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Branchlines, Vol. 7, no. 3 Watts, Susan B.; University of British Columbia. Faculty of Forestry 1996

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F A C U L T Y Volume 7 No. 3 December, 1996 From the Dean's Desk Forestry in a Post-Modern World, Part II Societal values relevant to forest manage- ment have changed, or so it has become convent ional to assert . Fol lowing this hypothesis, forestry conflicts can be re- solved if foresters shift the output mix t o w a r d s the n o n t i m b e r a s p e c t s of forestry—wildl ife , water flows, biodiver- sity... Successive moves from "integrated resource m a n a g e m e n t " to approaches carrying such new-age names as "ecosys- tem management" or "new forestry" have strengthened this new emphasis. In B.C., the end point of this succession is our Pro tec ted Areas S t ra tegy which pro- scribes human intervention for material consumption on a land base larger than many European countries. Yet the conflicts persist. Hypothesis falsified, we should re-examine it. Post-modern analysis, common in the humanities, provides an alternative view. According to this view, there is no objective reality, only "social constructions" contin- gent on our culture, society and power cir- cumstances. Hayles1 outlines one of the less virulent forms of this line of thinking. She argues that physical laws place some con- straints on social constructions of nature, but the bounds are not so tight as to imply a single, objectively knowable perspective. Take, for example, the difference between the notion of a tree and that of an eco- system. A tree is more or less delimited by its trunk, roots and crown but no similar- ly stark boundaries exist for an ecosystem. The eminent zoologist, Richard S. Miller frequently complained about the ecosys- tem diagrams drawn by the equally eminent ecosystem ecologist F.H. Bormann: they included no an imals . Some scient is ts might defend his omission on the grounds of narrowing the problem to pay special attention to some particular element of interest. Such an argument merely con- firms that, at an operational level, an eco- system is not a se l f -def in ing unit of analysis (such as a cell or a tree), but in- stead is a model of human construction. Careful analysis of our language indi- cates just how strongly cultural factors condition our realities. For example, the term "landscape" implies that humans are not part of nature — Webster 's definition is "a stretch of inland natural scenery as seen from a single point" [my emphasis]. So, the seemingly value-neutra l term "landscape ecology" already takes a posi- tion on the appropriate role of humans in nature. With this kind of cultural context so deeply intertwined with what we claim to be science, it is not surprising that scientific prescriptions for forest manage- ment are so controversial. Most people def ine "natural" as the circumstances occurring in the absence of human influence. Environmental his- tory reveals the stark limitations of this apparently objective definition: • In the Blue Mountains of Oregon, Euro- pean settlers found a paradise of open ponderosa pine woodlands. Plenty of room for grazing sheep and cattle, won- derful wood for construction purposes, fettered only by "savages" who burned the woods each year.2 Decades after the fires were excluded and the native people extirpated, the forests reverted to Douglas-fir/grand fir thickets. Only then did the descendants of those set- tlers come to understand that the native 'N.K. Hayles. 1995. Searching for common ground. Ch. 4 in M. Soule and G. Lease, eds. Reinventing Nature. (Island Press: Washington, DC). I thank Jim Pojar for bringing this book to my attention. JN. Langston, N. 1995. Forest dreams, forest nightmares. (U. Washington Press: Seattle, WA). 'A. Gomez-Pampa and A. Kaus. 1992. Taming the wilderness myth. Bioscience 42:271-279. 4C.M. Peters, A.H. Gentry and R.O. Mendlesohn. 1989. Valuation of an Amazonian rainforests. Nature 339:655-656. 'V.Goldberg. 1995. Photographs in history's shifting gaze. NY Times, lONov., Section 2, pp. 1,3. people and their regular fires created the "discovered" paradise. • Ancient indigenous cultures establish- ed rainforest orchards in Central and South America, either by planting trees that bore fruit, or by selectively thinning out those that did not.3 Just as a grouse hunter might find a fall bonanza in the abandoned orchards of a New England woodlot, botanists have "discovered" that the fruit growing in "natural" rain- forests of the tropics may be worth far more than the timber which could be produced from the same area.4 Photographs would seem to be an utterly objective record, but social constructions infect even this perspective on nature. Cr i t i qu ing p h o t o g r a p h s of the North American West at the dawn of European occupa t ion , Go ldbe rg conc luded that simply the choice of scene inscribes on the film the photographer's expectations for the land. 5 In her words "We remain hope- lessly nostalgic for a lost Eden that never fully existed outside our imaginations." Without the bright beacon of science, forest management wanders in a fog of social constructions. The Hayles-constraints on the constructions of "ecosystem" are so loose that many alternative management plans are consistent with the available scientific evidence. Even the boundary of what comprises an ecosystem in a parti- cular circumstance is subject to social and cultural interpretation. Managing a forest or park requires much more specificity than science alone can unambiguously provide. As a consequence, managers and policy makers must necessarily choose one social construction of nature in prefer- ence to another. Enforcing such a choice is inconsistent with the liberal notions underlying western democracies. This, I think is a central conundrum of contem- porary resource management. You can reach me by letter, fax (604) 822- 8645 or by e-mail binkley@unixg.ubc.ca. Clark S. Binkley Forest Resources Management Department RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Hydrologic Engineering of Stream Crossings 8 (J t) 00 u 1 M od « a P 'LHXII » I? 1 .003 1.05 1 15 R« currant e Interval 1 In Te 0 2 ara 0 5 0 100 500 Flood frequency curves at Fishtrap Creek THE knowledge of design floods is of fundamenta l impor tance in forest engineering hydrology. Specification of the design flood is required by the Forest Practiccs Code of British Columbia for the sizing of waterway opening of bridges and culverts. At gauged streams design f loods are o f t e n c o m p u t e d based on single-site parametric frequency analysis of annual flood series. Hood series are commonly assumed to have been drawn from a probability distribution and its parameters are estimated by the method of moments or maximum likelihood. Parametric flood frequency analysis is based on the assumption that the annual flood series is a random sample from a single population. In B.C., this assumption may not always be valid as floods may be either rainfall-induced in the fall mid Discharge (cms) Nonparametric probability density function DEPARTMENT NEWS W e have active searches for two Chairs in H y d r o l o g y , to be j o i n t wi th the Department of Geography, a Chair for Forest Management and a joint position with Landscape Architecture, specializing in GIS applications. The Canadian Space Agency will be redi- recting the view of the RADARS AT satel- winter or snow-melt-in- duced in spr ing and summer . When such distinct streamflow re- gimes are identifiable in a basin the paramet- ric frequency analysis, based on s ta t i s t ica l unimodal distributions, may have serious ad- verse ramifications on the reliability of design flood estimates. In this pro jec t we are assessing (lie extent of mixed distributions in flood data and their impact on the reliability of p a r a m e t r i c f lood frequency analysis. We are also investigating other alternative approaches such as the nonparametric f r equency ana lys i s wh ich expl ic i t ly recognizes the characteristics of proba- bility distributions of floods generated by more than one hydrologic process. Preliminary analysis of flow records from streams across B.C. indicated that when floods are generated by two or more distinct hydrologic processes the result- ing flood distributions are multimodal and may not be represented by the para- metric unimodal distributions. The figure opposite displays a typical multimodal density funct ion of the annual f lood series of Fishtrap Creek estimated by the nonparametric method. The figure above shows for the same creek how the non- parametric distribution can give a more satisfactory fit to the observed flood data lite December 4 to northern Vancouver Island (Port Hardy, Port McNeill, Port Alice) to take images for Dr. Peter Murtha 's RAINS project. Images will be acquired every 24 days for die next 6 months and as soon as data are re- ceived here interested people may view the data in the remote sensing/GIS lab. than unimodal parametric distributions. The 100-year design flood estimate by die nonparametric (NP) approach is two times smaller than those estimated by die parametric analysis using the Uiree parameter log-normal (LN III) and log- Pearson type III (LP III) distributions. Aldiough it is too early to draw firm conclusions, these differences may have a significant impact on the environmental and economical outcome of the design of stream crossings in B.C. Our plans are to assess the viability of the nonparametric frequency approach as an alternative to a traditional parametric method that may not r ecogn ize the un ique fea tures of streamflow characteristics in B.C. This study is funded by a grant from FRBC. For further information, please contact Dr. Younes Alila, P. Eng., at (604) 822-6058 or e-mail alila@unixg.ubc.caQ Dr. Peter Pearse participated in a meeting of exper t s in Brusse ls to help design a legal ly b ind ing in te rna t iona l treaty on forest conservation. The Task Force for the BSF Curriculum will be presenting program recommen- dations to die Faculty shortly.O Branch Lines 2 Wood Science Department RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Wood Construction in Japan: Past and Present AR E C E N T trip to Japan took six UBC researchers to the roots of tim- ber construction, exemplifying how the tradition and skill of carpentry has evolved through the centuries to find its rightful place in modem society. Visits to temple structures in the ancient cities of Kyoto and Nara, some of which more than 1200 years old and made f rom unt rea ted wood, provided proof of the master carpenter's belief that wood, when used appropriately, is a dura- ble mater ia l that will outlast even stone and iron. Vis i ts with two master temple carpenters provided the philosophi- cal background to a jour- ney into the marve l s and traditions of ancient beliefs and crafts. Most striking is the master 's reverence and admi- ration of wood as a gift of nature that demands to be respected as such when used in a building that will provide shelter to humans or a space for worship and meditation. In the fast-paced consumer oriented society of today, however, this reverence for wood as a natural and durable building material has largely been lost. As part of this project on "housing for northern climates" (see article on page 5) the team visited the Hokkaido-based housing company KST which has its roots in the traditional building prac- tices of master carpentry while embrac- ing modern fabr ica t ion methods that provide a in Nara Ancient temple Modern factory made connection detail link to the construction industry of the future. Owned and lead by a man devoted to e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y sound b u s i n e s s practices and a strong belief in bio- regionalism, the company has soared to become the biggest home builder on the island of Hokkaido, producing more than 700 houses per year. The main features of these prefabricated homes are the high quali ty of mater ia ls and construction, while durability is assured with a projected lifetime of more than 100 years. High levels of insu la t ion with qu in tup le window panes, an inverted roof that captures the snow for added insulation and a very efficient heating system provide a com- fortable living space for a harsh winter climate. KST houses are much larger than the average Japanese house and are meant to accommodate several generations of a family, thus making it more affordable while foster- ing the social benefits of an extended fam- ily structure. L e s s o n s learned from the Japanese e x p e r i e n c e will be adapt- ed to Cana- dian circum- s t ances to b roaden the u n d e r s t a n d - ing of many standard KST house i n t e r r e l a t e d issues that form the basis of a successful wood building industry. For more information, please contact Dr. Helmut Prion at (604) 822-3864, e-mail prion@civil.ubc.ca or Dr. David Cohen at (604) 822-6716, e-mail dcohen @ unixg. ubc. ca. • DEPARTMENT NEWS T h e Centre for Advanced Wood Process- ing held the first annual North American- European Wood Construction Forum in Vancouver on September 19-20. The forum was a joint effort of the CAWP and the Swiss School of Engineer ing for the Timber Industry from Biel, Switzerland. Over 100 people attended the event. Proceedings are now available from the Wood Building Design and Construction Conference and Tour, held at UBC, June 27-28. Dr. David Cohen presented a paper entitled Opportunities in Japan for OSB at the 4th Annual Panel and Engineered Wood Technology Conference and Expo- sition in Atlanta, Georgia, November 14. A new version of the CSA Wood Preservat ion Standard was approved for early 1997. Research conducted by Dr. John Ruddick on the influence of preservat ive penetrat ion on protection against decay in lodgepole pine and hem- fir was instrumental in the development of a new standard for decking with a re- duced (5 mm) penetration. On October 28-31, Dr. Helmut Prion and s tudents presented f ive papers at the International Wood Engineering Confer- ence in New Orleans. Dr. Jack Saddler has been awarded a "Going Global" project to enhance collabo- ration between Germany and Canada.O Branch Lines 3 Forest Sciences Department RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT FORCEE-ing the HORIZON Computer-based decision support tools for forestry ACCURATE prediction about the con-sequences, for a wide variety of values, of alternative ways of managing forests is the foundat ion of sustainable forest management. The long-time scale of for- estry, the complexity of forest ecosystems and the relatively short history of forest management in British Columbia collec- tively prevent us from relying solely on the t radi t ional bas is for predic t ion in forestry: experience. As a result, we use knowledge -based dec is ion suppor t tools as a complement to our slowly accumula t ing body of exper ience . These tools will become indispens- able as a part of the certification of the sustainability of forest management. We have been developing computer- based management simulation models as decision support tools since 1978. For ten years , we d e v e l o p e d the FORCYTE series of models to assess the sustainability of intensively-man- aged, even-age forest stands. We then developed a more advanced version of th is h y b r i d s imu la t i on m o d e l l i n g approach: FORECAST. This led to the production of a user-fr iendly graphical ana lys i s p a c k a g e and an educa t iona l applications package (FORTOON ) , includ- ing a f o r e s t m a n a g e m e n t g a m e that examines value t rade-offs in managing an area of forest, a library of information classrooms on forestry, ecology and wild- life, and a university-level management- gaming package. DEPARTMENT NEWS D r John Richardson reports the start of two n e w s tud ies of hydro r ipa r i an ecosystems in B.C.: A study of the effec- tiveness of a series of riparian reserve widths and a whole watershed ecosystem study, including 11 lakes. Richardson is developing a web site for information and discussion of riparian ecosystems in B .C . and w o u l d w e l c o m e inpu t at http://www.interchg.ubc.ca/cacb/riparian. Our present work is focused on produc- ing two new products: 1. A spatially explicit, individual-tree, s t and - l eve l ecosys t em m a n a g e m e n t simulator, FORCEE for a wide variety of values including sustainability, site pro- ductivity, soil fertility, wildlife habitat, timber production, stand-level economics, carbon storage, and employment. The model will be able to simulate all major types of natural disturbance events and stand-level forest management practices, with real-time, user-controlled manage- ment interactions. 2. A landscape-level forest manage- ment analysis tool called HORIZON which will analyze issues of habitat supply and f ragmentat ion, landscape patterns, natural disturbance regimes, Dr. Kathy Martin was a joint recipient of the 1996 Wildlife Publications Award from the Wildlife Society for a publica- tion in Science 269:1112-1115. She has been appointed as the Canadian repre- sen t a t i ve to I U C N / I C B P Spec ia l i s t Group for Galliformes committee that will be involved in preparing species survival plans. The search to fill the FRBC Chair in Silviculture is now underway. Contact carbon storage, and the more conven- tional values of timber supply and em- ployment This GIS-based derision sup- port tool will link the landscape-analysis power of modern GIS approaches with the d e t a i l e d s t a n d - l e v e l e c o s y s t e m management simulators we have devel- oped. For fast-action gaming applica- tions, HORIZON will link with FORE- CAST. For more detailed evaluations and research it will link with FORCEE. This work is a co-operative effort b e t w e e n the F o r e s t E c o s y s t e m Management Simulation Group, UBC and Life Science Programming Ltd. led by Kim Scoullar, supported by Rod Thauberger , Bill Waldie and Laurie Kremsater. The UBC team in- cludes Research Associate Dr. Cindy Prescott, Laboratory Manager Min Tsze , Pos t -doctora l Fe l lows Brad Seely, Robert Bradley, Morris Sun and Daniel Mailly, and a team of ten graduate students. Cooperative pro- jects are being developed in Spain, Swi tzer land, Germany , China and A u s t r a l i a . T h e U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan (Dr. Ken Van Rees, Soil Science) and UNB (Dr. Paul Arp, Forest Hydrology), are also involved. The work is funded by NSERC, SCBC, BCMoF, FRBC and the forest industry. For further details, please contact the project leader, Dr. Hamish Kimmins, at (604) 822-3549, fax (604) 822-5744 or e-mail kimmins@unixg.ubc.ca.U Dr. Bart van der Kamp at (604) 822-2728 for fur ther information. Closing date: January 15, 1997. Dr. Gene Namkoong has been appointed to the Board of Trustees of the Interna- tional Plant Genetic Resources Institute ( IPGRI) . As one of the International Research Centres, its program is devoted to the global conservation and use of g e n e t i c r e s o u r c e s fo r i n t e rna t i ona l development. • Branch Lines 4 International Update Japan-Canada Cooperative Housing System Research The six member delegation from UBC along with their partners from International Environ- mental Institute and KST, Hokkaido, a unique home builder in northern Japan. T h e UBC Department of Wood Science in the Faculty of Forestry and the School of Architecture have recently signed a multi-year, multi-million dollar agreement with International Environmental Insti- tute of Hokkaido, Japan. The goal of this project is to complete joint , interdisci- plinary research into the full utilization of wood in housing systems. The trip to Japan reported on in the Department of Wood Science research highlight (page 3), initiated this interdisciplinary project to study the philosophical, ethical, en- vironmental and technological implica- tions of wood housing design for speci- fic regions in both Japan and Canada. Much of the research will focus on the theoretical underpinnings of the KST- Hokkaido Natural Housing system. Once this complex mix of social, ethical and t e c h n o l o g i c a l f o u n d a t i o n s is be t te r understood, it will be adapted and applied to Canadian circumstances. This project is based on a recognition that a key component of sustainable forestry is to use the wood resource for its "best" purpose. To meet this obliga- tion requires a unique mix of ancient wisdom and modern t echno logy , a synthesis of opposites, which requires the knowledge of modern day scholars in both the social and natural sciences as well as the artistic and design commu- nity. These modern academic disciplines will mix with t rad i t iona l J a p a n e s e philosophies and beliefs and be applied to wood housing systems to understand their impact on cur ren t and fu tu re generations. The intent is to form a strong re la t ionship be tween Canad ian and Japanese researchers and builders to learn from each other to benefit both societies in the future. For more information on this project, please contact Dr. David Cohen at (604) 822-6716, fax (604) 822-9104 or e-mail dcohen@unixg.ubc.ca.Q ( ^ International Student Exchanges T h e Forestry Facul ty ' s International Programs Office is receiving increasing interest f rom forestry students wish- ing to participate in an international exchange as part of their undergraduate or graduate studies. The university-wide Education Abroad Program allows students in their third year of undergraduate study or second year of graduate study to participate in one of 70 U B C endorsed exchange agreements. These agreements allow a student to study and receive transfer credit for courses completed at a partner university, while paying regular tuition fees to UBC. There are currently 279 students from UBC away this academic year and 265 students visiting from other partner institutions. Forestry selected 12 students to re- present the Faculty abroad and in return accepted 10 visiting international ex- change students. Some of the leading universities in forestry are among our exchange partners. Students can select f rom programs in Sweden, Finland, United Kingdom, Germany, Austria, Malaysia, Philippines, New Zealand, Australia, Costa Rica and the United States. Over 60 Forestry students attended a recent information meeting on the stu- dent exchange program and we antici- pate that 20 students will go on exchange next year. Students are enthusiastic about broadening their educational experience with an international exchange, and this university-wide program provides them with an opportunity to do so. In fact, a scholarship fund is in place for students selected for the program. Students with a 75% average or better are automati- cally eligible for scholarships which average around $1500. The deadline for applications for the next academic year is January 27, 1997. If anyone would like more informa- tion, please contact Sandra Schinnerl at (604) 822-9627, fax (604) 822-9102 or e-mail sandra@unixg.ubc.ca. V J Branch Lines 5 FOREST NEWS from the University Research Forests Tenure and Management A n insert in a recent edition of Branch Lines provided a brief overview of the UBC Research Forests and their staff. Although administratively in one depart- ment within the Faculty of Forestry at UBC, the Research Fores ts compr ise three discreet forest management units: the Malcolm Knapp Research Forest, the Alex Fraser Research Forest, and Wood- lot License #037. Each has its own tenure, its own character, and unique use patterns. The Malcolm Knapp Research Forest: • L o c a t e d 50 k i l o m e t e r s eas t of Vancouver. • Entirely private, fee simple land, wholly owned by the University of British Columbia. • Much of the area is subject to a Restrictive Covenant. The Alex Fraser Research Forest: • Situated in the interior, c lose to Williams Lake. • Special Use Permit, entirely Crown land. Woodlot License #037: • Lies immediately to the west of the Malcolm Knapp Forest. • Crown land, subject to all the condi- tions of a Woodlot License. The most obvious difference between the Forests is their legal status. Manage- ment of Crown Land under tenure requires conformance with the Forest Practices Code; private land is not subject to the provisions of the Code. As any licensee in B.C. can attest, the planning, review and approval requirements are very time con- suming, restrictive, and expensive. The flexibility enjoyed in private land management has direct benefits in terms of responding to forest health issues, timber market fluctuations, and educa- tional and research needs. Certainly the r e d u c e d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n in p l a n n i n g improves the financial performance on private land. C r o w n land m a n a g e m e n t en t a i l s much more "multiple use" of the forest than private land. The Malcolm Knapp Forest has restricted access, and no hunting or fishing is allowed. The Alex Fraser Forest, on the other hand, accom- modates unrestricted access, hunting, fishing, and motorized recreation. In addit ion, other permitted users have rights to the same piece of Crown land for grazing, trapping, guide-outfitting, and mineral development. Another s ignif icant d i f ference be- tween private and Crown land is with respect to First Nat ions issues and the treaty making process. Tenure is not the only difference be- tween the Research Forests. The Malcolm Knapp Forest is on steep ground, close to an urban population, so public percep- tions of management play a greater role. The Alex Fraser Forest is less pro- ductive forest land, and has more signi- ficant forest health challenges (bark beetles and root diseases) which tend to drive the harvesting program. Another issue not related to tenure is the history of each Forest. The Malcolm Knapp Forest has fifty years of opera- tions, data, and experience to draw upon. The Alex Fraser Forest has only been operating for ten years, and therefore has less developed but rapidly expand- ing research and education programs. Managing the Research Forests is a challenge requiring a unique mix of research, education, social and opera- tional considerations. In future articles in Branch Lines we will address some issues of urban/forest interfaces, simi- larities between U B C ' s and other re- search forests and the challenges of managing long-term research projects. For further information please contact Peter Sanders, Research Forests Direc- tor at (604) 463-8148, fax (604) 463- 2712 or e-mail sanders@unixg.ubc.ca.U f ALUMNI Fund Raising Appeal Huge Success T h i s year to date (November 1, 1996) Forestry Alumni have given a total of $34,740 to the Faculty of Forestry, repre- senting gifts from 505 individuals and an increase in giving of 22% over last year 's level. The majority of this giving has been the direct result of activities of the Alumni Campaign Committee, led by Vice-Chair Gerry Burch ('48). Forestry Telepledge evenings were held across the province in mid October and teams of volunteers made contact with alumni to solicit their support. Special thanks are due to each and every donor and the many volunteers, especially Vidar Nordin ( '46), Jack Toovey ( '60), Reid Carter ( '79), Bruce Devitt (' 57), Charles Johnson ( '58) , Bob Beard ( '65) , Bill Dumont ( '71) and Peter Affleck ('75), who co- ordinated these telephone evenings. We would also like to express our thanks to John Pennant for a job well done. John has been our Development Officer since 1994, and left UBC in Octo- ber to take up a new position at the Uni- versity of York in England. We wish John the best of luck in his new position. V J NEWSLEITER PRODUCTION Branch Lines is published by the Faculty of Forestry at the University of British Columbia three times each year. ISSN 1181-9936. http://www.forestry.ubc.ca/ Editor: Susan B. Watts, Ph.D., R.P.F. In-house typesetting and layout: Patsy Quay and Susan B. Watts. Questions concerning the newsletter or requests for mailing list updates, deletions or additions should be directed to Dr. Susan Watts, Newsletter Editor at: Faculty of Forestry University of British Columbia 270-2357 Main Mall Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z4 (sg) W (604) 822-6316 R«ycw Papo, Fax: (604) 822-8645 E-mail: suwatts@unixg.ubc.ca ©Faculty of Forestry, 1996 Branch Lines 6


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