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Cham Bani also known as “Localized Shi'a Cham Muslims in Vietnam”, “Bani Islam” Noseworthy, William Dec 20, 2017

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Poll: Religious Group (v5) Published on: 20 December 2017Date Range: 1000 CE - 2015 CERegion: Cham Bani CommunitiesRegion tags: Asia, Southeast Asia, VietnamExtent of Cham Bani communities by terms ofpopular settlement, as of 2010.Cham Banialso known as “Localized Shi'a Cham Muslims in Vietnam”, “Bani Islam”By William Noseworthy, McNeese State UniversityEntry tags: Religion, Islamic Traditions, Syncretic Religions, Southeast Asian Religions, Religions in VietnamThe Cham Bani are a small religious community in Vietnam. They practice a localized form of Shi'a Islamthat has been adapted throughout the centuries to some include Sunni influence. They are alsoinfluenced, to an extent, by Cham Hindu (Ahiér) practices, Shamanism, and may contrast themselves withCham Hindus, or Cham Animists.Status of Participants:✓ Elite ✓ Religious Specialists ✓ Non-elite (common people, general populace)SourcesPrint sources for understanding this subject:Online sources for understanding this subject:Source 1: Ba Trung Phu. 2008. Bani Islam Cham in Vietnam. In Islam at the Margins: The Muslims ofIndochina, eds. Omar Faouk and Hiroyuki Yamamoto, 24-34. Kyoto, Japan: Center for Integrated AreaStudies, Kyoto University—Source 2: Rondot, Pierre. 1950. Notes Sur Les cham Bani du Binh Thuan (Centre Viet-Nam). Paris: LibrairieOrientaliste Paul Geuthner—Source 3: Durand, RP EM. 1903. Les Chams Bani. BEFEO III(1): 54-63—Source 1 URL: https://chamstudies.net/—Source 1 Description: Largest active multi-lingual resources website in the field of Cham Studies. CoversCham in Malaysia, Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam.—Source 2 URL: https://www.loc.gov/catdir/cpso/romanization/cham.pdf—Source 2 Description: Library of Congress Romanization of the Cham script. Used in religious, historical,and literary manuscripts.—Source 3 URL: https://www.loc.gov/catdir/cpso/cham_background.pdf—Source 3 Description: Essay explaining motivation for romanization of the Cham script. Includes notes oncontemporary population estimates.—DOI: URL: https://religiondatabase.org/browse/476This work is licensed under the Creative CommonsAttribution 4.0 International license.Please see our Terms of Use here:https://religiondatabase.org/about/creditsPage 1 of 40© 2018 Database of Religious History.The University of British Columbia.For any questions contactproject.manager@religiondatabase.orgRelevant online primary textual corpora (original languages and/or translations):General VariablesMembership/Group InteractionsAre other religious groups in cultural contact with target religion:Does the religious group have a general process/system for assigning religious affiliation:Source 1 URL: https://eap.bl.uk/project/EAP531/search—Source 1 Description: Endangered Manuscripts archive of four Cham manuscripts.—Source 2 URL: https://eap.bl.uk/project/EAP698—Source 2 Description: Endangered Manuscripts archive of 529 Cham manuscripts.—Yes—Is the cultural contact competitive:Yes—Is the cultural contact accommodating/pluralistic:Yes—Is the cultural contact neutral:Yes—Is there violent conflict (within sample region):No—Is there violent conflict (with groups outside the sample region):Notes: Open conflict with Vietnamese culture. Vietnamese conquest of Cham lands, andVietnamese repression of Cham beliefs.Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1000 CE - 1835 CEYes—Yes—Assigned at birth (membership is default for this society):Yes—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 2 of 40Does the religious group actively proselytize and recruit new members:Does the religion have official political supportAssigned by personal choice:Notes: Personal choice conversion has occasionally been viewed as favorably if "marrying in" tothe community. It is uncommon.Yes—Assigned by class:Notes: Clerics are referred to as Cham Awal. They are keep Islamic practices, study Qur'anicmanuscripts, and adhere to ritual practices. Cham Bani is another name for the generalpopulation, whose religious practices and adherence may be much more varied.Yes—Assigned at a specific age:Notes: There are naming/first hair cut rituals for toddlers. There are coming of age ceremoniesfor both males and females. These symbolize entering more completely into Cham Banisociety.Yes—Assigned by gender:Notes: Because clerics are male only, only males can become Cham Awal, the elite cleric classthat keeps Islamic practices in order. Female positions as healers, matriarchs, and otherimportant figures are possible, although the operate at a different form of elite status.Yes—Assigned by participation in a particular ritual:Notes: Life cycle rituals and conversions by marriage can be marked with a "tamâ agama bani"ritual, which has the meaning of "entering the Bani religion," or "entering the Bani path."Yes—Assigned by some other factor:No—No—Yes—Are the priests paid by polity:Yes—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 3 of 40Is there a conception of apostasy in the religious group:Notes: In the early modern period, the clerics receive support, financial and otherwise, from thekings of Panduranga. Panduranga was a kingdom that was in what are now Ninh Thuan, BinhThuan and Bien Hoa provinces. The royalty were either of Cham or Churu ethnicity. By thelatter part of the seventeenth century, during the peak of Islamic influence in Southeast Asiancourts, many of the members of the royal family were Muslims. In Panduranga, the Bani clericshad support. When the Nguyễn Vietnamese conquered parts of Panduranga, the Bani clericswere repressed. When the final conquest was completed, aspects of their religion, such asattending mosque, were banned for some time. Since that time, the clerics have not hadpolitical support. The won nominal recognition by Vietnamese authorities in the early 1970s,and again in the 2000s. This recognition does not give them any financial support.Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1650 CE - 1835 CEIs religious infrastructure paid for by the polity:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1650 CE - 1835 CEYes—Are the head of the polity and the head of the religion the same figure:No—Are political officials equivalent to religious officials:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1650 CE - 1835 CEYes—Is religious observance enforced by the polity:No—Polity legal code is roughly coterminous with religious code:No—Polity provides preferential economic treatment (e.g. tax, exemption)No—Yes—Are apostates prosecuted or punished:No—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 4 of 40Size and StructureNumber of adherents of religious group within sample region (estimated population,numerical):Number of adherents of religious group within sample region (% of sample regionpopulation, numerical):Notes: Approximately 30% of Cham population in Vietnam, not of general population.ScriptureDoes the religious group have scriptures:Scripture is a generic term used to designate revered texts that are considered particularly authoritativeand sacred relative to other texts. Strictly speaking, it refers to written texts, but there are also “oralscriptures” (e.g. the Vedas of India).Notes: There is a recognition that individuals can change paths from Cham Bani Islam to SunniIslam. This is not viewed favorably, but not widely punished either. There is also anunderstanding that an individual can become more Hindu influenced (Ahiér) and hence doesnot avoid keeping up with religious traditions. This is also not viewed favorably, but notpunished. Punishment is viewed as a supernatural event.Estimated population, numeric: 60000—Estimated population, percentage of sample region: 30—Yes—Are they written:Notes: Qur'anic material. There are also Kitab explanations of Qur'anic material and religiousconcepts. Sakkawi are religious calendars. Furthermore, there are many genres of Chamliterature that present religious ethics.Yes—Are they oral:Notes: Religious texts are memorized and performed orally on ceremonial occasions.Yes—Is there a story associated with the origin of scripture:Yes—Revealed by a high god:Yes—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 5 of 40Architecture, GeographyRevealed by other supernatural being:No—Inspired by high god:Yes—Inspired by other supernatural being:No—Originated from divine or semi-divine human beings:Notes: Prophet Mohammed and wali (saints).Yes—Originated from non-divine human being:No—Are the scriptures alterable:No—Are there formal institutions (i.e. institutions that are authorized by the religiouscommunity or political leaders) for interpreting the scriptures:Yes—Can interpretation also take place outside these institutions:Yes—Interpretation is only allowed by officially sanctioned figures:No—Is there a select group of people trained in transmitting the scriptures:Yes—Is there a codified canon of scriptures:Yes—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 6 of 40Is monumental religious architecture present:Notes: There are mosques (sang mâgik: from Cham for "house"/sang and Arabic for "mosque"/masjid).There are also ancestral graveyards (ghur) associated with each village and town, of great importance.Are there different types of religious monumental architecture:Yes—In the average settlement, what percentage of area is taken up by all religiousmonuments:Percentage: 1—Size of largest single religious monument, square meters:Field doesn't know—Height of largest single religious monument, meters:Field doesn't know—Size of average monument, square meters:Field doesn't know—Height of average monument, meters:Field doesn't know—In the largest settlement, what percentage of area is taken up by all religiousmonuments:Field doesn't know—Yes—Tombs:No—Cemeteries:Yes—Temples:Yes—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 7 of 40Is iconography present:Notes: There may be a symbol of an "homkar" which is a Cham adaptation of the "Om" symbol used toindicate the need for the cosmological dualism of the Ahiér and the Awal, of men and women, of lifeand death, and so on. This symbol is usually present on sang mâgik, although it is not strictly an "icon."Altars:No—Devotional markers:Yes—Mass gathering point [plazas, courtyard, square. Places permanently demarcatedusing visible objects or structures]:No—Other type of religious monumental architecture:No—Yes—Where is iconography present [select all that apply]:Notes: Some religious spaces as well, such as outside the entrance to a sang mâgik.At home—Some public spaces—Are there distinct features in the religious group's iconography:Yes—Eyes (stylized or not):No—Supernatural beings (zoomorphic):No—Supernatural beings (geomorphic):No—Supernatural beings (anthropomorphic):Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 8 of 40BeliefsBurial and AfterlifeIs a spirit-body distinction present:Answer “no” only if personhood (or consciousness) is extinguished with death of the physical body.Answering yes does not necessarily imply the existence of Cartesian mind/body dualism, merely thatsome element of personhood (or consciousness) survives the death of the body.Belief in afterlife:No—Supernatural beings (abstract symbol):Notes: Allah, for example, symbolized through the written word.Yes—Portrayals of afterlife:Notes: Death is symbolized, as life is, within the homkar.Yes—Aspects of doctrine (e.g. cross, trinity, Mithraic symbols):Notes: The homkar symbol.Yes—Humans:No—Other features of iconography:No—Yes—Spirit-mind is conceived of as having qualitatively different powers or properties thanother body parts:Yes—Yes—Is the spatial location of the afterlife specified or described by the religious group:Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 9 of 40Reincarnation in this world:Are there special treatments for adherents' corpses:Yes—Afterlife in specified realm of space beyond this world:Yes—Afterlife in vaguely defined “above” space:Yes—Afterlife in vaguely defined “below” space:No—Afterlife in vaguely defined horizontal space:Yes—Afterlife located in "other" space:No—No—Yes—Cremation:No—Mummification:No—Interment:Yes—Corpse is flexed (legs are bent or body is crouched):No—Corpse is extended (lying flat on front or back):Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 10 of 40Are co-sacrifices present in tomb/burial:Are grave goods present:Yes—Corpse is upright (where body is interred in standing position)::No—Corpse is interred some other way:No—Cannibalism:Notes: Appears occasionally in texts. Not in historical sources.No—Exposure to elements (e.g. air drying):Notes: Not intentionally. But the climate does tend to dry corpses before burial a bit.No—Feeding to animals:No—Secondary burial:No—Re-treatment of corpse:No—Other intensive (in terms of time or resources expended) treatment of corpse :Yes [specify]: Wrapping of corpse in a funerary shroud. Digging of grave through sand, ten feetdeep or more. Burial by hand at first, through extensive funerary ceremony, before shifting toshovels. Local Imams tend to attend ceremonies. Marking of grave site with head and footstones.—No—Yes—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 11 of 40Are formal burials present:Supernatural BeingsAre supernatural beings present:Personal effects:Notes: Very rarely, maybe jewelry.No—Valuable items:No—Other grave goods:Notes: Flowers. Clerics may use betel leaf and tobacco. Food stuffs can occasionally be foundnear grave sites as left over offerings.Yes—Yes—As cenotaphs:No—In cemetery:Yes—Family tomb-crypt:No—Domestic (individuals interred beneath house, or in areas used for normal domesticactivities):No—Other formal burial type:No—Yes—A supreme high god is present:Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 12 of 40Yes—The supreme high god is anthropomorphic:No—The supreme high god is a sky deity:Yes—The supreme high god is chthonic (of the underworld):No—The supreme high god is fused with the monarch (king=high god):No—The monarch is seen as a manifestation or emanation of the high god:Yes—The supreme high god is a kin relation to elites:No—The supreme high god has another type of loyalty-connection to elites:Yes [specify]: Clerics represent the will of Allah (Ppo Ouwalah)—The supreme high god is unquestionably good:Yes—Other feature(s) of supreme high god:Yes [specify]: All powerful. Determines nature of all saints.—The supreme high god has knowledge of this world:Yes—The supreme god's knowledge is restricted to particular domain ofhuman affairs:No—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 13 of 40The supreme high god's knowledge is restricted to (a) specific area(s)within the sample region:No—The supreme high god's knowledge is unrestricted within the sampleregion:Yes—The supreme high god's knowledge is unrestricted outside of sampleregion:Yes—The supreme high god can see you everywhere normally visible (inpublic):Yes—The supreme high god can see you everywhere (in the dark, at home):Yes—The supreme high god can see inside heart/mind (hidden motives):Yes—The supreme high god knows your basic character (personal essence):Yes—The supreme high god knows what will happen to you, what you will do(future sight):Yes—The supreme high god has other knowledge of this world:Yes [specify]: Esoteric—The supreme high god has deliberate causal efficacy in the world:Yes—The supreme high god can reward:Yes—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 14 of 40The supreme high god can punish:Yes—The supreme high god has indirect causal efficacy in the world:Yes—The supreme high god exhibits positive emotion:Yes—The supreme high god exhibits negative emotion:No—The supreme high god possesses hunger:No—Is it permissible to worship supernatural beings other than the high god:Notes: Veneration is acceptable, but not worship.No—The supreme high god possesses/exhibits some other feature:No—The supreme high god communicates with the living:Yes—In waking, everyday life:Yes—In dreams:Yes—In trance possession:No—Through divination practices:Yes—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 15 of 40Only through religious specialists:Notes: But religious specialists have special knowledge and can communicatethe will of the supreme god more directly.No—Only through monarchNo—Other form of communication with living:No—Previously human spirits are present:Yes—Human spirits can be seen:No—Human spirits can be physically felt:Yes—Previously human spirits have knowledge of this world:Yes—Human spirits' knowledge restricted to particular domain of humanaffairs:No—Human spirits' knowledge restricted to (a) specific area(s) within thesample region:No—Human spirits' knowledge unrestricted within the sample region:Yes—Human spirits' knowledge unrestricted outside of sample region:Notes: Implication is that the spirits don't care about other matters that don'timpact the Bani.Field doesn't know—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 16 of 40Human spirits can see you everywhere normally visible (in public):Yes—Human spirits can see you everywhere (in the dark, at home):Notes: But sometimes you can hide from bad spirits (jin; from Arabic "djinn").Yes—Human spirit's can see inside heart/mind (hidden motives):Yes—Human spirits know your basic character (personal essence):Yes—Human spirits know what will happen to you, what you will do (futuresight):Notes: Except in special cases. In which case, yes.No—Human spirits have other form(s) of knowledge regarding this world:Yes [specify]: Esoteric.—Human spirits have deliberate causal efficacy in the world:Yes—Human spirits can reward:Yes—Human spirits can punish:Yes—Human spirits have indirect causal efficacy in the world:Yes—Human spirits have memory of life:Notes: Sometimes not, however.Yes—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 17 of 40Human spirits exhibit positive emotion:Yes—Human spirits exhibit negative emotion:Yes—Human spirits possess hunger:Yes—Human spirits possess/exhibit some other feature:Yes [specify]: Desire to return for Ramâwan (Arabic: Ramadan).—Human spirits communicate with the living:Yes—In waking, everyday life:No—In dreams:Yes—In trance possession:Yes—Through divination processes:Yes—Only through specialists:Notes: Specialists can communicate through them, however.No—Only through monarch:No—Communicate with living through other means:Field doesn't know—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 18 of 40Non-human supernatural beings are present:Yes—These supernatural beings can be seen:No—These supernatural beings can be physically felt:Yes—Non-human supernatural beings have knowledge of this world:Yes—Non-human supernatural beings have knowledge restricted toparticular domain of human affairs:No—Non-human supernatural beings have knowledge restricted to (a)specific area(s) within the sample region:Notes: Sometimes.No—Non-human supernatural beings have knowledge unrestricted withinthe sample region:No—Non-human supernatural beings have knowledge unrestricted outsideof sample region:No—Non-human supernatural beings have can see you everywhere normallyvisible (in public):Yes—Non-human supernatural beings can see you everywhere (in the dark, athome):Yes—Non-human supernatural beings can see inside heart/mind (hiddenNoseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 19 of 40motives):Yes—Non-human supernatural beings knows your basic character (personalessence):Yes—Non-human supernatural beings know what will happen to you, whatyou will do (future sight):Yes—Non-human supernatural begins have other knowledge of this world:Yes [specify]: Esoteric—Non-human supernatural beings have deliberate causal efficacy in the world:Yes—These supernatural beings can reward:Yes—These supernatural beings can punish:Yes—These supernatural beings have indirect causal efficacy in the world:Yes—These supernatural beings exhibit positive emotion:Yes—These supernatural beings exhibit negative emotion:Yes—These supernatural beings possess hunger:Notes: Only occasionally.Yes—These supernatural beings possess/exhibit some other feature:Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 20 of 40Supernatural MonitoringIs supernatural monitoring present:This refers to surveillance by supernatural beings of humans’ behaviour and/or thought particularly as itrelates to social norms or potential norm violations.Yes [specify]: They are either saints (wali), such as Ppo Nabi, Ppo Mohammed, PpoHassan, Ppo Ali, Ppo Hewa, and so on. Or, they are jin (djinn).—Mixed human-divine beings are present:No—Does the religious group possess a pantheon of supernatural beings:Yes—Organized by kinship based on a family model:Yes—Organized hierarchically:Yes—Power of beings is domain specific:Yes—Other organization for pantheon:Field doesn't know—Yes—There is supernatural monitoring of prosocial norm adherence in particular:Prosocial norms are norms that enhance cooperation among members of the group, includingobviously “moral” or “ethical” norms, but also extending to norms concerning honouring contractsand oaths, providing hospitality, coming to mutual aid in emergencies, etc.Yes—Supernatural beings care about taboos:Yes—Food:Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 21 of 40Yes—Sacred space(s):Yes—Sacred object(s):Yes—Supernatural beings care about other:Field doesn't know—Supernatural beings care about murder of coreligionists:Yes—Supernatural beings care about murder of members of other religions:Yes—Supernatural beings care about murder of members of other polities:Notes: If unjust, yes. Often, these are viewed as just, however.No—Supernatural beings care about sex:Yes—Adultery:Notes: Plenty of suggestion of some allowed. Or, teasing to fake adultery, making onespouse care about another spouse again.Yes—Incest:Notes: Taboo to marry someone from the same hometown. Bani ought to marry out oftheir village. This is to prevent incest, as villages and towns are clan based associations.Yes—Other sexual practices:Yes [specify]: Many taboos. Essentially everything beyond sex between a man andwoman of age, and consensual, is taboo.—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 22 of 40Supernatural beings care about lying:Notes: Well, sometimes. Sometimes, they lie themselves.Yes—Supernatural beings care about honouring oaths:Yes—Supernatural beings care about laziness:Yes—Supernatural beings care about sorcery:Notes: Sometimes they encourage it, however, or play a role.Yes—Supernatural beings care about non-lethal fighting:No—Supernatural beings care about shirking risk:Yes—Supernatural beings care about disrespecting elders:Yes—Supernatural beings care about gossiping:Notes: This is minor, but sometimes problematic. Gossip (jari jaro) can cause harm, naturally.Yes—Supernatural beings care about property crimes:Yes—Supernatural beings care about proper ritual observance:Notes: Everything ought to be clean and pure (patih; also the word for "white").Yes—Supernatural beings care about performance of rituals:Yes—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 23 of 40Do supernatural beings mete out punishment:Supernatural beings care about conversion of non-religionists:Yes—Supernatural beings care about economic fairness:Yes—Supernatural beings care about personal hygiene:Notes: Very important. There are many washing ceremonies.Yes—Supernatural beings care about other:Yes [specify]: Many aspects of life, agriculture, and so on.—Yes—Is the cause or agent of supernatural punishment known:Yes—Done only by high god:No—Done by many supernatural beings:Yes—Done through impersonal cause-effect principle:Yes—Done by other entities or through other means [specify]Notes: Jin (djinn) for example, can be quite destructive with possession.Yes—Is the reason for supernatural punishment known:Yes—Done to enforce religious ritual-devotional adherence:Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 24 of 40Yes—Done to enforce group norms:Yes—Done to inhibit selfishness:Yes—Done randomly:Notes: Can appear random, but often some deeper reasoning is applied.No—Other [specify]No—Supernatural punishments are meted out in the afterlife:Notes: There may be exceptions.No—Supernatural punishments are meted out in this lifetime:Yes—Supernatural punishments in this life are highly emphasized by the religiousgroup:Yes—Punishment in this life consists of bad luck:Yes—Punishment in this life consists of political failure:Yes—Punishment in this life consists of defeat in battle:Yes—Punishment in this life consists of crop failure or bad weather:Yes—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 25 of 40Do supernatural beings bestow rewards:Punishment in this life consists of disaster on journeys.Yes—Punishment in this life consists of mild sensory displeasure:Yes—Punishment in this life consists of extreme sensory displeasure:Yes—Punishment in this life consists of sickness or illness:Yes—Punishment in this life consists of impaired reproduction:Yes—Punishment in this life consists of bad luck visited on descendants:Yes—Other [specify]No—Yes—Is the cause/purpose of supernatural rewards known:Yes—Done only by high god:No—Done by many supernatural beings:Yes—Done through impersonal cause-effect principle:Yes—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 26 of 40Done to enforce religious ritual-devotional adherence:Yes—Done to enforce group norms:Yes—Done to inhibit selfishness:Yes—Done randomly:No—Supernatural rewards are bestowed out in the afterlife:Yes—Supernatural rewards in the afterlife are highly emphasized by the religiousgroup:No—Reward in the afterlife consists of mild sensory pleasure:No—Reward in the afterlife consists of extreme sensory pleasure:No—Reward in the afterlife consists of eternal happiness:No—Reward in the afterlife consists of reincarnation as a superior life form:No—Reward in the afterlife consists of reincarnation in a superior realm:Notes: Incarnation into superior realm is the more dominant. This is not reincarnation,however.No—Other [specify]Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 27 of 40Field doesn't know—Supernatural rewards are bestowed out in this lifetime:Yes—Supernatural rewards in this life are highly emphasized by the religious group:Yes—Reward in this life consists of good luck:Yes—Reward in this life consists of political success or power:Yes—Reward in this life consists of success in battle:Yes—Reward in this life consists of peace or social stability:Yes—Reward in this life consists of healthy crops or good weather:Yes—Reward in this life consists of success on journeys:Yes—Reward in this life consists of mild sensory pleasure:Yes—Reward in this life consists of extreme sensory pleasure:Yes—Reward in this life consists of enhanced health:Yes—Reward in this life consists of enhanced reproductive success:Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 28 of 40Messianism/EschatologyAre messianic beliefs present:Notes: There is an understanding of the al-Masih, as the mesiah, but it is de-emphasized.Norms and Moral RealismAre general social norms prescribed by the religious group:Is there a conventional vs. moral distinction in the religious group:Yes—Reward in this life consists of fortune visited on descendants:Yes—Other [specify]No—No—Yes—Yes—What is the nature of this distinction:Present and clear—Are specifically moral norms prescribed by the religious group:Yes—Specifically moral norms are implicitly linked to vague metaphysical concepts:Yes—Specifically moral norms are explicitly linked to vague metaphysical entities:Yes—Specifically moral norms are linked to impersonal cosmic order (e.g. karma):Yes—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 29 of 40PracticesMembership Costs and PracticesDoes membership in this religious group require celibacy (full sexual abstinence):Does membership in this religious group require constraints on sexual activity (partial sexualabstinence):Specifically moral norms are linked in some way to an anthropomorphicbeing:Notes: The can be, not necessarily linked to high-god.Yes—Specifically moral norms are linked explicitly to commands ofanthropomorphic being:Notes: See above.Yes—Specifically moral norms are have no special connection to metaphysical:Yes—Moral norms apply to:Notes: There are different regulations for each of the above categories, that are specific tothose categories. There are also some precepts that appear to be universal.Only specialized religious class—Only one class of society—Only one gender—All individuals within society (excepting slaves, aliens)—All individuals within society—All individuals within contemporary world—All individuals (any time period)—No—Yes—Monogamy (males):No—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 30 of 40Does membership in this religious group require castration:Does membership in this religious group require fasting:Does membership in this religious group require forgone food opportunities (taboos ondesired foods):Does membership in this religious group require permanent scarring or painful bodilyalterations:Notes: Circumcision for males. Otherwise, no.Does membership in this religious group require painful physical positions or transitorypainful wounds:Does membership in this religious group require sacrifice of adults:"Adults" here referring to an emic or indigenous category; if that category is different from the popularWestern definition of a human who is 18-years-old or older and who is legally responsible for his/heractions, then please specify that difference in the Comments/Sources: box below.Does membership in this religious group require sacrifice of children:Monogamy (females):No—Other sexual constraints (males):Notes: Monogamy is tempered by historical polygamy. Additionally, divorce allows monogamyto be tempered in early modern and modern periods. Sex with members of the same clan(village or hometown) is taboo.Yes—Other sexual constraints (females):Notes: See above.Yes—No—Yes—Yes—Yes—No—No—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 31 of 40"Children" here referring to an emic or indigenous category; if that category is different from the popularWestern definition, please specify that different in the Comments/Sources: box below.Does membership in this religious group require self-sacrifice (suicide):Does membership in this religious group require sacrifice of property/valuable items:Does membership in this religious group require sacrifice of time (e.g., attendance atmeetings or services, regular prayer, etc.):Does membership in this religious group require physical risk taking:Does membership in this religious group require accepting ethical precepts:Does membership in this religious group require marginalization by out-group members:Does membership in this religious group require participation in small-scale rituals (private,household):No—No—Yes—To other in-group members:Yes—To out-groups:No—Destroyed:No—Other:Yes [specify]: Food—Yes—No—Yes—No—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 32 of 40Does membership in this religious group require participation in large-scale rituals:I.e. involving two or more households; includes large-scale “ceremonies” and “festivals.”Yes—What is the average interval of time between performances (in hours):Performances here refers to large-scale rituals.Notes: These may be forgone on a day to day practice, and most groups only practice them onspecial occasions. Although it is a common view that more households kept them uphistorically.Hours: 5—Yes—On average, for large-scale rituals how many participants gather in one location:Number of participants: 50—What is the average interval of time between performances (in hours):Performances here refers to small-scale rituals.Average interval [hours]: 5—Are there orthodoxy checks:Orthodoxy checks are mechanisms used to ensure that rituals are interpreted in a standardizedway, e.g. through the supervisory prominence of a professionalized priesthood or other system ofgovernance, appeal to texts detailing the proper interpretation, etc.Yes—Are there orthopraxy checks:Orthopraxy checks are mechanisms used to ensure that rituals are performed in a standardizedway, e.g. through the supervisory prominence of a professionalized priesthood or other system ofgovernance, appeal to texts detailing the proper procedure, etc.Yes—Does participation entail synchronic practices:Yes—Is there use of intoxicants:Notes: But not officially. Usually, the intoxicants are not drank, but simply offered.Yes—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 33 of 40Are extra-ritual in-group markers present:E.g. special changes to appearance such as circumcision, tattoos, scarification, etc.Does the group employ fictive kinship terminology:Yes—Tattoos/scarification:No—Circumcision:Yes—Food taboos:Yes—Hair:Yes—Dress:Yes—Ornaments:Yes—Archaic ritual language:Yes—Other:Yes [specify]: Music—Yes—Fictive kinship terminology universal:Yes—Fictive kinship terminology widespread:Yes—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 34 of 40Society and InstitutionsLevels of Social ComplexityThe society to which the religious group belongs is best characterized as (please chooseone):Notes: Formerly one religious group in the Kingdom of Panduranga. The kingdom had two officialreligious groups. The others were a localized form of Hinduism: the Cham AhiérWelfareDoes the religious group in question provide institutionalized famine relief:Is famine relief available to the group's adherents through an institution(s) other than thereligious group in question:Does the religious group in question provide institutionalized poverty relief:Is poverty relief available to the group's adherents through an institution(s) other than thereligious group in question:Does the religious group in question provide institutionalized care for the elderly and infirm:Is institutionalized care for the elderly and infirm available to the group's adherents throughan institution(s) other than the religious group in question:EducationDoes the religious group provide formal education to its adherents:Fictive kinship terminology employed but uncommon:No—Other [specify in comments]—Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 35 of 40Is formal education available to the group’s adherents through an institution(s) other thanthe religious group:BureaucracyDo the group’s adherent’s interact with a formal bureaucracy within their group:Do the group’s adherents interact with other institutional bureaucracies:Public WorksDoes the religious group in question provide public food storage:Is public food storage provided to the group’s adherents by an institution(s) other than thereligious group in question:Does the religious group in question provide water management (irrigation, flood control):Yes—Is formal education restricted to religious professionals:Notes: At the higher levels, yes.Yes—Is such education open to both males and females:Notes: But roles and positions are restricted based on gender.Yes—Yes—Is extra-religious education open to both males and females:Notes: Public education is mandated by the state in Vietnam. Supplementary education inreligious settings can only occur in outside hours.Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—Field doesn't know—No—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 36 of 40Notes: These matters are state controlled in Vietnam. Mitigated by local agrarians. Sometimes, thereligious hierarchy is involved in management of water resources.Is water management provided to the group’s adherents by an institution(s) other than thereligious group in question:Does the religious group in question provide transportation infrastructure:Notes: However, ride-share is organized co-communally at, before, and after religious events.Is transportation infrastructure provided for the group’s adherents by an institution(s) otherthan the religious group in question:TaxationDoes the religious group in question levy taxes or tithes:Notes: But they are optional in terms of amount given. These are "obligatory" but highly variable.Are taxes levied on the group’s adherents by an institution(s) other than the religious group inquestion:Notes: All families and income earners are subject to state taxes.EnforcementDoes the religious group in question provide an institutionalized police force:Do the group’s adherents interact with an institutionalized police force provided by aninstitution(s) other than the religious group in question:Does the religious group in question provide institutionalized judges:Do the group’s adherents interact with an institutionalized judicial system provided by an anYes—No—Yes—Yes—Yes—No—Yes—No—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 37 of 40institution(s) other than the religious group in question:Does the religious group in question enforce institutionalized punishment:Are the group’s adherents subject to institutionalized punishment enforced by aninstitution(s) other than the religious group in question:Does the religious group in question have a formal legal code:Are the group’s adherents subject to a formal legal code provided by institution(s) other thanthe religious group in question:WarfareDoes religious group in question possess an institutionalized military:Yes—No—Yes—Do the institutionalized punishments include execution:Yes—Do the institutionalized punishments include exile:Notes: Self-imposed political exile has been common.No—Do the institutionalized punishments include corporal punishments:Yes—Do the institutionalized punishments include ostracism:Yes—Do the institutionalized punishments include seizure of property:Yes—No—Yes—No—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 38 of 40Notes: Not since the 1830s.Do the group’s adherents participate in an institutionalized military provided byinstitution(s) other than the religious group in question:Are the group’s adherents protected by or subject to an institutionalized military providedby an institution(s) other than the religious group in question:Written LanguageDoes the religious group in question possess its own distinct written language:Is a non-religion-specific written language available to the group’s adherents through aninstitution(s) other than the religious group in question:Notes: But it is difficult to ascertain a high level of understanding without eventually working withreligious elite.Is a non-religion-specific written language used by the group’s adherents through aninstitution(s) other than the religious group in question:Notes: Research centers that are non-religious. Also, religious organizations of the Cham Ahiér group.CalendarDoes the religious group in question possess a formal calendar:Is a formal calendar provided for the group’s adherents by an institution(s) other than thereligious group in question:Notes: Although it is collaborated upon with the Cham Ahiér group, to formulate a joint "SakawiCham" calendar.Yes—Yes—Yes—Is use of this distinct written language confined to religious professionals:No—Yes—Yes—Yes—No—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 39 of 40Food ProductionDoes the religious group in question provide food for themselves:Is food provided to the group’s adherents by an institution(s) other than the religious groupin question:Yes—Please characterize the forms/level of food production [choose all that apply]:Gathering—Hunting (including marine animals)—Fishing—Pastoralism—Small-scale agriculture / horticultural gardens or orchards—Large-scale agriculture (e.g., monocropping, organized irrigation systems)—Yes—Please characterize the forms/levels of food production [choose all that apply]:Fishing—Small-scale agriculture / horticultural gardens or orchards—Large-scale agriculture (e.g., monocropping, organized irrigation systems)—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 40 of 40

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