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Sea Around Us project newsletter, issue 35, May/June 2006 Forrest, Robyn; Sea Around Us Project May 31, 2006

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SSSS Seeee e aaaa a     AAAA Arrrr r ouououou ounnnn ndddd d     UUUU Ussss sThe Sea Around Us Project NewsletterIssue 35 – May/June 2006Palau is well-knownamong fisheriesscientists,especially among socialscientists, for havingprovided the backdropto Bob Johannes’masterwork, Words ofthe Lagoon (Johannes1981), whichdocumented and cross-validated the rich marinebiological knowledge ofthe local fishers. I spent 17months in Palau, in 2000and 2001, gatheringethnographic data for myPhD research (Ota 2006a),mainly from the localfishers. One of my minorgoals was to check howJohannes’ research has heldup since the late 1970s, asPalau has now become anindependent country,whose people are fullyexposed to the moderneconomy and its massconsumption.My main concerns wereanthropological and cultural,but set in the fishingpractices of thecontemporary Palau: thegender, cultural identity andsocial relations of thepeople, constructedthrough their interactionswith the sea (Ota 2006a).An anthropologist in Palau1by Yoshitaka OtaDepartment of Anthropology, University of KentHowever, in contrast to thetime of Johannes’ study,today people in Palau donot fish for subsistence, i.e.,they do not have to fish tolive. However, they are stillinvolved in ritual gatheringsin which traditionalexchanges of gifts, notablyfish, play a crucial role. Infact, one of the mainreasons that peoplecontinue to fish is “toprotect their tradition”.Here, rather than followingup these traditions, as mytraining as an anthropologistwould require me to do, Iwill take on the challengeof quantification of catchestimates for the reef fishesof Palau, using  my localknowledge - a topic thatwas not addressed byJohannes (1981).Fish consumption in Palauconsists largely ofreef fish species,which have a proper“taste of fish”, whilelarge pelagic fishes,such as tuna, aregenerally served totourists in hotels andrestaurants. A surveyconducted in 1989reports the Palauanmean dailyconsumption of fishas 0.23 kg per person (i.e.,84 kg/year). Other sourcesreport that in Koror, thecapital of Palau, whereimported food is readilyavailable, approximately 0.7kg is consumed daily perperson (~260 kg/year).Taking the average of thesenumbers and multiplying bythe population of Palau in1989 leads to a reef fishconsumption of 1,000 to1,200 t/year. This figure wascompared with theestimates of catch by majorgears (lines, spear-guns,barrier nets, trolling linesand traps) which I was ableto obtain, albeit 17 monthsafter the catch surveys were1 This contribution isadapted from talk given onApril 7, 2006, as part of theFisheries Centre FridaySeminar Series.Continued on page 2 - PalauRock Islands, PalauPage 2Sea Around Us – May/June 2006The Sea Around Us project is a Fisheries Centre partner-ship with the Pew Charitable Trusts of Philadelphia,USA. The Trusts support nonprofit activities in the areas ofculture, education, the environment, health and human serv-ices, public policy and religion. Based in Philadelphia, the Trustsmake strategic investments to help organisations and citizensdevelop practical solutions to difficult problems. In 2000, withapproximately $4.8 billion in assets, the Trusts committed over$235 million to 302 nonprofit organisations. ISSN 1713-5214   Sea Around Us (ONLINE)The Sea Around Us project newsletter ispublished by the  Fisheries Centre at theUniversity of British Columbia. Included withthe Fisheries Centre’s newsletter FishBytes,sixissues of this newsletter are publishedannually. Subscriptions arefree of charge.Our mailingaddress is: SeaAround Us project,Aquatic EcosystemsResearch Laboratory,2202 Main Mall,Vancouver, BritishColumbia, Canada, V6T1Z4. Our fax number is (604)822-8934, and our email address isSeaNotes@fisheries.ubc.ca. All queries(including reprint requests), subscriptionrequests, and address changes should beaddressed to Robyn Forrest, Sea Around UsNewsletter Editor.The Sea Around Us website may be foundat saup.fisheries.ubc.ca and contains up-to-date information on the project.done. Note that there are nofresh reef fish imports to Palau,so catch can be assumed equalto consumption.Line fishing in Palau isconducted with nylon fishingline, fishing hooks, and weight tokeep fish baits at the bottom ofthe seabed. This form of fishingis often practiced with familyand friends, on the occasion of aleisurely weekend excursion atthe sea. Large boats are used,which can comfortably carryseveral men and women, whospend the night fishing largerreef fish, including snappers andgroupers. Out of 300 boats thatwere reported as domesticfishing boats in 2000, probablyless than a third of them areused for this form of fishing.Given that each of these boatscan be assumed to be used forone excursion per month, Iestimate theoverall catchtaken by thisform of fishingas 200 t peryear.While linefishing ispopularamongPalauan ofboth sexes,males dominate the practice ofunderwater spear-gun fishing,and it is practiced by the largestnumber of fishers. Men between18 and 45 years of age free-diveto depths of 20 m, and shootreef fish, notably parrotfish andrabbit fish, with locally-madespear-guns. A trip can lastbetween 3 and 10 hours,depending on when enough hasbeen caught for supper. A fewfishermen use this method forcommercial fishing: in this case,they tend to target species thatare popular among tourists,including grouper and Napoleonwrasse. The amount of catchvaries between trips andindividuals, but on average, afisherman catches 20-50 kg offish per fishing trip. I haveestimated the Palau-wide spear-gun catch at around 350 t/year(Ota 2006b).Barrier net fishing (kesokes) isconducted around spring tides,as it relies on tidal currents asmechanism to aggregate andcatch fishes. At high tide, a largenet is set across the shallow part ofa reef so that the fish cannot moveto deeper water as the tiderecedes. There are a few groups offishermen specialised in thisfishing method, primarily forcommercial purposes, because themethod more or less guarantees alarge catch of mainly smaller fish,as much as 500 kg per set. I haveestimated the total annual catchby barrier reef net fishing at about150 t.The elder population of Palauanfishermen often practice hand-linetrolling, as this gear challengestheir knowledge of fish behaviorand sea conditions. Contrary to thetourists, who used larger boatsoverloaded with high technology,local fishermen use only smallboats – and no fishing rods. Theyusually operate close to the shoreand target small reef-associatedpelagic fish, such as bonito andbarracuda. About 15 to 20fishermen carry out this type offishing regularly. Among these,two are professionals, who selltheir catch in local markets forContinued on page 3 - PalauPalau - Continued from page 1Social evening with fishermen, Koror, Palau (author first from left)[Line]fishing isoftenpracticedwith familyand friends,on theoccasion ofa leisurelyweekendexcursion atthe seaPage 3 Sea Around Us – May/June 2006consumption by tourists. Theothers, who fish for domesticconsumption, catch much lessthan the commercial fishermen,as they prefer “not to waste theirmoney on petrol”.  Their successdepends on the weather andpattern of fish migration, and theamount of the catch variesbetween individuals. I haveestimated the total catch andeffort of this fishing at about100-120 t/year.Trap fishing has become muchless popular due to constantvandalism. However, it is stillused to catch mangrove crabs inone region in the northwest partof Palau. More than 100 traps areused to catch those crabs, whichare almost all sold to the touristsector,  and whose catchamounts to only a few tonnes.Adding the whole annual catchestimated by those five fishingmethods, in 2000-2001, yieldsover 800  t/year, which is about300 t less that the survey figureof 1000-1200 t estimated for1989. I cannot assess herewhether this difference reflectschanges that occurred between1989 and 2000-2001, or errors inmy estimates, or both.Elucidating this will be animportant topic in the next years,because all is not well withPalauan fisheries. Carl Safina,who interviewed a governmentfisheries biologist in Palau  in themid 1990s, cites him as saying “Icould catch two hundredpounds of fish in one day. Now,you would be lucky if you catchfifteen” (Safina 1997, p. 339).Similarly, Myers (1999, p. 23)writes that “[c]ertain largespecies such as the gianthumphead parrotfish […] thatwere once common are nowrarely seen on Guam andbecoming scarce in Palau”.  Forthe time being, however, I willelaborate on how the catch isused.Traditionally, people in Palauhold various ritual gatherings tomark certain life events,including the birth and the deathof their kin members. It isobligatory for the host to servefish to participants at thosegatherings, and failure to do so isconsidered failing the Palauantradition.  For men, providing fishfor those gatherings is theirobligation to fulfill the male partof gift exchange and a failurewould jeopardize their genderidentity and kin status to others.For instance, at the gathering ofthe funeral (kemeldeel), a pieceof fish is served to each of morethan 200 participants, which cantotal more than 500 kg of fishconsumed in one gathering.More than 25 funerals were heldduring the 17 months of myfieldwork, corresponding to7  t/year consumed at funeralsalone. This, then, is the mainreason why Palauan still fish,although they don’t need to interms of subsistence.Pauly (1998) suggests that whathas prevented both social andnatural scientists fromrecognizing the use of eachother’s knowledge andinformation originates in our“psychological”,  rather thanacademic attributes, a theme heelaborated upon in Pauly (2006).I agree, and also think the twoschools of thoughts areultimately compatible.Anthropologists may say thatthey do not do ‘counting’,whereas for natural scientists it isnecessary to ‘count’.  Thus somenatural scientists think thatethnographic information givenby anthropologists is not  ‘data’.We need to overcome this. Myestimates of catches of Palauanfishers certainly require muchmore attention to details, butthis represents my attempt atPalau - Continued from page 2 building bridges, and I hope thatthis will be reciprocated.AcknowledgementsI thank the members of theFisheries Centre for discussions ofsmall-scale fisheries issues acrossnatural and social scientificdisciplines, particularly Daniel Paulyand Dirk Zeller for convincingarguments – and methods for catchreconstruction. This smallcontribution is adapted from thetalk I gave as a result, and illustrateshow far a cultural anthropologistcan go towards the naturalsciences. I now appreciate that‘counting fish’ can contribute toinsights within my discipline.ReferencesJohannes, Robert E. 1981. Words ofthe lagoon: fishing and marinelore in the Palau district ofMicronesia. University ofCalifornia Press, Berkeley. xiv +245 pp.Myers, R.F. 1999. Micronesian reeffishes. Coral Graphics, Guam, 330p.Ota, Y. 2006a. Custom and fishing-cultural meanings and socialrelations of Pacific fishing,Republic of Palau, Micronesia.Ph.D. Thesis, University ofLondon.Ota, Y.  2006b. Fluid Bodies in thesea: An ethnography ofUnderwater Spear gun fishing inPalau, Micronesia. World Views:Environment, Culture, Religion10( 2), 205 – 219.Pauly, D. 1998. Rationale forreconstructing catch time series.EC Fisheries Cooperation Bulletin11(2): 4-7.Pauly, D. 2006. Major trends insmall-scale marine fisheries, withemphasis on developingcountries, and some implicationsfor the social sciences. MaritimeStudies (MAST), 4(2): 7-22.Safina, C. 1997. Song for a blueocean: encounters along theworld’s coasts and beneaththe sea. New York, NY:Henry Holt and Company.It isobligatoryfor thehost toserve fish[...] andfailure todo so isconsideredfailing thePalauantraditionPage 4Sea Around Us – May/June 2006Historic Raja Ampat:recovering early anecdotes ofabundanceby Sheila HeymansDuring the past sixmonths, Sea Around UsResearch Associate,Maria Lourdes (Deng)Palomares and I have beenpopulating  a database ofhistoric anecdotes from theRaja Ampat area of Indonesia.This is part of Deng’s worktowards  “shifting baselines”back to historical levels byrecovering records ofoccurrence and abundance ofmarine organisms from earlyEuropean expeditions (see SeaAround Us  Issue 22 (p.8); Issue23 (p.6); Issue 27 (p. 3-6); andthe ‘Expedition’ section of theSea Around Us website:www.seaaroundus.org). Thisparticular phase of the projectwas funded by ConservationInternational (Indonesia) aspart of the ongoing globalassessment of the Bird’s HeadSeascape, headed by Dr MarkErdmann.Raja Ampat is a group ofislands to the north of theBird’s Head Archipelago in thePapua Province of Indonesia.Over the past 5 centuries thisarchipelago was visited andcaptured by the Portuguese,Spanish, French, Dutch andEnglish. It only becameindependent from TheNetherlands in the 1960s andhas since been part ofIndonesia. In the 1500s Papuawas visited by the Portuguese,French and Spaniards (Utrecht1978), but it was the Dutchand British that really tried toconquer the East Indies. By theearly 1600s the Dutch weresettled at Amboina and Ternatein the Banda and HalmaheraIslands east of Raja Ampat, andwere extending theirexplorations towards NewGuinea and Australia. The Dutchmet with substantial resistancefrom the Papuans (Robequain1958) and stayed away fromNew Guinea between 1636 and1824 (Utrecht 1978). The EnglishEast Indian Company claimedthe eastern part of New Guineain 1773 and, in 1824, the Dutchand the English decided todivide New Guinea in two(Jansen-Weberet al. 1997).During my workon this project, Itraveled toSorong and KriIsland (one ofthe small islandsin the RajaAmpatArchipelago) tomeet withConservationInternationalscientists andwith MaxAmmer, theowner of PapuaDiving on KriIsland, and ex-Dutch-navy, withextensiveknowledge ofthe Dutchhistoricdocuments onIndonesia.During my stayon Kri Island, I obtained manydocuments, references on Papuaand the names of knowledgeablescientists in the Netherlands andEngland. I also saw first-hand thenative Papuan population andfishers whose lifestyle seems tobe little changed from the earlierpre-European times.  Fishers stillgo out to fish in outrigger prauwsand the Orang Laut or ‘sea gypsies’still travel and fish where they can(Figure 1).On my return from Papua, Itraveled to France, where I met upFigure 1. Fishers still go out to fish in outrigger prauws (above);and the Orang Laut or “sea gypsies” still travel and fish wherethey can (below).         Photos by Sheila HeymansContinued on page 5 - Raja AmpatOver thepast 5centuriesthisarchipelagowasvisitedandcapturedby thePortuguese,Spanish,French,Dutch andEnglishPage 5 Sea Around Us – May/June 2006with Deng, who had beenworking with French andSpanish observations andcollaborating with the historiansfrom the Museum of  NaturalHistory in Paris,  to coordinateour data collection efforts beforeI moved on to The Netherlandsto collect historical documentsabout Raja Ampat. In theNetherlands I visited the DutchArchives in The Hague, theNaturalis and Royal NetherlandsInstitute of Southeast Asian andCaribbean Studies (KoninklijkInstituut voor Taal-, Land- enVolkenkunde, KITLV) in Leidenand the Royal Tropical Institute(Koninklijk Instituut voor deTropen, KIT) in Amsterdam, witha very fruitful day visit to thePapua Bibliotheek enStudiecentrum run by Phia deGroot-Licher in Amstelveen. InLondon I visited the LinneanSociety, the Maritime Museumand the Natural History Museum.During these visits, I obtainedover 100 historical documents toadd to the more than 100references that were available inthe UBC Library or throughInterlibrary Loans. Many of thedocuments available in thevarious libraries were too old tobe copied and could only bephotographed, which was aninteresting and newmethodology for me. It alsoincreased my knowledge andproficiency in Dutch, although Ihad an advantage in the fact thatmy first language, Afrikaans, iscloser to old Dutch than modernDutch.Finally in May, I met up withDeng once again, this time inLos Baños, Philippines, to finalizethe database and begin writingthe report for the project.The database is now populatedby observations from variousscientists, freebooters, ships’captains, etc. who traveled to thearea during the past fivecenturies.For example, between 1843 and1861, the Dutch IchthyologistPieter Bleeker collected anddescribed thousands of fishspecies from the Dutch EastIndies and specifically from RajaAmpat, and he also voyaged tothe Moluccas (Bleeker 1856).William Dampier sailed past thenorth coast in 1700 and JamesCook sailed past the south coastthrough the Torres Strait in 1770(Utrecht 1978).The H.M.S.Samarang visited the areabetween 1843 and 1846 to doan oceanographic study (Adams1848) and, between 1854 and1862, Alfred Wallace traveledthrough the Malay Archipelagoto collect specimens and stayedin Raja Ampat (Wallace 1869).The H.M.S. Challenger undertooktheir major study of the areabetween 1874 and 1875 (Tizardet al. 1885), and the Sibogavisited the area between 1899and 1900 (Weber 1902-03).Unfortunately, not all of theseobservations could be includedin the database. However, wehope to continue populating it,using the more than 200documents that still need to beencoded.ReferencesAdams, A. 1848. Chapter V. TheSooloo and MoluccaArchipelagoes. In: Adams, A.Notes from a journal ofresearch into the NaturalHistory of the countriesvisited during the voyage ofthe H.M.S. Samarang, underthe command of Captain SirE. Belcher, C.B. Pages 223-574 in E. Belcher, editor.Narrative of the voyage ofH.M.S. Samarang, during theyears 1843-1846; Employedsurveying the islands of theEastern Archipelago.Accompanied by a briefvocabulary of the principallanguages. Published underthe Authority of the LordsCommissioners of theAdmiralty. With Notes onthe Natural History of theIslands by Arthur Adams. InTwo Volumes, volume 2.Reeve, Benham, and Reeve,London.Bleeker, P. 1856. Reis door deMinahassa en enMolukschen archipel.Gedaan in de maandenSeptember en October1855 in het gevold van dengouverneur generaal Mr.A.J. Duymaer van Twist.Lange & Co, Batavia.Papua: 118Waigeo: 103Misool: 82Ambon: 57Sulawesi: 48Halmahera: 45Makassar: 34Marokwari: 32Salawati: 29Number of abundancerecords in databaseSeas surrounding Indonesian Archipelago: 151Moluccas: 28Sorong: 28Gebe: 27Ternate: 26Buru: 25New Guinea: 21Biak: 20Raja Ampat: 26Continued on page 8 - Raja AmpatRaja Ampat - Continued from p. 4During thesevisits Iobtainedover 100historicaldocumentsto add to themore than100referencesthat wereavailable inthe UBCLibraryPage 6Sea Around Us – May/June 2006The historic catchreconstruction that the SeaAround Us projectundertook for the U.S. flag islandareas in the Western Pacific(American Samoa, Guam,Northern Mariana Islands, Hawaii,and the so-called ‘other’ islands),for the Western Pacific RegionalFishery Management Council(WPRFMC) in Honolulu, wasconcluded at the end of 2005. Aspreviously reported (Issues 23and 28 of this newsletter), theresults of this project werepresented at a regionalEcosystem Science andManagement Planning workshop.This work has now been releasedas the final report (Zeller et al.2005a; available at:www.wpcouncil.org ). Also, thefirst in a series of peer-reviewedpapers has been published (Zelleret al. 2006). Extension of thecatch reconstructions toincorporate economic aspects ofsmall-scale fisheries are also inprogress (Zeller et al. 2005b).Here, I would like to present abrief summary and overview ofthe key findings of the finalreport. The purpose of the catchreconstruction was to estimatelikely total catches (excludinglarge pelagic species such as tunaand billfishes) taken between1950 and 2002 for each islandentity, and thus provide a morecomprehensive baseline pictureof catch trends over time thancan be obtained by relying on thesubsets of catches that form thereported data. The catchreconstruction undertaken by thisproject indicated:U.S. Western Pacific fisheriescatches part III:reconstruction completedby Dirk Zeller1. The reconstructedcatches for all islands combinedsuggested a likely 41% declinein total catches between 1950and 2002, largely driven bydeclines in recent years. Thiscontrasted with the patternobserved from the data officiallyreported by individual countries,which suggested a slightincreasing trend (Figure 1);2. The official reported datamay have under-representedthe reconstructed likely totalcatches for this time period by afactor of 4.3 (Figure 1);3. Excluding the U.S. state ofHawaii, the reconstructed datafor the three other U.S. flagisland areas (American Samoa,Guam, CNMI) suggested adecline of about 77% in totalcatches between 1950 and2002. This contrasted with thepattern observed from the dataofficially reported by the threeindividual countries, whichsuggested an increase in catchesof about 45% between the startof reported data in 1965 and2002 (Figure 2); and4. The predominantly non-commercial fisheries sectors(shore-based, subsistence,recreational) were likely largerthan commercial fisheries interms of estimated catches.For American Samoa (Zeller et al.2006), the reconstructed totalcatches suggested a decline ofabout 79% in catches for non-pelagic species between 1950and 2002. Significant also wasthe 17-fold difference betweenthe reconstructed catches andthe reported data (representingonly the predominantlycommercial small-boat bottom-fishcatches, but excluding largepelagic species).For Guam, the reconstruction ofhistoric catches suggested adecline of 86% over the 52 yeartime period. Also important wasthe 2.5-fold difference betweenthe reconstructed catches and thereported statistics for the 1965-2002 period for which reporteddata exist. Noteworthy is Guam’scommitment to and consistentapplication of creel surveys toestimate total catches for the lastfew decades, resulting in what maybe the most reliable estimates oftotal catches for any of the islandsconsidered here.For the Commonwealth of theNorthern Mariana Islands (CNMI),the reconstruction suggested adecline of about 50% in catchesbetween 1950 and 2002.Comparing the non-pelagiccatches reported by CNMI with thereconstructed total catches for the1983-2002 period where the twodata sets overlap, indicated a 2.2-fold under-reporting of likely totalcatches by the reported data.For Hawaii, our reconstructionsuggested that the estimated totalcommercial catches werebetween 28% and 130% higherthan the reported commercialcatches. Reconstruction alsosuggested that non-commercialContinued on page 7 - IslandsThe purposeof the catchreconstructionwas toestimatelikely totalcatches [...]and thusprovide amorecomprehensivebaselinepicture ofcatch trendsPage 7 Sea Around Us – May/June 2006catches may have increasedbetween 1950 and 1990, buthave declined since, and rangedfrom a low of approximately 931t·year-1 to a high ofapproximately 3,000 t/year.Summed over 1950-2002, non-commercial catches wereapproximately 1.8-fold higherthan reported commercialcatches, and reported data mayhave underestimated likely totalcatches of non-pelagic speciesby a factor of 3.7.For the so-called “other islands”(Midway Atoll, Johnston Atoll,Palmyra Atoll, and Wake, Jarvis,Baker and Howland Islands), onlyJohnston, Midway and Wakehave small resident populationsof contractors and militarypersonnel, with data notreported in the fisheriesstatistics. Reconstruction ofcatches suggested that anestimated 435 t was likelyextracted around Johnston Atollbetween 1950 and 2002, whilethe small population of militaryand civilian personnel based onWake Island were thought tocatch on average approximately890 kg/year.In general, while local andregional fisheries experts andagencies may be aware of thelimited nature of much of theofficial data (e.g., commercialsectors only), our reconstructionmakes the potential scale of thelikely under-reporting of totalextractions of marine resourcesevident (Figures 1 and 2), and canbe useful, e.g., as baselines oflikely historic patterns and trendsin fisheries catches.Considering the distinctlydifferent baselines of past catchespresented by this project (Zelleret al. 2005a; Zeller et al. 2006),may shed new light on issues andconcerns for fisheriessustainability and ecosystemconservation. Furthermore,reconstructions, as documentedby the present project, illustratethe importance of small-scale andnon-commercial fisheries sectors,and suggest an urgent need toaccount for all fisheries catches inofficial statistics.Significantly, this work is nowbeginning to draw attention tolikely different historic baselinesand likely levels of catches, and isbeing considered within abroader stock assessment beingundertaken via NOAA NMFS inHonolulu.ReferencesZeller, D., Booth, S. and Pauly, D.2005a. Reconstruction of coralreef- and bottom-fisheriescatches for U.S. flag islandareas in the Western Pacific,1950 to 2002. Report to theWestern Pacific RegionalFishery Management Council,Honolulu, 110 p.Zeller, D., Booth, S. and Pauly, D.2005b. Underestimatingsmall-scale fisheries:contributions to GDP. FisheriesCentre Working Paper # 2005-02, UBC, Vancouver [Availableat: www.fisheries.ubc.ca/publications/working/2005/series5.pdf ], 21 p.Zeller, D., Booth, S., Craig, P. andPauly, D. 2006. Reconstructionof coral reef fisheries catchesin American Samoa,1950-2002. Coral Reefs25: 144-152.Islands - Continued from page 6Figure 1 (above)  Total reconstructed catches of coral reef-, bottom- and reef-associated fisheries for the four main U.S. flag islands of the Western Pacificcombined, versus the reported statistics. The under-representation of likely totalcatches is evident. Figure 2 (below)  Total reconstructed catches of coral reef-, bottom- and reef-associated fisheries for three of the four U.S. flag islands of the Western Pacificconsidered here (excluding Hawaii), versus the reported statistics. Both theunder-representation of likely total catches, as well as the missed decline incatches is evident.In general,while localand regionalfisheriesexperts andagenciesmay beaware of thelimitednature ofmuch of theofficialdata,ourreconstructionmakes thepotentialscale of thelikely under-reporting [...]evidentPage 8Sea Around Us – May/June 2006Jansen-Weber, A., L. F. Jens, andP. A. Jens. 1997. Zaaien inzoo barren grond. Uit hetdagboek van WillemLeendert Jens, zendelingop Nieuw Guinea 1876 -1899. Stichting “Uit BarrenAkker”, Wassenaar.Robequain, C. 1958. Malaya,Indonesia, Borneo, and thePhilippines, 2 edition.Longmans, Green and CoLtd., London.Tizard, T. H., H. N. Moseley, J. Y.Buchanan, and J. Murray.1885. Narrative of thecruise of the H.M.S.Challenger with a generalaccount of the scientificresults of the expedition.Volume I. Second Part,volume 1. Published byOrder of Her Majesty’sGovernment, Edinburgh.Utrecht, E. 1978. Papoeas inopstand (De tweedekwestie Nieuw Guinea).Het verzet van dePapoeas tegen hetIndonesiese bewind inWest Irian. UitgeverijOrdeman, Rotterdam.Wallace, A. R. 1869. The MalayArchipelago; the land ofthe orang-utan, and thebird of paradise. Anarrative of travel, withstudies of man and nature.Macmillan, London.Weber, M. 1902-03. Siboga-Expeditie: Introduction etdescription del’expedition. MonographieI de: Uitkomsten opzoologisch, botanisch,oceanographisch engeologisch gebiedverzameld inNederlandsch Oost-Indië1899-1900 aan boordH.M. Siboga ondercommando van Luitenantter zee 1e cl. G.F.Tydeman. E.J. Brill,Leiden.most interesting, as it showednumerous approaches throughwhich the MTI can be mademore sensitive, i.e., betterreflect what is happening in theecosystem. In fact, some of theideas expressed therein areworth investigating for theirpotential usefulness to ourwebsite. This will allow us tobetter respond to theincreasing number of querieson the MTI we get from users inEurope and elsewhere.In this context, I should mentionthat the Institut français del’environnement (IFEN), ofFrance’s Ministry of theEnvironment, has included theMTI on its list of indicators (D.Pauly, pers. comm.).  Also underconsideration at this shortmeeting were various possibleindicators based on seagrass.Several presentations availableat the above URL helped putthis and other work in theEuropean context.Overall, this was a usefulmeeting which illustrated thatour products are increasinglyused in policy settings, as theyshould be.ReferencesCBD, 2004. Annex I, DecisionVII/30, p. 351 In:  The 2020Biodiversity Target: aFramework forImplementation. Decisionsfrom the Seventh Meetingof the Conference of theParties of the Conventionon Biological Diversity, KualaLumpur, 9-10 and 27February 2004. Secretariatof the CBD, Montreal.Pauly, D. and Watson, R. 2005.Background andinterpretation of the ‘MarineTrophic Index’ as a measureof biodiversity. PhilosophicalTransactions of The RoyalSociety: BiologicalSciences 360: 415-423.The MarineTrophicIndex inEuropeby Reg WatsonIn February 2004, theConference of the Parties tothe Convention on BiologicalDiversity (CBD) identified anumber of indicators to monitorprogress toward reaching thetarget to “achieve by 2010 asignificant reduction in thecurrent rate of biodiversity loss”(CBD 2004).  The “Marine TrophicIndex” (MTI), i.e., the meantrophic level of fisheries catches,is one of the eight indicators thatthe Conference of the Parties ofthe CBD identified for“immediate testing” of theirability to measure progresstowards the 2010 target.The member states of EU beingparties to the CBD, Europeaninstitutions are confronted withimplementing the MTI.  This isthe context of an invitation Ireceived to participate at anexpert meeting convened bythe Rania Spyropoulo of theEuropean Environment Agencyin Copenhagen 27-28 June2006. I relied on a PowerPointpresentation, prepared withDaniel Pauly, which illustratedthe concepts in our paper on thetopic (Pauly and Watson 2005).This, and the other presentationsto this meeting, are nowavailable at: http://biodiversity-chm.eea.europa.eu/information/indicator/F1090245995/fol689706/ .Of these other presentations,one, by John Pinnegar fromCEFAS, in Lowestoft, U.K., wasRaja Ampat - Continued from p. 5Overall, thiswas a usefulmeetingwhichillustratedthat ourproductsareincreasinglyused inpolicysettings, asthey shouldbe

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