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Riffians also known as “Berbers of Morocco” Pitek, Emily 2018-09-14

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Poll: Religious Group (v6) Published on: 14 September 2018Date Range: 1900 CE - 1930 CERegion: Le RifRegion tags: Africa, Northern Africa, MoroccoApproximate extent of Riffian speaking Berber tribes.Riffiansalso known as “Berbers of Morocco”Data source: eHRAFBy Emily Pitek, Human Relations Area Files* Data Source entry, prepared based on data sourced from an external project.Entry tags: Religion, Islamic Traditions, Sunni, MalikiThe Berbers are a group of agro-pastoralists residing primairly in Northern Africa, and are united by theshared use of the Berber language. This entry focuses more specifically on the Riffians of Morocco, who areSunni Muslims of the Maliki school. In the case of the Riffians, the religious group is coterminous with thesociety itself, as religion, politics, and culture are interwoven. This entry focuses on Morocco ca. 1926, whenMorocco was a French Protectorate (1912-1956). Principal ethnographic sources have limited details onsupernatural beings (Allah, specifically).Status of Participants:✓ Elite ✓ Religious Specialists ✓ Non-elite (common people, general populace)SourcesPrint sources for understanding this subject:Online sources for understanding this subject:Source 1: Divale, W. 2004. Codebook of Variables for the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample. World Cultures:The Journal of Cross-Cultural and Comparative Research.—Source 2: Murdock and Wilson, 1972. Settlement Patterns and Community Organization: Cross-CulturalCodes 3. Ethnology, 11(3), 254-259.—Source 3: Tuden and Marshall, 1972. Political Organization: Cross-Cultural Codes 4. Ethnology, 11(4), 436-464.—Source 1 URL: http://ehrafworldcultures.yale.edu/document?id=mx03-000—Source 1 Description: Hart, D. M. (2011). Culture Summary: Berbers Of Morocco. New Haven, Conn.:Human Relations Area Files.—Source 2 URL: http://ehrafworldcultures.yale.edu/document?id=mx03-001—Source 2 Description: Coon, C. S. (Carleton S. (1931). Tribes Of The Rif. Harvard African Studies. Cambridge,Mass.: Peabody Museum of Harvard University.—Source 3 URL: http://ehrafworldcultures.yale.edu/document?id=mx03-003—DOI: URL: https://religiondatabase.org/browse/600This work is licensed under the Creative CommonsAttribution 4.0 International license.Please see our Terms of Use here:https://religiondatabase.org/about/creditsPage 1 of 21© 2018 Database of Religious History.The University of British Columbia.For any questions contactproject.manager@religiondatabase.orgNotes: Hart (1954) completed field work about 25 years after the focal dates, so this source should beviewed as general information.General VariablesMembership/Group InteractionsAre other religious groups in cultural contact with target religion:Notes: "Riffian religion, although of course officially Islam, is a blend of that faith with old...ideas, andwith factors apparently Christian and Jewish, some of which may antedate the arrival of Islam. Thekings of Nekor were rigid adherents to the Malekite school, and the Islam of the Riffians from that timeto this has been officially orthodox" (Coon, 1931:146).Does the religious group have a general process/system for assigning religious affiliation:Does the religious group actively proselytize and recruit new members:Does the religion have official political supportSource 3 Description: Hart, D. M. (1954). Ethnographic Survey Of The Riffian Tribe Of Aith Wuryaghil.Tamuda, 2(1), 51–86.—Source 1 URL: https://www.britannica.com/topic/Quran—Source 1 Description: Sinai, N., and Ringgren, H. (September 25, 2017). Qurʾān. Encyclopædia Britannica.Encyclopædia Britannica, inc.—Source 2 URL: http://ehrafworldcultures.yale.edu/document?id=mx03-002—Source 2 Description: Westermarck, E. (1926). Ritual And Belief In Morocco. London: Macmillan and Co.—Yes—Is there violent conflict (within sample region):Notes: "Sometimes a murder spreads into a feud and from a feud into a war so rapidly thatbefore a tribal council can come together to deliberate the councillors find themselves fightingon one side or another, in a tribal war" (Coon, 1931:105).Yes—Is there violent conflict (with groups outside the sample region):Notes: SCCS Variable 1650 indicates that "external warfare seems to occur almost constantlyand at any time of the year", and SCCS Variable 1654 indicates that the society is "inferred to beunpacified because warfare frequency is greater than or equal to 3" (Ember and Ember, 1992;Retrieved from Divale, 2004).Yes—I don't know—I don't know—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 2 of 21Answer 'yes' also in cases where the religious and political spheres are not distinguished from oneanother, but the religious group's activities are tied up with, and supported by, the functioning of thesociety at large.Notes: The religion has official political support in the sense that political leaders are roughlyequivalent with religious leaders. Mosques are a common meeting place for councils, and thesecouncils enforce religious law (attendance at prayers, for example), appoint religious officials (such asthe office of fqih), and deal with major criminal offences (Coon, 1931:96-104).Size and StructureYes—Are the priests paid by polity:Notes: There are no official priests. The fqih, or schoolmaster, is often the "preceptor" and willlead prayer services in addition to teaching students the Koran. The fqih is more of aneducated religious leader rather than a priestly figure (Coon, 1931:113-116).No—Is religious infrastructure paid for by the polity:Notes: Yes, in part. Legal punishment often consists of fines, and this money goes to themosque (Coon, 1931:99-105).Yes—Are the head of the polity and the head of the religion the same figure:Notes: There is neither a single head of the polity, nor a single head of the religion. Rather,councils make up the religious and political leadership units.No—Are political officials equivalent to religious officials:Notes: Yes, roughly. In the sense that political council members are in charge of civil andreligious duties (see Coon, 1931:96-104).Yes—Is religious observance enforced by the polity:Notes: The village council is responsible for ensuring attendance at prayers, for example (Coon,1931:99-100).Yes—Polity legal code is roughly coterminous with religious code:Notes: Many laws are based upon the Koran (see Coon, 1931:99-104 for specific laws).Yes—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 3 of 21Number of adherents of religious group within sample region (estimated population,numerical):Notes: The principal ethnographer did not provide a specific population figure. In 1912, the Berberpopulation was estimated to be about 4.5 million (Hart, 2011).Number of adherents of religious group within sample region (% of sample regionpopulation, numerical):Notes: "All Moroccans, whether Berbers or Arabs, are Sunni (i.e., orthodox and mainstream) Muslims ofthe Maliki rite, which predominates in North Africa" (Hart, 2011).Are there recognized leaders in the religious group:Notes: "In Islam, there is, in theory, no intermediary between man and God, but every Moroccan ruralcommunity, whether Berber or Arab, has its fqih or schoolmaster, who teaches the boys to recite theQuran" (Hart, 2011). The village council, council of the great, and tribal council might be consideredreligious leaders as well due to the overlap with religious responsibilities (Coon, 1931:96-104).I don't know—Estimated population, percentage of sample region: 100—Yes—Are leaders believed to possess supernatural powers or qualities:Notes: The fqih is an educated leader, but not with supernatural powers. The council leaders donot possess supernatural powers either. (See Coon, 1931:96-104, 113-116).No—Are religious leaders chosen:Notes: "The older men of each bone informally decide on a fqih, (plural fuqaha') or “school-master,” to teach the boys in the village mosque" (Coon, 1931:113).Yes—A leader chooses his/her own replacement:Notes: (Coon, 1931:113)No—Other leaders in the religious group choose that leader:Notes: Older and well-respected men of the community select individuals for thecouncil of the great, which in turn selects individuals for the village council. Thesecouncils play a role in selecting the fqih as well (Coon, 1931:96, 113).Yes—Other members of the leader’s congregation choose the leader:Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 4 of 21ScriptureDoes the religious group have scriptures:Scripture is a generic term used to designate revered texts that are considered particularly authoritativeand sacred relative to other texts. Strictly speaking, it refers to written texts, but there are also “oralscriptures” (e.g. the Vedas of India).Notes: The Muslim faith follows the Koran.Notes: "The older men of each bone informally decide on a fqih, (plural fuqaha') or“school-master,” to teach the boys in the village mosque" (Coon, 1931:113).Yes—All members of the religious group in the sample region participate inchoosing the leader:Notes: (Coon, 1931:113)No—Communication with supernatural power(s) believed to be part of theselection process:Notes: Selection is based off ability and knowledge (Coon, 1931:113-116).No—Yes—Are they written:Notes: The Koran is written most commonly in Arabic (see Coon, 1931:113-115).Yes—Is there a story (or a set of stories) associated with the origin of scripture:Notes: See questions below for more details on the Koran's origin.Yes—Revealed by other supernatural being:Notes: The Koran is said to be revealed by the angel Gabriel to the ProphetMuhammad.Yes—Inspired by high god:Notes: "The Qurʾānic corpus, composed in an early form of Classical Arabic, istraditionally believed to be a literal transcript of God’s speech and to constitute theYes—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 5 of 21Architecture, GeographyIs monumental religious architecture present:Notes: SCCS Variable 66 (Divale, 2004) indicates that "the most impressive structure (or type ofstructure) in the community is a temple, church, commemorative monument, or other essentiallyreligious or ceremonial edifice" (Murdock and Wilson, 1972).Are there different types of religious monumental architecture:Notes: "There are three types of building which serve both social and religious purposes: thethamsyitha n jkhothbath, or cantonal mosque, the thamsajoth, or village mosque, and the amrabt(plural imrabten) or saint's tomb" (Coon, 1931:112).earthly reproduction of an uncreated and eternal heavenly original, according to thegeneral view referred to in the Qurʾān itself as 'the well-preserved tablet' (al-lawḥ al-mahfūẓ; Qurʾān 85:22)" (Sinai and Ringgren, 2017).Originated from divine or semi-divine human beings:Notes: The Koran was revealed by the angel Gabriel to the Prophet Muhammad, whocame to be a semi-divine human being.Yes—Are there formal institutions (i.e. institutions that are authorized by the religiouscommunity or political leaders) for interpreting the scriptures:Notes: In village and cantonal mosques, students learn to read, write, and memorize the Koranfrom specialized teachers (Coon, 1931:113-115).Yes—Is there a codified canon of scriptures:Notes: See "Qurʾān" by Sinai and Ringgren (2017).Yes—Yes—Yes—Tombs:Notes: The tombs of saints. "...the saint's tomb, may be a structure of some magnitude, a merepile of stones, or simply an unmarked but nevertheless well-known place. It is supposed to bethe grave of a saint, although often it is merely some place noted for the possession of someunusual natural feature, such as a large boulder, a spring, or a clump of trees, revered longbefore the advent of Islam. Whether it be a definite building, a marker, or merely a place, inany case it fulfills a definite function" (Coon, 1931:112).Yes—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 6 of 21Are there specific sites dedicated to sacred practice or considered sacred:Notes: "...the saint's tomb, may be a structure of some magnitude, a mere pile of stones, or simply anunmarked but nevertheless well-known place. It is supposed to be the grave of a saint, although oftenit is merely some place noted for the possession of some unusual natural feature, such as a largeboulder, a spring, or a clump of trees, revered long before the advent of Islam. Whether it be a definitebuilding, a marker, or merely a place, in any case it fulfills a definite function" (Coon, 1931:112).BeliefsBurial and AfterlifeIs a spirit-body distinction present:Answer “no” only if personhood (or consciousness) is extinguished with death of the physical body.Answering yes does not necessarily imply the existence of Cartesian mind/body dualism, merely thatsome element of personhood (or consciousness) survives the death of the body.Notes: "Anyone who dies during Ramadan will go to paradise immediately, far faster than at any othertime of year. The Quran is quite specific on the subject both of paradise, ajinna, and of hell,jahannama..." (Hart, 2011).Belief in afterlife:Notes: "Anyone who dies during Ramadan will go to paradise immediately, far faster than at any othertime of year. The Quran is quite specific on the subject both of paradise, ajinna, and of hell,jahannama..." (Hart, 2011).Are there special treatments for adherents' corpses:Notes: The corpse is interred within a cemetery grave (Coon, 1931:144).Temples:Notes: Cantonal and village mosques (Coon, 1931:112)Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—Interment:Notes: The corpse is interred within a cemetery grave (Coon, 1931:144).Yes—Corpse is flexed (legs are bent or body is crouched):No—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 7 of 21Are formal burials present:Notes: See Coon, 1931, pages 143-144 for a description of a typical burial.Notes: Corpse is interred on its side (Coon, 1931:144).Corpse is extended (lying flat on front or back):Notes: Corpse is interred extended, but on its side (Coon, 1931:144).No—Corpse is upright (where body is interred in standing position)::Notes: Corpse is interred on its side (Coon, 1931:144).No—Corpse is interred some other way:Notes: "Arrived at the place of burial, some of the men busy themselves with diggingthe grave. It consists of two holes, one inside the other. The upper hole must be twelvefoot-measures long, a leg-straddle wide, and navel deep. The inner hole must be onespan wide, the length of the corpse, measured with a rope, and knee deep. The corpseis put in the inner hole on its left side, its feet to the east" (Coon, 1931:144).Yes [specify]: On side—Cannibalism:Notes: No evidence for cannibalism was found in the principal ethnographic sources.No—Feeding to animals:Notes: No evidence for feeding corpses to animals was found in the principal ethnographicsources.No—Re-treatment of corpse:Notes: SCCS Variable 1850 indicates that "secondary contact with the body or bones of thedeceased does not occur", and SCCS Variable 1851 indicates that "disarticulation does not occuror is not recoverable archaeologically" (Schroeder, 2001; Retrieved from Divale, 2004).No—Yes—In cemetery:Yes—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 8 of 21Supernatural BeingsAre supernatural beings present:Notes: "Besides the Deity and the historic characters concerned with the Semitic religions, such as theprophets and the so□aba, the Riffians commonly believe in nine types of supernatural being, only twoof which are intimately associated with Islam" (Coon, 1931:154).Notes: "The corpse, resting on the door of the village mosque, is carried by four men, constantlychanging, so that everyone in the village may be said to have borne it part of the way. Eachman runs up and takes a corner of the door for a few feet, when he is replaced by another. Inthis way the corpse is carried to the cemetery" (Coon, 1931:144).Yes—A supreme high god is present:Notes: SCCS Variable 238 (identical to Ethnographic Atlas Column 34) indicates that "high godpresent, active, and specifically supportive of human morality" (Murdock, 1967; Retrieved fromDivale, 2004). Although God/Allah/The Deity is extremely important in Islam, the principalethnographers do not go into detail when describing this deity's relation to the Berbers ofMorocco.Yes—The supreme high god is a sky deity:Notes: "On the twenty-seventh night of this fast they believe that the sky opens andthat a man who gazes fixedly at it may see God. If he does he dies instantly and iscarried to heaven" (Coon, 1931:152).Yes—Previously human spirits are present:Notes: "er khier, a ghost. Ghosts are said to be very tall and thin, and to travel about at night,especially in the neighborhood of cemeteries. They are sometimes able to strike at men withtongues of fire, and can appear and disappear at will" (Coon, 1931:154).Yes—Non-human supernatural beings are present:Notes: See questions below for more details on non-human supernatural beings.Yes—These supernatural beings can be seen:Notes: "jnun, the jinns or genii, including the afari□ and the shaiya□in. This class alsoincludes the thajinnishth, a female jinn in the form of a beautiful woman, who meetsmen on the path or in the wilderness at night and seduces them" (Coon, 1931:154).Yes—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 9 of 21These supernatural beings have indirect causal efficacy in the world:"Indirect causal efficacy" refers to not being seen as consciously, directly and activelyintervening in the human world, but their overall well being or general attitude haseffects on, e.g., quality of harvest, success in war, health, etc.Notes: "er ria, a hot whirlwind which comes in summer, and is supposed to be a balefulsupernatural being" (Coon, 1931:154).Yes—These supernatural beings possess/exhibit some other feature:Notes: "The jnun which disturb the Riffians most are those which take the forms ofdogs or jackals. Dogs with light eyes are believed to be jnun, and fierce jackals,transformed jnun, are said to guard treasure hidden in the bottoms of caves. Doorsand shutters are closed at night to prevent jnun from entering and possessing theoccupants. Hydrophobia is thought to indicate the entrance of a jinni into a man'sbody" (Coon, 1931:154).Yes [specify]: Capable of possessing humans and animals—Mixed human-divine beings are present:Notes: Saints are present and important among the Riffians. See questions below for moreinformation about these mixed human-divine beings.Yes—These mixed human-divine beings have deliberate causal efficacy in the world:Notes: "Another Rif saint, Sidi Buhaiyar of the Ait Waryager, is said to make stones falldown from the sky and kill anybody who is guilty of theft, homicide, or any otheroffence inside his horm; and should anybody attempt to take away earth from themountain on which Sidi Buhaiyar has his grave, the saint would make him blind"(Coon, 1931:27).Yes—These mixed human-divine beings can punish:Notes: "Another Rif saint, Sidi Buhaiyar of the Ait Waryager, is said to makestones fall down from the sky and kill anybody who is guilty of theft, homicide,or any other offence inside his horm; and should anybody attempt to takeaway earth from the mountain on which Sidi Buhaiyar has his grave, the saintwould make him blind" (Coon, 1931:27).Yes—Does the religious group possess a variety of supernatural beings:Notes: "Besides the Deity and the historic characters concerned with the Semitic religions, suchas the prophets and the so□aba, the Riffians commonly believe in nine types of supernaturalbeing, only two of which are intimately associated with Islam" (Coon, 1931:154).Yes—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 10 of 21Supernatural MonitoringIs supernatural monitoring present:This refers to surveillance by supernatural beings of humans’ behaviour and/or thought particularly as itrelates to social norms or potential norm violations.Notes: SCCS Variable 238 (identical to Ethnographic Atlas Column 34) indicates that "high god present,active, and specifically supportive of human morality" (Murdock, 1967; Retrieved from Divale, 2004).Although God/Allah/The Deity is extremely important in Islam and is involved with supernaturalmonitoring, the principal ethnographers do not go into detail when describing this deity's relation tothe Berbers of Morocco.Yes—There is supernatural monitoring of prosocial norm adherence in particular:Prosocial norms are norms that enhance cooperation among members of the group, includingobviously “moral” or “ethical” norms, but also extending to norms concerning honouring contractsand oaths, providing hospitality, coming to mutual aid in emergencies, etc.Yes—Supernatural beings care about taboos:Notes: See questions below for specific taboosYes—Food:Notes: "Milk and butter [among other food items] are very liable to be injured by theevil eye, witchcraft, or other evil influences [including jnun spirits], and are therefore inneed of many precautions" (Westermarck, 1926:30). "...you should offer milk even to aperson who does not know that you are carrying such a thing; for if you conceal milkfrom him God will always conceal it from you (Andjra)" (ibid, page 31).Yes—Supernatural beings care about other:Notes: "The horse, which is such a holy animal, must be well guarded against pollution.It seems to be a universal belief in Morocco that if a person who is sexually uncleanrides a horse some evil will happen to him: he will tumble down, or be late in arrivingat his destination, or will not succeed in his business, or will have boils, or become ill ordie" (Westermarck, 1926:29).Yes [specify]: Sacred Animals—Supernatural beings care about murder of coreligionists:Notes: "Another Rif saint, Sidi Buhaiyar of the Ait Waryager, is said to make stones fall downfrom the sky and kill anybody who is guilty of theft, homicide, or any other offence inside hisYes—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 11 of 21horm; and should anybody attempt to take away earth from the mountain on which SidiBuhaiyar has his grave, the saint would make him blind" (Westermarck, 1926:27).Supernatural beings care about lying:Notes: "Supernatural sanctions of death or blindness in the event of perjury acted as a powerfulincentive against swearing falsely" (Hart, 2011).Yes—Supernatural beings care about honouring oaths:Notes: "Supernatural sanctions of death or blindness in the event of perjury acted as a powerfulincentive against swearing falsely" (Hart, 2011).Yes—Supernatural beings care about property crimes:Notes: "Another Rif saint, Sidi Buhaiyar of the Ait Waryager, is said to make stones fall downfrom the sky and kill anybody who is guilty of theft, homicide, or any other offence inside hishorm; and should anybody attempt to take away earth from the mountain on which SidiBuhaiyar has his grave, the saint would make him blind" (Westermarck, 1926:27).Yes—Supernatural beings care about conversion of non-religionists:I don't know—Supernatural beings care about economic fairness:I don't know—Supernatural beings care about personal hygiene:Notes: "Like sexual uncleanness, excremental impurity is injurious to baraka [spiritual well-being]. A person ought not to sleep inside a mosque, because during sleep he may have anightly pollution or break wind or make water. If anybody breaks wind in a mosque he killsthereby the angels in it or makes them blind, or at any rate displeases them, and he willhimself fall ill or become poor. I have seen men remove their trousers before prayer, since noprayer will be accepted from a person in a state of uncleanness. Nobody is allowed to pray in aplace where there are excrements of any other animals but such as are used for food, that is,cattle, sheep, goats, and camels. Urination and evacuation must not take place in the directionof Mecca; in the case of the former the person should have his face turned westward, in thecase of the latter north- or south-wards. It is forbidden to do one's needs or urinate in the sea. Itis also forbidden to do such things in a river or a pond. He who urinates in water will be struckby a jenn (Hiaina, Ait Sadden) or urinate blood after his death (Ait Waryager)" (Westermarck,1926:30).Yes—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 12 of 21Do supernatural beings mete out punishment:Notes: See questions below for more details on supernatural punishmentYes—Is the cause or agent of supernatural punishment known:Notes: See questions below for more details on the causes of supernatural punishment.Yes—Done only by high god:Notes: Supernatural punishment may be done by God (Westermarck, 1926:31), saints(ibid, p.27), angels and jenn (ibid, p.30).No—Done by many supernatural beings:Notes: Supernatural punishment may be done by God (Westermarck, 1926:31), saints(ibid, p.27), angels and jenn (ibid, p.30).Yes—Done through impersonal cause-effect principle:Notes: "The horse, which is such a holy animal, must be well guarded against pollution.It seems to be a universal belief in Morocco that if a person who is sexually uncleanrides a horse some evil will happen to him: he will tumble down, or be late in arrivingat his destination, or will not succeed in his business, or will have boils, or become ill ordie" (Westermarck, 1926:29).Yes—Is the reason for supernatural punishment known:Notes: See questions below for details.Yes—Done to enforce religious ritual-devotional adherence:Notes: See Westermarck, 1926, various pages including: 30-35.Yes—Done to enforce group norms:Notes: "Another Rif saint, Sidi Buhaiyar of the Ait Waryager, is said to make stones falldown from the sky and kill anybody who is guilty of theft, homicide, or any otheroffence inside his horm; and should anybody attempt to take away earth from themountain on which Sidi Buhaiyar has his grave, the saint would make him blind"Yes—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 13 of 21(Westermarck, 1926:27).Done to inhibit selfishness:Notes: "...you should offer milk even to a person who does not know that you arecarrying such a thing; for if you conceal milk from him God will always conceal it fromyou (Andjra)" (ibid, page 31).Yes—Supernatural punishments are meted out in the afterlife:Notes: "...murder was forbidden by the Prophet and that a murderer will go to hell..."(Westermarck, 1926:57).Yes—Supernatural punishments in the afterlife are highly emphasized by thereligious group:I don't know—Punishment in the afterlife consists of mild sensory displeasure:I don't know—Punishment in the afterlife consists of extreme sensory displeasure:I don't know—Punishment in the afterlife consists of reincarnation as an inferior life form:I don't know—Punishment in the afterlife consists of reincarnation in an inferior realm:I don't know—Other [specify]Notes: "...murder was forbidden by the Prophet and that a murderer will go to hell..."(Westermarck, 1926:57).Yes—Supernatural punishments are meted out in this lifetime:Notes: See questions below for more details on supernatural punishments in this lifetime.Yes—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 14 of 21Do supernatural beings bestow rewards:Notes: Not enough information on this topic was available in the principal ethnographic sources.Messianism/EschatologyAre messianic beliefs present:Notes: "In the Rif, the Ali and Jesus prediction is replaced by the legend that a man, identity unknown,will come and smite both the Muslimin and the Christians until but a tenth of each remains. Then theslayer will introduce a new religion, the nature of which has not yet been revealed. He will come acrossthe sky with the sun from the East in a single day" (Coon, 1931:147).Supernatural punishments in this life are highly emphasized by the religiousgroup:Notes: Not enough information on this topic was available in the principalethnographic sources.I don't know—Punishment in this life consists of bad luck:I don't know—Punishment in this life consists of political failure:I don't know—Punishment in this life consists of defeat in battle:I don't know—Punishment in this life consists of extreme sensory displeasure:Notes: "Another Rif saint, Sidi Buhaiyar of the Ait Waryager, is said to make stones falldown from the sky and kill anybody who is guilty of theft, homicide, or any otheroffence inside his horm; and should anybody attempt to take away earth from themountain on which Sidi Buhaiyar has his grave, the saint would make him blind"(Westermarck, 1926:27).Yes—I don't know—Yes—Is the messiah's purpose known:Notes: To introduce a new religion (Coon, 1931:147).Yes—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 15 of 21Is an eschatology present:Notes: Not enough information on this topic was available in the principal ethnographic sources.Norms and Moral RealismAre general social norms prescribed by the religious group:Notes: Social norms are prescribed by the religious group and transmitted during childhood andthrough education (Coon, 1931, various sections including Chapter IX, section "Education", Chapter X,and Chapter XI).Is there a conventional vs. moral distinction in the religious group:Notes: Social norms and moral rules are prescribed by the religious group and transmitted duringchildhood and through education. The nature of this distinction is not entirely clear. (Coon, 1931, varioussections including Chapter IX, section "Education", Chapter X, and Chapter XI).PracticesMembership Costs and PracticesDoes membership in this religious group require forgone food opportunities (taboos ondesired foods):Notes: Yes, during Ramadan. "Ramadan is kept strictly by the Riffians, who do not deviate from theorthodox regulations in any way. Those who ordinarily eat pork, smoke, or drink, abstain from thesepractices during Ramadan, and scour with ashes any cooking or eating vessel which has been used forunclean food at other times" (Coon, 1931:152).Does membership in this religious group require sacrifice of time (e.g., attendance atmeetings or services, regular prayer, etc.):Notes: Men attend weekly services at the cantonal mosque. Old women may attend, but must sit in aOther purpose:Notes: "In the Rif, the Ali and Jesus prediction is replaced by the legend that a man,identity unknown, will come and smite both the Muslimin and the Christians until buta tenth of each remains. Then the slayer will introduce a new religion, the nature ofwhich has not yet been revealed. He will come across the sky with the sun from theEast in a single day" (Coon, 1931:147).Yes [specify]: To introduce a new religion—I don't know—Yes—I don't know—Yes—No—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 16 of 21separate room as to not be seen. Younger women do not attend. Students are not required to attend.(Coon, 1931:146).Notes: Men attend weekly services at the cantonal mosque. Old women may attend, but must sit in aseparate room as to not be seen. Younger women do not attend. Students are not required to attend.(Coon, 1931:146).Society and InstitutionsLevels of Social ComplexityThe society to which the religious group belongs is best characterized as (please chooseone):This question refers to the wider society in which the religious group is located.Notes: The Riffians have one level of jurisdictional hierarchy beyond the local community, which isreflective of a petty chiefdom (Ethnographic Atlas column 33, Murdock, 1967; retrieved from Divale,2004). For detailed information on the Riffian's political organization, see Coon, 1931 Chapter VII:Government and Warfare.EducationDoes the religious group provide formal education to its adherents:Notes: "[The older men of each community] select some man of their village or a stranger, morefrequently the latter. He must be a man of considerable ability in writing and with a fair knowledge ofthe Koran. He stands in front of the mosque at sunrise and at noon to call the pupils. School is heldfrom sunrise (sba) to ten o'clock (d-har), and from noon (d-hor) to about four o'clock (asr)" (Coon,1931:113).Is formal education available to the group’s adherents through an institution(s) other thanthe religious group:Notes: Secular education is available (Coon, 1931:115).Public WorksDoes the religious group in question provide public food storage:Yes—A chiefdom—Yes—Is formal education restricted to religious professionals:Notes: See Coon, 1931:113-115No—Yes—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 17 of 21Notes: SCCS Variable 20 indicates that food is stored in individual houses (Murdock and Morrow, 1970;Retrieved from Divale, 2004).Is public food storage provided to the group’s adherents by an institution(s) other than thereligious group in question:Notes: SCCS Variable 20 indicates that food is stored in individual houses (Murdock and Morrow, 1970;Retrieved from Divale, 2004).Does the religious group in question provide water management (irrigation, flood control):Notes: "Irrigation ditches which water the tillage of more than one man are subject to communal care.Each farmer is assigned a definite amount of water during each season when it is required, theamount depending on the amount of land requiring irrigation. The water is measured by days andhalf-days. Each season the farmer must send out a man for every day's water he receives, to work aday repairing the system after the heavy rains. Farmers who have each but a half-day's water pair offand draw lots to see which will work, since no one is allowed to work half a day only" (Coon, 1931:54).Is water management provided to the group’s adherents by an institution(s) other than thereligious group in question:Does the religious group in question provide transportation infrastructure:Notes: "Land transport in the Rif, Senhaja, and Ghomara is confined to the bearing of burdens by manand by domestic animals. Wheels and all types of vehicles are unknown. Human transport consistsusually of the carrying of loads on the back" (Coon, 1931:42).EnforcementDoes the religious group in question provide an institutionalized police force:Notes: "Police functions are not specialized or institutionalized at any level of political integration, themaintenance of law and order being left exclusively to informal mechanisms of social control, toprivate retaliation, or to sorcery" (Column 10: Tuden and Marshall, 1972).Do the group’s adherents interact with an institutionalized police force provided by aninstitution(s) other than the religious group in question:Notes: "Police functions are not specialized or institutionalized at any level of political integration, themaintenance of law and order being left exclusively to informal mechanisms of social control, toNo—No—Yes—No—No—No—No—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 18 of 21private retaliation, or to sorcery" (Column 10: Tuden and Marshall, 1972).Does the religious group in question provide institutionalized judges:Notes: "There are in the Rif two classes of officials who concern themselves with judicial and clericalfunctions: the “clerk,” or adl (plural adul ), and the “judge,” or □odhi. The former is something betweena town clerk and minor judge, and the latter a supreme court of appeal. Both concern themselves onlywith civil, never with criminal, disputes" (Coon, 1931:117). Criminal disputes are settled through thevillage council, council of the great, and the tribal council (Coon, 1931:96-104).Does the religious group in question enforce institutionalized punishment:Notes: See questions below for more details.Written LanguageDoes the religious group in question possess its own distinct written language:Notes: "The Riffians speak a ... dialect of Berber called thamazighth..." (Coon, 1931:4). The Berbers areunited by a shared language, and the Riffians have their own dialect. This language is not exclusivelyreligious, but used by the society at large.Yes—Yes—Do the institutionalized punishments include execution:Notes: Coon, 1931:102-104Yes—Do the institutionalized punishments include exile:Notes: Coon, 1931:100Yes—Do the institutionalized punishments include ostracism:Notes: Coon, 1931:100-104Yes—Do the institutionalized punishments include seizure of property:Notes: Cood, 1931:104Yes—Yes—Is use of this distinct written language confined to religious professionals:Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 19 of 21Is a non-religion-specific written language available to the group’s adherents through aninstitution(s) other than the religious group in question:Notes: Arabic is available and widely used in Morocco (Coon, 1931:4, 115).CalendarDoes the religious group in question possess a formal calendar:Notes: "Agriculture in the Rif and in the Senhaja country is conducted on the basis of the old Romancalendar, the names of the months surviving in a form very little altered from its original character. Iwas unable to transcribe these names exactly since I could find no one who knew them accurately andwas willing to reveal them. Knowledge of them is confined to the fqih, the preceptor or religious headof each group of villages, and to his students. The fqih, while delivering sermons at the mosque onFridays, reveals the agricultural program for the following week and tells the farmers just whatactivities the season merits. To reveal this calendar system and the agricultural annotations which gowith it would be to relinquish a portion of the awe in which the religious leader is held. The preceptorlikewise knows the Arabic lunar calendar and is the only one able to tell when religious feasts of Araborigin are due" (Coon, 1931:49).Is a formal calendar provided for the group’s adherents by an institution(s) other than thereligious group in question:Notes: Knowledge of the calendar is restricted to the religious officials and student (Coon, 1931:49).Food ProductionDoes the religious group in question provide food for themselves:Notes: The Berbers of Morocco are agro-pastoralists, relying primarily on intensive, permanentagriculture utilizing techniques such as terracing, plows, and irrigation. Pastoralism is an additionalsignificant source of subsistence. Hunting and fishing make supplement the diet as well. Source ofinformation from Ethnographic Atlas (Murdock, 1962-1971), retrieved from Divale, 2004; Variables 203-207, 232.Notes: Religious professionals are specially trained in reading and writing, and teach this skillto students.No—Yes—Yes—No—Yes—Please characterize the forms/level of food production [choose all that apply]:Hunting (including marine animals)—Fishing—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 20 of 21Notes: The Berbers of Morocco are agro-pastoralists, relying primarily on intensive, permanentagriculture utilizing techniques such as terracing, plows, and irrigation. Pastoralism is anadditional significant source of subsistence. Hunting and fishing make supplement the diet aswell. Source of information from Ethnographic Atlas (Murdock, 1962-1971), retrieved fromDivale, 2004; Variables 203-207, 232.Pastoralism—Small-scale agriculture / horticultural gardens or orchards—Large-scale agriculture (e.g., monocropping, organized irrigation systems)—Pitek, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 21 of 21

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