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Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (early) Pepper, Kevin Apr 26, 2018

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Poll: Religious Group (v5) Published on: 26 April 2018Date Range: 1830 CE - 1951 CERegion: Latter Day Saints (1830–1951)Region tags: North America, United States ofAmericaA map representing the early history of Mormonism.Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints(early)By Kevin Pepper, Blinn CollegeEntry tags: Religion, Christian Traditions, Latter Day Saints (Mormons), (The) Church of Jesus Christ ofLatter-day SaintsLatter-day Saints, more commonly known as "Mormons", are a sect of Christianity whose spiritual beliefsinclude an open scriptural canon, modern-day revelation, additional scripture, temple worship, divinepriesthood authority, and a church structure that is a restoration of the Primitive Church of Jesus Christ.Status of Participants:✓ Non-elite (common people, general populace)SourcesPrint sources for understanding this subject:Notes: While Latter-day Saints also use the King James Version of the Bible as an authoritative/canonicaltext, the preceding texts form the scriptural canon that is unique to Mormonism.Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEOnline sources for understanding this subject:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CESource 1: The Book of Mormon—Source 2: The Doctrine and Covenants—Source 3: The Pearl of Great Price—Source 1 URL: https://www.lds.org/?lang=eng—Source 1 Description: Official website for The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints—Source 2 URL: https://www.mormon.org/—Source 2 Description: Website that explores basic beliefs, doctrines, and principles of The Church of JesusChrist of Latter-day Saints—DOI: URL: https://religiondatabase.org/browse/486This work is licensed under the Creative CommonsAttribution 4.0 International license.Please see our Terms of Use here:https://religiondatabase.org/about/creditsPage 1 of 42© 2018 Database of Religious History.The University of British Columbia.For any questions contactproject.manager@religiondatabase.orgGeneral VariablesMembership/Group InteractionsAre other religious groups in cultural contact with target religion:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEDoes the religious group have a general process/system for assigning religious affiliation:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Is the cultural contact competitive:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—Is the cultural contact accommodating/pluralistic:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Is the cultural contact neutral:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—Is there violent conflict (within sample region):Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—Is there violent conflict (with groups outside the sample region):Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—Yes—Pepper, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 2 of 42Does the religious group actively proselytize and recruit new members:Specific to this answer:Assigned at birth (membership is default for this society):Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—Assigned by personal choice:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Assigned by class:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—Assigned at a specific age:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Assigned by gender:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—Assigned by participation in a particular ritual:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Assigned by some other factor:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—Yes—Pepper, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 3 of 42Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEDoes the religion have official political supportSpecific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEIs there a conception of apostasy in the religious group:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEIs proselytizing mandated for religious professionals:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—Is proselytizing mandated for all adherents:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—Is missionary work mandated for religious professionals:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—Is missionary work mandated for all adherents:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Is proselytization coercive:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—No—Yes—Are apostates prosecuted or punished:Pepper, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 4 of 42Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Apostates are socially shunned and/or publicly vilified:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—Wealth, civil rights, and/or social capital are taken by authorities:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—Do apostates receive corporal punishment:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—Do apostates receive divine punishment:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Punished in the afterlife:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Cursed by "high god":Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—Cursed by other supernatural being(s):Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—Pepper, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 5 of 42Size and StructureNumber of adherents of religious group within sample region (estimated population,numerical):Notes: There were 6 members at the founding of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints; by theyear 1951, the total Church membership had risen to 1,147,157.Number of adherents of religious group within sample region (% of sample regionpopulation, numerical):Nature of religious group [please select one]:ScriptureDoes the religious group have scriptures:Scripture is a generic term used to designate revered texts that are considered particularly authoritativeand sacred relative to other texts. Strictly speaking, it refers to written texts, but there are also “oralscriptures” (e.g. the Vedas of India).Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEOther divine punishment:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes [specify]: Removal of membership and revocation of priesthood, andtemple, blessings—Field doesn't know—Field doesn't know—Small religious group (actively discouraged-suppressed by larger religious group(s))—Yes—Are they written:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Are they oral:Specific to this answer:No—Pepper, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 6 of 42Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEIs there a story associated with the origin of scripture:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Revealed by a high god:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Revealed by other supernatural being:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Inspired by high god:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Inspired by other supernatural being:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—Originated from divine or semi-divine human beings:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—Originated from non-divine human being:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Pepper, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 7 of 42Architecture, GeographyIs monumental religious architecture present:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEAre there different types of religious monumental architecture:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—In the average settlement, what percentage of area is taken up by all religiousmonuments:Field doesn't know—Size of largest single religious monument, square meters:Notes: These dimensions are for the Salt Lake City Temple; this temple is the most well-recognized Latter-day Saint structure to non-adherents.Square meters: 253015—Height of largest single religious monument, meters:Notes: These dimensions are for the Salt Lake City Temple; this temple is the most well-recognized Latter-day Saint structure to non-adherents.Height, meters: 68—Size of average monument, square meters:Field doesn't know—Height of average monument, meters:Field doesn't know—In the largest settlement, what percentage of area is taken up by all religiousmonuments:Field doesn't know—Yes—Tombs:No—Pepper, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 8 of 42Is iconography present:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CESpecific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CECemeteries:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—Temples:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Altars:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—Devotional markers:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—Mass gathering point [plazas, courtyard, square. Places permanently demarcatedusing visible objects or structures]:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Other type of religious monumental architecture:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes [specify]: Areas, and structures, important to early Church history are preserved—Yes—Pepper, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 9 of 42Where is iconography present [select all that apply]:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEOn persons—At home—Only religious public space—Are there distinct features in the religious group's iconography:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Eyes (stylized or not):Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—Supernatural beings (zoomorphic):Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—Supernatural beings (geomorphic):Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—Supernatural beings (anthropomorphic):Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Supernatural beings (abstract symbol):Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—Portrayals of afterlife:Pepper, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 10 of 42Are there specific sites dedicated to sacred practice or considered sacred:Are pilgrimages present:BeliefsBurial and AfterlifeIs a spirit-body distinction present:Answer “no” only if personhood (or consciousness) is extinguished with death of the physical body.Answering yes does not necessarily imply the existence of Cartesian mind/body dualism, merely thatsome element of personhood (or consciousness) survives the death of the body.Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CESpecific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Aspects of doctrine (e.g. cross, trinity, Mithraic symbols):Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Humans:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Other features of iconography:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—Yes—Are sacred site oriented to ecological features:No—No—Yes—Pepper, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 11 of 42Belief in afterlife:Spirit-mind is conceived of as having qualitatively different powers or properties thanother body parts:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Spirit-mind is conceived of as non-material, ontologically distinct from body:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—Other spirit-body relationship:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes [specify]: The spirit and body, when combined, represent the soul of an individual—Yes—Is the spatial location of the afterlife specified or described by the religious group:Yes—Afterlife in specified realm of space beyond this world:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Afterlife in vaguely defined “above” space:No—Afterlife in vaguely defined “below” space:No—Afterlife in vaguely defined horizontal space:No—Afterlife located in "other" space:Pepper, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 12 of 42Reincarnation in this world:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEAre there special treatments for adherents' corpses:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—No—Yes—Cremation:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—Mummification:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—Interment:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Corpse is flexed (legs are bent or body is crouched):No—Corpse is extended (lying flat on front or back):Yes—Corpse is upright (where body is interred in standing position)::No—Corpse is interred some other way:Pepper, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 13 of 42Are co-sacrifices present in tomb/burial:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEAre grave goods present:No—Cannibalism:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—Exposure to elements (e.g. air drying):Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—Feeding to animals:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—Secondary burial:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—Re-treatment of corpse:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—Other intensive (in terms of time or resources expended) treatment of corpse :Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes [specify]: Adherents are buried in covenant clothing associated with temples—No—Pepper, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 14 of 42Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEAre formal burials present:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CESupernatural BeingsAre supernatural beings present:No—Yes—As cenotaphs:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—In cemetery:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Family tomb-crypt:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—Domestic (individuals interred beneath house, or in areas used for normal domesticactivities):Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—Other formal burial type:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—Pepper, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 15 of 42Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—A supreme high god is present:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—The supreme high god is anthropomorphic:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—The supreme high god is a sky deity:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—The supreme high god is chthonic (of the underworld):Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—The supreme high god is fused with the monarch (king=high god):Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—The monarch is seen as a manifestation or emanation of the high god:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—The supreme high god is a kin relation to elites:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—Pepper, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 16 of 42The supreme high god has another type of loyalty-connection to elites:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—The supreme high god is unquestionably good:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Other feature(s) of supreme high god:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—The supreme high god has knowledge of this world:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—The supreme god's knowledge is restricted to particular domain ofhuman affairs:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—The supreme high god's knowledge is restricted to (a) specific area(s)within the sample region:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—The supreme high god's knowledge is unrestricted within the sampleregion:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—The supreme high god's knowledge is unrestricted outside of samplePepper, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 17 of 42region:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—The supreme high god can see you everywhere normally visible (inpublic):Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—The supreme high god can see you everywhere (in the dark, at home):Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—The supreme high god can see inside heart/mind (hidden motives):Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—The supreme high god knows your basic character (personal essence):Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—The supreme high god knows what will happen to you, what you will do(future sight):Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—The supreme high god has other knowledge of this world:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes [specify]: Heavenly Father possesses all knowledge in the universe bothspiritual and physical—Pepper, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 18 of 42The supreme high god has deliberate causal efficacy in the world:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—The supreme high god can reward:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—The supreme high god can punish:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—The supreme high god has indirect causal efficacy in the world:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—The supreme high god exhibits positive emotion:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—The supreme high god exhibits negative emotion:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—The supreme high god possesses hunger:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—Is it permissible to worship supernatural beings other than the high god:Specific to this answer:No—Pepper, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 19 of 42Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEThe supreme high god possesses/exhibits some other feature:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—The supreme high god communicates with the living:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—In waking, everyday life:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—In dreams:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—In trance possession:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—Through divination practices:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Only through religious specialists:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—Only through monarchPepper, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 20 of 42Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—Other form of communication with living:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes [specify]: Through prayer, personal revelation, and priesthood blessings—Previously human spirits are present:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Human spirits can be seen:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Human spirits can be physically felt:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—Previously human spirits have knowledge of this world:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Human spirits' knowledge restricted to particular domain of humanaffairs:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEField doesn't know—Human spirits' knowledge restricted to (a) specific area(s) within thesample region:Field doesn't know—Pepper, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 21 of 42Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEHuman spirits' knowledge unrestricted within the sample region:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEField doesn't know—Human spirits' knowledge unrestricted outside of sample region:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEField doesn't know—Human spirits can see you everywhere normally visible (in public):Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEField doesn't know—Human spirits can see you everywhere (in the dark, at home):Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEField doesn't know—Human spirit's can see inside heart/mind (hidden motives):Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEField doesn't know—Human spirits know your basic character (personal essence):Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEField doesn't know—Human spirits know what will happen to you, what you will do (futuresight):Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEField doesn't know—Pepper, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 22 of 42Human spirits have other form(s) of knowledge regarding this world:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEField doesn't know—Human spirits have deliberate causal efficacy in the world:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—Human spirits have indirect causal efficacy in the world:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—Human spirits have memory of life:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Human spirits exhibit positive emotion:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Human spirits exhibit negative emotion:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Human spirits communicate with the living:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—Non-human supernatural beings are present:Specific to this answer:No—Pepper, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 23 of 42Supernatural MonitoringIs supernatural monitoring present:This refers to surveillance by supernatural beings of humans’ behaviour and/or thought particularly as itrelates to social norms or potential norm violations.Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEDate Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEDoes the religious group possess a pantheon of supernatural beings:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—Yes—There is supernatural monitoring of prosocial norm adherence in particular:Prosocial norms are norms that enhance cooperation among members of the group, includingobviously “moral” or “ethical” norms, but also extending to norms concerning honouring contractsand oaths, providing hospitality, coming to mutual aid in emergencies, etc.Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Supernatural beings care about taboos:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Food:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Sacred space(s):Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Pepper, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 24 of 42Sacred object(s):Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Supernatural beings care about other:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEField doesn't know—Supernatural beings care about murder of coreligionists:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Supernatural beings care about murder of members of other religions:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Supernatural beings care about murder of members of other polities:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Supernatural beings care about sex:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Adultery:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Incest:Specific to this answer:Yes—Pepper, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 25 of 42Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEOther sexual practices:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes [specify]: any sexual relationships or practices outside of the marriage between aman and a woman—Supernatural beings care about lying:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Supernatural beings care about honouring oaths:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Supernatural beings care about laziness:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Supernatural beings care about sorcery:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Supernatural beings care about non-lethal fighting:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Supernatural beings care about shirking risk:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Pepper, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 26 of 42Supernatural beings care about disrespecting elders:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Supernatural beings care about gossiping:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Supernatural beings care about property crimes:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Supernatural beings care about proper ritual observance:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Supernatural beings care about performance of rituals:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Supernatural beings care about conversion of non-religionists:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Supernatural beings care about economic fairness:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Supernatural beings care about personal hygiene:Specific to this answer:Yes—Pepper, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 27 of 42Do supernatural beings mete out punishment:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEDo supernatural beings bestow rewards:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEMessianism/EschatologyAre messianic beliefs present:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEDate Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CESupernatural beings care about other:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—No—No—Yes—Is the messiah's whereabouts or time of coming known?Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—Is the messiah's purpose known:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Messiah is a political figure who restores political rule:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Pepper, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 28 of 42Norms and Moral RealismAre general social norms prescribed by the religious group:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEIs there a conventional vs. moral distinction in the religious group:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEMessiah is a priestly figure who restores religious traditions:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Other purpose:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—Yes—Yes—What is the nature of this distinction:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEPresent and clear—Are specifically moral norms prescribed by the religious group:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Specifically moral norms are implicitly linked to vague metaphysical concepts:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—Specifically moral norms are explicitly linked to vague metaphysical entities:Pepper, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 29 of 42PracticesMembership Costs and PracticesDoes membership in this religious group require celibacy (full sexual abstinence):Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CESpecific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—Specifically moral norms are linked to impersonal cosmic order (e.g. karma):Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—Specifically moral norms are linked in some way to an anthropomorphicbeing:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Specifically moral norms are linked explicitly to commands ofanthropomorphic being:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Specifically moral norms are have no special connection to metaphysical:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—Moral norms apply to:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEAll individuals (any time period)—No—Pepper, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 30 of 42Does membership in this religious group require constraints on sexual activity (partial sexualabstinence):Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEDoes membership in this religious group require castration:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEDoes membership in this religious group require fasting:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEDoes membership in this religious group require forgone food opportunities (taboos ondesired foods):Yes—Monogamy (males):Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Monogamy (females):Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Other sexual constraints (males):Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Other sexual constraints (females):Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—No—Yes—Pepper, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 31 of 42Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEDoes membership in this religious group require permanent scarring or painful bodilyalterations:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEDoes membership in this religious group require painful physical positions or transitorypainful wounds:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEDoes membership in this religious group require sacrifice of adults:"Adults" here referring to an emic or indigenous category; if that category is different from the popularWestern definition of a human who is 18-years-old or older and who is legally responsible for his/heractions, then please specify that difference in the Comments/Sources: box below.Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEDoes membership in this religious group require sacrifice of children:"Children" here referring to an emic or indigenous category; if that category is different from the popularWestern definition, please specify that different in the Comments/Sources: box below.Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEDoes membership in this religious group require self-sacrifice (suicide):Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEDoes membership in this religious group require sacrifice of property/valuable items:Specific to this answer:Yes—No—No—No—No—No—Yes—Pepper, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 32 of 42Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEDoes membership in this religious group require sacrifice of time (e.g., attendance atmeetings or services, regular prayer, etc.):Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEDoes membership in this religious group require physical risk taking:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEDoes membership in this religious group require accepting ethical precepts:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEDoes membership in this religious group require marginalization by out-group members:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CETo other in-group members:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—To out-groups:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Destroyed:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—Yes—No—Yes—No—Pepper, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 33 of 42Does membership in this religious group require participation in small-scale rituals (private,household):Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEDoes membership in this religious group require participation in large-scale rituals:I.e. involving two or more households; includes large-scale “ceremonies” and “festivals.”Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—Yes—On average, for large-scale rituals how many participants gather in one location:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEField doesn't know—What is the average interval of time between performances (in hours):Performances here refers to small-scale rituals.Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEField doesn't know—Are there orthodoxy checks:Orthodoxy checks are mechanisms used to ensure that rituals are interpreted in a standardizedway, e.g. through the supervisory prominence of a professionalized priesthood or other system ofgovernance, appeal to texts detailing the proper interpretation, etc.Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Are there orthopraxy checks:Orthopraxy checks are mechanisms used to ensure that rituals are performed in a standardizedway, e.g. through the supervisory prominence of a professionalized priesthood or other system ofgovernance, appeal to texts detailing the proper procedure, etc.Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Pepper, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 34 of 42Are extra-ritual in-group markers present:E.g. special changes to appearance such as circumcision, tattoos, scarification, etc.Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEDoes the group employ fictive kinship terminology:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CESociety and InstitutionsDoes participation entail synchronic practices:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEField doesn't know—Is there use of intoxicants:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—No—Yes—Fictive kinship terminology universal:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Fictive kinship terminology widespread:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Fictive kinship terminology employed but uncommon:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—Pepper, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 35 of 42Levels of Social ComplexityThe society to which the religious group belongs is best characterized as (please chooseone):Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEWelfareDoes the religious group in question provide institutionalized famine relief:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEIs famine relief available to the group's adherents through an institution(s) other than thereligious group in question:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEDoes the religious group in question provide institutionalized poverty relief:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEIs poverty relief available to the group's adherents through an institution(s) other than thereligious group in question:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEDoes the religious group in question provide institutionalized care for the elderly and infirm:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEIs institutionalized care for the elderly and infirm available to the group's adherents throughan institution(s) other than the religious group in question:A state—Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—No—Pepper, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 36 of 42Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEEducationDoes the religious group provide formal education to its adherents:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEIs formal education available to the group’s adherents through an institution(s) other thanthe religious group:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEBureaucracyDo the group’s adherent’s interact with a formal bureaucracy within their group:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEDo the group’s adherents interact with other institutional bureaucracies:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEPublic WorksDoes the religious group in question provide public food storage:Specific to this answer:Yes—No—Yes—Is extra-religious education open to both males and females:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Yes—Yes—No—Pepper, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 37 of 42Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEIs public food storage provided to the group’s adherents by an institution(s) other than thereligious group in question:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEDoes the religious group in question provide water management (irrigation, flood control):Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEIs water management provided to the group’s adherents by an institution(s) other than thereligious group in question:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEDoes the religious group in question provide transportation infrastructure:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEIs transportation infrastructure provided for the group’s adherents by an institution(s) otherthan the religious group in question:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CETaxationDoes the religious group in question levy taxes or tithes:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEAre taxes levied on the group’s adherents by an institution(s) other than the religious group inquestion:Yes—No—Yes—No—Yes—Yes—Pepper, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 38 of 42Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEEnforcementDoes the religious group in question provide an institutionalized police force:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEDo the group’s adherents interact with an institutionalized police force provided by aninstitution(s) other than the religious group in question:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEDoes the religious group in question provide institutionalized judges:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEDo the group’s adherents interact with an institutionalized judicial system provided by an aninstitution(s) other than the religious group in question:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEDoes the religious group in question enforce institutionalized punishment:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEAre the group’s adherents subject to institutionalized punishment enforced by aninstitution(s) other than the religious group in question:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—No—Yes—No—Yes—No—Yes—Pepper, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 39 of 42Does the religious group in question have a formal legal code:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEAre the group’s adherents subject to a formal legal code provided by institution(s) other thanthe religious group in question:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEWarfareDo the institutionalized punishments include execution:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Do the institutionalized punishments include exile:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—Do the institutionalized punishments include corporal punishments:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—Do the institutionalized punishments include ostracism:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—Do the institutionalized punishments include seizure of property:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEYes—No—Yes—Pepper, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 40 of 42Does religious group in question possess an institutionalized military:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEDo the group’s adherents participate in an institutionalized military provided byinstitution(s) other than the religious group in question:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEAre the group’s adherents protected by or subject to an institutionalized military providedby an institution(s) other than the religious group in question:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEWritten LanguageDoes the religious group in question possess its own distinct written language:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEIs a non-religion-specific written language available to the group’s adherents through aninstitution(s) other than the religious group in question:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEIs a non-religion-specific written language used by the group’s adherents through aninstitution(s) other than the religious group in question:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CECalendarDoes the religious group in question possess a formal calendar:No—Yes—Yes—No—Yes—Yes—Pepper, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 41 of 42Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEIs a formal calendar provided for the group’s adherents by an institution(s) other than thereligious group in question:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEFood ProductionDoes the religious group in question provide food for themselves:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CEIs food provided to the group’s adherents by an institution(s) other than the religious groupin question:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CENo—Yes—No—Yes—Please characterize the forms/levels of food production [choose all that apply]:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 1820 CE - 2017 CELarge-scale agriculture (e.g., monocropping, organized irrigation systems)—Pepper, Database of Religious History, 2018 Page 42 of 42

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