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Sea Around Us project newsletter, issue 26, November/December 2004 Forrest, Robyn; Sea Around Us Project Nov 30, 2004

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SSSS Seeee e aaaa a     AAAA Arrrr r ouououou ounnnn ndddd d     UUUU Ussss sThe Sea Around Us Project NewsletterIssue 26 – November/December 2004Rebuilding fisheries andcoastal livelihood intsunami affected areasbyDaniel PaulyMany of the victimsof the recenttsunami in Southand Southeast Asia werefishers and their families,and much of theinfrastructure that wasdestroyed was ports andboats and other fishing gear.It seems therefore obviousto many in the developedworld that they should helpin rebuilding the fisheries,for example, by funding theconstruction or purchase ofreplacement vessels.Indeed, I have recentlyreceived several phone callsasking my advice on how togo about such rebuilding.One of my callers evensuggested that we shouldsend surplus vessels fromBritish Columbia  as part ofthis rebuilding effort.Before countries such asCanada commit themselvesto such far-reachingdecisions, a few importantfeatures of South andSoutheast Asian fisheriesneed to be considered,notably that (except for theoceanic tuna fisheries), theyconsist of twofundamentally different andantagonistic components.One of these is small-scalefisheries, employing tens ofthousands of fishers,operating traps and otherfixed gears along the coast.Open crafts are also used,some motorized and manynot and usually of the sizeranging from that of a kayakor row boat. The othercomponent consists oflarge-scale,  ‘industrial’fisheries operatingmotorized and deckedvessels, mainly bottomtrawlers, along with purseseiners and otherspecialized crafts.Some small-scale operatorsare still, in various places,‘traditional fishers’ in thesense that they aremembers of families thathave been fishing for manygenerations.  However, inmany parts of the tsunamiaffected region, themajority of fishers haveentered the fisheries onlyrecently.  They are, in themain, landless farmers whohave been driven into whatis, in effect, an occupationof last resort.In the tropics, nutrientrecycling and biologicalproduction occur near thecoast and, thus, tropicalfisheries differ fromtemperate ones in that theyoperate relatively close tothe shore, where prawns andfish are concentrated atdepths of between 10 and50 metres.  Small-scalefishers and industrial vesselsthus largely exploit the sameresource, leading tocompetition between thesetwo components of thefisheries sector.  This conflicthas led to numerous acts ofviolence, ranging from thewilful destruction of trapsand set nets by trawlers tothe latter being set on fire byirate small-scale fishers.The governments of theregion are well aware ofthese conflicts.  However,their fisheries policies, whilestating an intention to assistin the  ‘sustainabledevelopment’ of the small-scale fisheries, usually tendto favour the industrial sector,as manifest in boat-building,fuel and other subsidies, lackof enforcement of theregulations banning trawlersfrom shrimp-rich inshoreareas, etc.Continued on page 2 - TsunamiPage 2Sea Around Us – November/December 2004The Sea Around Us project newsletter ispublished by the  Fisheries Centre at theUniversity of British Co-lumbia. Includedwith the FisheriesCentre’s newsletterFishBytes,six is-sues of this news-letter are pub-lished annually.Subscriptions arefree of charge.Our mailing address is: UBC Fisheries Cen-tre, Lower Mall Research Station, 2259 LowerMall, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada,V6T 1Z4. Our fax number is (604) 822-8934,and our email address isSeaNotes@fisheries.ubc.ca. All queries (in-cluding reprint requests), subscription re-quests, and address changes should be ad-dressed to Robyn Forrest, Sea Around UsNewsletter Editor.The Sea Around Us website may be foundat saup.fisheries.ubc.ca and contains up-to-date information on the project. ISSN 1713-5214   Sea Around Us (ONLINE)The lending policies of regionaldevelopment banks have tendedto exacerbate this conflict: onlythe industrial fisheries provideopportunities for big,  ‘bankable’projects.  Alternative, micro-lending schemes would thus help,and so would theimplementation, on the ground,of stated policies designed toassist small-scale fisheries.  In thelong run, however, these policieswill fail to lift the incomes ofSouth and Southeast Asian small-scale fishers, who are usuallydesperately poor.  There aresimply too many small-scalefishers and too many new onesare recruited from coastalhinterlands, every year anew, forthis sector to become sustainable. This is true even if small-scalefisheries appear to have beensustainable in pre-industrial times,when traditional self-management, and lack oftechnology and of globallyintegrated markets for seafood,imposed limits on the growth offisheries.The challenge is thus to rebuildfisheries while, at the same time,directing as much of theavailable funds and energy aspossible to generating land-based job opportunities foryoung fishers.  Emphasis shouldthus be given to basic educationand technical skills, as fishers inSouth and Southeast Asia aregenerally the worst educated incountries where illiteracy tendsto be high, which limits theirsocial mobility.Education, whether basic ortechnical, would contribute toincreasing their ability to leave asector that cannot give themanything but a grim future.The tsunami crisis andthe MillenniumEcosystem Assessmentby Jackie AlderThe ‘Assessment’ in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment(MA) may give the impression that this global initiative haslittle relevance to the recent crisis in the Indian Ocean.However, the work of the MA, especially in Scenarios andResponses, can make a significant contribution in the medium tolong-term to the rebuilding of sustainable ecosystems andlivelihoods for many of the coastal communities affected by thisdisaster.  While the Conditions and Trends volume highlightedthe vulnerability of coastal communities to events such asincreased storms and flooding due to climate change, theScenarios volume highlighted the possible futures that coastalcommunities could have under different development policies.The Responses volume provides some guidance on the policyoptions that could be used in the coast. In the short-termproviding the basic needs to these communities is of paramountimportance. However, once these needs are met and the focusshifts to rebuilding communities, these people are in the uniqueposition of being able to decide what future they would like tohave, and the outcomes of the MA scenarios can give themsome idea of those possible futures, while the Responsesoutcomes gives them guidance on how to move towards thatfuture, one which we hope includes healthy ecosystems andsustainable communities.Thechallenge isthus torebuildfisherieswhiledirectingfunds andenergy togeneratingland-basedjobopportunitiesfor youngfishersTsunami - Continued from page 1The Sea Around Us project is a Fisheries Centre partner-ship with the Pew Charitable Trusts of Philadelphia,USA. The Trusts support nonprofit activities in the areasof culture, education, the environment, health and humanservices, public policy and religion. Based in Philadelphia,the Trusts make strategic investments to help organisationsand citizens develop practical solutions to difficult problems.In 2000, with approximately $4.8 billion in assets, the Trustscommitted over $235 million to 302 nonprofit organisations.Page 3 Sea Around Us – November/December 2004Senior Research Fellow with the Sea Around Us project, RegWatson, has just returned from Santa Barbara, California,where he joined the third of a series of working groupmeetings at the National Centre for Ecological Analysis andSynthesis (NCEAS), devoted to ‘linking marine biodiversity toecosystem functions and services’. This meeting generated amajor synthesis of information, from small-scale experimentalset-ups to large marine ecosystems. The group is quantifyingthe link between marine biodiversity and ecosystem functioningand examining the potential for the disruption of marine ecosys-tem services that are vital to our food supply, economies, andhuman health. The group, led by Boris Worm  (Dalhousie) andEnric Sala (Scripps), includes experts from a range of fields. Regis contributing his expertise with modelling global fisheriesdata.   For more information see: www.nceas.ucsb.edu/Biodiversity mattersFish fingers matterbyJackie Alder and Ussif Rashid SumailaHow valuable are inshorecoastal areas, coral reefs,seagrass and kelp beds,and deep-water environmentssuch as seamounts to the public?Finding the answers to suchquestions is critical to policymakers. There is also a growingurgency to answer suchquestions because marinehabitats and the resources theysupport are being used to meeta growing variety of humanneeds and demands. Hence,decisions on how to allocatethese resources betweencompeting uses emerge.Answering such questionsrequires more than oneapproach, which is what we didin an ongoing study for Oceana(www.oceana.org/index.cfm)where we combined traditionalmonetary valuation techniquesfor commercial and recreationalfisheries with survey/opinionpolling to help determine howmuch value the US public placeson its marine habitat and thesources they support.Working with EdgeResearch, acompany with extensiveexperience in opinion polling ofmarine issues, over 1100randomly selected US residentswere surveyed in earlyDecember, 2004. Theparticipants in the survey wereasked their opinions on suchaspects as funding for resourcemanagement, and maintainingbiodiversity for marine habitats.The marine habitats wererepresented by commercial fishthat people could easilyrecognize or relate to. Theseinclude species such as salmon,pollock (expressed as fish andchips and fish fingers) andlobster.The results of the survey havejust been collated and we arecurrently in the midst of detailedanalysis. However, somepreliminary results reveal thatthe US public is concerned withthe current and future conditionof their marine habitats (seeFigure), and that they are willingto either pay more throughhigher prices to consume fish orto shift their tax dollars fromother initiatives to help ensurethe long term sustainability oftheir marine ecosystems. We areexcited about our findings andhope to present a more detailedanalysis in future newsletters.If current management of theoceans continues unchanged,do you think the condition ofour oceans will…Somepreliminaryresultsreveal thatthe USpublic isconcernedwith thecurrent andfuturecondition oftheir marinehabitatsPage 4Sea Around Us – November/December 2004Publications Mail Agreement No: 41104508Synthesizing the MillenniumEcosystem Assessmentby Jackie AlderNow that the Millennium Assessment (MA) is winding up, one of my last tasks,  as for many of thewriters of the various volumes, has been to contribute to the synthesis reports for the variousconventions that have supported the MA over the last three years.  The RAMSAR Convention forWetlands (www.ramsar.org), which includes many coastal areas such as reefs, estuaries, lagoons andkelp beds is one of the original conventions to support the idea of the MA. Indeed, the parties to thisconvention are keen to see how the MA can assist in managing their wetlands. Last year several authorsfrom the MA drafted a synthesis report based on the current findings in the three volumes: Conditions& Trends, Scenarios and Responses. Now that these three volumes are complete, we have spent threedays (12 to 14 January 2005) in The Hague condensing over 3000 pages of text and figures to less than88 pages of text and figures that describe wetlands, now and in 2050, as well as how parties to theConvention might manage wetlands in the future. It was a challenging task to assimilate such a volumeof material and more importantly to consolidate the material into key messages for decision makers,but quite rewarding to work with ten other authors from diverse backgrounds and perspectives. Afterthree intense days of writing, a very focused report was produced which I hope readers interested inwetlands will read when it is released by the MA later this year.Call for Abstracts - 2005 NAAFE ForumFisheries Benefits to all Generations:the role of economicsIn December 2003, the Boardof Directors of the NorthAmerican Association ofFisheries Economists (NAAFE)appointed Ussif Rashid Sumailaof the University of BritishColumbia’s Fisheries Centre tohost the third biennial NAAFEForum. Dr Sumaila will head theorganizing effort in collaborationwith NAAFE President,  Dr Jon G.Sutinen and others.The Forum promises to be amajor event and will take placefrom May 25-27, 2005 at theUBC Conference Centre inVancouver, BC, Canada.Forum GoalTo provide a platform forfisheries economists, policymakers, intergovernmental andnon-governmental organisationsand fisheries stakeholders tomeet and analyze fisheriesproblems and explore workableand effective solutions.Session ThemesFisheries governance andmanagement issuesFisheries governance; Propertyrights in fisheries – ITQs,community quotas;Environmental Impacts ofAlternative FisheriesRegulations; Spatial effortdynamics: predicting fisherreaction to spatial closurepolicies; What have EEZsaccomplished?; Managingshared fish stocks.Economic and valuation issuesFisheries and ecosystemvalues and valuation – do theygo far enough?; Fisheriessubsidies: the good, the badand the ugly; Fish for whom:ethics and fisheries economics;Economics of fisheries andecosystem restoration;Economics of ecosystem-based fisheries management;Large-scale versus small-scalefisheries.Trade and fisheries managementGlobalization and fisheriessustainability; Fish trade andmarketing; Economics of illegal,unregulated and unreportedfishing (IUU); Net costs andbenefits from aquaculture,including open-oceanaquaculture.Special highlight: Fisheriesdebate of our timeEnsuring Fisheries Benefits for allGenerations.  In Search ofCommon Ground: Two Visionsfrom Ecology and EconomicsFeaturing Jim Wilen (Dept ofAgricultural and Natural ResourceEconomics, University of California,Davis) and Daniel Pauly (UBCFisheries Centre).For more details about the 2005NAAFE forum; to register orsubmit an abstract online: visitwww.feru.org/events/naafe.htm.... a platformfor fisherieseconomists,policymakers [...]and fisheriesstakeholdersto analyzefisheriesproblemsand exploreworkableandeffectivesolutions


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