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Sea Around Us project newsletter, issue 10, July/August 2001 Power, Melanie; Sea Around Us Project Jul 31, 2001

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Sea Around UsThe Sea Around Us Project NewsletterIssue 10 – July/August 2001The first two years ofthe Sea Around UsProject (July 1999 toJune 2001) are completed,and so - largely - is ourcoverage of the NorthAtlantic, which led to ratherimpressive results. Thereason why these have notbeen noticed by more thanthose colleagues whoparticipated at meetingswhere they were presentedorally, is that it takes sometime for just-completedreports and journal articlesto be published. Thus, it isonly in the next monthsthat our quantitativeanalyses of the impact offisheries on North Atlanticecosystems will becomewidely available.Also, some highlights fromour work will be presentedin the form of a mini-symposium on “Fisheries-Induced Changes in MarineEcosystems” to be held inBoston, on February 16,during the 2002 meeting ofAAAS.In the meantime, theproject staff are retooling(see e.g., article by Sumaila,on fish trade), and gettingready to tackle the regionsto be covered in year threeof the project, viz. theCentral and South Atlantic,the former including theGulf of Mexico and theCaribbean in the West, andNorth West Africa and theGulf of Guinea in the East,while the latter is to coverthe rest of the Atlantic allthe way to Antarctica.Our studies will includeamong others (i) the spatialintegration of ecosystemstudies previouslyconducted in the Gulf ofMexico; (ii) thereconstruction of deficientcatch time series in theCaribbean and West Africa;(iii) the establishment of asound baseline to evaluatechanges in the status ofWest African ecosystems;(iv) the inclusion ofbiomass time series inEcosim analyses of thepelagic ecosystems offSouth America and SouthAmerica; and (v) anexamination, using Ecopathwith Ecosim, of theinteractions between keyelements of the Antarcticecosystem.The results of these studieswill feed into the globalfisheries catch and othermaps that we have begunto develop (watch theFisheries Centre web sitethis fall).This is a lot of work, and it isobvious that it can betackled only incollaboration with a vastnumber of local andregional colleagues, whomwe have begun to identifyand contact. One of thefirst fruits of theseinteractions is the planning,recently initiated, of aninternational symposiumon “Marine fisheries,ecosystems and societies inWest Africa: half a centuryof changes” to be held inJune 2002 in Dakar,Senegal, West Africa.The symposium’s goals areto examine how the shelfecosystems, modes ofexploitation, andgovernance of fisheries inWest Africa (Morocco toSouth Africa) have changedas a result of thewidespread increase infishing pressure from the1950s to the present. Allcontributions are expectedto address long-term					Continued on page 2 -Future Plans	The Sea Around Us project newsletter ispublished by the  FisheriesCentre at the Univer-sity of British Co-lumbia. Includedwith the FisheriesCentre’s newsletterFishBytes,six is-sues of this news-letter are publishedannually. Subscrip-tions are free of charge.Our mailing address is: UBC Fisheries Cen-tre, 2204 Main Mall, Vancouver, British Co-lumbia, Canada, V6T 1Z4. Our fax number is(604) 822-8934, and our email address isSeaNotes@fisheries.ubc.ca. All queries (in-cluding reprint requests), subscription re-quests, and address changes should be ad-dressed to Melanie Power, Sea Around UsNewsletter Editor.The Sea Around Us website may be foundat www.fisheries.ubc.ca/projects/saup, andcontains up-to-date information on theproject.The Sea Around Us project is a Fisheries Centre partner-ship with the Pew Charitable Trusts of Philadelphia,USA. The Trusts support nonprofit activities in the areas ofculture, education, the environment, health and human serv-ices, public policy and religion. Based in Philadelphia, the Trustsmake strategic investments to help organisations and citizensdevelop practical solutions to difficult problems. In 2000, withapproximately $4.8 billion in assets, the Trusts committed over$235 million to 302 nonprofit organisations.changes, contrast the presentsituation with earlier baselines,and, based thereon, to evaluatethe impacts of fishing, interpretprevailing trends, and proposealternative policy scenarios.For a number of practicalreasons (notably having to dealwith two languages withoutassured funding forsimultaneous translations), thesymposium will be divided intwo parts: (1) a two day sessiondedicated to present the resultsof the ‘SIAP’ project, based inConakry, Guinea, funded by theEuropean Commission (EC), anddevoted to the analysis ofecosystem changes in CapeVerde, Gambia, Guinea, GuineaBissau, Mauritania and Senegal),and conducted in French; and(2) a three-day session forpresentations from other partsof West Africa, and globalperspectives relevant to theWest African experience, to beconducted in English.The participants will be invitedresearchers, fishery managers,and representatives of non-governmental organizations(NGOs), notably ofconservation-orientated NGOs.The Symposium’s LocalOrganizing, Coordinating andScientific Committees arecomposed, among others, ofrepresentatives of the followinginstitutions: SIAP project; Sub-Regional Commission ofFisheries (CSRP, Dakar, Senegal);Centre for OceanographicResearch of Dakar-Thiaroye(CRODT), Dakar, Senegal;Institute for Research andDevelopment (IRD), France;Fisheries Committee for theCentral-eastern Atlantic(CECAF), Accra, Ghana; and TheSea Around Us Project.External support will be soughtto help fund various elementsof the symposium (translations,rentals, publications) and tosubsidise participants’ travellingexpenses. Various means ofdiffusing the symposium’sresults will be explored, inaddition to a complete set ofproceedings; and a special issueof a scientific journal.Another related activityrecently initiated by theSea Around Us Project isthe re-encoding of data fromthe famous Guinean TrawlingSurvey, conducted in 1963-64on the West African shelf, fromGambia in the Northwest toCongo in the Southeast This willmake available to West Africanand other researchers a datasetthat had been inaccessible fordecades, but also to provide abaseline for evaluating changesin ecosystems that were thenlargely unexploited.Contact us if you are interested. On August 20, 2001, theSea Around Us PI, DrDaniel Pauly, wasawarded the 2001 Oscar E. SetteAward. This award foroutstanding lifetimecontribution has beenpresented annually since 1991by the Marine Fisheries Sectionof the American FisheriesSociety. Past award winnersinclude, among others, LloydDickie, Douglas Chapman, SaulSaila, William C. Leggett, WilliamE. Ricker, and Edward D. Houde.Congratulations to Dr Paulyfrom everyone at the SeaAround Us Project!Future Plans - Continued from page 1 	The extent to which themarket for fish and fishproducts have beenglobalised has been so farinvestigated mainly bycomparing the prices of a giventype of fish in different parts ofthe world. For instance, Asheand Hannesson (in press)compared the prices ofdifferent forms of whitefish inEurope and North America.They found that prices of thesame product of whitefish are‘co-integrated’ not only amongEuropean countries but alsoacross the North Atlantic, toNorth America. They thereforeconcluded that the market forwhitefish is global, thusconfirming a preliminaryanalysis by Hannesson (1999).The degree of globalisation inthe trade for fish and fishproducts can be quantified bylooking at fisheries trade flowdata reported in FAO (2000).The basic hypothesis is thatfisheries trade is not global if alarge percentage of the value oflandings in each region of theworld remains within theregion. The converse wouldimply that world fisheries tradeis global.FAO (2000) reports data onfishery trade flows for 1995 to1997. Table 1 was extractedfrom the data therein, andpresents: (i) the total tradedvalue of fish caught in each of18 regions of the world, (ii) thepart of this value that remainswithin the region, and (iii) thepercentage of the total tradedvalue of catch that is exportedout of the regions.Overall, Table 1 shows that upto 77% of the total world tradedvalue of fish between 1995 and1997 were exported to regionsoutside of those that generatedthe catches. For all regions ofthe world except NorthAmerica, Eastern Europe andthe European Union (EU), over90 percent of the values ofcatch are exported. The EUexports about 20 percent oftheir catch values, while NorthAmerica exports just over 70percent. The developing regionsof the world, as expected,export very large percentagesof their fish values. In the caseof West Africa, for example,about 97 percent of fish valuesproduced in the region are!	"	#	$	Traded value % Outside regionRegions Total Within regionOceania (developing) 308 0.01 100Northwestern Africa 914 0.13 100Southern Asia 1,776 10.09 99Central America 1,493 29.72 98Western Europe (non-EU) 5,197 124.32 98Eastern Africa 587 17.78 97Western Africa 1,109 35.77 97Caribbean 346 14.43 96Central Africa 63 2.96 95Oceania 1,430 97.86 93China 4,978 364.68 93South America 5,880 450.01 92East and Southeast Asia 9,482 801.93 92Near-East 344 35.88 90Eastern Europe 311 40.75 87Northern America 6,046 1,670.76 72European Union 10,068 7,928.63 21Other regions 4,552 174.16 96Total  50,332  11,626 77Table 1: Trade values (average 1995-1997) by region of the world (US$ Million)Continued on page 4 -Fisheries Value 	The Pew OceansCommission has been setup in 2000 to study andreport on threats to livingresources in US waters and themeasures needed to restoreand sustain the health of themarine environment. TheCommission, composed ofleaders from business, science,government, and theconservation and fishingcommunities, includesmembers from all of the coastalregions of the USA and federal,state and local governmentalperspectives. The principalfocus of the Commission will beits report to Congresscontaining therecommendations of themembers that is scheduled forpublication in February 2002.In addition to preparing itsformal report, the Commissionalso works to increase publicunderstanding of the principalthreats to marine biodiversity,and to educate the publicabout the importance of coastalresources to the US economy.This is accomplished throughinterim papers and reportsissued by the Commission,extensive use of the Internetand other media, and throughregional hearings.One of these regional hearings,held in Rockland, Maine,provided an opportunity forDaniel Pauly, PrincipalInvestigator of the Sea AroundUs to present on June 12, 2001recent project results, notablymaps of fish biomass showing abroad and accelerating declineacross the North Atlantic.We hope that theCommission willsucceed in reining in,at least for the USA, the excessfishing effort that is causing thisdecline.	%&"	#%'		exported. These numbersindicate clearly that the marketfor fish and fish products areglobal.A comparison with a major foodcrop further stresses the pointmade here: only 4–5 percent ofglobal production of rice wastraded in the global marketfrom 1980 to 1995 (Maclean1997). The contrast with fish isglaring, even though thepercentage for rice refers totonnage, and the numbers inTable 1 to values.This simple analysis showsthat most of the valuesderived from fish caughtfrom various regions of theworld are exported. Weinterpret this to mean that themarket for fish and fishproducts are highly global. Theimplication of this conclusion isthat to deal with fisheriesproblems in an effective andcomprehensive manner, weneed global level studies offisheries to support global levelfisheries management policies.This if anything provides areason for the broadgeographical scope of the SeaAround Us project.References cited:Ashe, F. and R. Hannesson. Aglobal market for whitefish?In: U.R. Sumaila, M.Vasconcellos and R.Chuenpagdee(eds.)Proceedings of a Workshopon Markets, Global Fisheriesand Local DevelopmentBergen, Norway, 22-23March 1999 ACP – EUFisheries Research ReportNumber (in press).FAO 2000 Fishery trade flow(1995-1997) for selectedcountries and products. FAOFisheries Circular No. 961.FIDI/C961. p. 330.Hanneson, R. 1999.Globalisation of seafoodprices: some examples. p. 15-16 In:  D. Pauly, V. Christensenand L. Coelho (eds.). 1999.Proceedings of the ’98 EXPOConference on Ocean FoodWebs and EconomicProductivity, Lisbon,Portugal, 1-3 July 1998. ACP-EU Fisheries ResearchReport. 5.Maclean, J. (Editor). 1997 RiceAlmanac. International RiceResearch Institute. LosBaños, Philippines, p. 181.Fisheries Value -Continued from page 3...to dealwithfisheriesproblems inan effectiveandcomprehensivemanner, weneed globallevel studiesof fisheriesto supportglobal levelfisheriesmanagementpolicies.

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