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Sea Around Us project newsletter, issue 38, November/December 2006 Forrest, Robyn; Sea Around Us Project Nov 30, 2006

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SSSS Seeee e aaaa a     AAAA Arrrr r ouououou ounnnn ndddd d     UUUU Ussss sThe Sea Around Us Project NewsletterIssue 38 – November/December 2006Babette’s feast in Limaby Daniel PaulyThrough 2006, themembers of SeaAround Us projectwere heavily involved in the‘Forage Fish Project’, nowcompleted (see Alder andPauly 2006a). This was aglobal, multi-authored studyof those small pelagic fisheswhich transfer primary andsecondary production to thehigher trophic levels(notably seabirds andmarine mammals) ofmarine ecosystems. Theproject also emphasizedthat forage fishes providehumans with large, but notlimitless quantities ofvaluable protein, which we,however, tend to waste byusing it as raw material forfishmeal.The report contained apaper (Alder and Pauly2006b) which recalled thatforage fish, a.k.a. smallpelagic fish, have, sincetime immemorial,contributed directly to thehuman diet, and that theemergence of fishhusbandry practicesrequiring fishmeal as inputshould not make us swallowthe notion that these fishhave suddenly becomeunpalatable to humans.However, I recently had anexperience that wouldmake me sharpen thatpaper, were I to write it now.This was a meal I recentlyhad, with a number ofPeruvian friends, in aJapanese restaurant in Lima,which consisted exclusivelyof Peruvian anchoveta(Engraulis ringens), andwhich was so delicious that,like the Danish villagers inthe film ‘Babette’s Feast’, weturned for, a while at least,into better people.I had been invited to givethe keynote address of the‘International Conferenceon the Humboldt CurrentSystem: Climate, OceanDynamics, EcosystemProcess and Fisheries’ heldfrom November 27 toDecember 1, 2006,organized by the Institutodel Mar del Peru (IMARPE)and the French Institut deRecherche pour leDevelopment (IRD). Theinvitation was due to myearlier work in Peru, theresult of multiple visitsthrough the 1980s, andwhich led to two editedbooks on the HumboldtCurrent Ecosystem, whichincluded, notably, detailedanalyses of 30 years’ worthof (often monthly) timeseries on the Peruviananchoveta, its predators, andtheir abiotic environment(Pauly and Tsukayama 1987;Pauly et al. 1989).Although well received atthe time - Cushing (1980)spoke of a “formidablecollection of papers” - Ididn’t follow up on thiswork, for a number ofreasons, one of them beingthat the German-Peruvianproject through which I hadcarried out this researchended in the early 1990s.But the event to which Iwas invited, more than 15years later, made clear thatthe work was not forgotten.Indeed, much to mysurprise, I discovered that itis alive and well, and that itprovided the baseline forseveral of the studiesconducted in the jointFrench-Peruvian projectwhich organized theconference. Germans,French….plus ça change,plus c’est la même chose.Thus it could be anticipatedthat my keynote, based onwork with Sylvie Guénetteand Villy Christensen, andwhich presented anecosystemic synthesis,based on Ecopath withContinued on page 2 - PeruPage 2Sea Around Us – November/December 2006The Sea Around Us project newsletter ispublished by the  FisheriesCentre at the Univer-sity of British Co-lumbia. Includedwith the FisheriesCentre’s newsletterFishBytes,six is-sues of this news-letter are publishedannually. Subscrip-tions are free of charge.Our mailing address is: UBC Fisheries Cen-tre, Aquatic Ecosystems Research Laboratory,2202 Main Mall, Vancouver, British Colum-bia, Canada, V6T 1Z4. Our fax number is(604) 822-8934, and our email address isSeaNotes@fisheries.ubc.ca. All queries (in-cluding reprint requests), subscription re-quests, and address changes should be ad-dressed to Robyn Forrest, Sea Around UsNewsletter Editor.The Sea Around Us website may be foundat www.seaaroundus.org and contains up-to-date information on the project. ISSN 1713-5214   Sea Around Us (ONLINE)Ecosim, of the time-series datawe gathered in the 1980s,would be of interest. Parallel tothe conference, however, therewas, in Lima, another series ofunanticipated activities whichhave the potential to become akey to the future of Peruvianfisheries.Dr Patricia Majluf, a Peruvianmarine mammal expert andconservationist, and a team ofstudents from her University,were starting a campaign tochange the image of theanchoveta from something thatonly poor people eat, to a fishthat could be turned into thetasty dishes consumed by well-heeled sophisticates. For this,she convinced the chefs in 30leading restaurants in Lima toserve newly created anchovetadishes, which the President ofthe Republic would also eat, allunder the glare of local media.But how could encouraging theconsumption of anchoveta be agood thing?Right now, because the Peruvianfishing fleet suffers from atremendous overcapacity, theannual anchoveta quotasuggested by IMARPE and set bythe government is caught andprocessed into fishmeal in threeor four months, under appallingconditions, leaving the vesselsand their crew idle for rest of theyear.  Also, the ex-vessel price ofthe anchoveta caught isextremely low.  While thegovernment often claims it isinterested in increasing humanconsumption of anchoveta(presently about 0.3% of thecatch), its focus on anchoveta assubsidized food for the pooractually prevents theemergence of a market for fresh,good-quality anchoveta.Patricia Majluf thinks that if thenegative association ofanchoveta with poverty (similarto that we have in NorthAmerica of anchovies withpizza) could be broken, thiswould generate a demand forfreshly caught anchoveta, whoseprice would then decline, asmarket competition increased.Anchoveta would then becomeavailable to the poor, but withoutsubsidies, and without thenegative image. She calculatesthat the Peruvian anchovetacatch of 2-6 million tonnes peryear, if used for humanconsumption, would generaterevenues an order of magnitudehigher than presently gainedfrom the export of fishmeal.Also, Peru could supply both itsinternal market and theinternational market, which nowfeatures small pelagic fishesfrom northern Europe, especiallyNorway, being exported to WestAfrica, especially Nigeria.Having had this wonderful meal,which included anchovetatempura, marinated fillet ofanchoveta, a “soup with noname”, and other delights, I canattest that anchoveta are tasty(and they contain omega 3 fattyacids, too!). I realize now that weshould not think of smallpelagics as ‘forage fish’ in thefirst place, but as a way toresolve some of the fish supplyissues we now have, especiallybecause we waste such a largepart of the world catch (30-40%)by turning it into fishmeal.A massive increase of directconsumption of small pelagicswould affect the fish farmingindustry. However, theirrepresentatives have beentelling us for years that areplacement for fishmeal isaround the corner, so that wouldnot be a problem ...ReferencesAlder, J., and D. Pauly. (eds) 2006a.On the multiple Uses ofForage Fish: from Ecosystemto Markets. Fisheries CentreResearch Reports 14(3), 109 pp.Alder, J. and D. Pauly. 2006b. Humanconsumption of Forage Fish, p.21-32 In: J. Alder and D. Pauly(eds.). On the multiple Uses ofForage Fish: from Ecosystemto Markets. Fisheries CentreResearch Reports 14(3).Cushing, D.H. 1988. Review of “ThePeruvian UpwellingEcosystem: Dynamics andInteractions”. J. CIEM 44: 297-300.Pauly, D., P. Muck, J. Mendo and I.Tsukayama (eds). 1989. ThePeruvian UpwellingEcosystem: Dynamics andInteractions. ICLARMConference Proceedings 18,438 pp.Pauly, D. and I. Tsukayama. (eds).1987. The Peruvian anchovetaand its upwelling ecosystem:three decades of change.ICLARM Studies andReviews 15, 351 pp.Peru - Continued from page 1[...] weshould notthink ofsmallpelagics as‘forage fish’in the firstplace, but asa way toresolvesome of thefish supplyissues wenow havePage 3 Sea Around Us – November/December 2006Fishery subsidies arefinancial payments frompublic entities to thefishing sector, which help thesector make more profit than itwould otherwise. Subsidies arecurrently topical because of theconcern that they contributedirectly or indirectly toovercapacity and overfishing,thereby undermining thesustainability of marine livingresources and the livelihoodsthat depend on them. Theseissues were reiterated at theWorld Summit on SustainableDevelopment in Johannesburg(WSSD 2002), the DohaMinisterial Conference (DohaConference 2001), by the FAOCode of Conduct forResponsible Fisheries (FAO1995), and in the MillenniumEcosystem Assessment (2005),and have thus promptedsignificant research interests.Until the work that produced thedatabase being described here(Khan et al. 2006; Sumaila et al.2006), there was nocomprehensive estimate ofglobal fisheries subsidies thatcovered all maritime countries,particularly subsidies providedby governments of richAnnouncing a new globalfisheries subsidies databaseby Ahmed KhanContinued on page 4 - SubsidiesGoodUglyBadSubsidies arecurrentlytopicalbecause ofthe concernthat theycontributedirectly orindirectly toovercapacityandoverfishingFigure 1. A sample fishery subsidies web page (Argentina).  These data are taken from Khan et al. (2006)  and Sumaila et al.(2006), who identified for each maritime country three categories and twelve fishery subsidy types, with subsidy amountsprovided for 2000 in real (inflation adjusted) US$. References for both the reported subsidy amounts and the estimates (inbrackets) are provided. The subsidy intensity in the form of total subsidy as a percentage of landed value is also given.Source: www.seaaroundus.org/eez/eez.aspxPage 4Sea Around Us – November/December 2006Publications Mail Agreement No: 41104508countries to both the small-scaleand commercial fisheries sectorsin developing countries.To create the database,information was gathered andrecorded for twelve fisheriessubsidy-types, for 144 coastalcountries, for the periodspanning 1995 to 2005 (Khan etal. 2006; Sumaila et al. 2006).Subsidy amounts wereestimated for the year 2000 ininflation-adjusted US dollars.Each of the twelve subsidy typeswere further categorized into‘good’,’ bad’ and ‘ugly’ subsidies,depending on whether theyimprove, weaken or areindeterminate with regards totheir impact on thesustainability of the resource.Data on fisheries subsidies wereobtained from the followingmajor sources: (a) Organizationfor Economic Cooperation andDevelopment; (b) Asian PacificEconomic Cooperation; (c)European Commission; (d) Foodand Agricultural Organization(FAO) of the United Nations; (e)national fisheries departmentweb sites and publications; (f )the ‘onefish’ communitydirectory program; (g) UnitedNations Environment Program;(h) regional financial institutionportfolios such as the AfricanDevelopment Bank; (i) overseasdevelopment project reports onfishery issues, such as the UK’sDepartment for InternationalDevelopment (DFID); (j) WorldTrade Organization (WTO) tradenotifications; and (k)environmental NGO reports onmarine issues.Quantitative data were collectedand recorded in each cell foreach country and for eachsubsidy type, and summed toprovide subsidy category totals.Where quantitative data werelacking, we used a statisticalapproach to fill in the gaps. Thecomplete methodology anddetailed database is reported inSumaila and Pauly (2006). Also,the full datasets of the subsidyestimates are provided underthe Governance tab in theCountries’ EEZ section of the SeaAround Us project website(www.seaaroundus.org). Subsidyinformation for each maritimecountry is presented by categoryand type (e.g., Figure 1).Using the database, Sumaila andPauly (2006) report that globalannual fisheries subsidies areestimated to be US$30-34billion, and that fuel subsidiesmake up about 20-25% of totalglobal fisheries subsidies.Further, the proportion ofsubsidies contributing to excessfishing capacity (‘bad’ subsidies)globally amounts to US$21billion or about 65% of the total.It is worth noting that we seethis database as a living webproduct, which will be improvedthrough time, with theavailability of better information.We therefore encouragecolleagues to contact RashidSumaila by email(r.sumaila@fisheries.ubc.ca) ifthey have comments and/orbetter information and data.ReferencesDoha Conference. 2001. DohaMinisterial Declaration,November 20, 2001. WT/MIN(01)/DEC/1.FAO. 1995. Code of conduct forresponsible fisheries. FAOFisheries Technical Paper No.350 (1). FAO, Rome.Khan, A., U.R. Sumaila, R. Watson,G.  Munro, D. Pauly. 2006. Thenature and magnitude ofglobal non-fuel fisheriessubsidies. In: U.R.  Sumailaand D. Pauly  (eds.)FisheriesCentre Research Reports14(6), pp. 1-34.Millennium EcosystemAssessment. 2005.Ecosystem and human well-being: Synthesis Report.Island Press. Washington,D.C.Sumaila, U.R. and D. Pauly (eds).2006. Catching more bait: Abottom-up re-estimation ofglobal fisheries subsidies.Fisheries Centre ResearchReports 14(6),  FisheriesCentre, UBC, Vancouver,Canada, 120 pp.[www.fisheries.ubc.ca/publications/reports/report14_6.php].Sumaila, U.R., L. Teh, R. Watson, P.Tyedmers and D. Pauly. 2006.Fuel subsidies to fisheriesglobally: Magnitude andimpacts on resourcesustainability.  In: U.R.Sumaila and D. Pauly  (eds.),Fisheries Centre ResearchReports 14(6), pp. 35-45.WSSD. 2002. Report of the WorldSummit on SustainableDevelopment. UnitedNations publication,New York,Johannesburg, SouthAfrica: 1-173.Subsidies - Continued from page 3Theproportionof subsidiescontributingto excessfishingcapacitygloballyamounts toUS$21billion orabout 65%of the totalThe Sea Around Us project is a Fisheries Centre partner-ship with the Pew Charitable Trusts of Philadelphia,USA. The Trusts support nonprofit activities in the areas ofculture, education, the environment, health and human serv-ices, public policy and religion. Based in Philadelphia, the Trustsmake strategic investments to help organisations and citizensdevelop practical solutions to difficult problems. In 2000, withapproximately $4.8 billion in assets, the Trusts committed over$235 million to 302 nonprofit organisations.


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