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Sea Around Us project newsletter, issue 6/7, September-December 2000 Power, Melanie; Sea Around Us Project Sep 30, 2000

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Sea Around UsThe Sea Around Us Project NewsletterIssue 6/7 – September-December 2000As a result of risingfossil energy prices,we have all beenreminded in recentmonths that westernindustrial society isprofoundly dependent onthe availability of cheap,abundant energy.Unfortunately, the world’smajor industrial energyresources are not onlyfinite, but globally their percapita availability has beenin decline since the late1970s. Furthermore, it isnow widely recognisedthat the scale ofhumanity’s industrialenergy use contributes tomajor environmentalproblems including globalclimate change andbiodiversity loss.Like all human activities,commercial fishing entailsthe dissipation of energy insupport of their primaryactivity, the harvesting ofaquatic organisms. Andalthough energyconsumption by fisheriesreceives less attention thanthe direct impact thatfishing has on targetedstocks and associatedmarine ecosystems, it isprecisely the availability ofabundant energy thatenables mostcontemporary fisheries tocontinue even when stocksare in decline. In addition,from a managementperspective, energyconsumption provides ameans of comparingfishing effort betweendiverse fisheries, andchanges in effort over timewithin fisheries.Not surprisingly, mostresearch into the energyconsumed by commercialfisheries followed the oilprice shocks of the 1970s.The results of this andmore recent researchindicate that: Direct fuel inputs tofisheries typicallyaccount for between 75and 90% of totalindustrial energyinputs. The remaining10 to 25% are typicallycomprised of directand indirect energyinputs associated withvessel construction andmaintenance, theprovision of fish gearand ice, and labour. The energy intensity ofa fishery, or the amountof energy consumedper kilogram of fish orshellfish landed, isaffected by bothbiological factors, suchas resource abundanceand distribution and bythe technologicalaspects of a fishery. Forexample, the type offishing gear employed,and to a lesser extentthe size of vessel used,can influence theenergy intensity of agiven fishery. In general,trawling and longliningtend to be more energyintensive than seining,purse seining or morepassive techniques,such as gillnetting andtrapping.As part of the SeaAround Us Projectat the University ofBritish Columbia, I haveundertaken an analysis ofthe energy intensity andtotal energy consumed bycontemporary NorthAtlantic fisheries. Inaddition, where datapermits, I am alsoevaluating changes in				Continued on page 2 - Energy	The Sea Around Us project newsletter ispublished by the  Fisheries Centre at the Uni-versity of British Colum-bia. Included withthe Fisheries Cen-tre’s newsletterFishBytes,six is-sues of this news-letter are pub-lished annually.Subscriptions arefree of charge.Our mailing address is: UBC Fisheries Cen-tre, 2204 Main Mall, Vancouver, British Co-lumbia, Canada, V6T 1Z4. Our fax number is(604) 822-8934, and our email address isSeaNotes@fisheries.ubc.ca. All queries (in-cluding reprint requests), subscription re-quests, and address changes should be ad-dressed to Melanie Power, Sea Around UsNewsletter Editor.The Sea Around Us website may be foundat www.fisheries.ubc.ca/projects/saup, andcontains up-to-date information on theproject.energy consumption over timefor specific fisheries. As directfuel inputs account for thelion’s share of energy inputs,and because indirect inputs toNorth Atlantic.Using both of thesetechniques, to date Ihave estimated theenergy intensity and total fuelconsumed by approximately 50North Atlantic fisheries. Takentogether they account foralmost 5.5 million tonnes (liveweight) of fish and shellfishlanded annually and rangefrom the high-tonnage purseseine fisheries for Atlanticmenhaden, and capelin, tomixed stock groundfish trawlfisheries, to high-value trawland dredge fisheries for shrimp,lobster and scallop. Notably, foralmost half of the fisheriesanalysed, time series estimatesof energy intensity and totalfuel consumption have alsobeen possible for periodsranging up to 20 years. Forexample, Figure 1 illustratesrecent changes in energyintensity of both Icelandic andCanadian scallop fisheries.Peter Tyedmers is a Research Consultantwith the Sea Around Us Project. Herecently received his Ph.D. in ResourceManagement and EnvironmentalStudies at UBC.Figure 1: Energy intensity of Icelandic and Canadian scallop dredge fisheries.vessel construction, fishinggear, etc., are difficult toquantify, this analysis isfocussing exclusively on fuelinputs.Two methods are being used toquantify the fuel consumed byfisheries. The first entailssoliciting fuel consumption,fishing effort, vesselcharacteristics and catch datadirectly from fishingcompanies. While this methodyields robust results, it is arelatively slow, labour intensiveprocess. As a result, a secondtechnique is being employedthat uses data provided byfishing companies to establishgeneric fuel consumption rates,in terms of litres of dieselburned per horsepowersea-day of effort expended, forvarious gear sectors. Thesegeneric fuel consumption ratesare then used to estimate totalfuel consumption and energyintensity for fisheries for whichfleet-wide catch, average fleethorsepower and total days atsea data are available throughthe efforts of Sea Around UsProject collaborators andconsultants from around theEnergy - Continued from page 1 	Two internationalconferences, the AnnualScience Conference of theInternational Council for theExploration of the Sea (ICES),held in Bruges, Belgium, fromSept 27-30th, and the IX AnnualPICES (North Pacific MarineScience Organization) meeting,held in Hakodate, Japan fromOctober 20-28th, recentlyprovided opportunities forpresenting the conceptsunderlying the Sea Around Usproject, as also described in ourrecently released‘Methodological Report’ (Paulyand Pitcher 2000). (See Page 5for the table of contents of thereport.)The first of these two ICESpresentations was the invited‘Open Lecture’ entitled“Fisheries and Conservation: aProgram for theirReconciliation”, given by thesenior author.This presentation, whichstarted by contrasting the keyfeatures and ‘clients’ of fisheriesbiology and conservationbiology, went on to outline theenormity of the challengecaused by relentlessoverexploitation of fisheriesresources, and their impacts onecosystems, both culminatingin ‘fishing down marine foodwebs’.The elements of reconciliationbetween fisheries andconservation biology were thenoutlined. They includedrecognizing the legitimacy ofthe key tenets of each (thatfishing should remain a viableoccupation; that theecosystems and theirbiodiversity are allowed topersist).This presentation – the firsttime conservation issues wereaddressed in the context of anOpen Lecture – was apparentlyvery well received, andprovided a neat starting pointfor the mini-symposium thatfollowed up on that lecture,devoted to biodiversity issues,to which several speakers,notably Dr Jake Rice, referredto, suggesting that ICES shouldgive far more attention to thisthan it has so far.The ICES governing body,composed of nationaldelegates from around theNorth Atlantic decided, twodays after these events, tocreate a new, high-levelAdvisory Committee onEcosystems (ACE), on par withits fisheries-orientatedAdvisory Committee onFisheries Management. Ittempting to believe that thecontents of this year’s OpenLecture nudged a fewdelegates toward this positive,potentially very importantdecision.We also used the opportunityat the ICES Annual Scienceconference to present anothercontribution, outlining ourvision for a consensustaxonomy of the world’s marineecosystems (Pauly et al. 2000).The goal of this taxonomy is tobring together the extensiveinformation and expertiseavailable in the fields ofoceanography and in fisheriesscience into a compatibleframework to produce thesynergism required to tacklepressing global issues of over-fishing and other impacts onmarine ecosystems. The jointpaper was presented by Dr KenSherman, the main architect ofthe Large Marine Ecosystems(LME) (Sherman et al., 1990;Sherman and Duda 1999)which are now defined for mostof the world shelf and adjacentoceanic areas, and whoseintegration with the system of‘Biogeochemical Provinces’(BGCP) developed by A.Longhurst, T. Platt and S.Sathyendranath  (Longhurst,1998) form the core of thispaper.This presentation deepenedthe interactions between KenSherman’s group and the FC,and the commitment todevelop compatibility of globalLMEs where possible with theBGCP of Longhurst andcolleagues. This collaborationwas strengthened by a recentvisit by Peter Celone fromNOAA.Thanks to support byPICES, and in particular DrIan Perry, Dr Reg Watsonhad the opportunity to presentan invited paper entitled“Mapping fisheries onto marineecosystems: regional, oceanicand global integrations” atPICES IX in Japan. This paperpresented our proposals for			 Continued on page 4 - ConferencesIt is verypleasing tosee theinterest thathas beenexpressed informing aframework fordescribingmarine areaswhich canhopefullytranscendwhat havebeentraditionalboundariesbetweenresearchfields.!	harmonising the boundariesused by BGCP and LME areas.The talk was well attended andseemed of considerableinterest to participants,particularly those involved withcoordinating global studiescombining oceanography andfisheries such as the GLOBECprogram.It is very pleasing to see theinterest that has beenexpressed in forming aframework for describingmarine areas which canhopefully transcend what havebeen traditional boundariesbetween research fields.Collaborations made possibleby a common data basis willgreatly strengthen value workon marine ecosystems.References:Longhurst, A.R. 1998. EcologicalGeography of the Sea.Academic Press, San Diego. 398pp.Pauly, D. and T.J. Pitcher(Editors). 2000. Methods forEvaluating the Impacts ofFisheries on North AtlanticEcosystems. Fisheries CentreResearch Reports 8(2), 195 pp.Pauly, D., V. Christensen, R.Froese, A. Longhurst, T. Platt, S.Sathyendranath, K. Shermanand R. Watson. 2000. Mappingfisheries onto marineecosystems: a proposal for aconsensus approach forregional, oceanic and globalintegration . pp. 13- 22. In: Pauly,D. and T.J. Pitcher (eds.).Methods for Evaluating theImpacts of Fisheries on NorthAtlantic Ecosystems. FisheriesCentre Research Reports 8(2).[Also Presented as ICES CM2000/T:14]Sherman, K., L.M. Alexander andB.D. Gold (Editors). 1990. Largemarine ecosystems: patterns,processes and yields. Amer.Assoc. Adv. Sci. Washington D.C.242 pp.Sherman, K. and A.M. Duda.1999. An ecosystem approachto global assessment andmanagement of coastal waters.Marine Ecology Progress Series.190:271-287Dr Daniel Pauly is Project Leader  and DrReg Watson is a Senior ResearchAssociate for the Sea Around Us Project.Fig 1. Schematic representation of ‘fishing down marine food webs’ as presented at the ICES 2000 Open Lecture. The horizontalaxis represents both time and the sea bottom, the vertical axis the trophic level; the arrow represents global fishing, whichincreasingly concentrates on organisms of lower trophic levels, and depletes the large, long-lived species. Based on a colourdrawing by Ms Aque Atanacio.Conferences - Continued from page 3" 	The Fisheries Centre is pleased to announce that a new report in the Fisheries Centre ResearchReport series has been published. Edited by Daniel Pauly and Tony Pitcher, Methods forEvaluating the Impacts of Fisheries on North Atlantic Ecosystems presents the methodology inuse in the Sea Around Us Project.To order, contact the Fisheries Centre’s Events Officer, phone (604) 822-0618, fax (604) 822-8934, oremail events@fisheries.ubc.ca. The full citation is: Methods for Evaluating the Impacts of Fisheries onNorth Atlantic Ecosystems. Fisheries Centre Research Report 2000, Vol. 8 (2), 195 pp, $20.Table of ContentsAbstract, p. iiDirector’s Foreword (Tony J. Pitcher), p. iiiPreface and Acknowledgements, p. ivAssessment and Mitigation of Fisheries Impacts on Marine Ecosystems: A MultidisciplinaryApproach for Basin-scale Inferences, Applied to the North Atlantic. D. Pauly  and T.J. Pitcher, pp. 1-12.Mapping Fisheries onto Marine Ecosystems:  A Proposal for a  Consensus Approach for Regional,Oceanic and Global Integrations. D. Pauly, V. Christensen, R. Froese, A. Longhurst, T. Platt, S.Sathyendranath, K. Sherman and R. Watson, pp. 13-22.The Basis for Change: Part I Reconstructing Fisheries Catch and Catch and Effort Data. R. Watson,S. Guénette, P. Fanning and T.J. Pitcher, pp. 23-39.The Basis for Change 2:  Estimating Total Fishery Extractions from Marine Ecosystems of theNorth Atlantic. T.J. Pitcher and R. Watson, pp. 40-53.How Life History Patterns and Depth Zone Analysis Can Help Fisheries Policy. D. Zeller and D.Pauly, pp. 54-63.Small Versus Large-scale Fisheries:  A Multi-species, Multi-fleet Model for Evaluating theirInteractions and Potential Benefits. L.M. Ruttan, F.C. Gayanilo, Jr., U.R. Sumaila, and D. Pauly, pp. 64-78.Ecopath with Ecosim:  Methods, Capabilities and Limitations. V. Christensen and C. Walters, pp. 79-105.Restoration of Overexploited Capture Fishery Resources: An Economic/Ecosim ModelingApproach. G. Munro and U.R. Sumaila, pp. 106-113.Tracking Fisheries Landings in the North Atlantic. U.R. Sumaila, R. Chuenpagdee and G. Munro, pp.114-122.Quantifying the Energy Consumed by North Atlantic Fisheries. P. Tyedmers, pp. 123-135.How Good is Good?:  A Rapid Appraisal Technique for Evaluation of the Sustainability Status ofFisheries of the North Atlantic. J. Alder, T.J. Pitcher, D. Preikshot, K. Kaschner and B. Ferriss, pp. 136-182.Appendices1. List of Authors and Participants at Workshop, pp. 183-184.2. List of Invited Project Evaluators, p. 185.3. Comments by External Evaluators, 186-1914. Authors’ Index, pp. 192-195.				#	My career as fisheriesbiologist started backin 1992 in Ethiopia. Iworked in inland fisheries onEthiopian rift valley lakes aswell as on man made lakes.After serving there for fouryears I went to Norway forfurther studies and did amasters degree in FisheriesBiology and FisheriesManagement at the Universityof Bergen. Finally, I immigratedto Canada in 1999 and joinedthe Fisheries Centre soonafterwards, with the hope ofeventually beginning doctoralstudies.Having explained how I cameto join the Centre, let me takeyou directly to the topic of mywork here: Spatial Mapping ofthe Fishing Grounds of MarineFisheries.The rationale behind mappingfishing grounds comes fromthe very fact that all marinespecies have geographic limitsto their distributions. Thedistributions can be relativelywide in geographic range orrestricted as dictated bycombinations of factors such asthe biology of the fish, andoceanographic, ecological, andclimatic barriers. Theknowledge of thesedistributions, and thegeographic locations of thefishing areas within thedistribution ranges, are of aparamount importance. It helpsto relate any changes infisheries to the peculiarcharacteristics of eachgeographic locality, and hencehelps to define the ecosystems.Defining the ecosystems in turnenables scientists to seechanges in fisheries in light ofecosystem context that wouldhelp to bring about effectivestock status assessment andmake suitable managementpolicies that would maintainthe health of the entireecosystem.To this end, a primary focus ofthe Sea Around Us Project is tofind where the main marinefisheries of the world are takingplace. The geographicinformation is then storedusing standard GIS (GeographicInformation Systems)techniques, providing anexcellent tool to analyse anddisplay spatially-distributeddata. The aim is to develop acomprehensive database thatwill include, among others, theexact address of eacheconomically important fisheryin oceans of the world withinthe systematic hierarchies ofvarious oceanic classificationschemes (Domains, LMEs, EEZs,and FAO areas) previouslydesigned. Dr Reg Watson, ascientist in charge of themapping unit of the project, isdeveloping suitable softwarefor this purpose.So far, on a global scale, wehave identified 61 top species,important in that they accountfor a significant portion of totalworld marine catches.Geographic informationregarding the fishing grounds(distribution map) has beendigitized and registered tocommon co-ordinate system.In the coming weeks andmonths, the task of identifyingfishing grounds of theremaining important specieswill be finished, and eventuallymost marine species for whichthere is an important fisherywill be included in thedatabase. After this phase iscompleted, the catches of theworld marine fisheries will beallocated to their respectiveplaces of origin in the oceans.We will then be in a betterposition to address questionsof a spatial nature; questions inwhich the location of onefishery in relation to another, orits specific environment, is thecentre of focus.Hopefully, in the nearfuture, I will becontinuing in theseareas with emphasis on re-mapping the total catches andeffort of global marine fisheriesby applying a GIS-basedanalysis using historical timeseries of catch and effortstatistics for my doctoral thesis.I will work to trace back in timethe catches and effort ofmarine fisheries as far as theavailability of data will allow, tovisualize how fisheries havebeen responding toexploitation schemes overspace and time, and come upwith explanations as to whatpossible factors were involvedin generating the observedtrends in each geographicalarea.Ahmed Gelchu is a Research Assistantwith the Sea Around Us Project.  !	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