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Cham Ahiér also known as “Localized Cham-Hinduism”, “Agama Cham”, “Agama Ahiér” Noseworthy, William Mar 17, 2018

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Poll: Religious Group (v5) Published on: 17 March 2018Date Range: 1600 CE - 2015 CERegion: Cham AhiérRegion tags: Asia, Hinduism, Southeast Asia, VietnamSettlements & Sites Associated with Cham AhiérPractices, 1600-2015Cham Ahiéralso known as “Localized Cham-Hinduism”, “Agama Cham”, “Agama Ahiér”By William Noseworthy, McNeese State UniversityEntry tags: Religion, Indic Religious Traditions, Southeast Asian Religions, Religions in VietnamCham Ahiér are a religious community in what is now Vietnam that have practiced a unique religion fromthe 17th century to the present. Elements of this religion, such as ancestor veneration, or the worship ofanimistic dieties and Hindu gods, likely existed in their community from at least as early as the 4thcentury. However, beginning in the 10th century, some Cham communities began to become influencedby Islam as well. During the seventeenth century, the contemporary form of Cham Ahiér religion becamemore standardized, as rulers from the Kingdom of Panduranga encouraged practices that blendedconcepts from the Cham Awal - who practiced a localized form of Islam - and the Cham Ahiér, whosepractice is predominantly based on a Brahmanic form of Hinduism. Today, the Cham Ahiér arepredominantly Hindu practitioners, although the religion exhibits flares of animistic, shamanistic, andIslamic influence.Status of Participants:✓ Elite ✓ Religious Specialists ✓ Non-elite (common people, general populace)SourcesPrint sources for understanding this subject:Online sources for understanding this subject:Source 1: Aymonier, Etienne. 1893. The History of Tchampa: The Cyamba of Marco Polo, Now Annam orCochin China. Translated from French. The Imperial Asiatic Quarterly Review and Oriental and ColonialRecord. v. VI (11). London, UK—Source 2: Lockart, B.M. & Trần Kỳ Phương. 2011. The Cham of Vietnam: History, Society, and Art.Singapore: NUS Press.—Source 3: Bruckmayr, Philipp. 2013. Between Institutionalized Syncretism and Official Particularism:Religion among the Chams of Vietnam and Cambodia. In Rituale als Ausdruck von Kulturkontakt:"Syncretismus" zwischen Negation und Neudefinition; Akten der inderdisziplinaren Tagung desSonderforschungsbereiches "Ritualdynamik." Heidelberg, December 3-5, 2010, eds. Andres H Pries,Laititia Martxolff, Claus Ambos, and Robert Langer, 11-42. Wiesbaden, Germany: Harrassowitz VerlagPress.—Source 1 URL: https://chamstudies.net/—DOI: URL: https://religiondatabase.org/browse/520This work is licensed under the Creative CommonsAttribution 4.0 International license.Please see our Terms of Use here:https://religiondatabase.org/about/creditsPage 1 of 48© 2018 Database of Religious History.The University of British Columbia.For any questions contactproject.manager@religiondatabase.orgRelevant online primary textual corpora (original languages and/or translations):General VariablesMembership/Group InteractionsAre other religious groups in cultural contact with target religion:Source 1 Description: An English, Vietnamese, and French Language website that shares contemporaryresearch in the field of Cham Studies—Source 2 URL: http://champaka.info/—Source 2 Description: A Vietnamese Language website that shares research and contemporary newsfrom the Cham community. This site includes news on international political advocacy activities.—Source 3 URL: http://inrasara.com/—Source 3 Description: A Vietnamese and Cham Language website. The personal work of Inrasara, aleading Cham Ahiér author & independent scholar. The site includes many invited essays, poems, andshort stories from Cham authors, regardless of religion. There are a few translations of Cham Languageworks available in English translation on this website as well.—Source 1 URL: https://eap.bl.uk/project/EAP698/search—Source 1 Description: Digitalized corpus of rare Cham manuscripts from Vietnam. This collection includesboth Ahiér (Hindu) manuscripts and Awal (Muslim) manuscripts.—Source 2 URL: https://eap.bl.uk/project/EAP531/search—Source 2 Description: This resource includes the digitalization of rare Cham Ahiér palm leaf manuscripts.Those manuscripts bound with goatskin belong to the Cham Awal (Muslim) population.—Source 3 URL: https://eap.bl.uk/project/EAP1005—Source 3 Description: This resource is for the current project for digitalizing Cham manuscripts. Theproject is set to conclude in August 2018.—Yes—Is the cultural contact competitive:No—Is the cultural contact accommodating/pluralistic:Notes: There is a philosophical relationship with the Cham Bani community of Vietnam thatdictates that the two collaborate. Concepts that parallel Hindu concepts of cosmic dualismfrom the sub-continent are used to articulate the necessity of cooperation and collaborationbetween the Cham Bani community, which is headed by Cham Awal (Muslim) clerics, and theCham Ahiér (Hindu) community. There was a long open civil conflict between Cham Bani andCham Ahiér communities during the 16th century. During the reign of Ppo Romé, in the 17thcentury, this conflict ended.Yes—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 2 of 48Does the religious group have a general process/system for assigning religious affiliation:Is the cultural contact neutral:Notes: Cultural contact with the Vietnamese population is also present. It is not openlyantagonistic at the current moment. But, the contact has been violent during periods of the17th-20th centuries.Notes: Cultural contact with Cham Sunni Muslim and Malay Sunni Muslim populations is alsopresent. In the past the contact has been primarily diplomatic and trade-related. It waspredominantly trade and special interest related during the first decade and a half of the 20thcentury.No—Yes—Is there violent conflict (within sample region):Notes: There has occassionally been internal violent conflict, related to contestations amongroyal lineages, especially at the end of the 18th century. Otherwise, there have occassionallybeen small scale conflicts between large clan networks. The scale of violence, internally,however, is quite small.Yes—Is there violent conflict (with groups outside the sample region):Notes: There has been repeated violent conflict with the Vietnamese population as theVietnamese House of Nguyễn expanded from a house of lords into an empire between the17th and 19th centuries. Cham Ahiér also participated in a number of 19th and 20th centuryconflicts occassionally backing and occassionally opposed to: French Colonial forces, theJapanese Empire, the Viet Minh, the Republic of Vietnam, and the National Liberation Front.Cham also supported the FULRO liberation movement in the 20th century, although thenumbers from the Cham Ahiér community who were actively engaged in fighting in each ofthese cases appear to have been small. Not insignificant, but small.Yes—Yes—Assigned at birth (membership is default for this society):Yes—Assigned by personal choice:Notes: An individual might effectively join this community if they marry in to the communityfrom the Cham Bani community or certain nearby upland groups (Raglai, Ede, Churu, and soon). In extremely rare cases, individuals from Vietnamese communities might effectively marryin to the Cham Ahiér community. Historically, there have been famous Churu individuals whoheld prominent places in the Cham Ahiér community due to their royal status. Such mobilityfor high status uplanders was more common in the 17th to 19th centuries, although the RaglaiYes—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 3 of 48Does the religious group actively proselytize and recruit new members:Does the religion have official political supporthold an important ritual relationship with the Cham Ahiér that has lasted up until the present.Assigned by class:Notes: There are class specific expectations to participation in this religious community.Historically, classes were broken into royalty, priesthood, and laity. By the turn of the 19th to the20th century, an emergent intellectual class, which is technically laity, but takes on some ofthe responsibilities of the priesthood, becomes more common, especially as the royalty has lostall territorial power as of 1835, and only remained in a symbolic fashion.Yes—Assigned at a specific age:Notes: There are age specific obligations during religious ceremonies. In this sense,membership to an increasingly inner circle within the religious community is associated withage.Yes—Assigned by gender:Notes: There are roles for priests that can only be performed by men. There are additionallyroles for religious leadership as assistants and officients in certain elements of ceremonies thatcan only be held by women.Yes—Assigned by participation in a particular ritual:Notes: There is not a widely understood "conversion ritual" which is comparable to the ChamBani conversion ritual. Rather, membership is assigned through repeated practice or birth.Loyalty to deities and cosmic powers is more important.No—Assigned by some other factor:Yes [specify]: Religious affiliation is a demonstrated process. Participation in calendrical and lifecycle rituals is paramount. One must venerate a collection of deities during these process,although which deities rank over others is often specific to a combination of loyalty, locations,and ever so occasionally, personal preference. The process of veneration, including preparingfood offerings and prostration, is the most important aspect of assigning affiliation to anindividual deity.—No—Yes—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 4 of 48Is there a conception of apostasy in the religious group:Notes: There are occassionally historical figures that are charged with abandoning their ancestraltraditions, although this is extremely rare.Size and StructureNumber of adherents of religious group within sample region (estimated population,numerical):Are the priests paid by polity:No—Is religious infrastructure paid for by the polity:No—Are the head of the polity and the head of the religion the same figure:Notes: This can occasionally be the case for lower-level state administration positions. In the18th and 19th centuries, it may have been more common. It was not common by the latter halfof the 20th and into the 21st century.No—Are political officials equivalent to religious officials:Notes: They have been in the past, but this is not common from the latter part of the 19thcentury through the present.Yes—Is religious observance enforced by the polity:No—Polity legal code is roughly coterminous with religious code:Notes: It has been in the past, but not since 1835.No—Polity provides preferential economic treatment (e.g. tax, exemption)No—No—Estimated population, numeric: 80000—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 5 of 48Number of adherents of religious group within sample region (% of sample regionpopulation, numerical):Notes: The population of the sample region is not well estimated in comparison to the number ofadherents. In their communities, they make up nearly 100% of the total population. Taken the entirearea writ large, however, they might be between 1-10% of the general population. In Ho Chi Minh City,they are less than 1% of the general population. The density of settlement comparable to the generalVietnamese population, and other ethnic minorities is highly variable.ScriptureDoes the religious group have scriptures:Scripture is a generic term used to designate revered texts that are considered particularly authoritativeand sacred relative to other texts. Strictly speaking, it refers to written texts, but there are also “oralscriptures” (e.g. the Vedas of India).Field doesn't know—Yes—Are they written:Notes: The manuscript culture of the Cham Ahiér community is robust and detailed. There aremany different genres of religious texts.Yes—Are they oral:Notes: There is a degree of oral memorization to religious texts. One genre of manuscripts issimply "prayer guides" which refer to a larger corpus of prayers that has been committed tomemory.Yes—Is there a story associated with the origin of scripture:Yes—Revealed by a high god:Notes: Not exactly. There are a number of deities who are associated with theknowledge of the script: Akhar Thrah. There are also other deities, such as Ppo InâNâgar, which are more broadly associated with the knowledge of writing, referred to assimply "Akhar," or epigraphic systems, which are known as "Akhar Bitau."No—Revealed by other supernatural being:Notes: See above. To expand: the knowledge of writing might be bequethed from oneNo—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 6 of 48supernatural being to another, or from a supernatural being to a semi-human or part-human part-god figure, or simply a human figure. However, there is no commonsingular origin for the script.Inspired by high god:Notes: The script can be inspired by many high gods and high deities. It is common toinvoke the inspiration and protection of deities before engagin in the process ofwriting, in order to recreate this connection.Yes—Inspired by other supernatural being:Notes: Depending on the order of divinity, it is possible that some of the divinities areascribed "saint" status, rather than status as complete divinities. There are also dragonspirits (Inâ Nâgar) that can breath prowess (ganreh) into humans. This might be onepossible way to acquire knowledge of script.Yes—Originated from divine or semi-divine human beings:Notes: The contemporary script is also said to have been affiliated with the time of PpoRomé in some accounts. Although it is not specifically ascribed to him, there is a sensethat his formalization of the relationship between the Awal clerics and the Ahiérpriests led to the adaptation of Akhar Thrah as a standard script. Because Ppo Romé isboth a historical figure and a deity, he may well be classified as an "other supernaturalbeing," being of the deva-raja sort, if understood within the context of broader Hinducategories of historio-cum-religious divinity.Yes—Originated from non-divine human being:Notes: Depending on the nature of the text, it is possible that the origins of script andscripture might well have originated from a human, particularly learned individualscholars. These narratives are rare, however. More often than not, scripture ismetaphorically understood as "script," or "writing," and the origins and inspirationcome from specifically ethereal realms which humans may only be able to access inspecial circumstances.Yes—Are the scriptures alterable:Notes: Generally speaking, the texts of the priest class are not understood as alterable, as theyare passed down from one generation to the next. That said, there is a fair degree of historicalvariation in the process, and it is clear that the manuscript culture has changed significantlyover time.No—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 7 of 48Architecture, GeographyIs monumental religious architecture present:Are there formal institutions (i.e. institutions that are authorized by the religiouscommunity or political leaders) for interpreting the scriptures:Yes—Can interpretation also take place outside these institutions:Notes: Practically, interpretation happens predominantly by scholars outside of theseinstitutions, and priests in ritual contexts. The Cham Ahiér community does have asenior priest for each community, and those senior priests to form a board. There aretwo provincial boards for Vietnam. One centered in Ninh Thuận province, and anotherin Bình Thuận province. However, these are 20th-century creations. Furthermore, thereis a fare amount of individual freedom of practice in day to day life in the Cham Ahiércommunity, even if the communal sentiment does keep practice relatively stable.Yes—Interpretation is only allowed by officially sanctioned figures:Notes: As mentioned above, scholars do a fair amount of interpretation in the ritualcontext, especially during the 20th and 21st centuries. Often they work closely andintimately with the priests to share the developments of these interpretations.No—Is there a select group of people trained in transmitting the scriptures:Notes: There is a rigorously trained priest class with several stages of training. Additionally,there is basic training in the script that was put in place for school children during the 20thcentury and 21st century. Formal training in the script became particularly popular in the1960s, 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s subject to cyclical waves of funding, availability of adequateinstructional staff, and interested students.Yes—Is there a codified canon of scriptures:Notes: However, there are a number of genres that priests are expected to know quitebasically, beyond prayers. These genres are literary genres: ariya, dalikal, sakkarai, and damnây;with damnây being the most religious in nature. After mastering these genres, priests mightlearn incantations, invocations, and invitations for deities for day to day ceremonies and lifecycle rituals. Finally, they will learn the highest and most esoteric level of prayers which inviteand invoke deities at calendrical rituals and high holidays.No—Yes—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 8 of 48In the average settlement, what percentage of area is taken up by all religiousmonuments:Notes: Even if the monuments or shrines can be quite large, they are generally in areas thatare not inhabited directly. They are set aside from the larger areas of habitation, reflectingolder population centers from centuries past.Percentage: 1—Size of largest single religious monument, square meters:Notes: 10 x 10 m base for the largest and most active temple tower: Ppo Klaong Garai (alt.: PoKlong Garai). This tower is part of a temple complex that includes three towers and could beestimated at 400 meters square. However, the entire temple-tower complex and surroundinggrounds is arguably much larger. Typically smaller shrines for individual communities fit thepattern of being 10 m x 10 m at the base or smaller, with some being oblong in shape. Anotherimportant structure, which is larger, is the Ppo Ina Nagar temple-tower in Nha Trang, KhanhHoa province, Vietnam. Although there is no local Cham community, the temple-towercomplex is a significant pilgrimage site at least once a year.Square meters: 100—Height of largest single religious monument, meters:Notes: This is also Ppo Klaong Garai tower, in Ninh Thuận province. The largest tower in the PpoSan Inâ tower complex, in Bình Thuận province, is 15 m.Height, meters: 20—Size of average monument, square meters:Notes: This is for the area, the size.Height, square meters: 50—Height of average monument, meters:Notes: Given a large number of very small shrines, and additional sacred sites that areessentially open air, it is safe to presume that there may be so many smaller shrines that ifthey were all included, the average size would be just 1 meter. However, they have not all beenfully catalogued as of yet.Height, meters: 5—In the largest settlement, what percentage of area is taken up by all religiousmonuments:Notes: Even in the largest settlement in Ninh Thuận and Bình Thuận, the dispersal of thepopulation ensures that the amount of space that the actual shrine takes up is very small.Perhaps less than 1%.Percentage of area: 1—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 9 of 48Are there different types of religious monumental architecture:Yes—Tombs:Notes: Because of the process of cremation, there are no true tombs where remains arepermanently interred.No—Cemeteries:Notes: There are temporary burial sites before remains are dug up again and cremated. Thereare also markers for clans, known as "kut" which are commonly mistaken for cemeteries,although they are technically closer to the concept of a series of the communal ancestralaltars.Yes—Temples:Notes: There are many types of temples. There are temple-tower complexes known as"bimong-kalan." There are also smaller village-town center temples known as "danaok." Insmaller villages, a "danaok," could only properly be described as a shrine.Yes—Altars:Notes: There are altars present in bimong-kalan, which resemble mukhalinga, with the faces oflocal deva-raja on them. There are also altars to local devi-rahni. Such altars may also be foundat danaok. Moving further outside the communities, it is possible to find "kut" which aredevotional markers with clans that are associated with them. These appear to have emergedin more recent historical epochs, between the 17th and 19th century, although somecommunities claim they are much older. Furthermore, there are also altars that are markedsimply by "batuw" or "stones."Yes—Devotional markers:Notes: "Batuw" or "stones" might be the most simple form of devotional marker, which couldappear at shrine sites, or could appear outside shrine sites, on hill tops, or at the edges ofsettlements, or along the coastline. These sites might also be tied with thick-ribbon-like piecesof cloth, especially red cloth. Red cloth tied around a stone, or, in increasingly rare cases as timeprogress, around flora, especially trees, has also been a devotional marker.Yes—Mass gathering point [plazas, courtyard, square. Places permanently demarcatedusing visible objects or structures]:Yes—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 10 of 48Is iconography present:Notes: These are most commonly indicated through the usage of the Cham script, AkharThrah, with a gate over the entrance to the area.Other type of religious monumental architecture:Notes: However, as research continues, the above categories may be re-classified, or, furthersub-divided.No—Yes—Where is iconography present [select all that apply]:Notes: All religious spaces have iconography to an extent. Technically, however, the termiconography implies that the representations are symbolic. This may be the case from anAnthropological perspective. However, sometimes the iconography, the statues, the images,are understood to be, literally, the deity themselves. And, in this case, understanding them as"icons," gives only a partial expression of their meaning.On persons—At home—Some public spaces—Are there distinct features in the religious group's iconography:Yes—Eyes (stylized or not):Notes: Particularly the appearance of a Shiva-like "third eye."Yes—Supernatural beings (zoomorphic):Notes: Dragons, Ganesha-like images, Garuda-like images, and so on.Yes—Supernatural beings (geomorphic):Notes: Arguably the "batuw" constructions are geomorphic, so, in that case, yes. Otherimages tend not to be geomorphic, however.Yes—Supernatural beings (anthropomorphic):Yes—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 11 of 48Are there specific sites dedicated to sacred practice or considered sacred:Notes: Most frequently, the easiest to recognize deities are either modeled after theimages of men or women. There is also substantial artistic reproduction of "apsara" or"divine dancers."Supernatural beings (abstract symbol):Notes: The use of the "homkar" includes representations of the sun and the moon,which are ascribed powers that might be associated with deities in someunderstandings, with "old gods," in other understandings, or as simply godsunderstood as such through animistic interpretations in still others. The "homkar,"symbol is a symbol that is a local adaptation of the Hindu "om" symbol, which can befound throughout Hindu influenced cultures in South and Southeast Asia.Yes—Portrayals of afterlife:Notes: Not so much after-life, but a "heavenly realm," or a "divine realm," as there arethree realms or "lokas," which might otherwise be understood as "worlds." Withincreased contact from Islam, these realms become more and more envisioned as"heaven, human, and hell," realms.Yes—Aspects of doctrine (e.g. cross, trinity, Mithraic symbols):Notes: The closest element to an "aspect of doctrine," is the "homkar" symbol.Yes—Humans:Notes: Particularly humans that enter into the divine realm.Yes—Other features of iconography:Notes: Strongly South-Southeast Asian, Pan-Hindu in nature. Additionally influenced by17th century Islamic imagery from Malaysia and 18th-19th century Vietnameseimagery, such as the appearance of an "âm-dương" (yin-yang) symbol with yellow andred collors, following the Vietnamese style.Yes—Yes—Are sacred site oriented to ecological features:Notes: There are several sacred sites that are associated with streams, hill tops, large boulders,Yes—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 12 of 48Are pilgrimages present:BeliefsBurial and AfterlifeIs a spirit-body distinction present:Answer “no” only if personhood (or consciousness) is extinguished with death of the physical body.Answering yes does not necessarily imply the existence of Cartesian mind/body dualism, merely thatsome element of personhood (or consciousness) survives the death of the body.Belief in afterlife:or beaches. Virtually all sacred sites have some type of geological feature nearby or associateddirectly with them. These features can be said to give the site additional potency, althoughthey might also be said to be a house of spirits or gods associated with the site in some cases.Yes—How strict is pilgrimage:Notes: During calendrical associated high holidays, such as Katé, processions to temple andshrine sites are extremely common. These operate as local pilgrimages, such as they would inSouth Asia. They seem to have been obligatory for some time for priests. Participation from thelaity is extremely common. It is especially common for youth to play important roles in theprocession. Participation is obligatory in the sense that it is implied for individuals toparticipate at least once or twice in life, but optional, in that no one, not even priests are everforced to participate. The pilgrimage processions are short, up along a hillside, from one side ofa town to another. They include music and have a long history of being considered fun toparticipate in. Participation of visitors to the community who are not members of the ChamAhiér is also encouraged under certain conditions, of attending appropriate preparations, anddonning appropriate dress.Obligatory for some—Yes—Spirit-mind is conceived of as having qualitatively different powers or properties thanother body parts:Yes—Yes—Is the spatial location of the afterlife specified or described by the religious group:Yes—Afterlife in specified realm of space beyond this world:Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 13 of 48Reincarnation in this world:Yes—Afterlife in vaguely defined “above” space:Yes—Afterlife in vaguely defined “below” space:Yes—Afterlife in vaguely defined horizontal space:Yes—Afterlife located in "other" space:Yes [specify]: Locations of realms that are non-human can variously be described as"above," "below," or "parallel," as well as "outside," the earthly or human realms. Theseare similar to pre-existing classical Hindu concepts of "lokas," although they are fluidand various sources might describe them differently.—Yes—In a human form:Yes—In animal/plant form:Notes: Described in historical periods, such as the return of Ppo Riyak in the form of a whale.Not common from 18th - 21st centuries.Yes—In form of an inanimate object(s):Notes: The ocassional appearance of merger with spirits with inaminate objects, or what wemight consider inaminate objects, animates them.No—In non-individual form (i.e. some form of corporate rebirth, tribe, lineage. etc.):Notes: In exceptionally rare cases, these conditions of "lineage" and "clan" are mostly ascribedto semi-historical figures who are associated with the religion.Yes—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 14 of 48Are there special treatments for adherents' corpses:Reincarnation linked to notion of life-transcending causality (e.g. karma):Notes: The term "karma" tends to be quite rare in the manuscript culture of the Cham Ahiérfrom the 17th century to the present. The concept does not seem to appear in a dictionaryfrom the early 20th century, or in another dictionary from the 1970s. That said, the principlethat ones actions have a direct impact on their legacy in this world, and also on the potential oftheir otherworldly status remains present.Yes—Other form of reincarnation in this world:No—Yes—Cremation:Yes—Mummification:No—Interment:Notes: Temporary interment before cremation is common. However, it is important to notethat any form of interment is temporary. Cremation is the end result.Yes—Cannibalism:No—Exposure to elements (e.g. air drying):Notes: Temporary burial does, effectively, dry the remains, due to the nature of them beingburied in extremely arid conditions. This is in preparation for cremation.Yes—Feeding to animals:No—Secondary burial:Notes: After cremation, and remains, such as the skull in particular, might be re-buried,Yes—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 15 of 48Are co-sacrifices present in tomb/burial:Are grave goods present:although this is not necessarily understood as being interred, since the materiality of thecorpse is understood to be done away with vis a vis the cremation process.Re-treatment of corpse:No—Other intensive (in terms of time or resources expended) treatment of corpse :No—Yes—Human sacrifices present:Yes—Out-group humans are sacrificed:No—In-group humans are sacrificed:Notes: There are sati-like practices recorded for royal cremation ceremonies from the15th century through the 17th century. By the 18th and 19th century there are nowidely known instances of this practice. They are not at all present for the laity.Yes—Other humans are sacrificed:No—Animal co-sacrifices present:Notes: Animal sacrifices, such as chickens, goats, and water buffalo are common in all religiousceremonies, depending on the size of the ceremony. By the 19th and 20th century, waterbuffalo sacrifices become less common, however, the sacrifice of small fowl does seem tobecome increasingly common, as more families can afford these.Yes—Yes—Personal effects:Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 16 of 48Are formal burials present:Notes: There are burials as part of the cremation process in clan affiliated locations.Supernatural BeingsAre supernatural beings present:Notes: Priests might have their texts or other personal effects cremated with them. This wasmore common for royalty in the past, and is also common for wealthy families in the 20thcentury.Yes—Valuable items:Yes—Significant wealth (e.g. gold, jade, intensely worked objects):Yes—Some wealth (some valuable or useful objects interred):Yes—Other valuable/precious items interred:Yes [specify]: Keep in mind that those items might be part of the cremation process.They therefore can't all be accounted for. In the circumstances of royalty, cloth was alsoincluded in the creation of royal "tomb" sites, although there was not a physical bodypresent at the site.—Other grave goods:Notes: Flowers, as well as betel and certain types of decorative leaves are common goodspresent at the temple-tower complexes. Consequentially, they are also associated withtemporary interment and cremation ceremonies.Yes—No—Yes—A supreme high god is present:Notes: All answers below are dependent on which deity presence is conceived of as the highdeity. These are highly subjective. Answers reflect a consideration of all possible answers basedupon source material, including anthropological accounts.Yes—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 17 of 48The supreme high god is anthropomorphic:Notes: The supreme high-god can be ascribed gender qualities, although theinterpretation of either being male or female is based on individual beliefs. Someindividuals claim that all deities are the same essence and that there is no supremedeity. Others explain that there is a pantheon, with no supreme deity.Yes—The supreme high god is a sky deity:Notes: For example: If the supreme god is related to Ppo Xapajieng, the deity can beunderstood as associated with the sky. There can be other sky deities as well.Yes—The supreme high god is chthonic (of the underworld):Notes: If one venerates Ppo Xapilai, this can be understood as a "god of destruction,"such as the way that Shiva is in South Asian Hinduism.Yes—The supreme high god is fused with the monarch (king=high god):Notes: If the individual understands the high-god as a manifestation of one of thehistorical figures of the historical Champa civilization, such as Ppo Rome, this is thecase. It should be noted that this is rare.Yes—The monarch is seen as a manifestation or emanation of the high god:Notes: This is much more common in historical periods. The concept of the deva-raja ordevi-rahni was much more common. This becomes much less common during the19th century and afterward.Yes—The supreme high god is a kin relation to elites:Notes: Possible to be understood this way, but not necessary in all cases.Yes—The supreme high god has another type of loyalty-connection to elites:Yes [specify]: To priests.—The supreme high god is unquestionably good:No—Other feature(s) of supreme high god:Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 18 of 48Yes [specify]: The nature of supreme deity presence is complex, because differentcommunities and individuals might understand the high-god to be radically differentdepending on the source.—The supreme high god has knowledge of this world:Yes—The supreme god's knowledge is restricted to particular domain ofhuman affairs:No—The supreme high god's knowledge is restricted to (a) specific area(s)within the sample region:No—The supreme high god's knowledge is unrestricted within the sampleregion:No—The supreme high god's knowledge is unrestricted outside of sampleregion:No—The supreme high god can see you everywhere normally visible (inpublic):Yes—The supreme high god can see you everywhere (in the dark, at home):Yes—The supreme high god can see inside heart/mind (hidden motives):Yes—The supreme high god knows your basic character (personal essence):Yes—The supreme high god knows what will happen to you, what you will do(future sight):Yes—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 19 of 48The supreme high god has other knowledge of this world:Yes [specify]: Proper actions to take to avoid possible negative outcomes.—The supreme high god has deliberate causal efficacy in the world:Yes—The supreme high god can reward:Yes—The supreme high god can punish:Yes—The supreme high god has indirect causal efficacy in the world:Yes—The supreme high god exhibits positive emotion:Yes—The supreme high god exhibits negative emotion:Yes—The supreme high god possesses hunger:No—Is it permissible to worship supernatural beings other than the high god:Yes—The supreme high god possesses/exhibits some other feature:Yes [specify]: Associated with elements, or, animistic qualities.—The supreme high god communicates with the living:Yes—In waking, everyday life:Yes—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 20 of 48In dreams:Yes—In trance possession:Notes: This is a common performative feature of high-holidays and calendricalrituals. The ritual priestess associated is known as a "Muk Pajau"Yes—Through divination practices:Yes—Only through religious specialists:Notes: By some understandings this is the case. It is common for educatedindividuals and elites to suggest that only priests have access. Laityunderstandings of dream or trance communication are widespread.Yes—Only through monarchNo—Other form of communication with living:No—Previously human spirits are present:Yes—Human spirits can be seen:Yes—Human spirits can be physically felt:Yes—Previously human spirits have knowledge of this world:Yes—Human spirits' knowledge restricted to particular domain of humanaffairs:No—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 21 of 48Human spirits' knowledge restricted to (a) specific area(s) within thesample region:Yes—Human spirits' knowledge unrestricted within the sample region:No—Human spirits' knowledge unrestricted outside of sample region:No—Human spirits can see you everywhere normally visible (in public):Yes—Human spirits can see you everywhere (in the dark, at home):Yes—Human spirit's can see inside heart/mind (hidden motives):Yes—Human spirits know your basic character (personal essence):Yes—Human spirits know what will happen to you, what you will do (futuresight):Yes—Human spirits have other form(s) of knowledge regarding this world:Yes [specify]: Outcomes of decisions regarding political matters or agriculturalmatters.—Human spirits have deliberate causal efficacy in the world:Yes—Human spirits can reward:Notes: The might be able to give good luck.Yes—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 22 of 48Human spirits can punish:Notes: They can give bad luck and bestow curses.Yes—Human spirits have indirect causal efficacy in the world:Yes—Human spirits have memory of life:Notes: But not always.Yes—Human spirits exhibit positive emotion:Yes—Human spirits exhibit negative emotion:Yes—Human spirits possess hunger:Notes: However, food must be prepared through some ritual process for consumption.They are particularly favorable toward offerings of betel, tobacco, and alcohol (alak).Yes—Human spirits possess/exhibit some other feature:Yes [specify]: Ancestor spirits prefer to be invited to return to the household and joinclan groups for high holidays dictated by calendar cycles. This is especially common forKaté, and ancestor spirits are invited to join the family for several days of feasting in thehome.—Human spirits communicate with the living:Yes—In waking, everyday life:Yes—In dreams:Yes—In trance possession:Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 23 of 48Yes—Through divination processes:Yes—Only through specialists:Notes: However communication vis a vis specialists is preferred, becauseunguided communication can have extremely negative consequences.No—Only through monarch:No—Communicate with living through other means:No—Non-human supernatural beings are present:Yes—These supernatural beings can be seen:Yes—These supernatural beings can be physically felt:Yes—Non-human supernatural beings have knowledge of this world:Yes—Non-human supernatural beings have knowledge restricted toparticular domain of human affairs:No—Non-human supernatural beings have knowledge restricted to (a)specific area(s) within the sample region:Yes—Non-human supernatural beings have knowledge unrestricted withinthe sample region:Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 24 of 48No—Non-human supernatural beings have knowledge unrestricted outsideof sample region:No—Non-human supernatural beings have can see you everywhere normallyvisible (in public):Yes—Non-human supernatural beings can see you everywhere (in the dark, athome):Yes—Non-human supernatural beings can see inside heart/mind (hiddenmotives):Yes—Non-human supernatural beings knows your basic character (personalessence):Yes—Non-human supernatural beings know what will happen to you, whatyou will do (future sight):Yes—Non-human supernatural begins have other knowledge of this world:Yes [specify]: In the case of a special type of bird spirit figure (ciim) they guidespirits to the spirit realm after cremation with special knowledge. Dragonspirits (Inâ Nâgar) understand who should be given prowess (ganreh).—Non-human supernatural beings have deliberate causal efficacy in the world:Yes—These supernatural beings can reward:Yes—These supernatural beings can punish:Yes—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 25 of 48These supernatural beings have indirect causal efficacy in the world:Yes—These supernatural beings exhibit positive emotion:Yes—These supernatural beings exhibit negative emotion:Yes—These supernatural beings possess hunger:Yes—These supernatural beings possess/exhibit some other feature:Yes [specify]: Depending on the nature of the spirit/supernatural being, they mayoperate as lesser deities, or as supernatural beings. They are often ascribed specifictasks associated with the care and upkeep of the cosmos and the specific region.—Mixed human-divine beings are present:Notes: Human beings can transform into spirits, supernatural beings, or deities, upon theirdeath. However, there is no such thing as "god on earth," in this sense. In historical periods, itmay have been more common to have "deva-raja" associations. Although the last true deva-raja, Ppo Romé, passed in 1651 CE and was not considered a deity during his lifetime, only after.No—Does the religious group possess a pantheon of supernatural beings:Yes—Organized by kinship based on a family model:Notes: Each clan is associated with a "village" (palei). Today the various palei might beassociated with towns or even small cities. Regardless, there is generally one kut siteand one danaok site for each palei. There are deities associated with each, tied to theclan. The clans then owe loyalty to the temple-tower complexes based upon the ties ofvarious palei to one another and those sites. All questions below reflect answers withrespect to this structure.Yes—Organized hierarchically:Yes—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 26 of 48Supernatural MonitoringIs supernatural monitoring present:This refers to surveillance by supernatural beings of humans’ behaviour and/or thought particularly as itrelates to social norms or potential norm violations.Power of beings is domain specific:Yes—Other organization for pantheon:Yes [specify]: Clan association. If one moves from their place of birth, either throughvocation or marriage, they still maintain loyalty to the deities associated with that clan,although perhaps less strongly in the case of marriage. Men follow the loyalties of theirwife's clan associations.—Yes—There is supernatural monitoring of prosocial norm adherence in particular:Prosocial norms are norms that enhance cooperation among members of the group, includingobviously “moral” or “ethical” norms, but also extending to norms concerning honouring contractsand oaths, providing hospitality, coming to mutual aid in emergencies, etc.Yes—Supernatural beings care about taboos:Yes—Food:Yes—Sacred space(s):Yes—Sacred object(s):Yes—Supernatural beings care about other:Yes [specify]: Sexual relations, political loyalties, marriages.—Supernatural beings care about murder of coreligionists:Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 27 of 48Yes—Supernatural beings care about murder of members of other religions:Notes: The may advocate this in historical periods, especially in the 17th to 19th centuries, withrespect to the Vietnamese, who are viewed as an invading and colonizing force.No—Supernatural beings care about murder of members of other polities:No—Supernatural beings care about sex:Yes—Adultery:Notes: Although they are quite loose about this one, and occassionally advocate underhumorous circumstances for forgiveness, wherein it actually turns out in the end that"nothing happened."Yes—Incest:Notes: Marriage within the same palei is taboo. Incest is punished socially andmetaphysically. Laws about incest are more strict than both Canada and the UnitedStates. Relations with anyone from the same extended clan network and/or palei maybe considered incest.Yes—Other sexual practices:Yes [specify]: Specifically those related to the intended inception of a child. Sex with thepurpose of pregnancy.—Supernatural beings care about lying:Notes: But sometimes they also lie, lie by omission, or are otherwise misleading.Yes—Supernatural beings care about honouring oaths:Yes—Supernatural beings care about laziness:Yes—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 28 of 48Supernatural beings care about sorcery:Notes: They sometimes encourage sorcery.Yes—Supernatural beings care about non-lethal fighting:Notes: Only if it appears that the fighting may turn lethan and result in relations killing oneanother or co-religionists killing one another.Yes—Supernatural beings care about shirking risk:Yes—Supernatural beings care about disrespecting elders:Yes—Supernatural beings care about gossiping:Notes: Gossip or "jari jaro" is a common feature of sharing knowledge. It is acceptable, andenforces accountability for actions; holding, frankly, a similar role as the freedom of the presseventually comes to assume in more contemporary societies.No—Supernatural beings care about property crimes:Yes—Supernatural beings care about proper ritual observance:Yes—Supernatural beings care about performance of rituals:Yes—Supernatural beings care about conversion of non-religionists:No—Supernatural beings care about economic fairness:Notes: Only if there is some clear measure of injustice, however. They are not concerned withstructural justice. Structural inbalance in the economy is equated with balance in the cosmos.Society is hierarchical to maintain balance.Yes—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 29 of 48Do supernatural beings mete out punishment:Supernatural beings care about personal hygiene:Notes: Especially washing properly.Yes—Supernatural beings care about other:Yes [specify]: The survival of the culture (ilimo).—Yes—Is the cause or agent of supernatural punishment known:Yes—Done only by high god:No—Done by many supernatural beings:Yes—Done through impersonal cause-effect principle:Yes—Done by other entities or through other means [specify]No—Is the reason for supernatural punishment known:Yes—Done to enforce religious ritual-devotional adherence:Yes—Done to enforce group norms:Yes—Done to inhibit selfishness:Yes—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 30 of 48Done randomly:Notes: Although, often, random punishments turn out to be not so random in the end.Yes—Other [specify]No—Supernatural punishments are meted out in the afterlife:Notes: Can be, but this is extremely rare. Afterlife is existential, neither punishment nor reward,but a combination of the two. Reincarnation is similar.No—Supernatural punishments are meted out in this lifetime:Yes—Supernatural punishments in this life are highly emphasized by the religiousgroup:Notes: In popular religious practice, not in elite circles, although, historically, it wasmore common for elites to think this way too.Yes—Punishment in this life consists of bad luck:Notes: Extremely common.Yes—Punishment in this life consists of political failure:Notes: EG.: Ppo Romé doesn't listen to advisors, and looses not only control of the polityto the Vietnamese, but eventually dies imprisoned by the Vietnamese.Yes—Punishment in this life consists of defeat in battle:Yes—Punishment in this life consists of crop failure or bad weather:Yes—Punishment in this life consists of disaster on journeys.Yes—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 31 of 48Do supernatural beings bestow rewards:Punishment in this life consists of mild sensory displeasure:Notes: Headaches might be signs of being haunted by a spirit, for example.Yes—Punishment in this life consists of extreme sensory displeasure:No—Punishment in this life consists of sickness or illness:Yes—Punishment in this life consists of impaired reproduction:Yes—Punishment in this life consists of bad luck visited on descendants:Yes—Other [specify]No—Yes—Is the cause/purpose of supernatural rewards known:Yes—Done only by high god:No—Done by many supernatural beings:Yes—Done through impersonal cause-effect principle:Yes—Done to enforce religious ritual-devotional adherence:Yes—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 32 of 48Done to enforce group norms:Yes—Done to inhibit selfishness:Yes—Done randomly:Yes—Supernatural rewards are bestowed out in the afterlife:Yes—Supernatural rewards in the afterlife are highly emphasized by the religiousgroup:Notes: The may include transformation into a guardian spirit or deity. However, this ismuch less common than one might wish.No—Reward in the afterlife consists of mild sensory pleasure:No—Reward in the afterlife consists of extreme sensory pleasure:No—Reward in the afterlife consists of eternal happiness:No—Reward in the afterlife consists of reincarnation as a superior life form:Yes—Reward in the afterlife consists of reincarnation in a superior realm:Yes—Other [specify]No—Supernatural rewards are bestowed out in this lifetime:Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 33 of 48Yes—Supernatural rewards in this life are highly emphasized by the religious group:Notes: More broadly can be tied to the bestowing of either luck or prowess (ganreh)Yes—Reward in this life consists of good luck:Notes: This is extremely common.Yes—Reward in this life consists of political success or power:Yes—Reward in this life consists of success in battle:Yes—Reward in this life consists of peace or social stability:Yes—Reward in this life consists of healthy crops or good weather:Yes—Reward in this life consists of success on journeys:Yes—Reward in this life consists of mild sensory pleasure:Yes—Reward in this life consists of extreme sensory pleasure:Yes—Reward in this life consists of enhanced health:Yes—Reward in this life consists of enhanced reproductive success:Yes—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 34 of 48Messianism/EschatologyAre messianic beliefs present:Is an eschatology present:Notes: There is a vague sense that Ppo Xapilai could destroy the universe, at the end of time. However,this is neither widely discussed, nor particularly central.Norms and Moral RealismAre general social norms prescribed by the religious group:Notes: These are prescribed in accordance with "Adat Cam," which is a form of religio-cum-legalpractice of self-governance for matters domestic and communal.Is there a conventional vs. moral distinction in the religious group:Notes: Convention is moral. Moral balance requires the maintence of all matters in accordance withconventional norms.PracticesMembership Costs and PracticesDoes membership in this religious group require celibacy (full sexual abstinence):Does membership in this religious group require constraints on sexual activity (partial sexualabstinence):Reward in this life consists of fortune visited on descendants:Yes—Other [specify]No—No—No—Yes—No—No—Yes—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 35 of 48Does membership in this religious group require castration:Does membership in this religious group require fasting:Does membership in this religious group require forgone food opportunities (taboos ondesired foods):Notes: One should not eat beef in accordance with prescriptions of "Adat Cam." Water buffalo isacceptable.Does membership in this religious group require permanent scarring or painful bodilyalterations:Notes: Although ritual tatoos are valued in rare cases.Does membership in this religious group require painful physical positions or transitorypainful wounds:Does membership in this religious group require sacrifice of adults:Monogamy (males):Notes: But monogamy is valued.No—Monogamy (females):Notes: see above.No—Other sexual constraints (males):Notes: Age of consent, time of practice.Yes—Other sexual constraints (females):Notes: Age of consent, time of practice.Yes—No—Yes—Yes—No—No—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 36 of 48"Adults" here referring to an emic or indigenous category; if that category is different from the popularWestern definition of a human who is 18-years-old or older and who is legally responsible for his/heractions, then please specify that difference in the Comments/Sources: box below.Does membership in this religious group require sacrifice of children:"Children" here referring to an emic or indigenous category; if that category is different from the popularWestern definition, please specify that different in the Comments/Sources: box below.Does membership in this religious group require self-sacrifice (suicide):Does membership in this religious group require sacrifice of property/valuable items:Does membership in this religious group require sacrifice of time (e.g., attendance atmeetings or services, regular prayer, etc.):Notes: This is most common. Participation is quite time consuming even for rituals that occur onlyonce or twice a year. For high holidays, they can take days. Weddings and funerals can take days.Does membership in this religious group require physical risk taking:No—No—No—Yes—To other in-group members:Yes—To out-groups:No—Destroyed:Notes: But only very rarely. Generally, they are distributed to the priesthood, sold and/orredistributed.Yes—Other:No—Yes—No—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 37 of 48Does membership in this religious group require accepting ethical precepts:Notes: Those prescribed by Adat Cam; although they are not instilled through ritual action in such aformalized way as Buddhist precepts, for example.Does membership in this religious group require marginalization by out-group members:Notes: It doesn't require it; however, given the nature of Vietnamese society, and the long termrelationship between the two, members are bound to experience one form of marginalization oranother during their lifetimes.Does membership in this religious group require participation in small-scale rituals (private,household):Does membership in this religious group require participation in large-scale rituals:I.e. involving two or more households; includes large-scale “ceremonies” and “festivals.”Yes—No—Yes—What is the average interval of time between performances (in hours):Performances here refers to large-scale rituals.Notes: Although participation may be much less frequent, there is probably at least one ritualthat one participates in once a week. However, the nature of these being "mandated" is highlyvariable based upon necessity to participate ranked against necessity to provide for onesfamily and clan.Hours: 168—Yes—On average, for large-scale rituals how many participants gather in one location:Notes: More than this in the largest rituals. Thousands.Number of participants: 100—What is the average interval of time between performances (in hours):Performances here refers to small-scale rituals.Notes: During a ritual holiday. There are cycles of every four or so hours of prescribed rituals.Average interval [hours]: 4—Are there orthodoxy checks:Orthodoxy checks are mechanisms used to ensure that rituals are interpreted in a standardizedway, e.g. through the supervisory prominence of a professionalized priesthood or other system ofNoseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 38 of 48Are extra-ritual in-group markers present:E.g. special changes to appearance such as circumcision, tattoos, scarification, etc.governance, appeal to texts detailing the proper interpretation, etc.Notes: They are led by a preisthood.Yes—Are there orthopraxy checks:Orthopraxy checks are mechanisms used to ensure that rituals are performed in a standardizedway, e.g. through the supervisory prominence of a professionalized priesthood or other system ofgovernance, appeal to texts detailing the proper procedure, etc.Notes: See above.Yes—Does participation entail synchronic practices:Notes: Especially with regard to ritual language, although laity rarely know more than a fewlines of prayers.Yes—Is there use of intoxicants:Notes: Alcohol (alak) is common, as is use of tobacco.Yes—Yes—Tattoos/scarification:Yes—Circumcision:No—Food taboos:Notes: One does not consume beef.Yes—Hair:Notes: Traditionally men wear long hair. This became less common in the 20th century and21st century. Women tend to wear shawls to cover their hair, especially during ritual actions.Yes—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 39 of 48Does the group employ fictive kinship terminology:Society and InstitutionsLevels of Social ComplexityThe society to which the religious group belongs is best characterized as (please chooseone):Men also wear forms of turbans/headwraps/headbands, depending on age and level ofdevotion. Dreadlocks are occasionally present, after the form of South Asian sadhus, but rare.Dress:Notes: In addition to above: Men tend to wear white and red.Yes—Ornaments:Notes: Earrings, necklaces, and other jewelry is common. There is a common ring that isspecific to the Cham community.Yes—Archaic ritual language:Notes: Localized adaptation of Sanskrit terms is common.Yes—Other:Notes: There is ongoing research in this area.Field doesn't know—Yes—Fictive kinship terminology universal:Yes—Fictive kinship terminology widespread:Yes—Fictive kinship terminology employed but uncommon:No—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 40 of 48Notes: Formally part of an empire, then a state/kingdom, and then a principality. Affiliation is basedupon clan structures that were associated with principalities within the stat/kingdom and empirestructure. Only the clan structures remain after the 19th century, with the royalty remaining nominallyand symbolically, due to Vietnamese conquest.WelfareDoes the religious group in question provide institutionalized famine relief:Notes: Affiliated with temple structures.Is famine relief available to the group's adherents through an institution(s) other than thereligious group in question:Notes: Vietnamese state structures as of the 20th century. Famine is rare. Widespread poverty is morecommon.Does the religious group in question provide institutionalized poverty relief:Is poverty relief available to the group's adherents through an institution(s) other than thereligious group in question:Notes: Yes, although in the 19th and 20th century there were reports of discrimination against thisgroup by the Vietnamese, restricting institutional access. Those reports were also common in the 21stcentury. Complaints against individual Vietnamese administrators of bias against this group arecommon.Does the religious group in question provide institutionalized care for the elderly and infirm:Notes: Folded into ritual and communitarian practices, as part of the social fabric. Not state affiliated.Is institutionalized care for the elderly and infirm available to the group's adherents throughan institution(s) other than the religious group in question:Notes: Yes, there is universal basic healthcare in Vietnam. Issues persist with discrimination orperception thereof in medical practices, however.EducationAn empire—Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 41 of 48Does the religious group provide formal education to its adherents:Is formal education available to the group’s adherents through an institution(s) other thanthe religious group:BureaucracyDo the group’s adherent’s interact with a formal bureaucracy within their group:Do the group’s adherents interact with other institutional bureaucracies:Notes: With Vietnamese officials.Public WorksDoes the religious group in question provide public food storage:Notes: In the sense that large rituals are public and there is a communal atmosphere are sharing foodand production.Is public food storage provided to the group’s adherents by an institution(s) other than thereligious group in question:Yes—Is formal education restricted to religious professionals:Yes—Is such education open to both males and females:Notes: But roles are restricted.Yes—Yes—Is extra-religious education open to both males and females:Notes: Vietnam has universal basic education after 1975. Basic literacy and achievement areextremely high. Some issues of complaints of discrimination in secondary and post-secondaryeducation become common in the 20th century and persist in the 21st century.Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—No—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 42 of 48Notes: There are scant humanitarian and poverty alleviation efforts in this area. Such efforts are morecommon in cities and extremely rural areas in Vietnam. Semi-urban and sub-urban zones have notbeen the focus of NGOs, leading to some substantial neglect throughout the latter half of thetwentieth and first part of the 21st century.Does the religious group in question provide water management (irrigation, flood control):Notes: Communal and state efforts were merged. Under the Republic of Vietnam (1955 - 1975)Japanese development teams were involved in improving irrigation canals and dams in the region.Traditionally, these had been built by the community, although there were some Vietnamese andFrench led efforts in the 19th and 20th centuries. In the 21st century, development has beenpredominantly community driven, through international connections.Is water management provided to the group’s adherents by an institution(s) other than thereligious group in question:Notes: See above.Does the religious group in question provide transportation infrastructure:Notes: Communal sharing of private transportation was extremely common through the use of cattleand water buffalo-drawn carts in the past, as well as horses. With the introduction of the bicycle,sharing of bicycles became common. With the introduction of the motorbike, especially affordableHonda bikes, motorbikes became defacto public transportation. While in other parts of Vietnammotorbike taxis charge fees, in Cham communities, close bonds ensure free transportation to those inneed.Is transportation infrastructure provided for the group’s adherents by an institution(s) otherthan the religious group in question:Notes: There are private bus coaches that run between major cities. The use of sleeper buses becamecommon in the 1990s. There are major train stations along the coast for a train that was introduced inthe 20th century. There is no access to air transportation unless one travels much further northward orsouthward, although the Vietnamese military does have an air base outside of Phan Rang, Ninh Thuậnprovince that had been previously run by the Republic of Vietnam (1955 - 1975) and the Americans(1960s - 1973) as well as the French (1920s - 1954).TaxationDoes the religious group in question levy taxes or tithes:Notes: Donations during religious ceremonies are so common and so strongly encouraged that theymay as well be considered tithes. However, the attitude is, more often than not, that those who donateYes—Yes—No—Yes—Yes—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 43 of 48are happy to do so.Are taxes levied on the group’s adherents by an institution(s) other than the religious group inquestion:Notes: Cham sources in historical settings and in more contemporary settings often bemoan the taxes(paje) that the Vietnamese levy as an undo burden, since they do not go to benefit Chamcommunities.EnforcementDoes the religious group in question provide an institutionalized police force:Do the group’s adherents interact with an institutionalized police force provided by aninstitution(s) other than the religious group in question:Does the religious group in question provide institutionalized judges:Notes: In communal and local matters, priests and elders may serve as a de facto judiciary.Do the group’s adherents interact with an institutionalized judicial system provided by an aninstitution(s) other than the religious group in question:Does the religious group in question enforce institutionalized punishment:Notes: However, all forms of punishment in an institutional fashion were gradually taken over byVietnamese authorities under the Nguyễn from the 18th through the 19th centuries. Later, they wereoverseen by French colonials, and the Japanese administrators for a brief time, before they werereturned to the French, and then returned to the Vietnamese. It is not uncommon for Cham to notethe lack of respect for their sovereignty in these matters.Yes—No—Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—Do the institutionalized punishments include execution:Yes—Do the institutionalized punishments include exile:Yes—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 44 of 48Are the group’s adherents subject to institutionalized punishment enforced by aninstitution(s) other than the religious group in question:Notes: The general understanding is that the Nguyễn dynasty (19th - 20th century) was the harshest.French punishments included forced labor, as did later government authorities. It is difficult to assessreports after the 1980s.Does the religious group in question have a formal legal code:Notes: Adat Cam is not a legal code per se. It is more of a series of guidelines dictating ethical practices.Are the group’s adherents subject to a formal legal code provided by institution(s) other thanthe religious group in question:Do the institutionalized punishments include corporal punishments:Yes—Do the institutionalized punishments include ostracism:Yes—Do the institutionalized punishments include seizure of property:Yes—Yes—Do the institutionalized punishments include execution:Yes—Do the institutionalized punishments include exile:Yes—Do the institutionalized punishments include corporal punishments:Yes—Do the institutionalized punishments include ostracism:Yes—Do the institutionalized punishments include seizure of property:Yes—No—Yes—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 45 of 48Notes: Nguyễn code, French code, Republic of Vietnam code, American military codes, Vietnamesestate codes; depending on the period.WarfareDoes religious group in question possess an institutionalized military:Notes: Not since 1835.Do the group’s adherents participate in an institutionalized military provided byinstitution(s) other than the religious group in question:Notes: Nguyễn, French, Japanese, American, Republic of Vietnam, Democratic Republic of Vietnam.Now: Socialist Republic of Vietnam.Are the group’s adherents protected by or subject to an institutionalized military providedby an institution(s) other than the religious group in question:Notes: See above.Written LanguageDoes the religious group in question possess its own distinct written language:Is a non-religion-specific written language available to the group’s adherents through aninstitution(s) other than the religious group in question:Notes: Akhar Thrah has been taught in public Cham institutions to promote literacy in targettedefforts since the 20th century. However, funding these efforts is extremely difficult. Some recentfunding has been fed into these programs vis a vis UNESCO, the Toyota Foundation, and the BritishLibrary.Is a non-religion-specific written language used by the group’s adherents through aninstitution(s) other than the religious group in question:No—Yes—Yes—Yes—Is use of this distinct written language confined to religious professionals:Notes: There is one script that is a ritual script: Akhar Rik. Akhar Rik is confined to those withritual knowledge, although some extremely well-educated laity may possess some knowledgeof it. Another script, discussed below, is Akhar Thrah.Yes—Yes—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 46 of 48Notes: Although really only for research purposes. One research institution is the Center for ChamCulture, Phan Rang, Ninh Thuận province.CalendarDoes the religious group in question possess a formal calendar:Notes: The calendar: Sakawi Cam, has to versions. One version covers all the communities in NinhThuận. One version covers the communities in Bình Thuận. The Sakawi Cam institutionalizesceremonies and high holidays for both the Cham Ahiér and the Cham Bani (see other entry on theCham Bani) so that the two communities do not have too many obligations at the same time.Is a formal calendar provided for the group’s adherents by an institution(s) other than thereligious group in question:Notes: There is a legal calendar (Tây lịch: western calendar or dương lịch: solar calendar) which is thestate calendar in Vietnam. Vietnamese holidays are subject to the lunar calendar (âm lịch).Food ProductionDoes the religious group in question provide food for themselves:Is food provided to the group’s adherents by an institution(s) other than the religious groupin question:Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—Please characterize the forms/level of food production [choose all that apply]:Gathering—Hunting (including marine animals)—Fishing—Pastoralism—Small-scale agriculture / horticultural gardens or orchards—Large-scale agriculture (e.g., monocropping, organized irrigation systems)—Yes—Please characterize the forms/levels of food production [choose all that apply]:Hunting (including marine animals)—Fishing—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 47 of 48Patoralism—Small-scale agriculture / horticultural gardens or orchards—Large-scale agriculture (e.g., monocropping, organized irrigation systems)—Noseworthy, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 48 of 48

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