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Sea Around Us project newsletter, issue 21, January/February 2004 Forrest, Robyn; Sea Around Us Project Jan 31, 2004

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SSSS Seeee e aaaa a     AAAA Arrrr r ouououou ounnnn ndddd d     UUUU Ussss sThe Sea Around Us Project NewsletterIssue 21 – January/February 2004A global assessment ofmarine protected areas: anew Sea Around Us initiativeby Louisa WoodOne of the maingoals of the SeaAround Us project isto devise policies thatmitigate and reverse thenegative impacts offisheries on marineecosystems globally.  Onesuch policy is theestablishment ofrepresentative networks oflarge marine protectedareas (MPAs; see e.g.  Paulyand Maclean 2003). WhileMPAs represent just one ofa suite of policiesconsidered necessary tohalt the current decline infish catches and biomass,and biodiversity as a whole,it is one that resonatesthrough the recentliterature and theinternational conservationcommunity.  Most recently,Recommendation 5.22 ofthe Fifth World ParksCongress (Vth WPC) held inDurban in September 2003was made to  “Greatlyincrease the marine andcoastal area managed inmarine protected areas by2012.  These networksshould be extensive andinclude strictly protectedareas that amount to at least20-30% of each habitat”(IUCN 2003).However, it is currentlyestimated that less than0.5% of the world’s marinehabitats are protected(Spalding and Chape, inpress).  This estimate isbased on the WorldDatabase on ProtectedAreas, WDPA, (maintainedby UNEP-WCMC1), the onlysource of global MPA data.However, this database isincomplete and so currentestimates are of limitedreliability.  In the absence ofan accurate global MPAbaseline, neitherinternational nor the SeaAround Us project’srecommendations can beimplemented. Cognizant ofthis, the 31st decision takenduring the CBD COP72 inFebruary 2004  “InvitesUNEP-WCMC, incollaboration with relevantorganizations andauthorities, to provide andmaintain up-to-dateinformation on marine andcoastal protected areas ...”A new collaboration,recently developedbetween the Sea Around Usproject, WWF, UNEP-WCMC,and IUCN-WCPA3, explicitlytakes up this invitation. Thisrelationship ispredominantly manifested asmy PhD project, whichbegan in September 2003.My PhD project has two mainaims:  firstly, to develop amore robust global MPAbaseline than currently existsfor either terrestrial ormarine protected areas;  andsecondly, to developalternative scenarios ofglobal MPA networks usingspatial modelling techniques.Achieving the first goalinvolves:1. Improving currentestimates of marine area andmarine habitat coverage ofMPAs;2. Assessing managementand governanceinfrastructure supportingMPAs;  and3. Performing otherdescriptive analyses of MPAsusing the Sea Around Usproject databases.The project is embeddedwithin a larger proposal byUNEP-WCMC to develop asustainable system for thecollation of accurate data,including detailed MPAecosystem information.  I ampresently implementing thefirst phase of this, which is tomake a series of  ‘broad-Continued on page 2 - MPAsPage 2Sea Around Us – January/February 2004The Sea Around Us project newsletter ispublished by the  Fisheries Centre at theUniversity of British Co-lumbia. Includedwith the FisheriesCentre’s newsletterFishBytes,six is-sues of this news-letter are pub-lished annually.Subscriptions arefree of charge.Our mailing address is: UBC Fisheries Cen-tre, Lower Mall Research Station, 2259 LowerMall, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada,V6T 1Z4. Our fax number is (604) 822-8934,and our email address isSeaNotes@fisheries.ubc.ca. All queries (in-cluding reprint requests), subscription re-quests, and address changes should be ad-dressed to Robyn Forrest, Sea Around UsNewsletter Editor.The Sea Around Us website may be foundat saup.fisheries.ubc.ca and contains up-to-date information on the project.The Sea Around Us project is a Fisheries Centre partner-ship with the Pew Charitable Trusts of Philadelphia,USA. The Trusts support nonprofit activities in the areasof culture, education, the environment, health and human serv-ices, public policy and religion. Based in Philadelphia, theTrusts make strategic investments to help organisations andcitizens develop practical solutions to difficult problems. In2000, with approximately $4.8 billion in assets, the Trustscommitted over $235 million to 302 nonprofit organisations.brush’ global updates.  Thesuccess of this initiative isclearly contingent on theavailability of, and access to,information.  The global scalenecessitates collaboration.Further collaborations(additional to that betweenSAUP, WWF, UNEP-WCMC andIUCN-WCPA) are beingdeveloped and / orinvestigated with relevantinternational (e.g. the RamsarConvention Secretariat, theUNESCO-MAB4 Secretariat, theUNESCO-WHC5 Secretariat, andthe CBD Secretariat), regionaland national organizations asappropriate (of which there aretoo many to list). Furthercollaborations are sought (pleasecontact me for details).In September 2003, I wasfortunate enough to attend theFifth World Parks Congress, inDurban, South Africa, where Iwas able to introduce andpromote the project, which wasalso recently introduced at CBDCOP7 by Marjo Vierros of theSecretariat of the CBD. Sinceacquiring the latest version ofWDPA in late December, I havebeen developing an MPAdatabase, based on the contentsof the WDPA and additionalsources. This work in progresswill be available for review andverification in the near future.For further details on thedatabase, the project as a whole,or your potential collaborationwith the project, please contactme (l.wood@fisheries.ubc.ca).AcknowledgementsThanks to Daniel Pauly and theSea Around Us project team forproviding a great workingenvironment. Thanks also toWWF Canada and International,particularly Josh Laughren andSimon Cripps, for financial andlogistical support during this firstyear of my PhD, to UNEP-WCMCfor technical support regardingWDPA, and to IUCN-WCPA foradditional support. Final thanksto Marjo Vierros and theSecretariat for the CBD for theirongoing support for the project.End notes1 The United NationsEnvironment Programme -World Conservation MonitoringCentre2 Seventh Meeting of theConference of the Parties to theConvention on BiologicalDiversity (CBD)3 World Conservation Union– World Commission on ProtectedAreas4 United Nations Educational,Scientific and CulturalOrganisation – Man and theBiosphere.5 United Nations Educational,Scientific and CulturalOrganisation – World HeritageConvention.ReferencesIUCN. 2003. Recommendations ofthe Vth IUCN World ParksCongress. World ConservationUnion, 85pp.Pauly, D. and J. Maclean 2003. In aPerfect Ocean. Washington,D.C., Island Press.Spalding, M. and S. Chape (eds). Inpress. State of the World’sProtected Areas. IUCN,UNEP-WCMC, WCPA.Fisherman at Bazaruto Archipelago MPA inMozambique.  Subsistence fishing by localcommunities is permitted.Photo by Colette Wabnitz.MPAs - Continued from page 1Furthercollaborationsare beingdevelopedand / orinvestigatedwithrelevantinternational,regional andnationalorganizationsPage 3 Sea Around Us – January/February 2004SPECIAL FEATURESEACUKES: a databaseby M.L. Deng Palomares, Vasiliki Karpouziand Daniel PaulyCITES has been consideringhow it might assist withmanaging theinternational trade in seacucumbers.  Partly as a result, seacucumbers became the firstgroup for which the Sea AroundUs project created a biodiversitydatabase. This database includestaxonomic and distributionalinformation on more than 1700nominal species (of which morethan 1400 are valid: Smiley 1994;Kerr and Kim 2001) of seacucumbers (Holothuroidea,Echinodermata) distributed inmore than 200 genera and 25families.Biology of sea cucumbersSea cucumbers belong to themarine invertebrate group ofEchinoderms  (Class:Holothuroidea) and inhabitbenthic environments fromshallow intertidal zones to thedepths of ocean ridges andtrenches (Kerr and Kim 2001).Species diversity for this groupincreases significantly towardsthe equatorial belt (Kerr etal.1993), though they occur fromthe Barents Sea to theAmundsen Sea off the coast ofAntarctica.Sea cucumbers  are slow-moving animals usually foundlying on the substrate,sometimes in sand or mudburrows. The shallow waterforms are also found in hardbottoms under crevices, beneathrock or stones or among algae,notably near large macroalgalholdfasts (Rupert and Barnes1991).  A few pelagic speciesoccur in the deep and/oroffshore seas (Miller and Pawson1990). Their modified mouths,consisting of a circle of tentacles,filter suspended particles in thewater or sweep the bottom fordeposited particles.The use of sea cucumbersSea cucumbers, consumed dried,raw, boiled or pickled, have longbeen exploited in Southeast Asiaand the South Pacific. Early 19thcentury explorers observedMalay fishers harvesting seacucumbers in the Timor Islands(Peron 1807-1816) and tradersin the Northern Territory ofAustralia processing ‘trepang’(Dumont d’Urville 1841-1854).Available estimates of bêche-de-mer (the dried form of trepang;see Robertson et al. 1987)exported from Fiji to China in1828-1852 amounted to 1000-1500 t per year (Dalzell 1998;Ward 1972).  Adams (1988)suggested that these stockswere depleted when recordsshowed that a fleet of 100canoes harvested only 32 t in1852.Conand and Byrne (1993)suggest that sea cucumberfisheries are based on only about12 species from two familiesand 5 genera. However, this isprobably an underestimate dueto the species not beingdifferentiated out by fishers,exporters and importers. There isgrowing concern about theexploitation of sea cucumbers asthe bulk of populations are slowgrowing, slow moving animals,subject to ‘boom and bust’fisheries.  As a consequence,management of internationaltrade in sea cucumbers will bediscussed at a CITES technicalworkshop in Malaysia in March2004.Coverage of sea cucumberbiodiversity in the Sea AroundUs project databaseData on sea cucumbers havebeen gathered over a period of4 months in an Access database .The data included here wereextracted from over 100published sources and thenames were checked againstthe Integrated TaxonomicInformation System (http://www.itis.usda.gov/) and thespecies database of UNEP/WCMC (www.unep-wcmc.org/species/index.htm).      Table 1presents a comparison of thecoverage of our database withthat in Kerr (2000). Based onthese figures, we can assumethat our sea cucumber databasecovers the bulk of species so fardescribed worldwide.An important aspect of thisexercise was assigning theoccurrence of species tocountries and FAO fisheriesstatistical zones. We were ableto assign 720 species from 145genera and 24 families to 150countries using the over 2100occurrence records extractedfrom more than 30 publishedsources (mostly local checklistsand reports of speciesContinued on page 4 - Cucumbers[Seacucumbers]became thefirst groupfor whichthe SeaAround Usprojectcreated abiodiversitydatabasePage 4Sea Around Us – January/February 2004Cucumbers - Continued from page 3 fisheries. Marine FisheriesReview 55(4):1-13.Dalzell, P. 1998. The role ofarchaeological and cultural-historical records in long-range coastal fisheriesresources managementstrategies and policies in thePacific Islands. Ocean andCoastal Management 40:237-252.Dumont d’Urville, Jules. 1841-1854. Voyage au Pôle Sud etdans l’Océanie, sur lescorvettes l’Astrolabe et laZélée … exécuté par ordre duroi pendant les années 1837,1838, 1839 et 1840. AtlasZoologique. 2 Volumes. 42 f.de pl. tout en cartes. Gide,Paris.Kerr, A.M. and J. Kim. 2001.Phylogeny of Holothuroidea(Echinodermata) inferred frommorphology. ZoologicalJournal of the LinnaeanSociety 133:63-81.Kerr, A.M., E.L. Stoffell and R.L.Yoon. 1993. Abundancedistribution of holothuroids(Echinodermata:Holothuroidea) on a windwardand leeward fringing coralreef, Guam, Mariana Islands.Bulletin of Marine Science52:780-791.Miller, J.E. and D.L. Pawson.1990. Swimming seacucumbers (Echinodermata:Holothuroidea): a survey, withanalysis of swimmingoccurrences at a particularlocality). These countries occur in19 of the 21 fisheries/maritimezones categorized by the FAO.Table 2 presents a preliminaryanalysis of this dataset andshows that sea cucumbers areconcentrated in FAO areas 71(Western Central Pacific) and 27(Northern Eastern Atlantic). Table2 also implies that about 51% ofsea cucumber species occur intropical and sub-tropical zones,e.g., FAO areas 31, 34, 37, 51, 57,71 and 77. This leaves about 29%in northern waters, 6% insouthern waters, and just over3% in Arctic and Antarctic seas.These results, therefore,corroborate earlier statementsthat the bulk of sea cucumberbiodiversity occurscircumglobally along the tropicalbelt (see Conand and Byrne1993).Lessons learnedThis exercise was initially achallenge  to create a‘geographically enhanced’ globaltaxonomic database for a groupof species. Given that mostlibraries are now searchablethrough the Internet and thatmany locality-specific Internetresources are freely available,gathering the informationrequired for such a database wasstraightforward. Thus, we weresuccessful in creating asearchable biodiversity databasewith the minimum information onscientific and English local namesand in assigning these species tocountries and FAO areas. As statedabove, we can claim that we havecovered all described species ofsea cucumbers and that we haveincluded the bulk of scientificliterature dealing with theoccurrence of these species indifferent countries and FAO areas.We are currently working onincluding additional informationon the habitat (type of bottom,depth), biology (growthparameters and natural mortality)and catch statistics (by countryand also including import andexport values). The database willalso be regularly updated.  Thus,we would appreciate inputs fromcolleagues who might haveliterature which we still haven’tprocessed (note that we are alsokeeping hard copies of all thereferences we have so far usedand would appreciate receivingprint or pdf copies of additionalreferences).AcknowledgementsWe would like to thank DrAmanda Vincent  for encouragingus to undertake  this project.ReferencesAdams, T. 1988. The disappearingdri. Fiji Times, 28 July 1988. Conand, C. and M. Byrne. 1993. Areview of recent developmentsin the world sea cucumberTable 1. Number of sea cucumber species by Order obtained from the Sea Around Us project’s databasecompared to estimates reported by Kerr (2000).SubclassApodaceaApodaceaAspidochirotaceaAspidochirotaceaDendrochirotaceaDendrochirotaceaOrderApolidaMolapdiidaAspidochirotidaElasipodidaDactylochirotidaDendrochirotidaTotalsThisstudy27084404104385701470Kerr(2000)26995340141355501430SpeciesThisstudy33172725879189GeneraKerr(2000)32113524790199Thisstudy34353725FamilesKerr(2000)34353725Continued on page 5 - CucumbersThis exercisewas initiallya challengeto create a‘geo-graphicallyenhanced’globaltaxonomicdatabase forone groupof speciesPage 5 Sea Around Us – January/February 2004Table 2. Distribution of over 2100 records ofsea cucumber species assigned to countriesincluded in the Sea Around Us database byFAO fisheries statistical areas.Cucumbers - Continued from page 4Quantitative Ecosystem Indicators forFisheries ManagementThe programme for theInternational Symposium,“Quantitative EcosystemIndicators for FisheriesManagement” (March 31 - April 4,2004, Paris, France) has nowbeen finalized(www.ecosystemindicators.org/program.htm).   This importantsymposium aims to reviewexisting indicators that have beendeveloped to support ecosystemapproaches to managing fisheries(e.g. mean trophic level oflandings),  as well as to developnew indicators reflecting theexploitation and state of marineecosystems. It is also aimed atevaluating the utility of indicatorsrelative to specific objectives.     Several members of the SeaAround Us team will attend. VillyChristensen is one of the two co-convenors of the symposium (withPhilippe Cury of the Centre deRecherche HalieutiqueMéditerranéenne et Tropicale,France).  Villy will present a jointpaper with Carl Walters, entitled“Ecosystem structure erosionunder myopic management”,which shows, through the use ofecosystem models that havebeen calibrated with long-termhistorical datasets, thatwidespread application of single-species MSY policies would ingeneral cause severedeterioration in ecosystemstructure, in particular loss of mosttop predator species.Daniel Pauly will present twopapers:  “Mapping indicators ofthe state of the world’s marineecosystems” and, with DengPalomares, “A biodiversity-baseddata quality indicator for fisheriescatch statistics and its socio-economic correlates”.  Sea AroundUs project graduate student,Vasiliki Karpouzi, with Reg Watsonand Daniel Pauly, will present theresults of her research on “Seabirdpopulation dynamics as indicatorsof ecosystem change”.The Paris Symposium representsthe final meeting for theIntergovernmentalOceanographic Commission/Scientific Committee onOceanographic Research (IOC/SCOR) Working Group 119, thefirst of which was “QuantitativeEcosystem Indicators for FisheriesManagement” held inReykjavik, Iceland in 2001(seewww.ecosystemindicators.org/wg/reykjavik/wg119report1001.pdf).  The objective of the WorkingGroup is to develop theory toevaluate changes in marineecosystems (both states andprocesses) from environmental,ecological and fisheriesperspectives.Thesymposiumaims toreviewexistingindicatorsthat havebeendevelopedas well as todevelopnewindicatorsbehavior in four bathyalspecies. SmithsonianContributions to MarineScience 35:1-18.Péron, F. 1807-1816. Voyage dedécouverte aux Terresaustrales, exécuté par ordrede Sa Majesté l’Empereur etRoi, sur les corvettes leGéographe, le Naturaliste, etla goélette la Casuarina,pendant des années 1800,1801, 1802, 1803 et 1804 ;sous le commandement duCapitaine de Vaisseau N.Baudin. ImprimerieImpériale, Paris. Vol. 1, 1807 ;Vol. 2, 1816. Atlas: Vol. 1, byC.A. Lesueur and N.M. Petit,1807; Vol. 2 by L. Freycinet,1811.Robertson, G.W., C. Hotton andJ.H. Merritt. 1987. DryingAtlantic sea cucumber.Infofish Marketing Digest3:36-38.Rupert, E.E. and R.D.Barnes. 1991.Invertebrate zoology.6th Ed. SaundersCollege Publishing.USA. 1056 p. +indices.Smiley, S. 1994.Holothuroidea, p. 401-471. In: F.W. Harrisonand F.S. Chia (eds.)Microscopic anatomyof invertebrates.Volume 14.Echinodermata.Wiley-Liss. New York.Ward, R.G. 1972. ThePacific bêche-de-mertrade with specialreference to Fiji, p. 91-123. In: R.G. Ward (ed.)Main in the PacificIslands. OxfordUniversity Press.Oxford.18212731343741474851575861677177818788-FAO AreaArctic SeaAtlantic, NorthwestAtlantic, NortheastAtlantic, Western CentralAtlantic, Eastern CentralMediterranean and Black SeaAtlantic, SouthwestAtlantic, SoutheastAtlantic, AntarcticIndian Ocean, WesternIndian Ocean, EasternIndian Ocean, AntarcticPacific, NorthwestPacific, NortheastPacific, Western CentralPacific, Eastern CentralPacific, SouthwestPacific, SoutheastPacific, AntarcticUnassignedSpecies250431741562074392910980307959333130313611243Page 6Sea Around Us – January/February 2004Darwin’s Fishes: the writing ofa lost bookby Daniel PaulyCharles Darwin (1809 -1882), as we all know,wrote numerous bookson particular groups oforganisms: barnacles, orchids,earthworms - but never onfishes. Hence, I have assembleda new book, titled Darwin’sFishes: an Encyclopedia ofIchthyology, Ecology andEvolution out of scatteredquotes ‘lost’ in the many worksof Darwin.     Darwin’s Fishes documentseverything ever written byDarwin on fishes and closelyrelated groups. Entries wereextracted from Darwin’s books,his short publications, hisnotebooks and that part of hiscomplete correspondence nowpublished.  An appendix byJacqueline McGlade presentsDarwin’s list of “Fishes in Spiritsof Wine”, so far unpublished,while two other appendicespresent Darwin’s fishes in theNatural History Museum(London) and Zoology(Cambridge University)museums.  The text extractedfrom Darwin’s works wasmatched against his sources andthen complemented by entriesthat provide a modern contextfor ideas discussed by Darwin.     Overall, quotes comprisingabout 45, 000 words wereextracted, contributing over onethird of this book.  Given theextent of Darwin’s writing (wellover six million words), thisindicates a limited interest infishes.  However, the sample of0.7% of Darwin’s entire writtenoutput analyzed here allowedme to draw a number ofinferences that are missed inmany conventional biographies.Examples are the high accuracyof Darwin’s citations of hissources, his mining for andsystematic re-publication ofinformation relevant to NaturalSelection and the high successrate of his many hypotheses.     You have to like fishes or beinterested in Darwin (preferablyboth) to find this exciting. But itwas fun tracking all this stuffdown and writing it up!     Darwin’s Fishes (2004, 359pp.) is published by CambridgeUniversity Press.One of the aims of the SeaAround Us project is tobe able to provide speciesinformation for any specificcountry’s EEZ and to producemaps of individual species’ distrib-ution (www.seaaroundus.org/default.htm). So far marine,freshwater and threatened fisheshave been listed as well ascephalopods. Marine mammals,seabirds and marine reptiles aresoon to be added to the existingdatabase. The marine reptiledatabase, which relies in part ondata in the EMBL Reptile Database(www.embl-heidelberg.de/~uetz/LivingReptiles.html),encompasses data for 1 species ofmarine crocodile, 1species ofmarine iguana, 7 species ofmarine turtles (with 11 sub-species) and 175 species of seasnakes.    The distribution of Crocodylusporosus  stretches throughoutthe Eastern Indo-Pacific region,whilst Amblyrhynchus cristatus,the Galapagos marine iguana, asits name points out, is only foundon the Galapagos Islands.Although one can encounter seasnakes in South America,Madagascar and the Middle Eastmost species are to be found inthe Eastern Indo Pacific region,with the highest diversity foundin Australia. Marine turtles on theother hand enjoy a circumglobaland subtropical or tropicaldistribution (with the exceptionof the flatback turtle, Natatordepressus, only found inAustralia).     For all species collectively, thegreatest number of species is, byfar, to be found in Australia (140),followed by Papua New Guinea(52), Indonesia (48), Thailand (28),Sri Lanka (28), India (27) andMalaysia (20).     Sea turtles have been listed asendangered under the 2000 IUCNRed List, with the exception ofleatherback, Kemp’s ridley as wellas hawksbill turtles listed ascritically endangered and flatbackturtles listed as data deficient.Both the sea iguana and the seasnake species Laticauda crockerihave been listed asvulnerable under Red Listcriteria.The marine reptile databaseby Colette Wabnitz... it wasfuntrackingall thisstuffdown andwriting itup!


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