fortune visited on descendants:Yes—Other [specify]Field doesn't know—Yes—Is the messiah's whereabouts or time of coming known?Yes—Is the messiah's purpose known:No—No—Yes—Yes—What is the nature of this distinction:Present (but not emphasized)—Are specifically moral norms prescribed by the religious group:Yes—Rodríguez, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 28 of 37PracticesMembership Costs and PracticesDoes membership in this religious group require celibacy (full sexual abstinence):Does membership in this religious group require constraints on sexual activity (partial sexualabstinence):Does membership in this religious group require castration:Does membership in this religious group require fasting:Specifically moral norms are implicitly linked to vague metaphysical concepts:Yes—Specifically moral norms are explicitly linked to vague metaphysical entities:Field doesn't know—Specifically moral norms are linked to impersonal cosmic order (e.g. karma):Yes—Specifically moral norms are linked in some way to an anthropomorphicbeing:Yes—Specifically moral norms are linked explicitly to commands ofanthropomorphic being:Yes—Specifically moral norms are have no special connection to metaphysical:Field doesn't know—Moral norms apply to:All individuals within society—No—No—No—Rodríguez, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 29 of 37Does membership in this religious group require forgone food opportunities (taboos ondesired foods):Does membership in this religious group require permanent scarring or painful bodilyalterations:Does membership in this religious group require painful physical positions or transitorypainful wounds:Does membership in this religious group require sacrifice of adults:"Adults" here referring to an emic or indigenous category; if that category is different from the popularWestern definition of a human who is 18-years-old or older and who is legally responsible for his/heractions, then please specify that difference in the Comments/Sources: box below.Does membership in this religious group require sacrifice of children:"Children" here referring to an emic or indigenous category; if that category is different from the popularWestern definition, please specify that different in the Comments/Sources: box below.Does membership in this religious group require self-sacrifice (suicide):Does membership in this religious group require sacrifice of property/valuable items:Does membership in this religious group require sacrifice of time (e.g., attendance atmeetings or services, regular prayer, etc.):Does membership in this religious group require physical risk taking:Field doesn't know—Field doesn't know—No—No—No—No—No—Field doesn't know—Yes—Field doesn't know—Rodríguez, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 30 of 37Does membership in this religious group require accepting ethical precepts:Does membership in this religious group require marginalization by out-group members:Does membership in this religious group require participation in small-scale rituals (private,household):Does membership in this religious group require participation in large-scale rituals:I.e. involving two or more households; includes large-scale “ceremonies” and “festivals.”Yes—No—Yes—What is the average interval of time between performances (in hours):Performances here refers to large-scale rituals.Field doesn't know—Yes—On average, for large-scale rituals how many participants gather in one location:Field doesn't know—What is the average interval of time between performances (in hours):Performances here refers to small-scale rituals.Field doesn't know—Are there orthodoxy checks:Orthodoxy checks are mechanisms used to ensure that rituals are interpreted in a standardizedway, e.g. through the supervisory prominence of a professionalized priesthood or other system ofgovernance, appeal to texts detailing the proper interpretation, etc.Notes: Roman rituals were generally highly regulated and consisted of strict steps. If one stepdid not go according to tradition, the ritual would have to be performed again from the start.Yes—Are there orthopraxy checks:Orthopraxy checks are mechanisms used to ensure that rituals are performed in a standardizedway, e.g. through the supervisory prominence of a professionalized priesthood or other system ofgovernance, appeal to texts detailing the proper procedure, etc.Yes—Rodríguez, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 31 of 37Are extra-ritual in-group markers present:E.g. special changes to appearance such as circumcision, tattoos, scarification, etc.Does the group employ fictive kinship terminology:Notes: At least during the Augustan period, members of the Julio-Claudia dynasty claimed descentfrom the goddess Venus. In later periods, other rulers suggested similar associations with deities.Society and InstitutionsLevels of Social ComplexityThe society to which the religious group belongs is best characterized as (please chooseone):WelfareDoes the religious group in question provide institutionalized famine relief:Notes: Part of the same process described above.Does participation entail synchronic practices:Field doesn't know—Is there use of intoxicants:Yes—No—Yes—Fictive kinship terminology universal:No—Fictive kinship terminology widespread:Yes—Fictive kinship terminology employed but uncommon:Yes—An empire—Yes—Rodríguez, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 32 of 37Is famine relief available to the group's adherents through an institution(s) other than thereligious group in question:Does the religious group in question provide institutionalized poverty relief:Notes: At various points, the Imperial government put in practice 'alimenta' schemes, a system of loanswhose accrued interests were destined to feed poor children of the empire. The alimenta wasinstitutionalized by Trajan and continued by Hadrian in the early second century, although it mighthave been initially conceived by Trajan's predecessor, Nerva. See, Duncan-Jones, R. “The Purpose andOrganization of the Alimenta.” Papers of the British School at Rome 32 (1964): 123-146.Is poverty relief available to the group's adherents through an institution(s) other than thereligious group in question:Does the religious group in question provide institutionalized care for the elderly and infirm:Is institutionalized care for the elderly and infirm available to the group's adherents throughan institution(s) other than the religious group in question:EducationDoes the religious group provide formal education to its adherents:Is formal education available to the group’s adherents through an institution(s) other thanthe religious group:BureaucracyDo the group’s adherent’s interact with a formal bureaucracy within their group:Yes—Yes—Yes—No—Field doesn't know—No—Yes—Is extra-religious education open to both males and females:No—Yes—Rodríguez, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 33 of 37Do the group’s adherents interact with other institutional bureaucracies:Public WorksDoes the religious group in question provide public food storage:Is public food storage provided to the group’s adherents by an institution(s) other than thereligious group in question:Notes: Both private individuals and the state could provide this service.Does the religious group in question provide water management (irrigation, flood control):Is water management provided to the group’s adherents by an institution(s) other than thereligious group in question:Notes: Especially in the Republican period, private wealthy individuals could provide these services.Does the religious group in question provide transportation infrastructure:Notes: In the form of roadsIs transportation infrastructure provided for the group’s adherents by an institution(s) otherthan the religious group in question:TaxationDoes the religious group in question levy taxes or tithes:Are taxes levied on the group’s adherents by an institution(s) other than the religious group inquestion:Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—Rodríguez, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 34 of 37EnforcementDoes the religious group in question provide an institutionalized police force:Do the group’s adherents interact with an institutionalized police force provided by aninstitution(s) other than the religious group in question:Does the religious group in question provide institutionalized judges:Do the group’s adherents interact with an institutionalized judicial system provided by an aninstitution(s) other than the religious group in question:Does the religious group in question enforce institutionalized punishment:Are the group’s adherents subject to institutionalized punishment enforced by aninstitution(s) other than the religious group in question:No—Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—Do the institutionalized punishments include execution:Yes—Do the institutionalized punishments include exile:Yes—Do the institutionalized punishments include corporal punishments:Yes—Do the institutionalized punishments include ostracism:Yes—Do the institutionalized punishments include seizure of property:Yes—No—Rodríguez, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 35 of 37Does the religious group in question have a formal legal code:Are the group’s adherents subject to a formal legal code provided by institution(s) other thanthe religious group in question:WarfareDoes religious group in question possess an institutionalized military:Do the group’s adherents participate in an institutionalized military provided byinstitution(s) other than the religious group in question:Notes: The Senate and the People of Rome, and in the Republican period individual magistrates couldalso maintain military forces.Are the group’s adherents protected by or subject to an institutionalized military providedby an institution(s) other than the religious group in question:Written LanguageDoes the religious group in question possess its own distinct written language:Yes—No—Yes—Does the religious group in question have the power to conscript:Yes—Does the religious group in question maintain a full-time military corps (e.g. SwissGuard):Yes—Does the religious group in question maintain a standing army:Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—Is use of this distinct written language confined to religious professionals:Rodríguez, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 36 of 37Is a non-religion-specific written language available to the group’s adherents through aninstitution(s) other than the religious group in question:Is a non-religion-specific written language used by the group’s adherents through aninstitution(s) other than the religious group in question:CalendarDoes the religious group in question possess a formal calendar:Is a formal calendar provided for the group’s adherents by an institution(s) other than thereligious group in question:Food ProductionDoes the religious group in question provide food for themselves:Is food provided to the group’s adherents by an institution(s) other than the religious groupin question:No—Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—Please characterize the forms/level of food production [choose all that apply]:Large-scale agriculture (e.g., monocropping, organized irrigation systems)—Yes—Please characterize the forms/levels of food production [choose all that apply]:Hunting (including marine animals)—Fishing—Patoralism—Small-scale agriculture / horticultural gardens or orchards—Large-scale agriculture (e.g., monocropping, organized irrigation systems)—Rodríguez, Database of Religious History, 2019 Page 37 of 37

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