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Sea Around Us project newsletter, issue 56, November/December 2009 Bailey, Megan; Sea Around Us Project Nov 30, 2009

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Sea Around UsThe Sea Around Us Project NewsletterIssue 56 – November/December 2009Continued on page 2 - BalticDumb as a Cod Part II:The Case of IUU in theBaltic Seaby Dirk Zeller, Peter Rossing and Sarah HarperIn a previous issue, wereported on fisheries inthe Baltic Sea (Rossingand Zeller, 2008) and on ourcollaboration with the BalticSea 2020 Foundation inundertaking catchreconstructions for the ninecoastal countriessurrounding the Baltic Sea:Denmark, Estonia, Finland,Germany, Latvia, Lithuania,Poland, Russia and Sweden.The purpose was to obtaintime series of total catchestimates, including so-called Illegal, Unreportedand Unregulated fisheriescatches (IUU), and comparethese to officially reportedstatistics. The aim of theBaltic Sea 2020 Foundationis to stimulate concretemeasures to improve theenvironmental quality ofthe Baltic Sea. In order toderive such policy measuresfor fisheries, one has tohave an understanding ofthe scale and magnitude ofthe IUU problem. Our work,now completed (Rossing etal., in press) and will soonbe freely available atwww.fisheries.ubc.ca/publications/reports/fcrr.php, provides a baselineof total fisheries catches,compared to officiallyreported statistics from1950 to the present. Thebasic approach to, andphilosophy behind, catchreconstructions is describedin Zeller et al. (2006; 2007).In essence, we utilize alldata- and information-sources available (includinggrey literature, mediasources and expertknowledge) to derive time-series data on reported andIUU catches (includingdiscarded and recreational).The Baltic Sea is oftenreferred to as one of themost studied seas in theworld (Kononen et al.,2001).  Ironically, relativelylittle seems to be knownabout the magnitude of IUUcatches, and even less ofthat information is readilyavailable to the interestedpublic. While theInternational Council for theExploration of the Sea(ICES), with responsibility foradvising the EuropeanCommission on TotalAllowable Catches (TACs)for the main commercialspecies caught in the BalticSea, does include its ownestimates for unreportedlandings and discards in itsannual stock assessmentworking group reports,these data are nottransparent to the public,and therefore the reportsavoid identification ofcountries and individualmagnitudes involved.Our study clearly illustratedthis practice(for 1950-2007), as our totalreconstructed catches forthe Baltic Sea were around30% larger than the officialstatistics reported publicallyby ICES on behalf of itsmember countries (plusRussia). When the totalreconstructed catchespeaked in 1997, totalcatches were likely 43%higher than the reportedstatistics, while for the mostrecent period (2000-2007),total catches were around35% higher than thereported data. All coastalBaltic Sea countries wereimplicated, but our analysissuggests that the top threeoffenders were those withthe largest share of the TAC:Poland, Sweden andDenmark. Respectively,these countries represented36%, 13% and 14% of ourtotal reconstructed IUU(unreported landings,Page 2Sea Around Us – November/December 2009The Sea Around Us project newsletter ispublished by the  Fisheries Centre at theUniversity of BritishColumbia. Included withthe Fisheries Centre’snewsletter FishBytes, sixissues of this newsletterare published annually.Subscriptions are free ofcharge, and will beavailable only electronically fromthe January/February 2010 issue onwards.Our mailing address is: UBC FisheriesCentre, Aquatic Ecosystems ResearchLaboratory, 2202 Main Mall, Vancouver,British Columbia, Canada, V6T 1Z4. Our faxnumber is (604) 822-8934, and our emailaddress is SeaNotes@fisheries.ubc.ca. Allqueries (including reprint requests),subscription requests, and address changesshould be addressed to Megan Bailey, SeaAround Us Newsletter Editor.The Sea Around Us website may be foundat www.seaaroundus.org and contains up-to-date information on the project.The Sea Around Us project is a scientific collaborationbetween the University of British Columbia and the PewEnvironmental Group. The Group supports nonprofitactivities in the areas of culture, education, the environment,health and human services, public policy and religion. Basedin Philadelphia, Pew makes strategic investments to helporganizations and citizens develop practical solutions todifficult problems. In 2000, with approximately $4.8 billion inassets, the Group committed over $235 million to 302nonprofit organizations. ISSN 1713-5214   Sea Around Us (ONLINE)Baltic - Continued from page 1Overall, themagnitudeandpreponderanceof unreportedlandings by allcountriesstronglysuggestsconsiderablemanagementandenforcementfailures.discards and recreationalcatches). Poland’s large share ofthe IUU was driven byunreported cod catchesestimated to be up to 300%higher than reported landingsfor some years, making it themain culprit during this period.Without exception, unreportedlandings were the most seriousIUU fishing activity, followed bydiscarding. For example, ourestimates of unreported codcatches for 2000-2007 were 5times higher than theunreported landings data usedby ICES stock assessmentworking groups. It was notpossible to determine whichcountry data were driving thisdiscrepancy, as ICES unreportedlandings data are not reported ina transparent manner. This seemsto illustrate the problem of non-transparent data use by theseassessments, which is bound toinfluence management adviceand policy decisions. Overall, themagnitude and preponderance ofunreported landings by allcountries strongly suggestsconsiderable management andenforcement failures.Discarding was also substantial,and is an entirely wastefulpractice. Given the move toecosystem-based management,such practices need to be phasedout. The EU should seriouslyconsider a discard ban on allfisheries, an approachsuccessfully attempted byNorway. Such a move wouldrequire comprehensive observercoverage (ideally 100% andutilizing video systemapproaches) to ensurecompliance and fairness.Until recently, IUU issues haveoften been considered primarily aproblem for developing countries(but see Coleman et al., 2004).However, as the present studyillustrates, IUU fisheries happeneven in the most developed andrichest countries, confirming thatthese highly developed countrieswith their substantial resourcesand well-established scientific,administrative, legal andmanagement institutions haveso-far failed to address IUU issuesin a transparent andcomprehensive manner.References:Coleman, F.C., Figueira, W.F.,Ueland, J.S. and Crowder, R.B.2004. The impact of UnitedStates recreational fisheries onmarine fish populations.Science, 305: 1958-1960.Kononen, K., Bonsdorff, E. andKessler, E. 2001. ThirdEnvironment Symposium ofthe Maj and Tor NesslingSymposium, Man and theBaltic Sea. Special Issue.Ambio, 30: 171.Rossing, P., Booth, S. and Zeller,D., editors. In press. Totalmarine fisheries extractions bycountry in the Baltic Sea:1950-present. Fisheries CentreResearch Report 18(1),Fisheries Centre, University ofBritish Columbia, Vancouver,263 p.Rossing, P. and Zeller, D. 2008.Dumb as a cod: Fisheries inthe Baltic Sea. The Sea AroundUs Project Newsletter Issue 50- November/December 2008,Vancouver, p. 6-7.Zeller, D., Booth, S., Craig, P. andPauly, D. 2006. Reconstructionof coral reef fisheries catchesin American Samoa, 1950-2002. Coral Reefs 25: 144-152.Zeller, D., Booth, S., Davis, G. andPauly, D. (2007) Re-estimationof small-scale fisheries catchesfor U.S. flag island areas in theWestern Pacific: The last 50years. Fisheries Bulletin105:266-277.Page 3 Sea Around Us – November/December 2009The Sea Around Us is ten years oldby Daniel PaulyThe Sea Around Us is acollaboration between theUniversity of BritishColumbia in Vancouver, Canada,and the Pew Environment Group,Washington, DC, devoted toassessing the impact of fisherieson the world’s marineecosystems, and proposingpolicies to mitigate these impacts.The project started in mid 1999,and thus celebrated its tenthanniversary in July 2009. We arenow preparing a retrospective forour years of activity (available athttp://www. seaaroundus.org/about/index.php/5-10-year-retrospectives/). Through theyears, our scope has increased,with more emphasis on fisherieseconomics and public policy, andour productivity has increasedmore that threefold – at least asmeasured by the number of peer-reviewed contributions authoredand co-authored by our members.The reason for this massiveincrease is obvious: it took usseveral years to create thecomplex of layered databasesthat allow inferences on theglobal ocean (Figure 1). Now thatthis complex is in place, it hasbecome more straightforward todetect regional or global trendsthat were previously not visible,to assess them, and to developpolicies to deal with them.Thus for example, we can nowdeal with global catches not onlyin term of the ‘official’ globallandings assembled anddisseminated by the Food andAgriculture Organization of theUnited Nations, but in terms oftheir Illegal, Unreported andUnregulated (IUU) components,which add to the global catch(see p. 1-2, this issue), and withthe fishing effort, the gears andthe costs (including subsidies)required to generate that catch,along with its economic valueand its disposition throughinternational trade. Also, we caninfer long-term trends, becausemost of our databases start in1950, and thus span over half acentury. Moreover, in some caseswhere the science allows this, weproject these trends into thefuture, as we are now beginningto do in our studies of globalchange impacts on biodiversityand fisheries potentials (see, e.g.,Pauly, D. and W.W.L. Cheung.2009. Sea Around Us NewsletterNo. 55, Sept./Oct..)The availability of the Sea AroundUs databases not only allows formore, deeper work by projectmembers, including a host ofproductive graduate students, buthas also generated a flurry ofoffers of collaboration, resulting ina spectrum ranging from the veryfruitful (e.g., with NationalGeographic) to the sensitive,requiring diplomacy (“No, youcan’t have ALL our data, but wecan talk about what you actuallyneed, and which you can usegiven that you give propercredit”). They establish that theSea Around Us has become aninternationally respected player inboth the scientific and policyarenas of global fisheries. Not toobad for a ten-year old!Note: From 2010 on, the SeaAround Us Newsletter will beavailable only online. Also, we caninfer long-term trends,because mostof ourdatabasesstart in 1950,and thus spanover half acentury.Figure 1. Illustrating the scope of the Sea Around Us through global ‘layers’, each representing types of data usedand/or contributed to, and which, when jointly analyzed, represent the entire range of ocean issues.Page 4Sea Around Us – November/December 2009Publications Mail Agreement No: 41104508Cheung, W.L., Lam, V., Sarmiento, J., Kearney, K., Watson, R., Zeller, D. and Pauly, D. (2009a) Large-scaleredistribution of maximum fisheries catch potential in the global ocean under climate change. GlobalChange Biology. [http://dx.doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.01995.x]Cheung, W.L.W., Close, C., Lam, V.W.Y., Sarmiento, J., Kearney, K., Watson, R. and Pauly, D. (2009b)Projections of global marine biodiversity impacts under climate change scenarios. Fish and Fisheries 10:235-251.Christensen, V., Walters, C., Ahrens, R., Alder, J., Buszowski, J., Christensen, L., Cheung, W.L., Dunne, J.,Froese, R., Karpouzi, V., Kastner, K., Kearney, K., Lai, S., Lam, V., Palomares, D., Peters-Mason, A., Piroddi, C.,Sarmiento, J.L., Steenbeek, J., Sumaila, R.U., Watson, R., Zeller, D. and Pauly, D. (2009a) Database-drivenmodels of the world’s large marine ecosystems. Ecological Modelling 220: 1984-1996.Christensen, V., Z. Ferdaña, J. Steenbeek. (2009b). Spatial optimization of protected area placementincorporating ecological, social and economical criteria. Ecological Modelling 220:2583-2593.Courteney, W.R., Collette, B., Essington, T., Hilborn, R., Orr, J., Pauly, D., Randall, J.E. and Smith-Vaniz, W. (2009)Risk of introductions of marine fishes: reply to Briggs. Fisheries 34: 181-186.Gerber, L.R., Morissette, L., Kaschner, K. and Pauly, D. (2009) Should whales be culled to increase fisheryyields? Science 323: 880-881.Heymans, J.J., Sumaila, U.R. and Christensen, V. (2009) Policy options for the northern Benguela ecosystemusing a multi-species, multi-fleet model. Progress in Oceanography 83:417-425.Jacquet, J. (2009a) What can conservationists learn from investor behavior? Conservation Biology 23: 518-519.Jacquet, J., Hocevar, J., Lai, S., Majluf, P., Pelletier, N., Pitcher, T., Sala, E., Sumaila, U.R. and Pauly, D. (2009)Conserving wild fish in a sea of market based efforts. Oryx doi:10.1017/S0030605309990470.Jacquet, J.L. (2009b) Silent water: A brief examination of the marine fisheries crisis. Environment,Development and Sustainability 11: 255-263.Jenkins, D.J.A., Sievenpiper, J.L., Pauly, D., Sumaila, U.R. and Kendall, C.W.C. (2009) Are dietaryrecommendations for the use of fish oils sustainable? Canadian Medical Association Journal 180: 633-637.Martell, S.J., Walters, C. and Sumaila, U.R. (2009) Industry-funded fishing licence reduction good for profitsand conservation. Fish and Fisheries 10: 1-12.Mora, C., Myers, R.A., Coll, M., Libralato, S., Pitcher, T.J., Sumaila, R.U., Zeller, D., Watson, R., Gaston, K.J. andWorm, B. (2009) Management effectiveness of the world’s marine fisheries. PLoS Biology 7: 1-11.Nunoo, F.K.E., Boateng, J.O., Ahulu, A.M., Agyekum, K.A. and Sumaila, U.R. (2009) When trash fish is treasure:The case of Ghana in West Africa. Fisheries Research 96: 167-172.Palomares, M.L.D. and Pauly, D. (2009) The growth of jellyfishes. Hydrobiologia 616: 11-21.Pauly, D. (2009) Beyond Duplicity and Ignorance in Global Fisheries. Scientia Marina 73: 2.Pauly, D., Graham, W., Libralato, S., Morissette, L. and Palomares, M.L.D. (2009) Jellyfish in ecosystems,online databases and ecosystem models. Hydrobiologia 616: 67-85.Sharp, R. and Sumaila, U.R. (2009) Quantification of U.S. marine fisheries subsidies. The North AmericanJournal of Fisheries Management. 29: 18-32.Stergiou, K.I., Tsikliras, A.C. and Pauly, D. (2009) Farming up the Mediterranean food webs. ConservationBiology 23: 230-232.Varkey, D.A., Ainsworth, C.H., Pitcher, T.J., Goram, J. and Sumaila, R. (2009) Illegal, Unreported andUnregulated fisheries catch in Raja Ampat Regency, Eastern Indonesia. Marine Policy 34: 228-236.Wabnitz, C., Andréfouët, S. and Muller-Karger, F.E. (2009) Measuring progress toward global marineconservation targets. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment doi:10.1890/080109.Wilson, R.W., Millero, F.J., Taylor, J.R., Walsh, P.J., Christensen, V., Jennings, S. and Grosell, M. (2009)Contribution of fish to the marine inorganic carbon cycle. Science 323: 359-362.Worm, B., Hilborn, R., Baum, J.K., Branch, T., Collie, J.S., Costello, C., Fogarty, M.J., Fulton, E.A., Hutchings, J.A.,Jennings, S., Jensen, O.P., Lotze, H.K., Mace, P.M., McClanahan, T.R., Minto, C., Palumbi, S.R., Parma, A.M.,Ricard, D., Rosenberg, A.A., Watson, R. and Zeller, D. (2009) Rebuilding global fisheries. Science 325: 578-585.2009 Sea Around Us Project Publications


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