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Sea Around Us project newsletter, issue 42, July/August 2007 Forrest, Robyn; Sea Around Us Project Jul 31, 2007

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SSSS Seeee e aaaa a     AAAA Arrrr r ouououou ounnnn ndddd d     UUUU Ussss sThe Sea Around Us Project NewsletterIssue 42 – July/August 2007The Groupof 77(G77) consists of 130member (developing)countries at the UnitedNations (UN). The currentChair of the G77, fromPakistan, feels the need forthe influential group at theUN to be more proactiveregarding the oceans andtheir sustainablemanagement.  Hence, theChair convened a briefing inNew York for its memberson the state of the world’soceans, the implications ofthis for developingcountries, and what policyoptions G77 countriesshould be pursuing. This ledto me being invited to givea briefing at the UN,together with CallumRoberts of the University ofYork, UK and Karen Sacks ofGreenpeace International.The briefing was opened byPakistan’s DeputyPermanent Representativeto the UN, Mr Farukh Amil,who spoke passionatelyabout the importance ofocean and natural resourceprotection to the globalcommunity. Karen Sack thenprovided an overview ofhigh seas conservation anddiscussed accessagreements by countries inthe North to fish in theSouth. I followed with apresentation on the state ofglobal oceans over theperiod 1950 to the present,based on Sea Around Usdata, describing theimplications for developingcountries.  Callum Robertscommented on themisconception that creationof marine protected areas(MPAs) takes away from thefisheries. Rather, MPAs andmarine reserves rebuild theresilience of depletedpopulations, he argued.Concluding the briefing, MrAmil stressed that “As G77countries, we need topreserve our naturalresources in a sustainableBriefing at the UnitedNations on global fisheriesby Ussif Rashid SumailaContinued on page 2 - UNRashid Sumaila addresses the UN briefing (top); and delegatesattending the briefing (bottom).Photos by Steven Lutz, Marine Conservation Biology InstitutePage 2Sea Around Us – July/August 2007The Sea Around Us project newsletter ispublished by the  FisheriesCentre at the Univer-sity of British Co-lumbia. Includedwith the FisheriesCentre’s newsletterFishBytes,six is-sues of this news-letter are publishedannually. Subscrip-tions are free of charge.Our mailing address is: UBC Fisheries Cen-tre, Aquatic Ecosystems Research Laboratory,2202 Main Mall, Vancouver, British Colum-bia, Canada, V6T 1Z4. Our fax number is(604) 822-8934, and our email address isSeaNotes@fisheries.ubc.ca. All queries (in-cluding reprint requests), subscription re-quests, and address changes should be ad-dressed to Robyn Forrest, Sea Around UsNewsletter Editor.The Sea Around Us website may be foundat www.seaaroundus.org and contains up-to-date information on the project.The Sea Around Us project is a Fisheries Centre partner-ship with the Pew Charitable Trusts of Philadelphia,USA. The Trusts support nonprofit activities in the areasof culture, education, the environment, health and human serv-ices, public policy and religion. Based in Philadelphia, theTrusts make strategic investments to help organisations andcitizens develop practical solutions to difficult problems. In2000, with approximately $4.8 billion in assets, the Trustscommitted over $235 million to 302 nonprofit organisations. ISSN 1713-5214   Sea Around Us (ONLINE)manner. We have to be vigilantof over-exploitation.”The key points I made in mypresentation included: (i) globalfisheries are in trouble (Pauly etal. 2002); and (ii) the currentstate of global fisheries hasresulted in: (a) a rise in distantwater fishing (Alder and Sumaila2004); (b) an increase in fishingaccess agreements betweencountries in the North and theSouth (Kaczynski and Fluharty2002); (c) an increase in globaltrade of fish products (Anderson2003); (d) increasing use offisheries subsidies (Milazzo1998; Sumaila and Pauly 2006);(e) rise in illegal, unreported andunregulated fishing (OECD 2004;Sumaila et al. 2006, High SeasTask Force, 2006); (f ) drive toextend fishing to the deep andhigh seas (Morato et. al. 2006;Sumaila et al. 2006); and(g) increasing (and misplaced)faith in aquaculture as thesolution to dwindling wild fishstocks (FAO 2007; Liu andSumaila in press). I explained theimplications to developingcountries of each of thesedevelopments.Until now, fisheries developmentsimply meant more boats andmore people out fishing. Insteadof this, I suggested that modernfisheries development should beseen in terms of maintaining andrebuilding overfished stockssuch that they can continue toproduce benefits to both currentand future generations in asustainable manner. Modernfisheries management shouldseek to optimize the netbenefits from each unit of fishtaken from the ocean, that is, weshould focus on quality ratherthan the current emphasis onthe quantity of fish caught.Three foundations of modernfisheries development asconceived here are: (i) know thestate of your fish stocks andecosystems; (ii) know the value(in a broad sense) of your fisheryresources; and (iii) strengthenfisheries management,especially monitoring, controland surveillance. Without thesethree foundations, G77 countriescannot engage in global fishtrade, sign access agreementsand/or provide subsidies that areecologically sustainable, andeconomically and sociallybeneficial to their coastalcommunities. I also identifieddesirable elements thatmodern fisheries developmentshould include: (i) engage onlyin mutually beneficial globaltrade/access agreements thatare ecologically sustainable;(ii) use subsidies rarely and onlythose that do no harm to theresource base; (iii) wherefeasible, assign fishing rights ordedicated access privileges tofishing communities;(iv) engage only in sustainableaquaculture that contributes tofish protein supply andincreases food security;(v) emphasize smart small-scaleinshore fisheries; and (vi) usemarine protected areas asinsurance against uncertaintyand management failures.I concluded by highlighting therole of the internationalcommunity in working withG77 countries in their effort totransit from the current notionof fisheries development tomodern fisheries development.I also took the opportunity tostress the need for a concertedeffort to educate fishersbecause education is the key tofinding alternative jobs andlivelihoods thereby makingpeople less dependent onfishing for a living. To do thiseffectively, we must educatethe educators, fromgovernments to NGOs, usinginformation from works suchthose of the Sea Around Usproject.UN - Continued from page 1References on page 6 - UN... modernfisheriesdevelopmentshould beseen interms ofmaintainingandrebuildingoverfishedstocks ...Page 3 Sea Around Us – July/August 2007Large Marine Ecosystems andthe Sea Around Us projectbyDaniel Pauly, Jackie Alder, Shawn Booth,William W.L. Cheung, Chris Close,Ussif Rashid Sumaila, Wilf Swartz,Ar’ash Tavakolie, Reg Watson,Louisa Wood and Dirk ZellerIntroductionFisheries have traditionallybeen seen as local affairs,largely defined by therange of the vessel exploiting agiven resource. The need forcountries to manage allfisheries within their ExclusiveEconomic Zones (EEZ), aconsequence of the UnitedNations Convention on the Lawof the Sea (UNCLOS), led toattempts to derive indicatorsfor marine fisheries andecosystems at the nationallevel (see e.g., Prescott-Allen2001). Also, it was realized that,given the large scale migrationof some exploited stocks, andof distant-water fleets, an evenbetter integration of fisheriescould be achieved at the levelof Large Marine Ecosystems(LMEs, Sherman et al. 2003).However, no national orinternational jurisdictionreports, at the LME level,catches and other quantitiesfrom which fisheriessustainability indicators couldbe derived. Indeed, if thefisheries of LMEs are to beassessed, and if comparisons ofthe fisheries in, and of theirimpact on LMEs, are to beperformed, then the fisherieswithin LMEs must beassembled for these explicitpurposes, mainly by assemblingdata sets from national andother sources.The Sea Around Us project wascreated in 1999 with the aim ofassessing the impact offisheries on marine ecosystemsand of developing policieswhich can mitigate this impact(Pauly 2007). Thus, we setourselves, from the verybeginning, the task ofassembling data on all thefisheries that impacted on‘places’, i.e., areas of the sea,since whatever one’s definitionof an ‘ecosystem’ is, it mustinclude reference to a place.When dealing with the fisheriesof places such as LMEs, thephysical and other features thatare relevant to the fisheriesmust also be expressed at theLME scale. The Sea Around Uswebsite(www.seaaroundus.org)provides such statistics, whichcan be used in LME-specificaccounts, as will be presentedin Sherman and Hempel (inpress). These are:1)   The percentage of globalcoral reef area in a givenLME (rather than the areaitself, which is highlyvariable between sources),based on a global mapproduced by the WorldConservation MonitoringCentre (www.unep-wcmc.org);2)   The percentage ofseamounts in a given LME(rather than their number, forthe same reason), based on aglobal map of Kitchingmanand Lai (2004);3)   The percentage of the areaof a given LME that is part ofa Marine Protected Area(MPA), based on an MPAdatabase documented inWood et al. (in press).Other fisheries-relevantinformation, not presented here,but available through the‘Biodiversity’ option on ourwebsite, are fish species by LME(from www.fishbase.org), andmarine mammals and othermarine organisms, to beconsolidated in SeaLifeBase(www.sealifebase.org).Additionally, the ‘Ecosystem’option allows access to maps ofprimary production, majorestuaries (Alder 2003), and otherfeatures of LMEs.However, the major exhibit ofthe website, and the majorproduct of the Sea Around Usproject are time series offisheries catches by LME,obtained by aggregating catchespreviously mapped in 180,000spatial cells of ½ degree lat.-long. (Watson et al. 2004).As these aggregates of spatialcells can then be combined withother data, for example, theContinued on page 4 - LME... we setourselves,from theverybeginning,the task ofassemblingdata on allthe fisheriesthatimpacted on‘places’ ...Page 4Sea Around Us – July/August 2007price of the fish therein, or theirtrophic level, one canstraightforwardly derive othertime series, e.g., of indicators ofthe value, or the state offisheries in any of the 64 LMEspresently recognized in theworld ocean. As this capability isglobally unique to the SeaAround Us project, we wererecently asked to collaborate ona report on the LMEs of theworld (Sherman and Hempel inpress). Our role was to helpcharacterize the fisheries ofeach LME, by producing for eachof them a set of 5 graphspresenting catch trends andtime series of indicators of thestatus of fisheries, andcommenting on them. (The onlyexceptions were 6 Arctic LMEs,for which catch data time serieshad been previously unavailable,and where we limited ourselvesto presenting new time catchseries, recently derived in thecontext of another initiative bythe Sea Around Us project.)An emphasis on compellinggraphsWe believe in the power ofgood graphs. Thus, while wewrote a chapter for a UNEPreport (from which this accountwas adapted) which presentedthe methods, data andassumptions behind each of theindicators we used to describethe fisheries of LMEs, we put ouremphasis on the five graphtypes used to document thefisheries of LMEs. We reproducetwo of these types of graphshere, for all LMEs combined, asthey provide a nice summary ofworld fisheries. Further detailscan be found on our website(www.seaaroundus.org), and inthe above-cited book, whichshould become available at theend of 2007.Figure 1 shows the landings, byspecies for all LMEs in the world.Since this graph is normalizedto show the 11 mostabundant species (with theremainder pooled into ‘mixedgroup’), and not many speciesare globally important, thisgraph exhibits more ‘mixedgroup’ landings (as 12thcategory) than typically occurin any specific LME. Also, it willbe noted that LMEs accountfor the overwhelming part ofthe world catch. Indeed, theonly major group not caughtprimarily in LMEs isrepresented by large pelagicfishes, predominantly tunas.Figure 2 illustrates the dualnature of newly derivedStock-Catch-Status Plots, forall LMEs in the worldcombined. It illustrates that,overall, 70 % of global stockswithin LMEs are deemedoverexploited or collapsed(Figure 2, top), while only 30%of the stocks remain fullyexploited. However, the latterprovide 50% of the globallyreported landings biomass,while overexploited andcollapsed stocks provide theremainder (Figure 2, bottom).This confirms the commonobservation (e.g. Worm et al.2006) that fisheries tend toaffect biodiversity even morestrongly that they affectbiomass.DiscussionThe five types of graphs usedto characterize each LME(only two types werepresented here for all LMEscombined) allowcomprehensive overviews ofthe general status of fisheriesof LMEs. Catch and catchvalues indicate status andtrends of the fisheries,through changes in catchlevels and composition. Theserelate strongly to the status ofFigure 1. Landings by species in all LMEs (shaded time series), and in the worldocean (top black line). Our website (www.seaaroundus.org) also presents landingsby ‘Commercial groups’, ‘Functional Groups, as used in Ecopath models (seewww.ecopath.org), ‘Country fishing’, and ‘Gear’, based on Watson et al. (2006).LME - Continued from page 3Continued on page 5 - LMEWebelievein thepower ofgoodgraphs01020304050607080901950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000Landings (millions of tonnes)Alaska pollock Anchoveta Atlantic cod Atlantic herringCapelin Chub mackerel European pilchard Gulf menhadenJapanese anchovy Largehead hairtail South American pilchard Mixed groupGlobalPage 5 Sea Around Us – July/August 2007stocks in the LME, as indicatedby the Stock-Catch-StatusPlots developed here.These graphs, however,require accurate andcomplete catch data. Suchcatches are not available forall LMEs. The methods we usefor re-expressing FAO’s globalreported landings dataset ona spatial basis, here throughLMEs, cannot compensate forthese limitations. Rather, itmakes them visible, andemphasizes the need forcatch reconstruction at thenational level (sensu Zeller etal. 2007), from which LMEcatch time series can then bederived. Hence the presentemphasis by the Sea AroundUs project on catchreconstructions, i.e., onaccounting for IUU catches.LME - Continued from page 4References on page 6 - LMEFigure 2. A newly proposed type of paired ‘Stock-Catch-Status Plots’ (here presented for all LMEs in the world combined),wherein the status of stocks, i.e., taxa with a time series of landings in an LME, is assessed, based on Froese and Kesner-Reyes(2002), using the following criteria (all referring to the maximum catch in the series): Developing (catches < 50 %); Fullyexploited (catches >= 50%); Overexploited (catches between 50% and 10%); Collapsed (catches < 10%). Top: Percentage ofstocks of a given status, by year, showing a rapid increase of the number of overexploited and collapsed stocks. Bottom:Percentage of catches extracted from stocks of a given status, by year, showing a slower increase of the percentage of catchesthat originate from overexploited and collapsed stocks. Note that the number of ‘stocks’, i.e., individual landings time series,only include taxonomic entities at species, genus or family level, i.e., higher and pooled groups have been excluded.... fisheriestend toaffectbiodiversityeven morestrongly thatthey affectbiomass0%20%40%60%80%100%1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000Catch by stock status (%)Collapsed Overexploited Fully exploited DevelopingDeveloping Fully l ited Overexploited Collapsed0%20%40%60%80%100%1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000Number of stocks by status (%)Page 6Sea Around Us – July/August 2007Publications Mail Agreement No: 41104508ReferencesAlder, J. 2003. Putting the Coastin the Sea Around Us Project.The Sea Around UsNewsletter. No. 15:1-2.Froese, R. and K. Kesner-Reyes.2002. Impact of Fishing onthe Abundance of MarineSpecies. Rainer. ICES CM2002/L:12, 15 p.Kitchingman, A. and S. Lai. 2004.Inferences of potentialseamount locations frommid-resolution Bathymetricdata. p. 7-12. In: T. Morato andD. Pauly (eds). Seamounts:Biodiversity and fisheries.Fisheries Centre ResearchReports 12(5).Pauly, D. 2007. The Sea AroundUs Project: Documentingand Communicating GlobalFisheries Impacts on MarineEcosystems. AMBIO: aJournal of the HumanEnvironment 34(4): 290-295.Prescott-Allen, R. 2001. The Well-Being of Nations: a country-by-country index of qualityof Life and the environment.Island Press, Washington,D.C., 342 p.Sherman, K. and G. Hempel(Editors). The UNEP LargeMarine Ecosystem Report: aPerspective on ChangingConditions in LMEs of theWorld’s Regional Seas. UNEPRegional Seas Reports andStudies No. 182 (in press)Sherman, K., T. Ajayi, E. Anang, P.Cury, A.J. Diaz-de-Leon, P.Fréon, N.J. Hardman-Mountford, C.A. Ibe, K.A.Koranteng, J. McGlade, C.E.C.Nauen, D. Pauly, P.A.G.M.Scheren, H.R. Skjodal, Q. Tangand S.G. Zabi. 2003.Suitability of the LargeMarine Ecosystem concept.Fisheries Research 64: 197-204.Watson, R., A. Kitchingman, A.Gelchu and D. Pauly. 2004.Mapping global fisheries:sharpening our focus. Fishand Fisheries 5: 168-177.LME - Continued from page 5ReferencesAlder, J. and Sumaila, U.R., 2004.Western Africa: a fish basket ofEurope past and present.Journal of Environment andDevelopment, 13(2), 156-178.Anderson, J.L., 2003. TheInternational Seafood Trade.Woodhead Publishing, Oxford.FAO, 2007. The State of WorldFisheries and Aquaculture2006. Fisheries andAquaculture Department,Food and AgricultureOrganization of the UnitedNations, Rome, Italy. 180p.Kacznski, V. M. and Fluharty, D.L.,2002.  European policies inWest Africa: Who benefits fromfisheries agreements? MarinePolicy, 26: 75-93.High Seas Task Force, 2006.Closing the net: stoppingillegal fishing on the highseas, Governments ofAustralia, Canada, Chile,Namibia, New Zealand, andthe United Kingdom, WWF,IUCN, and the Earth Instituteat Columbia University.Liu, Y. and Sumaila, U.R., in press.Can Farmed SalmonProduction Keep Growing?Marine policy.Milazzo, M., 1998. Subsidies inWorld Fisheries: A Re-examination. World BankTechnical Paper No. 406,World Bank, Washington, p.86.Morato, T., R Watson, Pitcher, T.J.,Pauly, D., 2006. Fishing downthe deep. Fish and Fisheries 7,24.OECD, 2004. Fish Piracy.Combating Illegal,Unreported and UnregulatedFishing. Organisation forEconomic Development andCooperation, Paris, France.Pauly  D., Christensen V., GuenetteS., Pitcher T.J., Sumaila U.R.,Walters C. J., Watson R. and D.Zeller, 2002. Towardssustainability in worldfisheries; 418 (6898): 689-695.Watson, R., Revenga, C. and Y.Kura. 2006. Fishing gearassociated with globalmarine catches: I Databasedevelopment.  FisheriesResearch 79: 97-102.Wood, L., L. Fish, J. Laughren andD. Pauly. Assessing progresstowards global marineprotection targets: shortfallsin information and action.Oryx (in press).Worm, B., Barbier, E.B., Beaumont,N., Duffy, J.E., Folke, C.,Halpern, B.S., Jackson, J.B.C.,Lotze, H., Micheli, F., Palumbi,S.R., Sala, E., Selkoe, K.A.,Stachowicz, J.J., and R.Watson. 2006. Impacts ofbiodiversity loss on oceanecosystem services. Science314: 787-790.Zeller, D., S. Booth, G. Davis andD. Pauly. 2007. Re-estimationof small-scale for U.S. flag-associated islands in thewestern Pacific: the last 50years. Fisheries Bulletin105: 266-277.Sumaila, U.R., Pauly, D. (eds.),2006. Catching more bait: Abottom-up re-estimation ofglobal fisheries subsidies.Fisheries Centre ResearchReports 14(6), 114 pp.Fisheries Centre, theUniversity of BritishColumbia, Vancouver,Canada.Sumaila, U.R., Alder, J. and Keith,H., 2006. Global scope andeconomics of illegal fishing.Marine Policy 30: 696-703.Sumaila, U.R., Khan, A., Teh, L.,Watson, R., Tyedmers, P.,Pauly, D. 2006. Subsidies tohigh seas bottom trawlfleet and the sustainabilityof deep sea benthic fishstocks. In Sumaila, U.R., Pauly,D. (eds.), Catching more bait:A bottom-up re-estimationof global fisheries subsidies.Fisheries Centre ResearchReports 14(6), pp. 47-51.Fisheries Centre,  Universityof British Columbia,Vancouver, Canada.UN - Continued from page 2


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