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Sea Around Us project newsletter, issue 12, July/August 2002 Forrest, Robyn; Sea Around Us Project Jul 31, 2002

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Sea Around UsThe Sea Around Us Project NewsletterIssue 12 – July/August 2002Continued on page 2Symposium with resultsThe waters off WestAfrica, like most otherproductive parts ofthe world ocean have been,in the last decades, stronglyexploited by coastalfisheries and by distantwater fleets (DWF), but acontroversy has long ragedabout the ‘real’ state of theresources. There wereseveral reasons for this, onebeing the variability ofsome shorter-lived groupssuch as octopus andshrimps, which boomedwhen the biomass of thebottom fishes declined.Another obstacle tounderstanding was thecompetition between largenational fisheries, oftenovergrown ‘small-scale’fisheries, and DWF, whosedifferent gear, mode ofoperation and especiallyorigins made it difficult forsome researchers toconceive that thesefisheries have similar, andcombined effects on theunderlying resources. Onefinal factor of confusionwas the tendency amongfisheries biologist workingin West Africa to closelytrack fish populationabundance, and in theprocess, to lose track oflong-term change, aprocess that occursthroughout the world, andwhich I have elsewherecalled the ‘shifting baselinesyndrome of fisheries.’To address these andrelated issues, a group ofresearchers, representinginstitution from, or workingin West Africa, teamed uptwo years ago to launch aninternational symposiumon “Marine Fisheries,Ecosystems and Societiesin West Africa: half acentury of change”, thatwould emphasize theimpact of fisheries on WestAfrican ecosystems, andthe downstreamconsequences on WestAfrican countries, andgoing back deep enough intime for major trends toemerge.The main partners involvedin the preparation of thissymposium were theFisheries Commission forthe countries of theNorthwest African‘subregion’ (‘Commissionsous-régionale des pêches,’or CSRP, based in Dakar,and servicing Mauritania,Cape Verde, Senegal, TheGambia, Guinea andGuinea-Bissau, with SierraLeone as a future member);the French Institut deRecherche pour leDéveloppement (IRD, ex-ORSTOM); the EU-fundedFisheries Information andAnalysis System project(FIAS), devoted torecovering data on the fish,fish catches andecosystems of the CSRPcountries, and the SeaAround Us Project. Theinteraction between theseentities wasstraightforward, notablybecause the PrincipalInvestigator of the SAUP,besides serving as thescience advisor of the FIASproject, also chaired thesymposium’s scientificcommittee.The symposium consistedof two components. Thefirst  ‘subregional’component, lasting fromJune 24 to 25, was devotedto the results of the firsttwo years of the FIASproject, i.e., to workconducted in the CSRParea, including twocontribution by SAUPmembers (Sheila Heymans					The Sea Around Us project newsletter ispublished by the  FisheriesCentre at the Univer-sity of British Co-lumbia. Includedwith the FisheriesCentre’s newsletterFishBytes,six is-sues of this news-letter are publishedannually. Subscrip-tions are free of charge.Our mailing address is: UBC Fisheries Cen-tre, 2204 Main Mall, Vancouver, British Co-lumbia, Canada, V6T 1Z4. Our fax number is(604) 822-8934, and our email address isSeaNotes@fisheries.ubc.ca. All queries (in-cluding reprint requests), subscription re-quests, and address changes should be ad-dressed to Robyn Forrest, Sea Around UsNewsletter Editor.The Sea Around Us website may be foundat www.fisheries.ubc.ca/projects/saup, andcontains up-to-date information on theproject.The Sea Around Us project is a Fisheries Centre partner-ship with the Pew Charitable Trusts of Philadelphia,USA. The Trusts support nonprofit activities in the areas ofculture, education, the environment, health and human serv-ices, public policy and religion. Based in Philadelphia, the Trustsmake strategic investments to help organisations and citizensdevelop practical solutions to difficult problems. In 2000, withapproximately $4.8 billion in assets, the Trusts committed over$235 million to 302 nonprofit organisations. Fewconferenceslead to aconvergenceof opinions,and evenfewerconcludewith aconsensusstatement.This one   did ...on fisheries-induced changes inthe ecosystem off Sierra LeoneEcosystem, and Sylvie Guénette,on the ecosystem off Guinea).The second ‘internationalcomponent,’ lasting from June26 to 28, was devoted toaccounts from other part ofWest Africa, and to syntheses.The SAUP contributions to thisconsisted of presentations byReg Watson (subregionalfisheries catch maps), VillyChristensen (biomass trendmaps), Rashid Sumaila(presenting joint work withJackie Alder, on the role of DWFin West Africa), Deng Palomares(Poster of CD-ROMdocumenting NorthwestAfrican ecosystems andfisheries; see Palomares, thisvolume) and Daniel Pauly(Trophic level change asindicators of fisheries impactson marine ecosystems; andecosystem impacts of fisheriesin Ghana and Namibia,presented on behalf of absentcolleagues). The full title of theSAUP and other presentationsare documented on thesymposium web page, moreabout which below.Few conferences, at least in thisauthor’s experience, lead to aconvergence of opinionsamong their participants, andeven fewer conclude with aconsensus statement. This onedid, and the full text of ourconsensus statement may befound on the symposium website. Its major parts are:1) “The reconstruction oflong time series by the FIASproject has alloweddemonstration, for thecountries of the sub-region, thatthe biomass of bottom fisheshas strongly declined, and thatthis is due beyond reasonabledoubt to the impact of fishing;2) A few short-lived species(e.g., cephalopods) have showndifferent trends [from those oflonger-lived demersal fishes]but here as well, the impact offishing is obvious, andoverexploitation frequentlyoccurs;3) The present demersalfish biomass in the countries ofthe sub-region are well belowlevels that allow sustained highcatches;4) The demersal fisheries ofthe sub-region are so low as torender them highly sensitive toenvironmental effects;5) The strengthening ofsub-regional and internationalcooperation through the FIASproject has established thesefacts clearly andunambiguously.”This was seen as having thefollowing implications:6) “Overall fishing effort inthe sub-region must be stronglyreduced, in particular fordemersal species, to re-establishhigh and sustainable catches,and to minimize the risk ofenvironmental impacts;7) We are aware of thesocio-economic implications ofsuch reduction [of fishingeffort], but there is no doubtthat it is necessary;8) It is important tostrengthen national capacityand sub-regional collaboration(as done by the FIAS project) inorder to fill the scientific gapsthat still exist;9) This goal, and themaintenance and full utilizationof the database assembled bythe FIAS project require, amongother things, that thecapabilities of the sub-regionalfisheries commission bestrengthened.”The international component ofthe symposium elaborated onthese nine points, andexpanded them to cover thewhole of West Africa, down toNamibia.Symposium with resultsContinued from page 1Continued on page 3Symposium with results 	Ourpresentationon theimpact of EUvessels onWest Africanresourceswent wellwith those inthe audiencethat wereserious aboutthe reforms ...Now some will say they knewall along that the fisheriesresources of West Africa areoverfished. However, this verypoint is regularly contestedduring negotiation betweene.g., the European Union andWest African countries, leadingto ever more DWF exploitingwhat are now strongly depletedresources, thus endangering thelong-term developmentprospect and food security ofthe West Africancountries inquestion.To get thatmessage across,the SAUP, in theperson of itsprincipalinvestigator,teamed up withthe WorldWildlife Fund forNature (WWF)and a colleaguefrom theUniversity ofWashington,whom we hadinvited to thesymposium, DrDavid Fluharty, who recently co-authored a contributionquestioning the value, to WestAfrican countries, of theFisheries Agreements they signwith the EU (Kaczynski andFluharty 2001). This started rightin Dakar, during a joint SAUP/WWF press conference held onJune 28, in which the chiefexecutive of the WWF, MrClaude Martin, also participated.Fifteen journalists were inattendance, notably from RadioFrance International and thePan African News Agency. Theresulting coverage includedthree TV broadcasts, three radiobroadcasts and one newspaperarticle in Le Soleil, Dakar’sleading daily (text availablefrom symposium web page -http://fisheries.ubc.ca/Projects/SAUP/Dakar/press.html).David Fluharty and Daniel Paulythen flew to Madrid, where theypresented on July 2 the resultsof the Dakar Symposium toSpanish colleagues, and WWFstaff. On July 3, they visited thehead of the ‘InternationalFishing Agreement’ section inthe Spanish Ministry ofAgriculture, Fisheries and Food,Mr. Rafael Centenera, who hadjust returned from thenegotiations that lead to thelatest round of agreementsbetween the EU and Senegal,Angola and Mozambique. Wewere impressed by histremendous knowledge of theminutiae of West Africanfisheries, and his formidablerhetorical skills, both of whichgo a long way in explaining thenature of some of theagreements thus negotiated.We also conducted interviewswith a team from ‘TV2,’specialized in agriculture andfisheries issues, with SERBroadcasting, and with El País,Spain’s major daily.Then on to Brussels, via Paris,where we bought an issue of LaRecherche, containing a justpublished paper (Pauly et al.2002) that came in ratherhandy, given that it deals withoverfishing in the NorthAtlantic, and the need to set upmarine reserves, and waswritten in one of the mainlanguages of the EuropeanCommission (EC). The EC’sDirectorate General for Fisheries(DG Fish) is presently strugglingto get across its planned reformof the ‘CommonFisheries Policy,’ whichincludes strongreduction of Europeanfishing fleets. Ourpresentation of July 4to staff of DG Fish, onthe impact of EUvessels on West Africanresources went wellwith those in theaudience that wereserious about thereforms, and the copiesof the La Recherchepaper we had quicklymade were snappedup. But it was obviousthat there aremembers of DG Fishwho are still strugglingto free themselves from the netthe fishing industry threw overtheir heads.On the other hand, oursubsequent contribution to ajoint WWF/European PolicyCentre meeting on ‘TheCommon Fisheries Policy: thecase for radical reform’ wasclearly well received by itsaudience of about seventyjournalists, embassy staff,representatives from Europeanregional government and other“EU actors”, as shown, notably,by the interviews we wereinvited to give to Reuters andNew Scientist, among others.Symposium with resultsContinued from page 2Continued on page 4Symposium with resultsDaniel Pauly speaks at the opening ceremony of the conferencePhoto by Pierre Chavance	It is gettingtime to dosomethingaboutoverfishing,which isreally turninginto a globalplagueThe high speed train that tookus back to Paris on July 5 didnot require our shoes to be x-rayed, and we still got there asfast as if we had flown. So wemade it to a ‘press breakfast’ atthe Café Marly, near thepyramid of the Louvre, wherewe made, again, the case forconsidering the state of WestAfrican resources whennegotiating fisheriesagreements, this time tojournalists from Les Echos, LeFigaro, and the Agence FrancePresse. The day – and a ratherhectic week – were completedat the French Ministry ofForeign Affair, where wereported on the DakarSymposium (which they partlyfunded), and again discussedthe agreements….Here are some lessons we learntfrom, or that were confirmed byour successful symposium, andthe post-symposium trip:1) A well-prepared, focusedscientific meeting can lead to aconsensus on previouslycontentious issues, thusclearing the way for policy (atleast we can’t later be blamedfor dithering);2) Scientists working onenvironmental issues will findinterested science journalistsworking in TV, newspaper andother media, given that theymake an effort in addressingthe ‘so what’ question thatjournalists cannot avoid in theirwork, even if we sometimes can;3) It is getting time to dosomething about overfishing,which is really turning into aglobal plague.We invite readers interested inthe above meeting and/or itsfollow up to visit that part ofthe SAUP web devoted to theDakar Symposium(www.fisheries.ubc.ca/projects/Symposium with resultsContinued from page 3saup/Dakar/index.htm, where,pending the publication of fullproceedings, and usinggenerous funding from the OakFoundation, we will makeavailable the bulk of thematerial (Powerpoints, posters)presented at that symposium,along with related materialpublished later.AcknowledgmentsMy sincere thanks to J.M Vakily(FIAS project), P. Chavance (IRD)and Deng Palomares (SAUP) forthe organization of thesymposium and to WWF staff inSenegal, Spain Belgium andFrance for organizing asuccessful post-symposiumtour. I also thank the PewCharitable Trust, Philadelphia,for supplementary funding forthe Dakar Symposium, and theOak Foundation, Boston, forsupporting its website.References:     Kaczyinski, V.M and D.L.Fluharty. 2002. Europeanpolicies in West Africa: whobenefits from fisheriesagreements. Marine Policy.26:75-93.     Pauly, D., R. Watson and V.Christensen. 2002. Quand lepoisson vient à manquer. LaRecherche (355): 80-83.Participants pose for a group photograph  outside the conference venuePhoto by Pierre ChavanceIt was a distinct pleasure tobe invited by Daniel Paulyand the Sea Around UsProject to participate in theDakar Conference.  Having beeninvolved in a number of visits asa consultant to some of thecountries in the region, I wasgreatly impressed by the resultsof the FIAS Project teams. Theconsistently high level ofsophistication andunderstanding represented inthe presentation wasremarkable and justifies the EUfunding that made it possible.It attests as well to thesoundness of the projectdesign, implementation, andleadership.  This projectgenerated genuinecollaboration on many levels.As a consumer of scientificinformation as opposed to aproducer, I found the ecosystemmodeling approach as opposedto the rather desultory stockContinued on page 5Perspectives on Dakar	G46	 		 	!"Continued on page 6Thoughts about DakarDuring the Dakarsymposium, a consensuswas reached that mostof the demersal resources havedeclined and some gravelydepleted (see Pauly, thisvolume). Several stockevaluations showed the declinein biomass for several species inthe last 50 years. Ecosystemmodelling using Ecopath or atrophic flux model (D. Gascuel,Département Halieutique,ENSA-Rennes, France) showedthe extent of the decline in theecosystem. In response to thisdismal situation, it wasrecommended that fishingeffort be drastically decreasedand that the fishing agreementtook into account the state ofthe resource, assessed by jointAfrican-European countriescommittees.The overall goal should be torebuild populations andecosystems which have beenconsiderably depleted.  So howare we going to manage thefisheries in West Africa? In mostcases the depletion of theresources call for severereduction of exploitation byindustrial boats and sometimes,by the artisanal sector as well.Besides reducing the effort, willwe reduce the catch byimplementing quotas? As wehave seen in several countriesover the last decades, it isdifficult to assess stocks in aThe overallgoal shouldbe to rebuildpopulationsandecosystemswhich havebeenconsiderablydepletedassessment approach veryenlightening.  Given the hugedeficits in fishery independentsurvey data, the fallibility offisheries data and the limitedcapacities to translate resultsinto policy, the broaderapproach leads to fairly clearunderstanding of the decreasein demersal species over time.This is undeniable.Now the question becomes,“What can be done?”  Each ofthe countries and its fisherymanagement capacity isdifferent.  Common to all isinvolvement of the EuropeanUnion in distant water fishingand, in some cases, shoresideinvestments.  While othercountries like China, SouthKorea, Russia and Japan areengaged selectively, thedominant external presence inthe regional fisheries is WesternEuropean. This relationship iscomplex, long-standing and hasadvantages and disadvantagesas seen from a coastal stateperspective.  My colleague, VladKaczynski and I have sought tolay out some aspects of theserelationships with respect toaccess agreements and theireffects in the West Africanregion (citation at end of Paulyreport).One of the key findings is thatcoastal states tend not to knowthe value of their own fisheryresources.  Secondly, they donot really know the actualharvests taken by fleets towhich they grant access.  Thus,these states are at atremendous disadvantage innegotiating agreements andtend to accept less in accessfees than they might otherwisedemand.  Even these lopsidedagreements are not necessarily“bad” because they dorepresent the full benefitsavailable but they equally, arenot “good” because theyinterfere with development ofdomestic capacity to capturethe value added in processingand marketing.  There is atremendous gap betweenarriving at the findings of theFSIA Project and using thaninformation in management ofdomestic and distant waterfishing efforts.At Daniel Pauly’s suggestion, Iwas also invited to join in theWWF sponsored informationalcampaign in Europe.  I wasimpressed that WWF would letus “independent” resourcepersons speak candidly aboutour work without asking us tocoordinate with the positionsthat WWF has developed overtime.  However, this is exactlythe opportunity that we wereafforded.  Whether speakingwith the policy experts in theDG Fish at the EU Headquartersor butting heads with the veryimpressive lead negotiator fromSpain or answering toughquestions from top reportersfrom El País, Le Figaro, NewScientist, etc. we had free rein toengage in substantivediscussions of the significanceof the scientific findings and thepolicy implications.  Two thingsare clear to me.  If the EU is tocontinue as a leading fishingentity in West African waters, asI believe it can and should, itmust assume a much higherstandard of conduct than itapplies in its own waters.  IfWest African coastal states areto benefit to the fullest extentfrom the valuable fisheriesinside the EEZ, enormousimprovements in themanagement of fisheries mustbe made and conditions forencouraging and securingdomestic and foreigninvestment must be vastlyimproved.Perspectives on DakarContinued from page 4#	Thoughts about DakarContinued from page 5precise and timely manner andto implement quotas efficientlywithout overshooting moreoften then not. Given thesuccess we had in so-calleddeveloped countries, we surelyneed to address the issues inmore creative ways than wehave in the past.Marine reserves were discussedon the last day of thesymposium and generatedquite a bit of heat due to classicobjections of the type  “we donot know” that they work in thefirst place (but see Guénette etal., 1998).  A good example ofthis is the banc d’ArguinNational Park (Mauritania), a12,000 km2 reserve first set upin 1976 to protect the largenumber of seabirds using it astheir breeding or winteringgrounds (Campredon, 2000). Itappears that the park in animportant spawning areas forsome sharks and rays. It is alsopossible that this area acts as anursery ground for some bonyfishes and a feeding area forothers. Some of these specieshave distributions spanning thewhole North-Western coast ofAfrica. However, the usefulnessof the Banc d’Arguin iscontested on the basis thatthere is no formal proof it helpsmaintaining the fish stockswhile preventing fishers fromaccessing the much covetedresources, notably a small shark,the tollo (Mustelus mustelus).Clearly the efficiency of such areserve is a researchable topic.Already, the scientific literatureon the subject is rapidlyaccumulating evidence on therebuilding of exploited stocks(e.g. Bertelsen and Cox, 2001;Roberts et al., 2001) andmodification of ecosystemstructure (e.g. Edgar and Barrett,1999; McClanahan and Arthur,... we surelyneed toaddress theissues inmorecreativeways thanwe have inthe pastThe high quality, not only inpresentation but also in contentof these posters, made itdifficult for the Best Postersearch committee, headed byCornelia Nauen (UE, Bruxelles)and whose members wereMichael Vakily (IRC, Italie),Virginia Pires (CIPA, Guinea-Bissau), David Fluharty (Univ.Washington, USA) and DanielPauly (UBC, Vancouver, Canada),to pick the three mostremarkable posters in terms oftheir pertinence to the themeof the Symposium, clarity andoriginality of presentation. Thus,instead of three, the committee		 $%	&The Symposium on Marinefisheries, ecosystems, andsocieties in West Africa: halfa century of change held inDakar, Senegal in June 24-282002 (see Pauly, this volume)hosted a poster sessioncovering marine ecosystems(36%), resources (25%) andfisheries (39%). Some of theseposters were of a double nature,i.e., covering multidisciplinaryapproaches and managementtools. This was a well attendedsession, e.g., the Ministers ofFisheries of Mauritania andSenegal graced the opening ofthe session, taking time toperuse thecontentsandmessages ofeach of the36 posterspresented(to viewthese, seehttp://fisheries.ubc.ca/Projects/SAUP/Dakar/posters.html).2001) following the closures ofpreviously exploited areas.Moreover, as the interest aboutmarine reserves is rising in theregion and some people areworried that marine reserveswould be perceived as apanacea the way ITQs havebeen for a while. I contend thatno management measureshould be expected to solve allour problems. No-take areas ofappreciable size may howeverhelp us rebuild ecosystems andfish populations.  A plan tointroduce marine reserves inthe region should clearly statethe experimental and learningprocess that they should bebased on, including thebiological aspects andorganisational structures formanagers, biologists and fishers.Continued on page 8Thoughts  about DakarFrançois Domain and Aboubacar Sidibé  with their  posterPhoto by Deng Palomares' 	came up with 5 winning posters(the first prize was funded bythe Sea Around Us project whilethe four other prizes werefunded by the EU), namely:First prize (500 CAN$):Birane SAMB et Asberr MENDY.Poster #10 : Dynamique duréseau trophique de l’écosystèmeSénégambien.Second prize (100 Euros):Aboubacar SIDIBE, DidierGASCUEL, François DOMAIN.Poster #02 : Évaluation etdiagnostic par l’approche globaleet structurale de quatre stocks depoissons démersaux côtiers deGuinée, Galeoides decadactylus,Pseudolithus elongatus, P.senegalensis et P. typus.Third prize (Book): DidierGASCUEL. Poster #05 : Captureset biomasses par niveautrophique dans l’AtlantiqueCentre Est : analyse de 50 ansd’évolution et première tentatived’application du modèleécosystèmique de flux trophique.Fourth prize (T-shirt): PhTOUS, R. VERNET, J.-F. SALIEGE.Poster #18 : Cansado (presqu’îledu Cap Blanc,Mauritanie) : un sitede pêcheurs daté de6700 ans.Fifth prize (T-shirt): DarioÉVORA, PatríciaAMORIM, CarlosMONTEIRO, OksanaTARICHE et Kim A.STOBBERUP. Poster#43 : The Cape VerdeArchipelago :oceanography,resources andfisheries of an insularecosystem.... insteadof three,thecommitteecame upwith fivewinningposters ...Figure 1. The poster presented by Sea Around Us team members at the Dakar SymposiumTo the delight ofmany of theparticipants, thecontribution frommembers of the SeaAround Us Project(see Figure 1) on theCD-ROM ofNorthwest Africanmarine ecosystemswas out of thecompetition, as it was(in this author’sunbiased opinion)rather impressive.The CD-ROM, whichprovides anexhaustivedocumentation ofthe fisheries of thesub-region, was theculmination of manymonths’ work by itsauthors, and wascreated usingfunding by the EUthrough the SIAPProject and by thePew Charitable Truststhrough the SeaAround Us Project. The betaversion of this CD-ROM wasdistributed during theSymposium and an updatedversion is being prepared fordistribution in November2002 to a wider audience.This will contain, in additionContinued on page 8Winning postersMr Se Ahmedou Ould Ahmedou , Minister of Fisheries of the Islamic Republicof Mauritania (right), admiring the postersPhoto by Pierre Chavance(			)The Sea Around Us Project is about to add to its growing listof high-profile publications.  A team of authors from theFisheries Centre has been commissioned by theprestigious journal, Nature to produce a seven-page report, aspart of a special Insight section on the ‘Future of Food’.  Thereport, entitled “Towards sustainability in world fisheries” will bepublished in early August. Its abstract is reproduced below:Fisheries have rarely been ‘sustainable.’ Rather, fishing hasinduced serial depletions, long masked by improvedtechnology, geographic expansion and exploitation ofpreviously spurned species lower in the food web. With globalcatches declining since the late 1980s, continuation of presenttrends will lead to supply shortfall, for which aquaculturecannot be expected to compensate, and may well exacerbate.Reducing fishing capacity to appropriate levels will requirestrong reductions of subsidies. Zoning the oceans into unfishedmarine reserves and areas with limited levels of fishing effortwould allow sustainable fisheries, based on resourcesembedded in functional, diverse ecosystems.Reference:Pauly, D. , V. Christensen, S. Guénette T.J. Pitcher, U.R. Sumaila, C.J.Walters, R. Watson and D. Zeller. Towards sustainability in worldfisheries. Nature, August 8, 2002.Thoughts about DakarContinued from page 6We will not solve the questionof the effectiveness of marinereserves through rhetoricalarguments. We are at the stagewhere we need to experimentwith closures, setting specificobjectives and verifyingwhether or not we reachedthese objectives.References:     Bertelsen, R. D., and Cox, C.,2001. Sanctuary roles inpopulation and reproductivedynamics of Caribbean spinylobster. In: Spatial Processes andManagement of MarinePopulations, pp. 591-605, Ed. byG. H. Kruse, N. Bez, A. Booth, M.W. Dorn, S. Hills, R. N. Lipcius, D.Pelletier, C. Roy, S. Stephen J, andD. Witherell, Anchorage, Alaska,Alaska Sea Grant CollegeProgram. Vol. AK-SG-01-02, 720pp.     Campredon, P., 2000. Betweenthe Sahara and the Atlantic, Bancd’Arguin National Park,Mauritania. FIBA, la Tour duValat, Arles, France.124 pp.     Edgar, G. J., and Barrett, N. S.1999. Effects of the declarationof marine reserves onTasmanian reef fishes,invertebrates and plants.Journal of Experimental MarineBiology and Ecology, 242:107-144.     Guénette, S., Lauck, T., andClark, C. 1998. Marine reserves:from Beverton and Holt to thepresent. Reviews in Fish Biologyand Fisheries, 8:251-272.     McClanahan, T. R., and Arthur,R. 2001. The effect of marinereserves and habitat onpopulations of East Africancoral reef fishes. EcologicalApplications, 11:559-569.     Roberts, C. M., Bohnsack, J. A.,Gell, F., Hawkins, J. P., andGoodridge, R. 2001. Effects ofmarine reserves on adjacentfisheries. Science, 294:1920-1923.to updated versions of thematerial it already contains (seeFigure 1), the Power Pointversions of selectedpresentations at theSymposium and other materialdeemed useful (see Pauly, thisvolume).In order to help document theresults of this Symposium, thestructure and contents of theCD-ROM was also used tocreate the Symposium’s website (http://fisheries.ubc.ca/Projects/SAUP/Dakar/index.htm) which will bemaintained by the Sea AroundUs Project for post-Symposiumcommunications andpublications. The creation ofthis web site was made possiblethrough funding from the OakFoundation.Winning postersContinued from page 7We are pleased toannounce thepublication of threenew reports, documenting theSea Around Us Project’s work onNorth Atlantic Fisheries(Fisheries Impacts on NorthAtlantic Ecosystems,  FCRRVolume 9, Issues 3-5).  Thereports, with the themes: Catch,Effort and National/RegionalData Sets (Vol 9(3)); Models andanalyses (Vol 9 (4)));  andEvaluations and PolicyExploration (Vol 9(5)), areavailable, free of charge, on theFisheries Centre’s website(http://fisheries.ubc.ca/Reports/fcrr.htm).  Hard copies can alsobe purchased for $20   (pleaseemail: events@fisheries.ubc.ca).G46		

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