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Sea Around Us project newsletter, issue 27, January/February 2005 Forrest, Robyn; Sea Around Us Project Jan 31, 2005

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SSSS Seeee e aaaa a     AAAA Arrrr r ouououou ounnnn ndddd d     UUUU Ussss sThe Sea Around Us Project NewsletterIssue 27 – January/February 2005MPA Global – an onlinedatabase of the world’smarine protected areasby Louisa WoodThe SeaAroundUsproject’swebsite,www.seaaroundus.org,has a newaddition:  MPAGlobal,  a spatialdatabase of theworld’s marineprotected areas(MPAs).  Thisdatabase is the result of aformal collaboration withWorld Wildlife Fund (WWF)and the United NationsEnvironment Programme –World ConservationMonitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC) and constitutes asubstantial part of my PhDthesis.There is an explicit globalneed for a robust anddetailed MPA baseline, suchthat progress towards acomprehensive,representative globalnetwork of MPAs can bereadily monitored.  MPAGlobal serves as a means toachieve that global baseline.It was initially developed byextracting the marineinformation from the WorldDatabase on Protected Areas(WDPA), maintained byUNEP-WCMC and searchableat http://sea.unep-wcmc.org/wdbpa.  Since then, thestructure of MPA Global hasbeen further developed tostore and present additional,MPA-specific informationexplicitly.  It also provides forreferencing at the field level.The MPA Global website hastwo main goals:a. To provideinformation on the world’sMPAs in a clear and explicitformat;  andb. To solicit feedback onthe data contained withinMPA Global, so as to improvethe global MPA baseline.MPA Global is currentlysearchable by country,international convention andby all or part ofthe area name,bothindependently(www.mpaglobal.org),and as part of theSea Around Uswebsite , thelatter allowing aview of MPAs aspart of a systemof informationon marinefisheries and ecosystems. Allavailable information is freelyprovided for each MPA.Currently, around 5000 sitesare listed, of whichapproximately 3700 aredesignated under nationallegal / informal mechanismsand 900 under internationalconventions. The remainderare of uncertain designationstatus.  The project iscurrently in a substantial editand update phase.  So, whensearching and/or viewing thedatabase, you may noticegaps and/or errors in theinformation provided. TheSea Around Us project wouldlike to extend an invitation toall readers to verify the datacurrently available in MPAGlobal for the MPAs withwhich you are familiar or forContinued on page 2 - MPAsPage 2Sea Around Us – January/February 2005The Sea Around Us projectnewsletter is publishedby the  Fisheries Cen-tre at the Universityof British Columbia.Included with theFisheries Centre’sn e w s l e t t e rFishBytes,six issuesof this newsletter arepublished annually. Sub-scriptions are free of charge.Our mailing address is: UBC Fisheries Cen-tre, Lower Mall Research Station, 2259 LowerMall, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, V6T1Z4. Our fax number is (604) 822-8934, andour email address is SeaNotes@fisheries.ubc.ca.All queries (including reprint requests), sub-scription requests, and address changes shouldbe addressed to Robyn Forrest, Sea Around UsNewsletter Editor.The Sea Around Us website may be found atsaup.fisheries.ubc.ca and contains up-to-dateinformation on the project.The Sea Around Us project is a Fisheries Centre partner-ship with the Pew Charitable Trusts of Philadelphia,USA. The Trusts support nonprofit activities in the areasof culture, education, the environment, health and human serv-ices, public policy and religion. Based in Philadelphia, theTrusts make strategic investments to help organisations andcitizens develop practical solutions to difficult problems. In2000, with approximately $4.8 billion in assets, the Trustscommitted over $235 million to 302 nonprofit organisations. ISSN 1713-5214   Sea Around Us (ONLINE)which you have references. Youcan do this simply by registeringat MPA Global, logging in, andthen submitting edits directlyonline. Registration is open toanyone and required only so thatwe can attribute every editsubmitted in this manner to theperson who provided it.In the coming months thewebsite and the contents of thedatabase will continue to beimproved and updated. Forexample, a mapping interfaceshowing the location andboundaries of the MPA is currentlyin development, and we will beadding to the search criteria asthe database becomes morepopulated – e.g. searching for allno-take MPAs, or those that bantrawling. Throughout this process,we welcome your feedback,comments and requests.Contact:l.wood@fisheries.ubc.caMPAs - Continued from page 1  What’s included inMPA Global?There are many  widely varying definitions of MPA available,with perhaps the most globally applicable being the IUCNdefinition (‘Any area of intertidal or subtidal terrain,together with its overlying water and associated flora, fauna,historical and cultural features, which has been reserved by lawor other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosedenvironment’, IUCN 1988). In considering which definition toapply to MPA Global, we identified two guiding principles:1) Inclusivity:  MPA Global seeks to be an inclusive database,that can provide comprehensive MPA information to any (andhopefully, all) stakeholders, that is tailored according to theirparticular definition of MPA;2) Objectivity: This is key to the academic integrity of a PhDthesis that seeks, among other things, to assess the currentextent of marine protection globally.MPAs and other spatial resource management tools, such asfisheries closures, may have different objectives and beimplemented by different organizations under differentframeworks, but their outcomes can also overlap: regulation orrestriction of resource extraction over a defined spatial extent.The distinction between the two becomes ever more blurredand their inclusion in, or exclusion from, a list of MPAs becomesincreasingly subjective as one descends the protectioncontinuum. We suggest that the differences between them canbest be represented in terms of how the space they cover isregulated.As a consequence, the approach being taken with MPA Global isto broadly follow the IUCN (1988) definition of MPA, but tosupplement it with data on how the site is regulated. Theaddition of data to MPA Global on regulations that apply to anMPA (or, indeed, the lack of regulation) constitutes a substantialpart of this project that will add much value to the global MPAbaseline.ReferencesIUCN (1988) Resolution 17.38 of the 17th General Assembly of theIUCN. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK, IUCN.The additionof data onregulationsthat apply toan MPA [...]constitutes asubstantialpart of thisproject thatwill addmuch valueto the globalMPAbaselinePage 3 Sea Around Us – January/February 2005The natural history of theFalkland Islands tracedthrough European expeditionsby M.L. Deng Palomares and Elizabeth MohammedIn June 2004, a TegnerMemorial Grant was awardedto the first author, through theMarine Conservation BiologyInstitute (MCBI), to documentthe abundance of marineorganisms observed by the greatEuropean oceanographicexpeditions.   This project aims togather qualitative information onthe abundance of marineorganisms from narratives ofthese early expeditions, renderthem in an analyzable formatand finally use them to maptrends of observed abundancesin a specific locality over time,the final objective being toprovide an older baseline of thebiodiversity and abundance ofmarine organisms. Given that thesources of information form anenormous pile, we had to focuson one geographic region. Wechose the FalklandIslands.The first cartographerto plot the Falklands,marked as “Insule 7delle pulzelle,” wasMartin Waldseemüllerin 1507 on the firstmap to bear thename of America(Haeber 2003).Sixteenth centurySpanish, Portugueseand English navigatorsknew of these islandsas the Yslas de Sanson(Boyson 1924). Nolandings were made and mostdescriptions were cartographic;no particular attention was givento the natural history.The discovery of the FalklandIslands is attributed to CaptainJohn Davys of the Desire, of thesecond ‘privateering’ expeditionof Thomas Cavendish in 1591-1593 (Pepper 2001). Afterwintering in the Magellan Straits,on his way home to England, on9 August 1592, blown by stormyweather, Davys’ fleet was ‘drivenin among certaine isles neverbefore discovered […] lyingfiftie leagues or better from theShoare East and Northerly fromthe Streights […]’ (Boyson1924).Except for describing how theyreplenished supplies, mostprivateering expeditions paidlittle attention to the naturalresources of these islands. Mostof the earlier narratives mentionthat the Falklands were ‘barren’Continued on page 4 - FalklandsPlates from the voyage of de Bougainville to the  Malouine (or Falkland) Islands made in 1763 and 1764.Reproduced from Pernetty 1773.This projectaims togatherqualitativeinformationon theabundanceof marineorganismsfromnarratives ofthese earlyexpeditions[and] renderthem in ananalyzableformat ...Page 4Sea Around Us – January/February 2005in that the islands provided littleor no wood, and there was noaccess to freshwater. However,seabirds, e.g., penguins, andseals were observed as‘extremely abundant’ –expectedly so, as these areanimals that are easily seen.Sebald de Weert, vice-admiral ofa Dutch fleet on board the BlijdeBoodschap wrote: “They heresaw vast numbers of those birdscalled ‘plongeons’ or divers,because they dive into the waterto catch fish [probably penguins,given that they were at PenguinIsland at the time of observation,but could also refer to divingpetrels]. They killed there ten orfourteen of them with sticks, andmight have killed as many aswould have served the wholefleet [5 ships at 100 men eachwould have amounted to 500mouths to feed], but would notlose the opportunity of a fairwind” (p. 133 of Kerr’s 1824interpretation of Sebald deWeert’s observations uponarriving at Penguin Isle on 6 April1599; see other de Weertanecdotes at  the Sea Around Uswebsite:  ww.seaaroundus.org).The English William Dampier onboard a buccaneer’s ship in 1684wrote the following:  January28th we made the Isles of Sebaldde Weert […] where we foundfoul rocky Ground, and theIslands barren, and destitute oftrees, but some Dildo-bushesgrowing near the Sea-side. Wesaw the same day vast shoals ofsmall red Lobsters, no biggerFalklands - Continued from page 3Continued on page 5 - FalklandsArctic and PhilippinecollaborationVisiting scientist, Paul Watts  was invited to the Fisheries Centre from January 31- March 32005 to work  on two projects: a summary of fisheries harvest in the Canadian Arctic and ascientific/cultural orientation for a two year volunteer placement in the Philippines throughthe Volunteer Service Overseas (VSO).   Vancouver is also a great place to adjust between -35oCand +35oC!  These projects have been greatly advanced by the logistical and scientific support atthe Fisheries Centre, particularly those working on the Sea Around Us  and Project Seahorse.  TheFisheries Centre is also an excellent location to look at comparisons in both fisheries and marinemanagement on a global scale and to consider common issues.Previously, Canada’s perspective on Arctic fisheries has evolved primarily through local interest insubsistence harvest and regional economic initiatives.  Information on for these activities has oftenbeen incomplete both in terms of limited geographic application and as a result of definedmandates for specific datasets. The current project is intended to provide a baseline on catches inthe Canadian Arctic coastal region through comparative analysis of existing reports on subsistenceand commercial catch. The final result will be to transform community-based records from about50 settlements and to put the information into a format that will be compatible with global SeaAround Us datasets.As a volunteer coastal resource manager going to the Philippines, Watts will have the opportunityto work with communities, NGOs and government agencies on the efforts to advance a holisticapproach to sustainable resource use, local capacity building and other related considerations.  Hefeels that the history of Fisheries Centre programmes in the Philippines and Project Seahorseprovide an ideal environment to learn about the country, as well as the resource sectors anddifferent levels of intervention that are occurring. Prior to coming to the Centre, he felt that thisinvitation would be a great opportunity to obtain information before  starting his  in-countrycultural and language training.  The experience has surpassed his  expectations.  He  looks forwardto next time.Paul Watts has a background of research on single animal energetics and behavioral ecology oflarge Arctic mammals and has also worked on educational, health care and business developmentin the north.  His current research interests include beluga whale ecology, ethnoecology and thedevelopment of community based research/management.The currentproject isintended toprovide abaseline oncatches intheCanadianArcticcoastalregionPage 5 Sea Around Us – January/February 2005than one’s Finger […].” Boyson(1924) identifies this as a shrimp,Munida surugosus, “much likedby whales and penguins.” Thegenus Munida belongs to thedecapod family of squat lobsters,Galatheidae, and the speciesoccurring in the Falklands isMunida subrugosa, with benthicadults but planktonic larvae(Tapella et al. 2002). However,the swarming description mightrefer to what is now termed as‘lobster krill’ (usually Munidagregaria, but also other species ofMunida) occurring in the diets ofsea lions, Otaria flavescens(Thompson et al. 1997) andpenguins (Clausen and Pütz2003).The first recorded landing wasnot until 28 January 1690 whenthe British captain, John Strong,anchored at Bold Cove, PortHoward, where he wrote: “[…]this land doth show like a greatmany Islands […] there is severalkeys that lye along shore. Weesent our boat on Shoar to one ofthem and they brought on boardabundance of Pengwins andother fowl and Seals […].” Strongnamed the islands after theViscount of Falkland, one of theowners of his ship, the Welfare(Boyson 1924; Pepper 2001).At the end ofthe 17thcentury, Frenchseafarers,quietlyestablishing anextensive tradewith SouthAmerica, usedthe islands astheir base,which theycalled îlesMalouines, afterSt. Malo, a city innorthwesternFrance (Boyson 1924). Frenchactivity in the southern seas ledto the establishment of a Frenchcolony at Fort St. Louis (namedafter the ship St. Louiscommanded by Jacques Gouinde Beauchêne which landedthere in 1698) in the EastFalkland by Louise-AntoineComte de Bougainville (Pernetty1773; Taillemite 1997).Bougainville’s stay (1763-1764)and successive voyages (1766)to the Falkland Islands providedscience not only with detaileddescriptions of aquatic andterrestrial life but also of theirabundance (Bougainville 1771;Pernetty 1773). Our analyses(see documentation ofBougainville’s expeditions atwww.seaaroundus.org) showthat half of these descriptionsrepresent observations on theabundance of birds (mostlyseabirds) and fish (mostlymarine).   About 43 % describethe commonness ofinvertebrates, seaweeds, herbsand shrubs and about 5 %describe the rarity of reptiles.The French relinquished theislands to the Spanish in 1767,and from then on the islandswere known by the Spanishname of Malvinas. In the early1830s, a successful colony of‘cowboys’, the ‘gauchos,’ wasexporting dried beef (and saltedfish) to Brazil and wool toLondon (seeFalklands - Continued from page 4www.falklands.info). However,the British reclaimed the islands,renaming them the Falklands,and in the 1840s the populationof ‘gauchos’ was replaced bysettlers from England (Cawkell2001). This era marks thebeginning of the exploitation ofterrestrial and aquatic resources,though American sealers werealready slaughtering the sealpopulations around the islandssince the late 1820s.Charles Darwin’s visits to theislands in 1833 aboard theBeagle and again in 1834provided a rich collection ofspecimens along with notes, hisand those of Captain RobertFitzroy and Syms Covington(Darwin’s servant), describingthe islands’ natural resources.Upon arriving, Darwin found theislands ‘desolate’ being“universally covered by a brownwiry grass, which grows on thepeat […] & excepting snipes &rabbits, scarely any animals”(Armstrong 1992). Covington, onthe other hand, found “[…] lowBushes with red berrrys [sic]which are very good eating […]”and “[…] enormous numbers ofBullocks Horses & Pigs […]Rabbits, wild geese & Ducks […]& most excellent Snipe Shootingin the Marshy ground & Longgrass, which the Island in generalis very little else.”1840 portrait of Charles Darwin, age 31, byGeorge Richmond.Continued on page 6 - FalklandsPlate from the voyage of de Bougainville to the  Malouine(or Falkland) Islands made in 1763 and 1764.Reproduced from Pernetty 1773.CharlesDarwin’svisits to theislands in1833 aboardthe Beagleand again in1834provided arichcollection ofspecimens ...Page 6Sea Around Us – January/February 2005Publications Mail Agreement No: 41104508But the islands were notdesolate after all. They had “[…]an immense quantity & numberof kinds of organic beings whichare intimately connected withthe Kelp […] the infinite numberof small fish which live amongstthe leaves […] Crustacea ofevery order swarm, […]Encrusting Corallines & Aztiasare excessively numerous […]The number of compound &simple Ascidia is a veryobservable fact […]Heurobranchus is common: butTrochus & petalliform shellsabound on all leaves […].”Darwin believed that theseislands would “[…] become avery important halting place[…]” with “[…] fine harbors,plenty of fresh water & goodbeef […]” (letter to CarolineDarwin, 6 April 1834; cited inArmstrong 1992). However, asthe islands became colonized,rare, endemic and exploitedspecies of the islands (e.g., hewas here referring to theFalkland fox (‘warrah’))  “[…] willbe ranked among those specieswhich have perished from theface of the earth.” (Darwin,1839-1843).We have yet to exploit the bigpile of books of expeditions tothe Falklands as we have onlyseen the tip of the iceberg. Ourgoal is to further assembleaccounts of organisms occurringin the Falkland Islands fromthese early narratives in order tohave a more representativedocumentation not only of theobserved occurrences ofspecies, but also their relativeabundances. So far, our relatively‘scanty’ data (from only 7 majorreferences though it nownumbers 250 records) show that,in the period 1590-1790, mostobservations mention a generalabundance of seabirds, anexpected result – a reason whysome islands are named afterthem, e.g., Penguin Island (one inthe Falkland archipelago and onein the Straits of Magellan). Wehope to show other trends, e.g.,rarity of some species groupswhich have since disappearedfrom these islands or arecurrently under threat ofextinction. More results will beavailable this winter through theSea Around Us  website.ReferencesArmstrong, P. 1992. Darwin’sdesolate islands: a naturalist inthe Falklands, 1833 and 1834.Picton Publishing Ltd.,Chippenham. 147 p.de Bougainville, L.-A. 1771.Voyage autour du monde parla frégate du Roi la Boudeuseet la flute l’Étoile: en 1766,1767, 1768 & 1769. ChezSaillant & Nyon, Del’imprimerie Le Breton, Paris.Boyson, V.F. 1924. The FalklandIslands. With notes on thenatural history by RupertVallentin. Oxford UniversityPress. Oxford. 414 p.Cawkell, M. 2001. The History ofthe Falkland Islands. AnthonyNelson, UK. 190 p.Clauzen, A., Klemens, P. 2003.Winter diet and foraging rangeof gentoo penguins(Pygoscelis papua) fromKidney Cove, Falkland Islands.Polar Biology 26:32-40.Darwin, C. 1839-1843. Thezoology of the voyage ofH.M.S. Beagle, under thecommand of Captain Fitzroy,R.N., during the years 1832 to1836. Pub. with the approval ofthe lords commissioners of HerMajesty’s Treasury. Vol. II. Smith,Elder and Co, London.Haeber, J. 2003. U.S. buys oldestmap marked “America”.National Geographic News.June 19, 2003[www.news.nationalgeographic.com].Kerr, R. 1824. Section II. Voyage ofSebald de Weert to the SouthSea and the Straits of Magellan,in 1598, p. 130-148. In: Ageneral history and collectionof voyages and travels,arranged in systematic order:forming a complete history ofthe origin and progress ofnavigation, discovery andcommerce, by sea and land,from the earliest ages to thepresent time. W. Blackwood; T.Cadell, Edinburgh; London.Neville, J.D. 2005. ThomasCavendish. Fort RaleighNational Historic Site [http://www.nps.gov/fora/cavendish.htm], accessedMarch 1 2005.Pepper, P.J. 2001. Port Desire andthe discovery of the Falklands.Falkland Islands Newsletter,March 2001 (78).Pernetty, A.J. 1773. The history ofa voyage to the Malouine (orFalkland) Islands made in1763 and 1764 under thecommand of M. deBougainville, in order to forma settlement there: and oftwo voyages to the streightsof Magellan, with an accountof the Patagonians/ translatedfrom Dom Pernetty’shistorical journal written inFrench. W. Goldsmith and D.Steel, London.Taillemite, É. 1997. Sur des mersinconnues. Bougainville, Cook,Laperouse, DecouvertesGallimard, Paris.Tapella, F., Lovrich, G.A., Romero,C.M., Thatje, S. 2002.Reproductive biology of thecrab Munida subrugosa(Decapoda: Anomura:Galatheidae) in the BeagleChannel, Argentina. Journal ofthe Marine BiologicalAssociation (UK) 82:589-595.Thompson, D., Duck, C.D.,McConnell B.J., Garrett, J.1998. Foraging behaviour anddiet of lactating femalesouthern sea lions (Otariaflavescens) in the FalklandIslands. Journal ofZoology (London)246:135-146.We have yetto exploitthe big pileof books ofexpeditionsto theFalklands aswe haveonly seenthe tip ofthe icebergFalklands - Continued from page 5


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