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Branchlines, Vol. 3, no. 3 Watts, Susan B.; University of British Columbia. Faculty of Forestry 1992

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F A C U L T Y O F F O R E S T R Y • N E W S L E T T E R • T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A Volume 3 No. 3 December 1992 From the Dean's Desk Because of all the environmental controver- sies, students are shunning university degree programs in forestry. Or so the Vancouver press claims. Interesting stuff if it were true, but not supported by the facts at UBC. As seen in the accompanying figure, enrolment in the Faculty of Forestry recorded another year-on-year increase this year — up to 333 from 285 in 1991/92. This 16.8% increase is slightly above the trend for recent years. When stated on a comparable basis, this year's total enrolment is roughly equivalent to the all-time peak reached in 1983. In the past two years we have revised our programs in several ways. These changes not only improve academic quality, but also reduce the average residence time in the Faculty from perhaps four years in the early 1980's to less than three years at present. The changes, all of which better integrate the UBC forestry programs into the BC post-secondary education system as a whole, include: • expansion of one- and two-year forestry transfer programs tightly articulated with the UBC forestry program, • initiation of three-year UBC forestry and wood science programs for tech- nical institute graduates, and • revision of our all of our programs to permit entry from first year science or applied science f rom any of the universities or colleges. Despite the current positive, robust growth in total enrolments, it is prudent to keep an eye on the future. First-year enrolments pro- vide a good leading indicator of our short- term (three to five year) prospects. In our "traditional" programs (Forestry, Forest Science, Wood Science and Industry) first- year enrolment equalled 84 this year, com- pared with 96 for last year. The direction of the change is consistent with the long-term relationship between first-year enrolment and forest sector activity (our first-year enrol- ments peak two to three years after the peaks in industry revenues; see the September 1991 issue of Branch Lines, or write to me for the longer article on this point). How- ever, this year's decline in first-year enrol- ment is considerably smaller than one would expect from the massive decline in forest sector activity from the 1990 peak. The new program in Natural Resources Conservation enrolled its first students this year, with 17 in Year One and 5 in Year Two. Because the program was only approved late in the last academic year we were unable to recruit very heavily for it. As a consequence, this level of interest in the program is remarkable. Taking the traditional programs and the new Conservation program together, first year enrolments are up 10.4% over last year. Apparently we have managed to wring some of the traditional cyclically out of enrolment patterns. The accompanying figure also shows our target for total Faculty of Forestry under- graduate enrolment. This target was deter- mined on the basis of our capacity to offer high-quality instruction in the classroom, laboratory and field. The target includes 350 students in our "traditional" programs plus 140 students in the Conservation program. For the traditional programs, we target 65 students in Year One (and have imposed an entrance quota at this level) and 95 in each of the subsequent years. These class sizes are consistent with historical levels of year-to-year retention of students, and recruitment into the second and third years of our programs. In the Conservation pro- gram we plan for 20 students in Year One with 40 in each of the subsequent years. As a result of these targets, we plan to continue to accept — from the colleges, technical institutes and other university programs — significant numbers of new students to the Faculty in second- and third-year programs. On the output side, this plan means we will graduate about 95 students per year. Since this year's fourth-year class numbers 80, we are fairly close to the steady-state graduation level we seek. Because there were only 55 is last year's fourth-year class, employers need to be ready to increase their hiring this spring over last year. Please contact Ms. Donna Goss, our Coordinator of Student Services, at 822-3547, if you have a job opportunity for one of this year's graduates. Dean Clark S. Binkley Number of Students 600 500 400 300 200 100 Targets to Year 2000 * With new Natural Resources Conservation Program \ 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 2000 Undergraduates (Traditional Programs) including Nat. Res. Cons. Program Faculty of Forestry undergraduate enrolment 1979-1992 with targets to 2000. Wood Science Department RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Strategies to Improve Wood Composites Most of us are familiar with conven-tional flat panel composites such as plywood, particleboard and flakeboard. These commodities help enhance wood yield recoveries and allow lower quality wood resources to be utilized. Compared to composites produced from other materials these wood products are being made in a relatively unso- phis t i ca ted m a n n e r . It is now recognized that wood has unique physical and mechanical properties which need to be taken advantage of in wood composites of the future. This realization is in part why wood composites and engineered wood materia] are projected to be the fastest growing sector of die B.C. wood industry. These new composites will have spec ia l i zed , va lue added applications. To achieve functional performance characteristics, many present wood composites need to be highly com- pressed and densified. As a result serious dimensional stability prob- lems occur in some service applica- tions. In future, increasing concerns about rising wood costs also will have a profound negative impact on these densified wood products. The objective of our research program is to construct lower density wood composites with improved strength and structural reliability. This requires a fundamental understanding of the factors influencing the packing of wood elements within amat structure and how these affect density distribution within the final product. The microstructure of wood com- posites is a subject which has received Computer simulation of flake overlap in a wood composite layer. limited attention even though the spatial arrangement of wood pieces will be the determining performance factor. We have developed a mathematical model which describes spatial relationships between wood elements in a randomly formed flake wood composite. This model, which has been verified by computer simulation and measurements from experimental mats, allows a full composite structure to be simulated in a consecutive layer fashion (see figure). From this multi-layer model, information about void size and distribu- tion together with bonding surface interactions can be predicted. This provides a mat uniformity standard to which present commercial composites can be com- pared. Input parameters allow us to determine the effects of changing element length, thickness, width and orientation. The model is presently being refined to allow its use for simulat- ing compaction of a wood mat during hot pressing and as a method to predict the dimensional behaviour of a c o m p o s i t e dur ing service exposure. Future plans include the linkage of c o m p u t e r genera ted model parameters with a robot to facilitate the production and testing of mats having unique structures. These efforts are part of our ongoing program to incorporate material science concepts into the formation of advanced wood composite structures. For further information on this research project contact Dr. Paul Steiner at (604) 522-5552. • DEPARTMENT NEWS Several faculty members: Drs. David Cohen, Simon Ellis, Tom Maness, and Paul Steiner were active participants at the IUFRO Division 5 Forest Products Conference held in Nancy, France during August. Dr. Dave Barrett has been elected to the editorial board of the Journal of Wood Science and Technology. He has also recently received a Certificate of Achievement for outstanding contributions to the Canadian Standards Association in furthering standardization in the field of Engineering Design in Wood. Dr. John Ruddick has received a Certifi- cate of Achievement for his contributions to the Canadian Standards Association Wood Preservatives and Preservation Committee. Dr. Ruddick's contributions related to the development of a new standard for treated decking as well as providing technical leadership in the improvement of product quality through the development of high density incising. Mr. Glen Young returned to the Department in September after a two year leave with MacMillan Bloedel Research. Dr. Andy Howard returned in September after completing a one year sabbatical in Costa Rica working on a project for the World Wildlife Fund. Effective November 1,1992, Profs. Young, Howard, Nelson, Salcudean, Fannin and Tait have become members of the Forest Resources Management Depar tment following a recent merger of the Harvesting Group and the Fores t Resources Management Department.'-! Branch Lines 2 Forest Sciences Department RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Gap Dynamics Research and Its Application to Silviculture The distinction between "even-aged" and "uneven-aged" forest stands can be viewed as one of scale. Many forested land- scapes consist of a mosaic of large, mostly even-aged stands. Multi-aged or all-aged stands are likewise patchy in composition and structure, but the unit of heterogeneity and stand renewal in these more complex forests is that of the canopy gap. A "gap" represents the growing space freed up by the death or removal of one or several trees. The population biology and physiological ecology of trees involved in the creation and infill- ing of these gaps can provide some useful insights into forest stability and renewal. Generalized stand-level prescriptions can be inappropriate for heterogeneous sites, and s ingle- t ree management can be impractical, but gap-level (0.01 to 0.5 ha) management may be a reasonable means of conserving old-growth values and bio- diversity as part of the working forest. Recent research by Dr. Phil Burton and former graduate student Dan Kneeshaw conf i rms that gap processes become increasingly important as stands age. In the absence of catastrophic d is turbance, forest renewal and growth is driven by the mortality dynamics of the canopy trees. The development of old-growth attributes in Interior spruce stands seems to be acceler- ated by mortality agents such as bark beetles, but we generally know very little about the probability of mortality in indivi- dual forest trees. Conversely, regeneration is highly dependent on the light requirements DEPARTMENT NEWS I n August, Dr. Bart van der Kamp pre- sented a paper entitled "The introduction of lodgepole pine to Sweden" at the IUFRO conference in Umea, Sweden. Dr. Cindy Prescott presented a paper at the Canadian Soil Science Society meeting in Edmonton, Alberta. In September, Dr. Hamish Kimmins addressed the Canadian Pulp and Paper of the tree species available, and on the spatial patterning of sunlight and seedbeds in the vicinity of those dead trees Work is under way to document the performance of major coastal conifer species in response to different combinations of light intensity and moisture stress during three years of growth in a greenhouse. Separate experiments by graduate student Xiaojie Li are evaluating seedbed effects on conifer seed germination. Another means of exploring the impli- cations of stand development, gap dynamics and silvicultural intervention is by means of "gap models". Burton and graduate student Steve Cumming have modified a computer model, known as ZELIG.BC, which simulates the growth of several tree species within several plots, each scaled to represent the zone of influence of a single canopy tree (or the gap it would make when it dies). Trees can die randomly or by continued suppression. Ingress is also stochastic, though weighted by the shade- tolerance of the species involved, but recruitment to the canopy usually depends on the death of a dominant tree. The computer user can specify the removal of particular suites of trees according to species and size criteria, thereby allowing representation of a number of partial cutting and thinning operations. Mr. Cumming is also exploring the landscape-level (wildlife) and forest estate level (timber supply) implications of these stand development projections. For further information, please contact Dr. Philip J. Burton at (604) 822-6020 or E-mail to burton@unixg.ubc.ca.Q Association Woodlands Section Annual Meeting in Penticton, B.C. and chaired a National Round Table meeting on clear- cutting in Chaltam, New Brunswick. In October he instructed at a two-day computer workshop for the Advanced Silviculture Institute in Corvallis, Oregon. In October, Drs. John Worrall and Hamish Kimmins presented invited papers at die First International Larix Symposium in Montana. A message from the new Head of Forest Sciences B o t h die practice and science of forestry are rapidly changing and will be vasUy differ- ent in the next century. New and growing demands on forested lands are influencing the scope and objectives of management, and new scientific models are shaking the basic assumptions of forest biology. New concepts of evolution and of the functions of trees and ecosystems will fundamentally change forestry from what it is today. Forest Science will become more than an application of other sciences and will integrate forest-based concepts into a new and unique science. The challenge for the Department of Forest Sciences is to educate a new generation of foresters and forest scientists and to develop a research base for the next century. Dr. Lavender and the faculty have already laid the foundation for developing a world-class forest science department which is attracting a highly qualified and motivated student body. The task upon us is to build on that base and to develop a philosophy and curriculum that will ensure our progressive leadership into the next century. Gene Namkoong Dr. Gene Namkoong will be joining the Faculty on January 1, 1993 as the new Head of Forest Sciences. • The UBC Centre for Applied Conserva- tion Biology (Fred Bunnell, Director) sponsored a lecture by Dr. Norman Myers on October 5,1992. Dr. Myers, a consultant in environment and development from Oxford, England, gave a talk entitled "Sustainable Development of Tropical Forests and Conservation of Biological Diversity: Are They Compatible".0 Branch Lines 3 Forest Resources Management Department RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT The Regulation of a Community Forest on the Osa Peninsula of Costa Rica Annual harvest rancho quemado 3-cut conversion phase, inflated values. The establishment of cooperative or "community" forests in buffer zones surrounding national parks in developing countries is a popular means for protect- ing the parks. A forest-based economy providing labor to the local communities leading to greater utilization and sustainable development of the forests is an appeal- ing alternative to deforestation through agricultural conversion. The success of such endeavors depends on a sustainable supply of timber, consequently, forest management planning and the determina- tion of annual allowable timber harvests must be a part of forest management practices by supporting organizations. Dr. Andrew Howard has completed a study funded by the World Wildlife Fund, Washington, IX] on the sustainability of forest management practices of forestry staff in the BOSCOSA project, Fundacion Neotropica, San Jose, Costa Rica. The regulation of a community forest on the Osa Peninsula was achieved by specifying and simulating polycyclic silvicultural prescriptions. A diameter class growth model was developed for the purpose of estimating timber yields. Data from the literature on natural tropical rain forests were used to derive equations to account for changes in four components of stand dynamics: upgrowth, ingrowth, mortality and logging damage. Timber yields were simulated for three different silvicultural prescriptions proposed or in DEPARTMENT NEWS Effect ive November 1, 1992, the Forest Harvesting Group of the Department of Harvesting and Wood Science (Professors Fannin, Howard, Nelson, Salcudean, Tait and Young, and support staff David Aquino, Joan Coultas and Mark Ilafer) has changed its name to the Forest Operations Group and has merged with the Department of Forest Resources Management. use in Costa Rica. Each involved a conver- sion and maintenance phase, differing only in the length and the intensity of removals during the first phase. The long- term scheduling of harvests was formulated as a classic "Model F' linear programming problem, modified for polycyclic systems. First period harvest was maximized subject to area, cutting cycle, and even-flow con- straints. The model was used in a case study of a 1200 ha community forest comprised of 15 owners. The findings suggest that the timber supply for the portable sawmill purchased by the community forest with an annual demand of approximately 1000 m3 is probably adequate for the next thirty years with the current land base (see figure). However, once the forests have been Dr. Clark Binkley has recently toured the N. Interior (Smithers, Hazleton, Houston, Burns Lake, Chetwind, Fort St. James, Prince George) making presentations on "BC at a Crossroads in the Forest". Dr. Jonathan Fannin has completed the construction of an 80 m unpaved test road over soft ground as part of a project to demon- strate the benefits of geosynthetics for traf- ficking of roads. The study is supported by three manufacturers of geosynthetics and theMinistryofTransportation and Highways. converted to a managed state supply can be expected to drop drastically; a pattern not unfamiliar to foresters in British Columbia. The development of addi- tional sources of timber such as plantations, or an expanded land base are possible alternatives to prevent over cutting during the maintenance phase of the silvicultural prescr ip t ions . Net growth f rom the managed natural forests is surprisingly low (1.5-2.5 m3/ha/yr). The planning tools developed in the project will continue to be used to help the staff foresters in the development of long term plans for management of the community forests. For further information, please contact Dr. Andrew Howard at (604) 822-3794.Q Dr. Brent Ingram has been appointed to the Selection Committee of the CIDA Young Canadian Awards Program. Dr. Peter Marshall has recently received FRDA II funding for two projects: "Impact of Potential Climatic Change on Growth and Yield, Stand, and Forest Dynamics in the MacKenzie Basin", and "Impact of Various Spacing Regimes on the Growth and Yield of Uneven-aged Interior Douglas-fir Stands".Q Branch Lines 4 Forestry Education Activities Forestry Education in Finland Update... The forestry education system in Finland, which bears little resemblance to any Canadian model , o f fe r s an interesting example for a comparative study of the Finnish and Canadian systems (see table). Primary education Secondary education Preparation for advanced education Post-secondary: Technical Post-secondary: Academic The Finnish system is geared to early streaming and a high level of direct job t raining. S tuden t s a re channe l l ed by academic performance into university or non-university streams at age 16. Those selected for university spend three years at "gymnasium" — schools designed to prepare students for university by age 19. In Finland, the University of Helsinki, offers the only academic forestry educa- tion (compared to 7 Canadian universities). Wood science and Commerce are offered at two separate and distinct Universities. Students not going to gymnasium and on to university can take one of three path- ways towards a forestry technical education. All technical training begins with a one-year preparatory program, a f te r which the students enter a two to four year program. The four-year program prepares individuals for technical work or, occasionally, for entrance into university .The three-year program trains individuals as forest techni- c ians . T h e t w o - y e a r p r o g r a m trains individuals for jobs such as sawmill workers. Early streaming in Finland creates highly skilled and employable technical workers by age 19. An obvious advantage to the Finnish educational system is the incentive that it creates for industry to foster a high level of coopera t ion with educa to rs . Industry is closely involved in the training of workers to meet their own very specific skill-level needs. Finnish sawmill workers, for example, are trained in all of the latest technologies and are considered to be Finland Lower comprehensive (ages 7-13) Higher comprehensive (ages 13-16) • Gymnasium (3 yrs. prep, for academic: ages 17-19) or • Technical training 1 yr. prep, (age 17) Technical Schools (2-4 yrs.) University (no Bachelor, 5-6 yr. Master, 4-6 yr. Doctoral) very skilled individuals. This is rarely the case in Canada. However, early streaming can also result in educational problems. Educational routes may be determined before an individual's appropriate career path can be assessed. The highly specialized nature of Finnish universities tends to reduce opportunities for a holistic forestry education, a strength of the Canadian system. Much of this information was gathered during a visit to Finland this past August. Space limitations preclude the inclusion of our full report which will be available early in 1993 by writing to Dr. David Cohen or Dr. Susan Watts at the Faculty of Forestry address on the back page of this newsletter.Q BC Forestry Continuing Studies Network T h e BC Forestry Continuing Studies Network has now filled the existing staff positions throughout the province. Dwight Yochim has joined the Network as Provin- cial Coordinator and Tom Molfenter has taken the position of Coastal Coordinator at Malaspina College in Nanaimo. We welcome the industrial experience in forest engineering, harvesting and planning that Dwight and Tom bring to the FCS Network. Summer and fall activities have included: • Pre-harvest Silviculture Prescription workshops • Silv Ops '92 (a field demonstration of silviculture techniques) • Forest Pathology field tours • Root Rot Management field tours • Mechanical Site Preparation field tour • Site Rehabilitation seminar • Wild l i fe /Danger Tree Assessment seminars and course. We are now assisting groups to organize activities for the winter and spring. Topics include: • Introduction to Silvicultural Systems • Role of Forests in Community Stability • Integrated Forest Vegetation Manage- ment — Options and Alternatives • Building Bridges for First Nations Forestry in B.C. • Riparian Habitat Management and Research. For further information, please contact Cindy Pearce, Director at (604) 822-9278U New Undergraduate Brochure T h e Faculty of Forestry has produced a new brochure for its undergraduate programs. The 16-page booklet gives an overview of the admission requirements, objectives, program of study and employ- ment opportunities for each of the five degrees. It is designed specifically to answer the questions that high school students, college students and others may have about forestry degree programs. If you are planning to visit a high school or college to give a presentation or to participate in a career fair, you may wish to take along some brochures to distri- bute to interested students. Copies of the brochure may be obtained from Donna Goss, Coordinator of Student Services, by calling (604) 822-3547 or 822-2727. C a n a d a K to Grade 6 (ages 5-12) Jr. High School (ages 13-15) High School (ages 16-18) Colleges (1-3 yrs.) and apprenticeship University (4 yr. Bachelor, 2-3 yr. Master, 3-5 yr. Doctoral) Branch Lines 5 FOREST NEWS from the Malcolm Knapp Research Forest Forest Art and Forensic Science Over the pas t 40 years the UBC Malcolm Knapp Research Forest has served as a foundation for education and demonstration by providing an outdoor scientific laboratory for more than 600 research projects. Not all of these projects have been of a "traditional forestry" nature. This summer the B.C. Ministries of Tourism and Social Services provided funds to hire four artists to design and con- struct sculptures made from natural materials in die forest. Rick Gibson, die project coordinator, patterned the project after the Grizedale Sculpture Forest in England. The purpose of the project, die first of its kind in North America, was to add to the visitors' enjoyment and understanding of the Research Forest. The artists spent the summer learning about die forest and forest science while constructing sculp- tures which reflected their experiences. The sculptures include carvings at the intersec- tions of hiking trails, signs attached to perfect rows of trees and a rope web suspended over the forest floor. The finish- ed works were officially "opened" on October 27 and will remain on permanent display within sight of the hiking trails. The artists have applied for a research grant to fund a similar project at the Alex Fraser Research Forest in Williams Lake. In September the Research Forest was the outdoor laboratory for another "rather unusual" project. Permission was given for members of the RCMP Vancouver Region Forensic Identification Support Section to use the forest in the teaching of a course on specific aspects of major crime scene examination. RCMP officers from all over Canada attended the course. The forest has seen some interesting appli- cations over the years, but this one came close to topping the field! Part of this three-day exercise involved instruction in field techniques for the collection of entomological evidence used to assist in die determination of the time interval between death and die discovery of a body. The "body" for diis exercise was a 150 kg bear that Sgt. Bob Stair had deposited at a carefully chosen site in the forest some three weeks prior to the course. In preparation for a second exercise, Sgt. Stair buried two sets of human skeletons, complete with clothing and other artifacts, to simulate forensic burials. Dr. Sue Watts and Peter Sanders attended some of the lectures at the forest during the course. It was an interesting and unusual utilization of the forest and the RCMP members expressed considerable gratitude for our assistance. We were also Uiankful that the archeological recovery of the skeletons was a great success and that all buried parts were completely recovered ! • Gypsy Moths in the Lower Mainland O n Thursday, February 11, 1993, the Faculty of Forestry is sponsoring a panel discussion entitled "Gypsy Moths in the Lower Mainland: What are the concerns and the options for 1993?". Three speak- ers, Dr. William Wallner from the USDA Forest Service in Conneticut, Dr. Alan Oliver from Agriculture Canada in New Westminster and Dr. Michael Noble from the University Hospital in Vancouver will address the following three topics: • Why the fuss about the Asian Gypsy Moths? • The challenge in keeping the Port of Vancouver open • Are bacterial pesticides safe? Presentat ions will be fol lowed by responses and a public discussion period. This event will be held at 4:30 pm in the Instructional Resources Centre Lecture Hall #2 on UBC campus and is open to the general public at no charge. For further information contact John McLean at (604) 822-3360 or Susan Watts at 822-6316. New Associate Dean Appointment D r . John McLean has recently been appointed to the position of Associate Dean, Graduate Studies and Research. This new position was created in response to the need for better support for the faculty's rapidly expanding externally-funded research activities. It also meets the needs of our increasing graduate enrolment. Extramural research funding has taken off rapidly over the past few years and now exceeds our general purpose operating budget by a wide margin. The ratio of research dollars per full-time equivalent faculty member for die Faculty of Forestry is second only to diat of the Faculty of Medicine. Graduate student enrolment in the faculty is at an all-time high of 156 students. Future editions of Branch Lines will include a regular section by John McLean on research act ivi t ies and graduate programs. Dr. McLean can be reached at (604) 822-3360 or by E-mai l to john_mclean @mtsg.ubc.ca. NEWSLETTER PRODUCTION Branch Lines is published by the Faculty of Forestry at the University of British Columbia three times each year. ISSN 1181-9936. Editor: Susan B. Watts, Ph.D., R.P.F. In-house typesetting and layout: Patsy Quay and Susan B. Watts. Questions concerning the newsletter or requests for mailing list updates, deletions or additions should be directed to Dr. Susan Watts, Newsletter Editor at: Faculty of Forestry University of British Columbia 270-2357 Main Mall Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z4 o ^ « (604) 822-6316 Fax: (604) 822-8645 E-mail: Sue_Watts@mtsg.ubc.ca Recycled Paper ©Faculty of Forestry, 1992 Branch Lines 6

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