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Branchlines, Vol. 8, no. 1 Watts, Susan B.; University of British Columbia. Faculty of Forestry Mar 31, 1997

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F A C U L T Y O F F O R E S T R Y • NEWSLETTER • T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A Volume 8 No. 1 March, 1997 From the Dean's Desk Forestry in a Post-Modern World Part III J u d g i n g by the many thoughtful ques- tions I received, my essay in the last issue cf Branch Lines apparently left readers baffled in a few places. I will attribute any confusion to the draconian word limits imposed by Uie editor, and not to any lack of clarity in writing on my part or read- ing on yours. The following comments are intended to respond more fully to the questions you have raised. Recall that pos t -modernis t s quest ion the existence of an objective reality called "nature" and instead interpret phenomena through "social constructions" - defini- tions of nature that are acknowledged to depend on our culture, society and power circumstances. Nature cannot be defined entirely with reference to culture alone, however, because some scientific facts stand undisputed - a construction of nature requiring water to flow uphill unaided can simply be rejected. Science constrains acceptable construct ions of nature, but generally not so tightly as to imply any one, single interpretation. While such a social constructionist view goes a long way towards explaining some of the deep currents of distress in forestry today, it leaves many questions unresolv- ed. First, not all social constructions of nature have equally cheerful outcomes for humans. For example, in the 10th century, Scandinavians settled in southwes tern Greenland on grasslands emerging between the receding icesheet and the ocean.1 They brought with them Christianity and a pastoral culture dependent on sheep and cows. As the climate cooled in the 1300's, pastoral farming failed. Recent archaeo- logical evidence suggests these farmers ate their dogs and cows, and f inal ly perished rather than adopting the seal- hunting culture of the indigenous Thule people. Just as a social construction of nature which excluded seals as food led to the collapse of this Norse civilization, a social construction of nature which pre- cludes logging old-growth timber would lead to the collapse of human settlements in most of non-metropolitan B.C. Second, the Canadian embrace of the multicultural mosaic combined with recent immigrat ion patterns suggests greater dispersion in our constructions of nature rather than a convergence towards any one particular point of view. Through literally thousands of interviews, the social psy- chologist Kellert has identified a typology of nine different attitudes toward nature.2 Whi le the s t ruc ture of the typo logy appears to be robust to cultural differ- ences, the frequency distributions of indi- viduals in the various categories differs dramatically among countries. For example, Kellert finds "...[the] Japanese public [is] far more inclined than the American to emphasize control over nature".3 The North American concept of wilderness is wholly absent in Germany where humans play a leading role in the landscape. As our population makeup shifts in response to immigration, it would be startling if the predominance of various social construc- tions of nature did not also change. Third, as the new Chief of the US Forest Service Mike Dombeck observed about ecosystem management, "most resource issues today are less dependent on tech- nical matters than they are on social and economic factors".4 If forest management now has as much to do with values as with science, what then is the appropriate role of the professional forester? Forestry educa t ion deals more with "technical matters" than it does with social ones. In B.C., the Foresters Act and the ABCPF define the profession's mandate as focus- ing primarily on technical issues. And B.C.'s form of land ownership and manage- ment places an apparently impermeable barrier of regulation between professional practice and professional interpretation of landowner intent. Here the strong liberal traditions under- lying western democracies may rescue us. These traditions, for example, reject a man- datory state religion and support tolerance for many a l te rna t ive poin ts of view. Multiculturalism - a distinguishing feature of Canada - makes such tolerance impera- tive. Forestry logically follows this tradi- tion by seeking varieties of land manage- ment that are consistent with each of these social constructions of nature. Just as we have areas strictly protected from industrial activities to respond to the naturalistic and ecologistic constructions of nature (to use Kellert 's typology), we should also have intensively managed areas focusing on t imber p roduc t ion and o ther tangible products to respond to the utilitarian and dominionistic constructions. Intermediate forms of management would capture still more of our constructions of nature. Inter- estingly, such planned variety in land management is consistent with current proposals 5 fo r strong land-use zoning which have, to date, been based on econo- mic and ecological arguments alone. You can reach me in person, by letter, fax (604) 822-8645, 8 (604) 822-2467, or by e-mail binkley@unixg.ubc.ca. Clark S. Binkley 1 This account is taken from H. Pringle, 1997. Death in Norse Greenland. Science 275:924-926. 2 See, esp. S.R. Kellert. 1993. Attitudes, knowledge, and behavior toward wildlife among the industrial superpowers: United States, Japan, and Germany. J. Social Issues 42. 3 P. 110 in S.R. Kellert. 1995. Concepts of Nature East and West. ch. 7 in M. Soule and G. Lease, eds. Reinventing nature: responses to post-modern dceonstruction. (Island Press: Washington, DC). * P. 2, The Pinchot Letter, Winter, 1997, p 2. (Pinchot Institute for Conservation, Washington, DC). 'E .g . C.S.Binkley. 1997. Ecosystem management and plantation forestry: lessons for British Columbia. The Forestry Chronicle(forthcoming). Forest Resources Management Department RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT RAINS and RADARSAT RA d a r Imag ing Natura l S y s t e m s (RAINS) is a continuing study of C-band (5.3 cm wavelength) Synthetic Aper ture Rada r ( S A R ) da ta of nor th Vancouver Island's coniferous rainforest. The m a j o r ob j ec t i ve of R A I N S is to demonstrate the effect ive integration of RADARSAT satellite data in the forest inventory p rocess of m o n i t o r i n g and map update. Coopera tors in the study include Western Forest Products Limited, RADARSAT International, and the Cana- dian Space Agency. In the September 1994 issue of Branch Lines (Volume 5, No. 2), we reported some results f rom airborne SAR data which helped us develop the methodology to examine RADARS AT data. On N o v e m b e r 4, 1995, C a n a d a ' s RADARSAT satellite with its weather/ cloud/darkness penetrating C-band SAR sensor was launched. In December 1995, the RAINS project was funded by the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) in their Application Development and Research Opportunity (ADRO) competition. The RAINS award included 12 RADARSAT images to be acquired late in 1996 and 1997. RADARSAT, orbiting at about 800 km above Earth, is a directional viewing satellite and can be programmed to look at selected targets, at specific depression angles and resolutions. The RAINS project is receiving data at two resolutions: "Fine 2" with its 9 meter resolution and "Standard 4" at the 25 meter resolution. The Fine 2 data cover an area 50 km by 50 km, and target the Port McNei l l , Port Hardy, Port Alice region, whereas the Standard 4 data cover an area 100 by 100 km, and target the Port McNei l l , Port Hardy Brooks Peninsula region. On December 3, 1996, at 19:21 hours during a heavy rainstorm with winds gusl- ing 50 to 100 km/hr over exposed areas, the first RADARSAT Fine 2 image was acquired. On December 11, at 20:44 hours, the first Standard 4 mode image was acquired. Both data sets were processed and delivered by the CSA within a week of imaging. We are now in the process of d o c u m e n t i n g and quan t i fy ing the following observations: • riparian leave strips are detectable; • tree crowns give canopies image texture; • large defoliated tree crowns give strong radar returns; • partially defoliated tree crowns give a somewhat less bright return; • recent clearcuts are detectable and can be mapped; • new forest road construction in forest stands is detectable and can be mapped; • forest roads through new clearcuts are more difficult to map; • young plantations are separable from new clearcuts. The fine detail of the above results cannot be reproduced in Branch Lines (because of lack of contrast). However, the accom- pany ing image g ives a sense of the imagery capability of RAD AS AT. Colour enhanced images may be viewed upon request. For further information, please contact Dr. Peter Murtha at (604) 822-6452; fax (604) 822-9106 or e-mail murtha @ unixg. ubc.ca. O Fine 2 mode RADARSAT Image acquired 12/03/96 at 19:21 lirs. The arrow at the lower right points to log booms in the water. Location: Port Alice, B.C. DEPARTMENT NEWS D r Jonathan Fannin has been awarded the R.M. Quigley Award for the best paper published in the Canadian Geotechnical Journal in 1996. He has also been invited to instruct in the inaugural module of the Institute of Forest Engineering of British Columbia (IFEBC) in May 1997. His lec- tures will address the engineering and geological properties of soil and rock. Dr. Peter Pearse retired at the end of December after 34 years wiUi UBC. Dr. George Hoberg (Political Science at UBC) has agreed to teach forest policy under a two-year jo in t appoin tment agreement with the Forest Resources Management Department. In January, Dr. David Haley helped organize and was the keynote speaker at a conference on communi ty forestry held at Rossland, B.C. Participants re- solved to request that the Union of BC Municipalities form a Community Forestry Committee to continue to educate member mun ic ipa l i t i e s and reg iona l d is t r ic ts on communi ty involvement in forest management and to lobby the provincial government in this regard. Dr. Paul Wood delivered the keynote address at an international conference in October held in Chunchon, Korea, entitled "Northeast Asian Forestry in the 21st Century: Sustainable Development and Conservation." • Branch Lines 2 Wood Science Department RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Improved wood frame systems to resist earthquake and wind loads KEY elements in North American 2 x 4 construction systems include shear walls and diaphragms which efficiently p r o v i d e the b u i l d i n g with r e s i s t ance against vertical gravity and live loads, transverse wind loads, and in-plane lateral forces imposed by wind and earth- quakes. The issue of earthquake re- sistance is of particular importance for future expansion into: • commercial markets where the floor span and load levels tend to be more demanding, • offshore markets such as Japan, and • U.S . C a l i f o r n i a and F l o r i d a markets. Although conventional wood frame systems have demonst ra ted suc- cess in resisting lateral loads, we sometimes fail to question whether further improvements can be made? The answer is of course — yes. Conventional wood frame systems, com- posed of lumber framing members, sheathed with 1.2 x 2.4 m plywood or oriented strand board (OSB) panels using nails , have numerous seams which form the weak links when loaded with in-plane shear forces. Canadian OSB mills, however, have the capability to produce panels of up to 3.3 x 7.3 m in size, which presents an oppor- tunity to build walls with full sized sheets, instead of cutting the panels to standard 1.2 x 2.4 m sheets. Our research focuses on using the oversized OSB panels in wall systems to minimize the discontinuities in the sheathing cover to Schematic view of the shear wall test setup assembly. improve the performance of walls. A two-year research program funded by the Structural Board Association and the National Research Council Industry Assistant Program was initiated in the fall of 1995 to investigate this idea. In Phase 1, a full scale static wall test facility was built. The structural perfor- mance of 2.4 x 7.2 m shear wall systems built with regular and nonstandard dimen- sion OSB panels (supplied by Ainsworth Lumber Co. Ltd.) has compared under monotonic and cyclic loading conditions. The results indicate that substantial in- creases in both stiffness and lateral load carrying capaci ty can be achieved in shear walls built with oversized panels. In s o m e cases , these walls (with less material and fewer nai ls) carr ied more than \ twice the lateral load, com- pared to the conventional walls. A slight increase in ductility was also observed for these walls, although the convent ional walls dissi- pated more energy under cyclic loading because of larger deformations. Phase 2 of our work will include: • shake table tests of these wall systems with simulated earthquake excitations, • development of analytical and design procedures, and • applications and technology transfer. Further information is available from Dr. Frank Lam (604) 822-6526 (e-mail franklatn@unixg.ubc.ca) or Dr. Helmut Prion (604) 822-3864 (e-mail prion@civil.ubc.ca)Q DEPARTMENT NEWS T h e Chair of Forest Products Biotechnol- ogy is currently hosting two visiting scien- tists. Prof. Abdel Boussaid, visiting from Morocco, is working on bioconversion of wood residues. Prof. Marie Jose Vieira Fonseca, visiting from the Universidade de S3o Paulo in Brazil, is working on enzy- matic modification of pulp fibers. Dr. David Barrett was appointed as an invited Professor at the EPFL, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne where he is lecturing in timber engineer- ing in the Post Graduate Program offered by Prof. Julius Natterer, one of Europe's leading specialists in design and con- struction of wood structures. Drs. Paul Morris and David Plackett from Forintek and Ron Dinus, formerly of the Institute of Paper Science and Tech- nology, have been appointed as Adjunct Professors to the Dept. of Wood Science. In December, Dr. John Ruddick at- tended the International Conference on Forest Products where he gave a key- note address on "Treated timber: The sus- tained use of forest products". The paper discussed the impact of the changing demand and supply of forest products and the potential impact of the use of wood p rese rva t ives . A t t endees were drawn primarily from Pacific Rim coun- tries. While a strong focus of the confer- ence was the use of the timber resource in traditional ways, the contribution of the non-wood industries to the utilization of the forest resource was also presented.Q Branch Lines 3 Forest Sciences Department RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Genetics out of the woods THE role that genetics can play in forestry is illustrated by one of our research pro jec ts , which involves the Kermode bear. This bear is a rare, white color morph of the black bear, and it occurs in a restricted area of northwest B.C. that inc ludes P r inces s Royal and Gr ibbe l Islands. It has been protected from sport-hunting since 1925 and groups have been calling for preserves to pro- tect the Kermode bear from logging. H o w e v e r , the e f f e c t s of fo re s t ry operations on the viability and move- ment of bear populations are largely unknown. Logging may or may not foster the "genetic invasion" by black bears. We need information on the genetic uniqueness of this bear, the genetic basis of its coat color, and the rates of gene flow among bear popula t ions in relat ion to harvest practices. For example, after mixing, Kermodism will decrease in frequency only if white was recessive to black. To obtain the DNA information that can address these questions, we use the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to selectively amplify minute quantities of DNA (in black bears, provided by a few coat hairs) up to a billion times. A highly informative type of DNA fingerprint, a "micro-satellite" locus, is then visualized in amplified sam- ples. In the Forest Sciences Depart- ment, the use of such techniques will DEPARTMENT NEWS be facilated by a new "genetic marker lab", run by Dr. Carol Ritland. Prev ious studies by Strobeck and colleagues at the University of Alberta have demonstrated dramatic differences in the distribution and amount of micro- satellite variation between black bear Kermode bears are often seen intermingling with black bears, and these two may actually be siblings. populations in Canadian National Parks. The Kermode bear may likewise show genetic d i f ferences f rom western B.C. black bears, and as well, reduced varia- tion due to their isolation on islands. Variation across regions also will reveal patterns of gene flow, and when superim- posed on patterns of harvest practices, we should be able to determine the effect of harvest practices upon bear populations and their migration patterns. A particularly exciting component of this p ro jec t will involve inferr ing pedigrees in mixed populations with mic rosa te l l i t e s , then deduc ing the genetic basis of coat color by fitting models of coat color inheritance to the pedigree. Classically, inheritance is inferred using controlled crosses, but this is impossible with wild organisms such as the Kermode bear. Once the inheritance is determined in this new way, the implicat ions of increased gene f low upon the f requencies of Kermodism can be predicted and used to aid management decisions. Dr. Dawn Marshall is involved with molecular aspects of this work, and fieldwork is being conducted in con- junction with Drs. Rob Wielgus and Fred Bunnell of the Centre for Applied C o n s e r v a t i o n Bio logy , as well as Dr. John Barker from Western Forest Products, Mr. Tony Hamilton from the Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks and Mr. Grant Scott from the Kitasoo Band. For further information, please con- tact Dr. Kermit Ritland at (604) 822-8101, fax (604)822-9102 or e-mail kertnit.ritland@ubc.ca. • D r . Kathy Martin and several co-authors received the 1996 Wildlife Publications award from the Wildlife Society for a publication in Science (269:1112-1115). Kathy was also appointed as the Canadian representative to IUCN/ICBP Specialist Group for Gal l i formes Committee that will be involved in preparing species survival plans. Dr. Robert Wielgus has accepted an appointment as Assistant Professor of Wildlife Habitat Ecology at Washington State University in Pullman. He will be leaving the Forest Sciences Department on August 1, 1997, but will be continuing his research on threatened and endan- gered species (grizzly bears, mountain cariboo) in southern B.C. On February 19-20, eighty academics, professional biologists, foresters, and environmentalists attended a biodiver- sity workshop at UBC. The focus of the w o r k s h o p ( h o s t e d by U B C ' s Fores t Sciences and Zoology departments and sponsored by FRBC) was to develop a strategy for measuring biological diver- sity in B.C. Based on the proceedings of the workshop, a document outlining this strategy will be submitted to FRBC. The Canadian Council of Forest Minis- ters has invited Dr. Hamish Kimmins to be a speaker at a Canadian forestry confer- ence in Hamburg, Germany and to meet with European parliamentarians. • Branch Lines 4 Faculty News New Appointments On April 1, Mr. Steve Mitchell will join the Forest Sciences Depart- ment as an Instructor in Silviculture. On completion of his Doctorate, this rank will be changed to Assistant Professor. Steve graduated from the University of British Columbia in 1987 with a BSF degree in Forest Resources Management. After working for West Fraser Mills in stand tending, logging supervision, and tim- ber administration, he returned to UBC in 1992 for graduate studies. Steve has been involved in teaching silviculture at UBC for the past two years and will continue to teach regeneration silviculture to the undergraduates. His current area of research is windthrow risk assessment and management, and he has a broad interest in the design and implementation of silvicultural systems. Steve Mitchell can be reached at (604) 822-6027, fax (604)822-9102 or e-mail smitchel@unLxg.ubc.ca. Laura Nagel will join the Forest Sciences Department in April as an Instructor in Conservation. Laura graduated in 1994 from the University of British Columbia with a Master 's degree in evolu- tionary biology. Following several years of experience in a wide variety of forestry, fisheries and wildlife projects, she became a lab instructor at Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario. In this posi- tion, her responsibilities included a third year ecology course "" emphasiz ing field data collection and analysis. Laura 's main activity in the Natural Resources Conservation undergraduate program will be the development, organization and instruction of a new interdisciplinary field course for fourth year students. This course will address ecological and social issues in conservation using a field environment. As of April 1, 1997, Laura Nagel can be reached at (604) 822-4987 or fax (604) 822-9102. Tara Scott has been appointed to the position of Development Officer for the Faculty of Forestry. She will be working with the Dean , Facul ty members , Alumni and the Facu l ty ' s Advisory Committee to plan and implement our development program. Tara graduated from the University of New Brunswick with a Bachelor of Business Administration degree, and has been working in the development field in Vancouver for several years. Her recent experiences have been as the Campaign Coordinator for the Stanley Theatre, and Fundraising Coordinator for the Vancouver Public Library Capital Cam- paign. She is looking forward to working with the Faculty and promoting our work and needs to the community. Your ideas, knowledge, proposals and questions will help to strengthen our Faculty's development program, and Tara encourages you to share your thoughts with her. Tara Scott can be reached at (604) 822-8716, fax (604) 822-8645 or e-mail tarscott@unixg.ubc.ca. Sandy Thomson has been hired to the new position of Student Affairs and Public Relations Officer in the Wood Science Depart- ment. She graduated from the University of British Columbia in 1995 with a B.Sc. in Forest Science. As a student in the Faculty, she was secretary and president of the Forestry Undergraduate Society, and a teaching assistant in forest pathology. Sandy will be busy attending career fairs and visiting students at high schools, colleges and universities throughout western Canada in an attempt to recruit new students for the Wood Products Processing program. She hopes to recruit 60 new students for the 1997 winter session. Sandy Thomson can be reached at (604) 822-1834,fax (604)822-9104 or e-mail sandyth@unixg.ubc.ca. ( \ Association of BC Professional Foresters Clark Binkley awarded Honourary Membership I n recognit ion of his outstanding contributions to the field of forestry, the Association of BC Professional Fores te rs has granted the title of honourary member to Clark Binkley, Dean of the Faculty of Forestry at UBC. Clark is only the fourteenth person to be awarded an honourary membership to the association. A news release from the association described C la rk ' s extensive list of achievements and awards in the field of forestry and forestry education as more than sufficient to justify his re- ceipt of the award. "Since his appoint- ment as Dean in September 1990, Dr. Binkley has amassed an impressive list of accomplishments, these include the establishment of the conservation biology p rogram, gaining approval for the new forest sciences building now under construction, and his deft management of the biggest growth in enrolment the faculty has ever seen." T h e a w a r d was p re sen t ed to Dr . B ink ley at the r ecen t annual general meeting of the association, in Kelowna,B.C. V Branch Lines 5 FOREST NEWS from the University Research Forests Research legacies at the forests A vast array of researchers come through our gates each year, most with highly focused interests and expertise. They leave us various kinds of legacies. The most important ones are new information and valuable sites for teaching and further research. These build our repository of information and resources that can be passed on to future generations. Some of the physical items we inherit are useful, and can be re-used by others. For example, at the Malcolm Knapp Forest a deer pen that was originally constructed for a browse preference study, has been used since to test animal repellents, grow seedlings in a deer free environment, and test herbicides. Similarly, a quarter hectare small mammal enclosure that was built at the Alex Fraser Forest provides a per- fect cattle exclosure to protect a variety of other types of research from grazing and trampling damage. Some items are not so useful, however, and require cleaning up or may even pose a hazard. For example, a board walk that was constructed around a small lake study site is currently rotting and unsafe. Steel nails used to secure research tree tags become grown over if not removed and pose a significant future hazard during tree har- vesting and processing. Project materials such as plastic, metal, wood and chemicals that are left in the forest are not aestheti- cally or environmentally desirable and require cleanup after project completion. Wildlife are commonly attracted to foreign materials, such as plastic, and in many cases will chew on and ingest them. Above ground structures and pits or holes in the ground can create barriers and unsafe conditions for stock and wildlife travel. Some legacies are large, and require con- siderable effort to dismantle. Some years ago, Malcolm Knapp inherited over 20 tons of neither useful nor attractive rusty metal left behind after a research project. Some legacies are movable (like bottles, t raps, and screens) , whi le o thers are fixed or difficult to move (like plantings, deep pits, weirs, and physically modified trees). Some of the "fixed" legacies have proven to be extremely valuable. For ex- Branch Lines 6 ample, a group of trees that were pruned in the 1950's yielded new information when they were sampled again in the 1980's. Research plantations, such as the Douglas-fir spacing trials, establish- ed in the mid-1950's at Malcolm Knapp, have been visited by virtually every graduating UBC forestry student over the past forty years and are a constant source of new research initiatives. The pos i t ive legac ies lef t by re- searchers outshine the negative. Both Research Forests now have a formal Researcher Use Policy in place which in- cludes the requirement that researchers commit to cleaning up their research sites after their field work is complete. It is often difficult to foresee, however, which project sites and materials may become useful in the future. The information base and educational oppor tun i t i es , genera ted by the re- searchers on the Forests, are continually growing and evolving and provide us all with unique learning facilities that are second to none. For further information, please contact Peter Sanders, Research Forests Director at (604) 463-8148, fax (604) 463-2712 ore-mail sanders@unixg.ubc.caXJ \ Copies available... Burgess-Lane Lecture T h e Burgess-Lane Memorial Lectureship in Forestry was established in 1974 to honour Thomas E. Burgess and David E. Lane, Vice-Presidents of long-standing with British Columbia Forest Products Ltd. A fund was established by Mrs. Dorothy Burgess and Mrs. Evelyn Lane and British Columbia Forest Products Ltd. for the presentation and publica- tion of special lectures in forestry by outstanding authorit ies in forestry or the forest industry. Th i s y e a r ' s lec ture w a s given on March 5 by Dr. James Bolton, Director of the BioComposites Centre in Wales. The lecture was held in conjunct ion with a Faculty Research evening and attracted over 100 interested individuals. F ree cop ie s of Dr . B o l t o n ' s talk "Plant Fibres in Composite Materials: A review of technical challenges and opportunities" are available from: The Department of Wood Science University of British Columbia 270-2357 Main Mall, Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z4 V J NEWSLETTER PRODUCTION Branch Lines is published by the Faculty of Forestry at the University of British Columbia three times each year. ISSN 1181-9936. http://www.forestry.ubc.ca/ Editor: Susan B. Watts, Ph.D., R.P.F. In-house typesetting and layout: Patsy Quay and Susan B. Watts. Questions concerning the newsletter or requests for mailing list updates, deletions or additions should be directed to Dr. Susan Watts, Newsletter Editor at: Faculty of Forestry University of British Columbia 270-2357 Main Mall Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z4 @ * (604) 822-6316 Recycw Pap«- Fax: (604) 822-8645 E-mail: suwatts@unixg.ubc.ca ©Faculty of Forestry, 1997


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