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Sea Around Us project newsletter, issue 62, November/December 2010 Bailey, Megan; Sea Around Us Project Nov 30, 2010

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Sea Around UsThe Sea Around Us Project NewsletterIssue 62 – November/December 2010Student Conference onConservation Science NewYork (SCCS-NY)by Dalal Al-AbdulrazzakIncreasingly, interdisciplinaryapproaches are needed to confront themyriad of conservation problems. Thatwas a central theme of the StudentConference on Conservation Science(SCCS-NY) held recently at the AmericanMuseum of Natural History’s Center forBiodiversity and Conservation in New YorkCity. Andrés Cisneros-Montemayor and Iboth participated and presented speedtalks on our MSc and PhD research,respectively.Dr Martha Groom from the University ofWashington gave the opening plenary talkon enhancing interdisciplinarypartnerships. Building successfulpartnerships requires an exploration of theconnections and tensions betweenbiodiversity conservation and humanwelfare, fostering a culture ofinterdependence among solutions.The links between human health,environmental integrity, and conservationwere addressed by Andres Gomez fromthe American Museumof Natural History.  Aswe gain a more detailedunderstanding ofbiodiversity, thelinkages betweenwildlife species,transmission ofemerging pathogens,and the effects ofdisease on conservationefforts become moreapparent. Thisintegrative understanding of a complexproblem conveys the need for furthermultidisciplinary conservation strategies.During a panel entitled “A Life inConservation: Diverse Perspectives” the“pigeon paradox” concept was discussed.An increasing majority of the world’spopulation lives in cities, interacting withurban ecosystems that have beendrastically altered by human activity(Dunn et al. 2006). Most of theseinteractions tend to occur with organismsand habitats with negative culturalconnotations such as pigeons, roaches,house sparrows, and rats. Studies showthat people are more likely to conservenature when they have direct experiencewith the natural world, especially duringchildhood (Tanner 1980; Chawla 1999;Dunn et al. 2006). So while we are facedwith thousands of potential speciesextinctions, and extreme changes to manyof the world’s ecosystems, paradoxically,the majority of people’s direct experiencesThe author presents at SCCS.      Photo by A.M. Cisneros.Continued on page 3 - SCCSPage 2Sea Around Us – November/December 2010The Sea Around Us Project newsletter ispublished by the  Fisheries Centre at theUniversity of BritishColumbia. Six issues ofthis newsletter arepublished annually.Subscriptions arefree of charge.Our mailingaddress is: UBCFisheries Centre,Aquatic EcosystemsResearch Laboratory, 2202Main Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia,Canada, V6T 1Z4. Our fax number is (604)822-8934, and our email address isSeaNotes@fisheries.ubc.ca. All queries,subscription requests, and electronic addresschanges should be addressed to Megan Bailey,Sea Around Us Newsletter Editor.The Sea Around Us website may be foundat www.seaaroundus.org and contains up-to-date information on the Project.TThe Sea Around Us Project is a scientific collaborationbetween the University of British Columbia and the PewEnvironment Group that began in July 1999. The PewEnvironment Group works around the world to establishpragmatic, science-based policies that protect our oceans, wildlands and climate. Pew also sponsors scientific research thatsheds new light on the dimensions of and solutions to theproblems facing the global marine environment. ISSN 1713-5214   Sea Around Us (ONLINE)Continued on page 3 - Bay of BengalSea Around Us Collaborates with FAOon Bay Of Bengal Projectby Devon O’Meara, Kristin Kleisner, Sarah Harper and Dirk ZellerThe Sea Around Us Project has gainedrecognition as a global research leader infisheries science, conservation and policythrough publications and collaborations withinstitutions around the world. However, theUnited Nations Food and AgricultureOrganization (FAO), a key player in the globalfisheries arena, has, until recently, had relativelylittle collaboration with the Sea Around UsProject. The FAO Regional Office for Asia and thePacific has asked the Sea Around Us Project toassemble the Project’s spatially allocated fisheriesdata, ocean health indicators, and fisheriesreconstructions to be used as a part of the FAOBay of Bengal Large Marine Ecosystem (BOBLME)project (www.boblme.org).The FAO BOBLME project is a multi-governmentcollaboration between the Maldives, India, SriLanka, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Malaysia, Thailandand Indonesia, with the mandate to “improve thelives of coastal populations though improvedregionalmanagementof the Bay ofBengalenvironmentand itsfisheries”.  Theproject wasinitiated by theFAO in 1979followingconcerns overthe rapidlyincreasingcoastalpopulationand the simultaneous depletion of the Bay of Bengalecosystem due to overexploitation of fish stocks,pollution, and habitat degradation. Today, with 400million people dependent on the marine resources ofthe Bay of Bengal for their food security andlivelihoods, the magnitude and importance of theproject is apparent.The Sea Around Us will provide the BOBLME projectwith spatially allocated data on fisheries catches andlanded values, ocean health indicators for all eightcountries in the BOB, and fisheries catchThe Large Marine Ecosystem (LME) for the Bay of Bengal as definedby the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Association(NOAA, www.lme.noaa.gov/) does not include the Maldives as apart of the Bay of Bengal Large Marine Ecosystem (BOBLME);however, these islands were incorporated in the BOBLME by theFAO due to their location within currents that influence the Bay ofBengal’s ecology.Today, with 400million peopledependent onthe marineresources of theBay of Bengal fortheir foodsecurity andlivelihoods, themagnitude andimportance ofthe project isapparent.Page 3 Sea Around Us – November/December 2010... urbanconservationhas importantimplicationsfor globalconservation...Bay of Bengal - Continued from page 2with nature tend towards pestiferous species. This interestingtheme, that urban conservation has important implications forglobal conservation, was explored throughout the conference,and it is increasingly a theme that needs to be included in ourdiscussions of sustainability.ReferencesChawla, L. (1998). Significant life experiences revisited: a review ofresearch on sources of environmental sensitivity. TheJournal of Environmental Education 29: 11-21.Dunn, R.R.,  M.C. Gavin, M.C. Sanchez, and J.N. Solomon. (2006). Thepigeon paradox: Dependence of global conservation onurban nature. Conservation Biology 20: 1814-1816.Tanner, T. (1980). Significant life experiences. The Journal ofEnvironmental Education 4: 399-417.SCCS - Continued from page 1reconstructions for India, Myanmar, and Sri Lanka.The spatial allocation of catches uses a rule-basedprocess (Watson et al., 2004) that combines taxacaught by country and area fished (e.g., fromFAO’s landing statistics or reconstructed catch,where available) with ecological speciesdistributions and fishing access information,resulting in catches being assigned to smallerspatial units (30-minutes of latitude by 30-minutes of longitude). For each country, thecatches taken within that country’s ExclusiveEconomic Zone (EEZ) waters are estimated as thesum of the catches taken in spatial cells that fallwithin the area claimed by that country as its EEZ.The ocean health indicators for the region willmeasure the socio-economic status of theBOBLME countries (i.e., fisheries subsidies to GDPratio, economic impact factor to GDP, etc.), thebiodiversity in the region (i.e, the SeabirdProtection Index and the Marine MammalProtection Index), and the level of commitmentof each country to protecting their marine waters(i.e., the area coverage of MPAs within the EEZwaters). Our ocean indicator work is part of aglobal collaboration with ConservationInternational and other research groups, and theBOBLME project will be the first regional projectto benefit from this research.Fisheries catch reconstructions for Myanmar,India, and Sri Lanka, based on the reconstructionapproach outlined by Zeller et al. (2007) andpreviously described in this newsletter (Issues 23,28 and 35) will be included in the report. Catchreconstructions build upon the officially reportedlandings data (often dominated by or exclusivelyconsisting of commercial fisheries data) byestimating unreported catches (e.g., subsistenceand other small-scale fisheries catches) anddiscards. Thus, reconstructed catches represent amore accurate picture of total catches extractedfrom the ocean than reported landings data do.The FAO has requested these catchreconstructions in order to provide a morerealistic baseline of fisheries extractions in theBOBLME. The next phase of this collaborationwith FAO will include reconstructions ofadditional countries in the BOBLME.We feel it is a great step forward for globalfisheries if the knowledge, experience andrecognition of FAO can be combined incollaborations with the Sea Around Us such asthe one outlined here. This can only improveglobal data and evaluations of the status offisheries worldwide.ReferencesWatson, R., Kitchingman, A., Gelchu, A. and Pauly,D. (2004) Mapping global fisheries:sharpening our focus. Fish and Fisheries 5:168-177.Zeller, D., Booth, S., Davis, G. and Pauly, D. (2007)Re-estimation of small-scale fisheriescatches for U.S. flag island areas in theWestern Pacific: The last 50 years.Fishery Bulletin 105: 266-277.At left, SCCS attendees. Photo courtesy of Conference organizers.Page 4Sea Around Us – November/December 2010Alder, J., Cullis-Suzuki, S., Karpouzi, V., Kaschner, K., Mondoux, S., Swartz, W., Trujillo,P., Watson, R. and Pauly, D. (2010) Aggregate performance in managingmarine ecosystems in 53 maritime countries. Marine Policy 34: 468-476.Bailey, M., Sumaila, U.R. and Lindroos, M. (2010) Application of game theory tofisheries over three decades. Fisheries Research 102: 1-8.Brown, C.J., Fulton, E.A., Hobday, A.J., Matear, R., Possingham, H., Bulman, C.,Christensen, V., Forrest, R., Gehrke, P., Gribble, N., Griffiths, S., Lozano-Montes,H., Martin, J., Metcalf, S., Okey, T., Watson, R. and Richardson, A.J. (2010)Ecological interactions will determine winners and losers under climatechange in marine ecosystems and fisheries. Global Change Biology 16:1194-1212.Butchart, S.H.M., Walpole, M., Collen, B., van Strien, A., Scharlemann, J.P.W., Almond,R.E.A., Baillie, J.E.M., Bomhard, B., Brown, C., Bruno, J., Carpenter, K.E., Carr,G.M., Chanson, J., Chenery, A.M., Csirke, J., Davidson, N.C., Dentener, F., Foster,M., Galli, A., Galloway, J.N., Genovesi, P., Gregory, R.D., Hockings, M., Kapos,V., Lamarque, J.-F., Leverington, F., Loh, J., McGeoch, M.A., McRae, L.,Minasyan, A., Morcillo, M.H., Oldfield, T.E.E., Pauly, D., Quader, S., Revenga,C., Sauer, J.R., Skolnik, B., Spear, D., Stanwell-Smith, D., Stuart, S.N., Symes,A., Tierney, M., Tyrrell, T.D., Vié, J.-C. and Watson, R. (2010) Global Biodiversity:Indicators of recent declines. Science DOI: 10.1126/science.1187512.Chassot, E., Bonhommeau, S., Dulvy, N.K., Mélin, F., Watson, R., Gascuel, D. and LePape, O. (2010) Global marine primary production constrains fisheriescatches. Ecological Letters 13: 495-505.Cheung, W.L., Lam, V., Sarmiento, J., Kearney, K., Watson, R., Zeller, D. and Pauly, D.(2010) Large-scale redistribution of maximum fisheries catch potentialin the global ocean under climate change. Global Change Biology 16: 24-35.Christensen, V. (2010) MEY = MSY. Fish and Fisheries 11: 105-110.Cisnero-Montemayor, A., Sumaila, R.U., Kaschner, K. and Pauly, D. (2010) The globalpotential for whale watching. Marine Policy 34: 1273-1278.Cisneros-Montemayor, A. and Sumaila, U.R. (2010) A global valuation ofecosystem-based marine recreation. Journal of Bioeconomics 12: 245-268.Clark, C.W., Munro, G. and Sumaila, U.R. (2010) Limits to the privatization of fisheryresources Land Economics 86: 209-218.Courteney, W.R., Collette, B., Essington, T., Hilborn, R., Orr, J., Pauly, D., Randall, J.E.and Smith-Vaniz, W. (2010) Rejoinder to “North Atlantic Fisheries: aresponse to criticism of the proactive proposal, by J.C. Briggs”. Fisheries35: 298.2010 publications by ProjectmembersPage 5 Sea Around Us – November/December 2010Cullis-Suzuki, S. and Pauly, D. (2010a) Failing the high seas: A global evaluation ofregional fisheries management organizations. Marine Policy 34: 1036-1042.Cullis-Suzuki, S. and Pauly, D. (2010b) Marine Protected Area costs as ‘beneficial’fisheries subsidies: a global evaluation. Coastal Management 38: 113-121.Dalleau, M., Andréfouët, S., Wabnitz, C., Payri, C., Wantiez, L., Pichon, M., Friedman,K., Vigliola, L. and Benzoni, F. (2010) Use of habitats as surrogates ofbiodiversity for efficient coral reef conservation planning in Pacific Oceanislands. Conservation Biology 24: 541-552.Diamond, S.L., Kleisner, K.M., Englert Duursma, D., and Wang, Y. (2010).   Designingmarine reserves to reduce bycatch of mobile species: a case study usingjuvenile red snapper. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic  Sciences 67:1335-1349.Dyck, A.J. and Sumaila, U.R. (2010) Economic impact of ocean fish populations inthe global fishery. Journal of Bioeconomics 12: 227-243.Jacquet, J., Hocevar, J., Lai, S., Majluf, P., Pelletier, N., Pitcher, T., Sala, E., Sumaila, U.R.and Pauly, D. (2010a) Conserving wild fish in a sea of market based efforts.Oryx 44: 45-56.Jacquet, J., Pauly, D., Ainley, D., Dayton, P., Holt, S. and Jackson, J.B.C. (2010b) Seafoodstewardship in crisis. Nature 467: 28-29.Jacquet, J.L., Fox, H., Motta, H., Ngusaru, A. and Zeller, D. (2010c) Few data but manyfish: Marine small-scale fisheries catches for Mozambique and Tanzania.African Journal of Marine Science 32: 197-206.Jacquet, J.L., Zeller, D. and Pauly, D. (2010d) Counting fish: A typology for fisheriescatch data. Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences 7: 135-144.Kleisner, K.M., Walter, J.F., Diamond, S.L., and Die, D.J. (2010). Modelingthe spatial autocorrelation of pelagic fish abundance. Marine EcologicalProgress Series. 411: 203-213.Lam, M. and Pauly, D. (2010) Who’s right to fish? Evolving a social contract for ethicalfisheries. Ecology and Society 15: 16.Liu, Y. and Sumaila, U.R. (2010) Estimating pollution abatement costs of salmonaquaculture: A joint production approach. Land Economics 86: 569-584.Ma, H., Townsend, H., Zhang, X., Sigrist, M. and Christensen, V. (2010) Using a fisheriesecosystem model with a water quality model to explore trophic andhabitat impacts on fisheries stock: A case study of the blue crab populationin Chesapeake Bay. Ecological Modelling 221: 997-1004.Pauly, D. (2010) John Leslie Munro (1938-2009) – a pioneer of tropical fisheriesscience. Fish and Fisheries 11: 117-118.Pauly, D. and Froese, R. (2010) Account in the dark. Nature Geoscience 3: 662-663.2010 publications by ProjectmembersPage 6Sea Around Us – November/December 2010Pershing, A.J., Christensen, L.B., Record, N.R., Sherwood, G.D. and Stetson, P.B. (2010)The impact of whaling on the ocean carbon cycle: Why bigger was better.PLoS ONE 5: 9 pages, e12444. doi:12410.11371/journal.pone.0012444.Pitcher, T.J., Clark, M.R., Morato, T. and Watson, R. (2010) Seamount fisheries: dothey have a future? Oceanography 23: 135-144.Srinivasan, U., Cheung, W.W.L., Watson, R. and Sumaila, U.R. (2010) Food securityimplications of global marine catch losses due to overfishing. Journal ofBioeconomics 12: 183-200.Sumaila, U.R. (2010) A cautionary note on individual transferable quotas.  Ecologyand Society 15: 36.Sumaila, U.R., Arnason, R. and Lange, G.M. (2010a) Toward a global fisherieseconomics. Journal of Bioeconomics 12: 179-182.Sumaila, U.R. and Domínguez-Torreiro, M. (2010) Discount factors and theperformance of alternative fisheries management systems. Fish andFisheries 11: 278-287.Sumaila, U.R., Khan, A., Teh, L., Watson, R., Tyedmers, P. and Pauly, D. (2010b) Subsidiesto high seas bottom trawl fleet and the sustainability of deep sea benthicfish stocks. Marine Policy 34: 459-497.Sumaila, U.R., Khan, A.S., Dyck, A.J., Watson, R., Munro, G., Tyedmers, P. and Pauly, D.(2010c) A bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies. Journalof Bioeconomics 12: 201-225.Swartz, W., Sala, E., Tracey, S., Watson, R. and Pauly, D. (2010a) The spatial expansionand ecological footprint of fisheries (1950 to present).  PLoS  ONE 5: e15143.Swartz, W., Sumaila, U.R., Watson, R. and Pauly, D.  (2010b) Sourcing seafood for thethree major markets: The EU, Japan and the USA. Marine Policy 34: 1366-1373.Villasante, S. and Sumaila, U.R. (2010) Estimating the effects of technologicalefficiency on the European fishing fleet. Marine Policy 34: 720-722.Wabnitz C.C.C., Balazs G., Beavers S., Bjorndal K.A., Bolten A.B., Christensen V.,Hargrove S. and Pauly, D. (2010) Carrying capacity of green sea turtles(Chelonia mydas) at Kaloko-Honokohau, Hawai‘i, and their role in reefresilience. Marine Ecology Progress Series 420:27-44.Wabnitz, C. C. C., Andréfouët S. and Müller-Karger, F. (2010) Measuring progresstowards global marine conservation targets. Frontiers in Ecology and theEnvironment 8(3): 124-129.Walters, C., Christensen, V., Walters, W. and Rose, K. (2010) Representation of multi-stanza life histories in Ecospace models for spatial organization ofecosystem trophic interaction patterns.  Bulletin of Marine Science 86: 439-459.Wielgus, J., Zeller, D., Caicedo-Herrera, D. and Sumaila, U.R. (2010) Estimation offisheries removals and primary economic impact of the small-scale andindustrial marine fisheries in Colombia. Marine Policy 34: 506-513.2010 publications by Projectmembers

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