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Sea Around Us project newsletter, issue 14, November/December 2002 Forrest, Robyn; Sea Around Us Project Nov 30, 2002

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Sea Around UsThe Sea Around Us Project NewsletterIssue 14 – November/December 2002										Bonaire began as anunderwater boil ofmagma 90 millionyears ago but emerged 30million years later, when itstarted to acquire aterrestrial fauna and flora,with many species soonevolving into endemics.The island appears not tohave been peopled prior tothe arrival of Europeans. Ofthese, the Dutch were themost tenacious,incorporating Bonaire intothe few specks of land thatconstitute the NetherlandsAntilles, where divingtourism, and resourceextraction (marine salt inBonaire), or transformation(oil refining in Curaçao),have replaced the slaveeconomy of old.This year, the Pew Fellowsin Marine Conservationhad their annual meetingin Bonaire.  As a member ofthe Pew Fellows Program’sAdvisory Committee, I hadthe privilege of spending afew October days on thatisolated island, 80kilometres north ofVenezuela’s coast (seemap).After starting with a tributeto the late RobertJohannes (a 1993 PewFellow) and keynotelecture by Jeremy Jackson,based on his much-citedarticle in Science (Jacksonet al. 2001), the meetingwent on with fourconcurrent workshops:1)  “Maneuvering the mazeof international treatiesand agreements”, organizedby fellow Advisory MemberCyriaque Sendashonga, ofthe Secretariat of theConvention on BiologicalDiversity;2)  “Community-basedfisheries management”, byKalli de Meyer of The CoralReef Alliance(www.coral.org);3)  “Communication ofresults”, by Nancy Baron ofSeaWeb (www.seaweb.org);and4)  “Action for the ocean”,run by Amanda Vincent ofthe Fisheries Centre (seethis month’s issue ofFishBytes), and devoted toidentifying potential jointactivities by Pew Fellows.Each of the workshoporganizers had brought aninteresting group ofresource persons. Forexample, in workshopNumber Three, which Iattended, Nancy Baron hadinvited a stellar group ofscience journalists,including Cornelia Dean,Science Editor at the NewYork Times.  It was quite alearning experience to hearthe presentations andmock-interviewsdocumenting how ourprejudices as scientists, andour inability to seeourselves as others maysee us (caveat-ridden andnerdic) often stand in theway of getting a worthymessage across.The plenary reports anddiscussions, held a daylater, showed that the otherthree workshops had beenworthwhile as well. Henceeverybody’s interest in thesubsequent event, meantto address the relationbetween ‘Science’ and‘Advocacy.’ The speakersfeatured Ray Hilborn, of theUniversity of Washington’sContinued on page 2 - BonaireThe tiny island of Bonaire is located80 km north of VenezuelaThe Sea Around Us project newsletter ispublished by the  Fisheries Centre at the Uni-versity of British Colum-bia. Included withthe Fisheries Cen-tre’s newsletterFishBytes,six is-sues of this news-letter are pub-lished annually.Subscriptions arefree of charge.Our mailing address is: UBC Fisheries Cen-tre, 2204 Main Mall, Vancouver, British Co-lumbia, Canada, V6T 1Z4. Our fax number is(604) 822-8934, and our email address isSeaNotes@fisheries.ubc.ca. All queries (in-cluding reprint requests), subscription re-quests, and address changes should be ad-dressed to Robyn Forrest, Sea Around UsNewsletter Editor.The Sea Around Us website may be foundat saup.fisheries.ubc.ca and contains up-to-date information on the project.The Sea Around Us project is a Fisheries Centre partner-ship with the Pew Charitable Trusts of Philadelphia,USA. The Trusts support nonprofit activities in the areas ofculture, education, the environment, health and human serv-ices, public policy and religion. Based in Philadelphia, the Trustsmake strategic investments to help organisations and citizensdevelop practical solutions to difficult problems. In 2000, withapproximately $4.8 billion in assets, the Trusts committed over$235 million to 302 nonprofit organisations.Even smallfisheries candamagecoral reefs ...but nothingof this sortcan do thedamage thatEU fleetswouldSchool of Aquatic and FisheriesScience, and three Pew Fellowsincluding our own Carl Walters.This séance, in which we werewarned of the perils ofcommitment, was, however, abit of a letdown. Colleagueshave been too often dismissedas ‘advocates’ because theywere picking up inconvenientissues, while those in favor ofthe status quo tended to bepresented as dispassionateproponents of the facts. Oneexample of an outstanding andcommitted scientist given thetreatment was Rachel Carson,the author of the book afterwhich the Sea Around Us projectis named. Thus, I am pleased tosay that I did not participate inthat specific discussion - itreminded me too closely ofthose debates where the first toemploy the rhetorical ploy ofcalling the other “emotional”wins.  This leaves the one sonamed to scream in rage thathe or she is NOT BEINGEMOTIONAL!!!Rather, I joined a group of PewFellows who had offered todiscuss, with our colleaguesfrom Bonaire, the major issuesfacing the island’s marine parkand fisheries:   - The gradual erosion of thelive coral cover and (large) fishabundance on the reefs, bothkey to the success of theSCUBA-diving dependenttourist sector; and   - The current negotiationsbetween Bonaire’s localgovernment and the EuropeanUnion, the result of an EUattempt to acquire access rightsfor Spanish fishing vessels.It was a pleasure (but not asurprise) to see Pew FellowCallum Roberts lay out the casefor the creation of a marinereserve as a tool to address thefirst of these issues, although Imust mention that I also madea convincing case for the needto estimate present catchesfrom the reefs (no, the BonaireMarine Park authorities do notknow how much is presentlytaken out by the commercialand subsistence fisheries fromthe reefs and marine parksurrounding the island, and byrecreational fisheries furtheroffshore).The point is that, one fish at atime, even small fisheries can dogreat damage to coral reefs.Indeed, the feral goats anddonkeys have done just that onland, through centuries ofuncontrolled grazing, graduallyturning Bonaire’s flatcountryside into a likeness of aninner-city vacant lot. Similarly,sport-fishing for billfish andmarlin can deplete nearbyfishing as surely as acommercial long line fishery,though it usually takes longerto get there.However, nothing of this sortcan do the damage that EUfleets roaming in the BonaireExclusive Fishing Zone would.The prospect of this happeningmay have been diminished a bitby Pew Fellow RodrigoBustamante’s account of foreignfleet activities in the watersaround the Galápagos Islands(another national park, by theway). My account of the effectsof foreign fleets off West Africamay have also helped there,especially as it came with aBonaire - Continued from page 1Continued on page 3 - BonaireThe late Bob Johannes,  with Daniel Pauly,at last year’s Pew Fellows Annual Meeting inNova Scotia,  and to whom this year’smeeting in Bonaire was dedicated.Photo by Amanda Vincent 				G46		 		!"#During the first two-yearphase of the Sea AroundUs project (1999-2000),we focused extensively on theNorth Atlantic. While the projecthas since expanded its regionalfocus, our previouscollaborative involvements inthe North Atlantic region(Guénette et al. 2001; Zeller etal. 2001) continue to haveinteresting ‘after-shocks’. ThusVilly Christensen and Dirk Zellerreceived an invitation from the‘Fiskirannsóknarstovan’(Fisheries Laboratory) of theFaroe Island government toparticipate in a fully sponsoredworkshop on ecosystemmodelling of Faroese waters,held in the Faroese capitalTórshavn in September, 2002. Awide range of people wereinvited, includingrepresentatives from ICES/GLOBEC, Trondhjem BiologicalStation (Norway), NansenEnvironmental and RemoteCentre (Norway), University ofRostock (Germany), StationZoologique de Villefranche-sur- Continued on page 4 - Faroe IslandsBonaire -  Continued from page 2scary Powerpoint presentationfeaturing Villy Christensen’smaps of declining fish biomassoff West Africa (see Pauly 2002),and the key points of EU-WestAfrican agreements (extractedfrom Kaczynski and Fluharty2001).The people of Bonaire do notwant EU fleets in their waters,and the information providedshould help support theirposition in the next round ofBonaire-EU negotiations –which brings us back to theissue of the wall betweenscience and advocacy. Clearly,scientists should not jump overit - there are lots of strong, nastycharacters on the other side,and one of them, say Goliath,may decide to cut off ourcredibility and who knows whatelse.  But nothing shouldprevent us from passing a fewpebbles over to the occasionalDavid. That much I learnt inBonaire.References     Anon. 2002. Opinion: good forthe Antilles, but bad for Bonaire.The Bonaire Reporter. October 11-18, 2002.     Jackson, J.B.C., M.X. Kirby, W.H.Berger, K.A. Bjorndal, L.W. Rotsford,B.J. Bourque, R. Cooke, J.A. Estes, T.P.Hughes, S. Kidwell, C.B. Lange, H.S.Lenihan, J.M. Pandolfi, C.H.Peterson, R.S. Steneck, M.J. Tegner,and R.R. Warner. 2001. Historicaloverfishing and the recent collapseof coastal ecosystems. Science. 293:629-638.     Kaczynski, V.M. and D. L. Fluharty2001. European policies in WestAfrica: who benefits from fisheriesagreements. Marine Policy. 26.:75-93.     Pauly, D. 2002. A Symposium withResults. Sea Around Us Newsletter12, August/September 2002: 1-4.Commercialandsubsistencefisheriesplay asignificantrole inFaroeseculture andsocietyMer (France), and Departmentof Fisheries and Oceans (DFO,Canada). The purpose of theworkshop was to bring togetherexpertise on ecosystems,modelling, and on the Faroemarine environment. It was alsoan opportunity to present anddiscuss Faroese ecosystems,identify gaps in knowledge ofimportance for modelling theFaroese ecosystems and toformulate projects to fill thesegaps.The Faroes, located in thenortheastern Atlantic betweenScotland and Iceland, consist ofa group of 18 islands inhabitedby approximately 46,000people and covering about1,400 km2. However, the FaroeIslands have responsibility forthe marine resources in an EEZof over 270,000 km2. Fishingrepresents the majorcommercial activity, accountingfor over 95% of exports andover 44% of GDP.  Furthermore,both commercial andsubsistence fisheries play asignificant role in Faroeseculture and society. Thegovernment utilizes a spatial-and effort-based system ofmanagement for their demersalfisheries, and explicitlyincorporates ecosystemconsiderations in their policies.Given the importance of fishingto the Faroe economy andculture, considerable interesthas been expressed in theevaluation of thesemanagement measures at theecosystem level, and hence thisevent.The workshop consisted of twodays of presentations, followedby one day of workingsubgroup sessions and forumdiscussion. On the first day, localscientists presented generaloverviews of Faroese watersand their ecosystems, and theavailable data sets. Thesepresentations covered topicsranging from physicaloceanography, planktonic andbenthic studies, through$Faroe  Islands - Continued from page 3The localorganizingcommitteeundertookan excellenteffort inexposing wevisitors to asmany localcustoms,delicaciesand vistas aspossiblesummaries of fish assemblages,all the way up the marine foodweb to seabirds and marinemammals (both of which arehunted for local consumption).On the second day, the invitedexperts gave presentations ontheir area ofexpertise, withemphasis on theFaroe Islandecosystems. Thesepresentationsincluded topics suchas:  fronts and frontaldynamics (KenDrinkwater, DFO);primary productionin the Nordic Seas(Egil Sakshaug,Trondhjem BiologicalStation); a review ofmodellingzooplanktondynamics torepresent matter flowto higher trophiclevels (FrancoisCarlotti, StationZoologique); threedimensionalmodelling ofzooplanktondistribution(Wolfgang Fennel, University ofRostock); climate change in theAtlantic-Arctic region (HelgeDrange, Nansen Environmentaland Remote Center); review ofecosystem linkages that maymatter in management (JakeRice, DFO); and environmentalinfluences on the Faroe codstock and comparisons withother cod stocks (Keith Brander,GLOBEC). The Sea Around Uspresentations focused on ouruse of and experience withEcopath with Ecosim as anecosystem modelling tool. VillyChristensen presented anoverview of the use of Ecopathwith Ecosim modellingapproaches for ecosystembased management of fisheries,based on our work in the NorthAtlantic (Guénette et al. 2001;Christensen et al. 2002). DirkZeller presented hisexperiences in modelling theFaroe marine ecosystem usingthe Ecospace routine based onhis collaborative work with theFaroe Fisheries scientist JákupReinert (Zeller and Freire 2001;Zeller and Reinert in review).The outcome of this workshopwas very positive from theperspective of the Sea AroundUs project, as the Director of theFaroe Fisheries Laboratory, HjaltiJákupsstovu, expressed a stronginterest in continuing andpossibly expanding acollaboration devoted tofurther refining the existingEcopath, Ecosim and Ecospacemodel applications to the FaroeIslands.Besides the interesting anddiverse presentations andprofessional interactionsamong all participants, the localorganizing committeeundertook an excellent effort inexposing we visitors to as manylocal customs, delicacies(including whale meat!) andvistas as possible, through anexcellent after-hours socialprogram. Clearly, the socialhighlight of this workshop wasa memorable dinner followedby lessons in traditional Faroedances and songs, held in oneof the oldest houses in theFaroes (dating back to wellbefore 800 A.D.). This eveningwas well attended byparticipants and workshopsponsors, as well as the FaroeMinister of Fisheries. Indeed,rarely do scientists get theopportunity to dancetraditional dances arm in armwith a cabinet member,especially one who can sing!References     Christensen V., Guénette S.,Heymans J.J., Walters C.J., WatsonR., Zeller D., Pauly D. 2002. Hundred-year decline of North Atlanticpredatory fishes. Fish and Fisheries,in press.     Guénette S., Christensen V., PaulyD. 2001. Fisheries Impacts on NorthAtlantic Ecosystems: Models andAnalyses. Fisheries Centre ResearchReports 9(4). Fisheries Centre,University of British Columbia,Vancouver, 344 pp.     Zeller D., Freire K. 2001. Apreliminary North-East Atlanticmarine ecosystem model: FaroeIslands and ICES Area Vb. In:S.Guénette, V. Christensen, D. Pauly(eds) Fisheries Impacts on NorthAtlantic Ecosystems: Models andAnalyses. Fisheries Centre ResearchReports 9(4), pp 207-212.     Zeller D., Reinert, J. (in review)Modelling spatial closures andfishing effort restrictions in theFaroe Islands marine ecosystem.Ecological Modelling.     Zeller D., Watson R., Pauly D.2001. Fisheries Impacts on NorthAtlantic Ecosystems: Catch, Effortand National/Regional Data SetsFisheries Centre Research Reports9(3). Fisheries Centre, University ofBritish Columbia, Vancouver,254 pp.Images from the Faroe Islands. The harbour at Torshavn (top) -small boats nearly outnumber the population on the FaroeIslands.  The islands are renowned for dramatic landscapessuch as this (bottom), with villages depending on a mix offishing and farming.                           Photos by Villy Christensen% 				&	In the last newsletter (Issue13) Daniel Pauly introducedthe Millennium Assessment(MA) and its activities. Needlessto say it has not taken long forthe Sea Around Us project toquickly involve itself in MAactivities. The Second GlobalScenarios Workshop for theMillennium Assessment washeld in Bangkok from October 7to October 11, with meattending on behalf of the SeaAround Us project. Theworkshop had an auspiciousstart with a deluge of morningrain combined with a king tidecreating flood conditionsaround our hotel andreinforcing what might happenin the future if policy makers donot take action to maintain ourecosystems globally.The “Scenarios” working group’srole is to assess the impact onecosystem service delivery inthe coming decades, underdifferent sets of interventionoptions. The second meetingwas:i) to define the differentintervention scenarios;ii) to identify the models thatcould be used to assess thesescenarios; andiii) to determine how thesescenarios could be quantifiedusing key indicators.The three objectives of themeeting sound very daunting.However, the members of thegroup that assembled inBangkok were experts in theirfields and they came with acommitment to further theworking group’s efforts. Theworkshop broke into two majorcamps: the scenario-buildersand the model-builders – withboth camps exchanging ideasand discussing issues in plenarysessions. This proved to be avery efficient approach.The number of scenarios wasreduced to four, based on thetime and resources available tomembers of the working group.The four scenarios representthe spectrum of plausiblefuture storylines ranging from“Learn and Leap” (whereadaptive learning dominatesand traditional knowledge isincorporated) at one end of thespectrum to “Techno-garden”(where technology dominatesand the role of the environmentis weakened) at the other end.In between we have “EconomicOptimism” (where ecosystemmanagement is crises-drivenand reactive, not proactive, butthere is a high capacity torespond) and “Elites” (wheredeveloped nations protect theirinterest through inequitablepolicies and property rights andwith little regard for the needsand interests outside of theirown region). The workshop alsoidentified some keyassumptions such as humanpopulations will continue togrow but will level out later thiscentury. The number ofassumptions was kept small toallow greater flexibility withinthe groups to explore thescenarios presented.Model-builders spent much ofthe week identifying the driversand ecosystems that could bemodeled and what modeledoutcomes are needed toprovide key indicators forquantification of the scenarios.The groupwere expertsin their fieldsand theycame with acommitmentto further theworkinggroup’seffortsIt was interesting to learn aboutthe range of models and theirapplications currently in usethroughout the world. It wasalso interesting to note what iscurrently modelled (e.g. foodconsumption for a range ofcereal crops and water flows)and what is not modelled (e.g.water quality).A small group of the model-builders developed a conceptto link biodiversity, area andecosystem services. We are nowdeveloping the concept andwill test it over the next fewmonths, so watch this space foran update on its progress. In themeantime, the Sea Around Usproject will be attending the“Conditions and Trends”working group meeting in SaoCarlos, Brazil in November and Ihope to report on that in thenext newsletter. Plans are alsounderway for the Sea Around Usproject to host a MillenniumAssessment workshop for the“Marine and Coastal Conditions”working group in April of nextyear.#'#"(				We have just received correspondencefrom Mr G. DeSalvo, of the BonaireNature Alliance, informing us that thestatistics and advice provided by theparticipants of the Pew Fellowsmeeting has been an important factorin the Bonaire majority party’s decisionto reverse its stand on allowing foreignfishers into the Netherlands AntillesExclusive Fishery Zone. Mr DeSalvohails this as “a victory for ourenvironment” and thanks us on behalfof the Bonaire Nature Alliance and allsupporters of sustainable fishing inBonaire’s waters.                 Daniel Pauly)#	 	!"#$%						&		'( *+,-	We are pleased toannounce thecompletion of our CD-ROM,  The Marine Ecosystems ofthe Northwest African Subregion,which was designed to helpimplement findings of theInternational Symposium onMarine Fisheries, Ecosystems andSocieties in West Africa: Half aCentury of Change (see SeaAround Us newsletter, Issue 12).The CD-ROM was prepared byme, Deng Palomares, with theassistance of other members ofthe Sea Around Us project andfunding from the EU-NorthwestAfrican ‘SIAP Project’. Amongthe important features of thisbilingual (French/English) CD-ROM are:i)   Comprehensive regional andnational lists of marine fishes,incorporating the results of the‘FishBase Module’ of the SIAPproject (i.e., covering the sevenmember countries of the NWAfrican subregion, andproviding common names invarious local languages);ii)  Ecopath models,incorporating the results of the‘Ecopath Module’ of the SIAPproject, for the continentalshelves of the membercountries, most covering twotime periods with differentecosystem structures andbiomasses;iii)  Time-series of FAO catches(1950-2000) allocated to EEZs ofWest African countries fromMorocco to South Africa, usinga procedure developed by DrReg Watson and colleagues ofthe Sea Around Us project, as acontribution to the ‘StatBaseModule’ of the SIAP project;iv)  The raw data and fulldocumentation of the ‘GuineanTrawling Survey’ (1963-1964), asa contribution to the ‘TrawlBaseModule’ of the SIAP project;v)   Powerpoint presentations ofselected contributionspresented during theInternational Symposium onMarine Fisheries, Ecosystems andSocieties in West Africa: Half aCentury of Change; andvi)   Selected documentation ofthe fisheries of the subregion, inboth French and English.This CD-ROM went through anexhaustive pre-distributiontesting cycle (S. Booth, M.L.D.Palomares and D. Zeller for theEnglish version,  and L.Morissette and D. Pauly for theFrench version) and multimediaproduction phase (CindyYoung).For a copy of this CD-ROM,please contact me(m.palomares@fisheries.ubc.ca ).For more information about theDakar Symposium, please seehttp://saup.fisheries.ubc.ca/Dakar/index.htm.Continuing on a wave of recent high-profile publications, including two co-authored papers in Nature (Watson andPauly 2001; Pauly et al 2002) and a personal profile in Science (Malakoff 2002), Daniel Pauly has once again brought theSea Around Us project and its goals to the attention of the world. This time, his perspectives on issues of marineconservation appear prominently in a special feature in Nature (Schiermeier 2002), which highlights the current failureof the world’s fisheries scientists and managers to halt the unsustainable practices of today’s fishing fleets. Drawing onthe opinions of fisheries experts from around the world, the article covers the key issues facing contemporary fisheriesdecision-makers, including the need to reduce effort and set aside protected areas, while fostering better dialoguebetween fishers, scientists and the public. The current global debate and growing awareness about the state of theworld’s fisheries has been fuelled in part by the work of the Sea Around Us project and we are glad that Nature haschosen to pick up the issue in recent months. We hope that this is a continuing trend that will eventually lead to actionon the part of those with the power to bring about change.ReferencesMalakoff, D. 2002 Going to the Edge to Protect the Sea. Science 296, 458-461.Pauly, D., V. Christensen, S. Guénette, T. J. Pitcher, U. R. Sumaila, C. J. Walters, R. Watson, D. Zeller 2002.  Towards sustainability in world       fisheries Nature 418, 689-695.Schiermeier, Q. 2002. How many more fish in the sea? Nature 419, 662-665.Watson, R. and D. Pauly 2001. Systematic distortions in world fisheries catch trends Nature 414, 534-536.Comprehensiveregional andnational listsof marinefishes,Ecopathmodels, time-series of FAOcatches,GuineanTrawlSurvey ...

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