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Sea Around Us project newsletter, issue 40, March/April 2007 Forrest, Robyn; Sea Around Us Project Mar 31, 2007

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SSSS Seeee e aaaa a     AAAA Arrrr r ouououou ounnnn ndddd d     UUUU Ussss sThe Sea Around Us Project NewsletterIssue 40 – March/April 2007Oilfish – the case of theimitation Atlantic codby Vicky LamA high demand forseafood, along withunsustainable fishingpractices, not only results inover-exploitation offisheries resources, but mayalso pose serious health risk.In December 2006, peoplein Hong Kong enjoyedeating inexpensive “cod”steak from localsupermarkets, which cost 4to 5 times less than theaverage cod. However, the“cod” dish caused itsconsumers to check intothe hospital, due to intensediarrhea. It was laterdiscovered that this lowerpriced “cod” was oilfish(Ruvettus pretiosus), whichwas imported fromIndonesia and mislabeled as“southern cod”,  “Canadiancod” or “codfish”  (alltranslated as Atlantic cod inChinese) when it was soldin Hong Kong supermarkets.The retailers marketed thisspecies as the higher pricedAtlantic cod (Gadusmorhua), which is listed asvulnerable in the IUCNredlist. It is hard forconsumers to distinguishthe real Atlantic cod steakfrom the oilfish steak. Infact, Ruvettus pretiosus ispoisonous to most people;its flesh containsindigestible wax esters,hence the many cases ofoily diarrhea it caused  inHong Kong(www.news.gov.hk,accessed March 11, 2007).More appealing titles forfish species usually enhancethe marketability andmarket value of non-commercial and deep-water fish species that werepreviously unknown tomost consumers. One of themost well-known examplesis the Patagonian toothfish(Dissostichus eleginoides),which is now on the vergeof “commercial extinction”(National EnvironmentalTrust 2001), which wasrenamed Chilean sea bass,though it is not really a bass.This species was formerlyconsidered trash fish byfishers.  Another example isthe rock crab, which wasthrown away by fishers asbycatch, but is now on themarket having beenrenamed as ‘Peekytoe crab’.In fact, renaming andmislabeling is common andaffects not only price butalso the effectiveness of eco-friendly fish campaigns(Jacquet and Pauly 2007).Although the misleadingname of oilfish was claimedto be an error made in thetranslation from scientificname to English name on thehealth certificate issued bythe Indonesian authorities,this incident reflected theshortcomings of labelingsystems in the seafood trade.Due to the serious healthissue, the Hong Konggovernment is looking intoimproving the fish labelingsystem, for instance, byincluding the scientific namein addition to the commonname. This provides moreinformation to consumersregarding unhealthy seafoodbut also allows consumers todistinguish fish fromunsustainable sources.Some people argue that wecan maintain our seafoodsupply by targeting previouslyunexploited species or bybeing conscious consumers.However, as the case of theoilfish suggests, these goalsmay have unintendedconsequences. The alternativeContinued on page 2 - OilfishPage 2Sea Around Us – March/April 2007 ISSN 1713-5214   Sea Around Us (ONLINE)A Global Plan ofAction forNetworks of MarineProtected Areasby Louisa WoodAs part of the IUCN’sWorld Commission onProtected Areas(WCPA), WCPA-Marine is theworld’s premier network ofmarine protected area (MPA)expertise, with members inover 50 countries. Its globalmission is to promote theestablishment of a global,representative system ofeffectively managed andlasting networks of MPAs. Inrecent years, various globaltargets have been adopted todevelop representative MPAnetworks covering from 10 to30% of the world’s oceans by2012 (United Nations, 2002;IUCN, 2003; CBD, 2006).WCPA-Marine has a uniquestrategic role to play in theseefforts, and has beendeveloping a Global MarinePlan of Action for 2006-2012,to support nations indeveloping MPA networks.From April 10th -12th, 2007,WCPA-Marine held a Summit atthe National Geographic Societyin Washington DC, attended by50 of the top marineconservation experts drawnfrom government,intergovernmental organisations,NGOs, the donor community andacademia. The purpose of theSummit was to finalise theWCPA-Marine Plan of Action, andagree on a new global MPA Callto Action.Seven strategic priorities werediscussed:1) MPAs, climate change, andhuman health;2) MPAs and managementeffectiveness;3) The Wet List (see below);4) Developing good practice forMPAs and networks;5) MPAs, ecosystem-basedmanagement and marinespatial planning;6) Fisheries, MPAs, and humanwell-being;Continued on page 3 - MPAsThe Sea Around Us project newsletter ispublished by the  Fisheries Centre at theUniversity of British Co-lumbia. Includedwith the FisheriesCentre’s newsletterFishBytes,six is-sues of this news-letter are pub-lished annually.Subscriptions arefree of charge.Our mailing address is: UBCFisheries Centre, Aquatic Ecosystems Re-search Laboratory, 2202 Main Mall, Vancou-ver, British Columbia, Canada, V6T 1Z4. Ourfax number is (604) 822-8934, and our emailaddress is SeaNotes@fisheries.ubc.ca. Allqueries (including reprint requests), sub-scription requests, and address changesshould be addressed to Robyn Forrest, SeaAround Us Newsletter Editor.The Sea Around Us website may be foundat www.seaaroundus.org and contains up-to-date information on the project.Oilfish - Continued from page 1is, perhaps, to reduce ourconsumption and improvefisheries management - twoendeavors that rarely lead to ahospital visit.ReferencesJacquet, J.L. and D. Pauly. 2007.The rise of seafoodawareness campaigns in anera of collapsing fisheries.Marine Policy, 31, 308 –313.National Environmental Trust.2001. Destined forextinction: The fate ofChiliean Sea Bass. Retrieved10 March 2007 fromwww.environet.org/marine/csb/grassroots/materials/whitepaper.pdfwww.news.gov.hk, 2007.Retrieved 11 March 2007from: www.news.gov.hk/en/category/healthandcommunity/070123/html/070123en05014.htmThe Sea Around Us project is a Fisheries Centre partner-ship with the Pew Charitable Trusts of Philadelphia,USA. The Trusts support nonprofit activities in the areasof culture, education, the environment, health and human serv-ices, public policy and religion. Based in Philadelphia, theTrusts make strategic investments to help organisations andcitizens develop practical solutions to difficult problems. In2000, with approximately $4.8 billion in assets, the Trustscommitted over $235 million to 302 nonprofit organisations.In recentyears,variousglobaltargets havebeenadopted todeveloprepresentativeMPAnetworksPage 3 Sea Around Us – March/April 20077) MPAs, species, andecosystem management.I was lucky enough to beinvited to attend the Summit toshare some of the experience Ihave gained over the last fewyears monitoring MPAs globallyas part of my PhD research,particularly in relation to thedevelopment of the ‘Wet List’.The Wet List (so named to bearrelation to its well-known sister,the IUCN Red List ofendangered species, butsubject to change) is a new andinnovative global partnership.The Wet List will be IUCN’sglobal status report celebratingmarine protected areas. It isdesigned to provideunprecedented levels ofoutreach to map progress andcelebrate successes in marineconservation, as well as toidentify challenges towardsbuilding networks of MarineProtected Areas (MPAs) andconserving the wider marineenvironment.It is intended that the Wet Listwill take the form of anannually produced, single hardcopy/web-based globaloverview, supported by 18web-based regional reviews.These publications will bebased on MPA data in theWorld Database on ProtectedAreas (WDPA), maintained byUNEP-World ConservationMonitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC).The global MPA database I built,called MPA Global (seewww.mpaglobal.org orwww.seaaroundus.org), wasoriginally developed from theWDPA, and continues to feeddirectly into it. As a WCPA-Marine member, I will beworking closely with UNEP-Delegates at the WCPA-Marine Summit.Photo by Dan LaffoleyWCMC and WCPA-MarineRegional Coordinators todevelop appropriate strategiesto meet the informationrequirements for the Wet List.The Summit was an intensebut invigorating three days,with an incredibly positivevibe and a real sense ofpurpose. As someoneessentially at the beginning ofmy career, I left the Summitwith a couple of feelings.Firstly, I feel profoundlyhonoured to have beeninvited to a meeting attendedby such a rich, fascinating,intelligent, and downrightfriendly group of people.Secondly, I left feelingenergised, optimistic, andempowered – this really is anexciting time for marineconservation. It’s hard to makestatements like that withoutsounding naïve or trite,especially given the massivedisparity between current anddesired levels of marineprotection. However, I thinkthe world is finally waking up.And we are getting organised.I’m excited to be part of thissnowball, and to see wherethe next few years take us.MPAs - Continued from page 2For more information aboutthe Summit, including thesession backing papers, theCall to Action, and WCPA-Marine membership, pleasesee http://groups.google.com/group/wcpamarine-summit/web.ReferencesCBD. 2006. Decisions adoptedby the Conference ofthe Parties to theConvention onBiological Diversity at itseighth meeting(Decision VIII/15, AnnexIV). Convention onBiological Diversity, 274pp.IUCN. 2003. WPCRecommendation 5.22:Building a global systemof marine and coastalprotected area networks.IUCN, 5 pp.United Nations. 2002. Report ofthe World Summit onSustainableDevelopment,Johannesburg, SouthAfrica, 26 August-4thSeptember 2002. UnitedNations,Johannesburg. A/CONF.199/20.The Wet Listwill [...]provideunprecedentedlevels ofoutreach tomap progressand celebratesuccesses inmarineconservationPage 4Sea Around Us – March/April 2007Publications Mail Agreement No: 41104508Berman, M. and Sumaila, U.R. 2006. Discounting, amenity values and marine ecosystem restoration.Marine Resource Economics 21: 211-219.Chang, S.E., Adams, B.J., Alder, J., Berke, P.R., Chuenpagdee, R., Ghosh, S. and Wabnitz, C. 2006 Coastalecosystems and Tsunami protection after the December 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami.Earthquake Spectra 22S3:S863-S887.Chuengpagdee, R., Preikshot, D., Ligouri, L. and Pauly, D. 2006 A public sentiment index forecosystem management. Ecosystems 9: 436-473.Fromont, J., Craig, R., Rawlinson, L. and Alder, J. 2006. Excavating sponges that are destructive tofarmed pearl oysters in Western and Northern Australia. Aquaculture Research 36: 150-162.Guénette, S., Heymans, J.J., Christensen, V. and Trites, A.W. 2006. Ecosystem models show combinedeffects of fishing, predation, competition, and ocean productivity on Steller sea lions(Eumetopias jubatus) in Alaska. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 63: pp.2495-2517.Kaschner, K., Watson, R., Trites, A.W. and Pauly, D. 2006. Mapping world-wide distribution of marinemammal species using a Relative Environmental Suitability RES model. Marine EcologyProgress Series 316: 285-310.Libralato, S., Christensen, V. and Pauly, D. 2006. A method for identifying keystone species in foodweb models. Ecological Modelling 195: 153-171.Morato, T., Watson, R., Pitcher, T. and Pauly, D. 2006. Fishing down the deep. Fish and Fisheries 7: 24-34.Palomares, M.L., Mohammed, E. and Pauly, D. 2006. On European expeditions as a source of historicabundance data on marine organisms: a case study of the Falkland Islands. EnvironmentalHistory 11: 835-847.Pauly, D. 2006a. Major trends in small-scale fisheries, with emphasis on developing countries, andsome implications for the social sciences. Maritime Studies (MAST) 4: 7-22.Pauly, D. 2006b. Rejoinder: Towards consilience in small-scale fisheries research. Maritime Studies(MAST) 4: 47-51.Sumaila, U.R., Alder, J. and Keith, H. 2006a. Global scope and economics of illegal fishing. Marine Policy30: 696-703.Sumaila, U.R. and Armstrong, C.W. 2006. Distributional and efficiency effects of marine protectedareas: A study of the Northeast Atlantic cod fishery. Land Economics 82: 321-332.Sumaila, U.R., Charles, A. and Sylvia, G. 2006b. Topical problems in fisheries economics: Anintroduction. Marine Resource Economics 21: 337-340.Watson, R., Revenga, C. and Kura, Y. 2006a. Fishing gear associated with global marine catches: IDatabase development. Fisheries Research 79: 97-102.Watson, R., Revenga, C. and Kura, Y. 2006b. Fishing gear associated with global marine catches: IITrends in trawling and dredging. Fisheries Research 79: 103-111.Wood, L.J. and Dragicevic, S. 2006. GIS-based multicriteria evaluation and fuzzy sets to identify prioritysites for marine protection. Biodiversity and Conservation doi 10.1007/s10531-006-9035-8.Worm, B., Barbier, E.B., Beaumont, N., Duffy, J.E., Folke, C., Halpern, B.S., Jackson, J.B.C., Lotze, H.,Micheli, F., Palumbi, S.R., Sala, E., Selkoe, K.A., Stachowicz, J.J. and Watson, R. 2006. Impacts ofbiodiversity loss on ocean ecosystem services. Science 314: 787-790.Zeller, D., Booth, S., Craig, P. and Pauly, D. 2006a. Reconstruction of coral reef fisheries catches inAmerican Samoa, 1950-2002. Coral Reefs 25: 144-152.Zeller, D., Booth, S. and Pauly, D. 2006b. Fisheries contributions to GDP: Underestimating small-scalefisheries in the Pacific. Marine Resource Economics 21: 355-374.Complete list of 2006 peer-reviewed publications bySea Around Us members


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