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Branchlines, Vol. 7, no. 2 Watts, Susan B.; University of British Columbia. Faculty of Forestry Sep 30, 1996

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F A C U L T Y O F F O R E S T R Y • NEWSLETTER • T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A Volume 7 No. 2 September, 1996 F r o m t h e D e a n ' s D e s k T h i s year marks the third straight year of record enrolment in the Faculty. Along with 217 new undergraduates (about the size of the entire student body in 1988!), 381 returning students make a total under- graduate population of 598. In addition, we have 207 graduate students (another Faculty record) and 131 post-baccalaureate students enrol led in the Diploma in Forestry (Advanced Silviculture) we offer in collaboration with the Silviculture Institute of B.C. (page 6 provides a more detailed report on this year's enrolment). This increase in enrolment reflects steady demand from young people for our professional forestry programs (both Forest Resources Management and in Forest Operations), nearly the full rollout of the B.Sc. in Natural Resources Con- servation, and the first steps toward full implementation of the new B.Sc. program in Wood Products Process ing. With these increased student numbers comes a substantially increased responsibility for providing high-quality instruction and student services. We are responding to this responsibility in several ways: • We have created three new administra- tive positions in the Faculty, called "Program Directors" whose responsi- bility is to advise and assist under- graduate students. Prof. Sue Glenn has accepted this role for the Natural Resources Conservation program, Prof. Simon Ellis for the Wood Products Processing program, and Prof. Peter Marshall for the professional forestry programs. Along with our Coordinator of Student Services Helen Driscoll, these three faculty members will help work out schedule conflicts, bring course problems to the formal curriculum review process, and generally work to improve student esprit de corps. • We have hired addi t ional facul ty members who will assist in various aspects of undergraduate and graduate instruction (page 5 introduces these individuals). In addition, we currently have twelve faculty searches active to s t rengthen fur ther our capaci ty to deliver these programs. • In our "Growing for the Future" cam- paign we are emphasizing projects which directly serve student needs, for instance, improved financial assistance, high-quality teaching equipment for the new Forest Sciences Centre, and im- provements at the University Research Forests. (The Forestry Campaign insert to this issue of Branch Lines describes the campaign in more detail.) • We have substant ia l ly revised the Natural Resources Conservation program by strengthening core learning in land management, streamlining program op- tions and introducing an innovative fourth-year field course featuring fully integrated instruction throughout the fall term. • We will, this year, put in place substan- tial revisions to the professional for- estry program. Although the task force headed by Prof. Gordon Baskerville is not due to report until later this fall, some themes are already emerging: a need to strengthen l inkages among elements of the program to forge a coher- ent body of usable knowledge in the student's mind, a need to provide more structure in how students move through the program while retaining flexibility to enter from a number of routes, and a likely need to lengthen the program to five years to incorporate all of the thoughtful changes suggested by our survey of government, industry and environmental organizations. In the context of modern post-secondary edu- cation, lengthening the program implies that the initial degree may end up being a Master of Forestry rather than a B.S.F. • We are planning three symposia this year. One will focus on bringing First Nations perspectives and issues more firmly into the forestry and natural re- source conservation curricula. Because there is a deficiency in university cur- ricula world-wide, other universities from the United States, New Zealand and South America are also involved in this project, headed in the Faculty of Forestry by Gordon Prest and Beverly Bird. A second will deal with contempo- rary issues in forest hydrology as a means to assist with our searches for the Forest Renewal BC Professors in that field (Prof. Olav Slaymaker from the Geography Department is leading that search committee, and is responsible for the symposium as well). The third, ajoint initiative of the Faculty of Arts and the Faculty of Forestry, will examine the cultural meaning of forests with special emphasis on the social constructionist views asserting the absence of any objective reality called "nature" (more on this in a later Branch Lines). The challenges facing contemporary forest management can be solved only through human ingenuity. Education— whether undergraduate, graduate, diploma or continuing studies — is a most power- ful means for honing that ingenuity and bringing it to bear on society's problems. We welcome your comments and sugges- tions on how we can do a better job in meeting this challenge. You can reach me by letter, fax (604) 822- 8645 or by e-mail binkley@unixg.ubc.ca. Clark S. Binkley Wood Science Department RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT The fixation of ammoniacal copper preservatives OVER the pas t decade , the wood processing industry has been in- creasingly involved in strategies to mini- mize the environmental impacts of treated wood. One sign of this is the dramatic increase in the use of preservatives based on inorganic metal oxides, which "fix" in wood . T h e m o s t c o m m o n of these , c h r o m a t e d - c o p p e r - a r s e n a t e ( C C A ) is widely used for preserving utility poles, decking and fencing for the Do-It-Yourself market. As products treated with these "fixed" preservatives are more frequently used by the general public, there has been an interest in considering alternative pre- servative formulations. Several have been developed, based upon copper solubilized in either ammonium hydroxide or mono- ethanolamine. Examples include, ammo- niacal copper citrate, ammoniacal copper borate, ammoniacal copper quat, and copper azole. Studies have shown that wood treated with these preservatives is highly resistant to leaching of the preservative (similar to the currently used CCA) — a highly desirable quality. One aspect that is not understood is the actual fixation chemistry and how/whether the fixation process of these new formulations can be accelerated. This is an important com- mercial consideration, particularly in Canada, where the low temperatures of winter slow fixation processes. The NSERC/Industrial Chair in Wood Preservation at UBC has been research- ing the fixation chemistry of ammoniacal copper systems for almost four years. Our research has uncovered several important observations. The fixation of the ammoniacal copper systems were thought to be based upon the simple precipitation of the copper chemical (copper carbonate in these nonarsenical formulations) as the ammo- nia evaporated from the wood surface following treatment. Our studies revealed that in addition to precipitation reactions, stable diamminecopper(II ) complexes were formed between the copper and the heartwood extractives (such as taxi- folin in Douglas-fir). This process can be beneficial, since it can significantly reduce the loss of these extractives, which are often responsible for the characteristic properties of the heartwood. However, we concluded from the research, that these reactions can also induce negative effects, such as causing the treated Douglas-fir to become very dark in colour. Recent research by the wood preserva- tion team at U B C has confirmed that lignin also plays a key role in binding copper in ammoniacal copper systems. Using vanillin to model the abundant guaiacyl units found in lignin, we were able to prepare a single crystal of the copper complex. Spectroscopic studies together with a crystallographic study of the crystall ine solid clearly confirmed the p r e s e n c e of a s tab le d i a m m i n e - copper(II)vanillin complex. As part of this ongoing research pro- gram, we plan to investigate techniques for accelerating the fixation reaction of ammoniacal and amine copper preser- vatives, as well as investigate the influ- ence of post-treatment fixation processes on the surface cleanliness of tlie treated wood Further information is available from Dr. John NR. Ruddick at (604) 822-3736 or e-mail ruddick@unixg.ubc.ca.U DEPARTMENT NEWS I n August a six member team visited Japan as part of a 9-year joint research project with International Environmen- tal Institute, Hokkaido, Japan. This group included David Cohen (Group Leader), David Barrett and Helmut Prion f rom the Department of Wood Science and Raymond Cole, Sherry McKay and Linda Brock from the School of Architecture. This long term, multi-million dollar co- operation agreement will examine philoso- ph ies and t e c h n o l o g i e s fo r the fu l l exploitation of wood. This first project, which examined t radi t ional J a p a n e s e carpentry and its current use in modern residential construction, will be reported in the next Branch Lines. Dr. Thomas Maness has returned from a year in Europe working with the Swiss School of Engineering for the Timber Industry in Switzerland and the Fachhochschule Rosenheim in Germany. While in Europe he developed extensive information about European woodwork- ing programs, equipment manufacturers and the wood industry. As a result of his trip, the Department has developed a knowledge transfer plan for obtain- ing European teaching and curriculum design ass i s tance for the new Wood Products Processing Program. Drs. Frank Lam and Helmut Prion attended the International Council for Building Research Studies and Docu- mentation Working commission W18- Timber Structures in Bordeaux, France August 26-29, 1996, where they presented two papers: "Lateral resistance of wood based shear walls with oversized sheath- ing panels" (Lam, Prion, He); and "The effect of edge knots on the strength of SPF MSK lumber" (Courchene, Lam, Bar re t t ) . • Branch Lines 2 Forest Resources Management Department RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Stand structure and dynamics of uneven-aged interior Douglas-fir UNEVEN-AGED interior Douglas-fir stands form an important portion of the harves t in the Car iboo Region of British Columbia. This forest type is struc- turally complex due to a history of distur- bances from partial cutting, insects, and fire. In addition to being important from a timber perspective, many interior Douglas- fir stands provide important winter habitat for mule deer. At the present t ime , pa r t i a l cu t t i ng is w i d e l y employed in this forest type to main- tain win te r r a n g e s t ruc tu re and encourage successful regeneration of the Douglas-fir. However, there is little information on the impact of var ious res idual stand s t ructures on stand growth. Large trees are essential to good mule deer winter range. Recruitment of sapling-sized trees to larger dia- meters is necessary to replace large trees which die from various causes or which are harvested. Recruitment is especially necessary in areas that meet other criteria for good winter range, but presently lack sufficient numbers of large trees, often because of diameter-limit logging in the past . Spacing of dense patches of smaller trees is one possibility for increasing the growth rate of individual trees. However, the impacts of spacing on this stand type are not well understood. To help address these issues, two growth and yield research installations were estab- lished in uneven-aged Douglas-fir stands DEPARTMENT NEWS W e have three new m e m b e r s of the Department. Dr. Joe McNeel will be teach- ing forest operations courses in both the O p e r a t i o n s p r o g r a m and the F o r e s t Management program. Joe returns to the Department after several years of teaching at the U n i v e r s i t y of W a s h i n g t o n in Seattle. Don Luymes has taken a joint pos i t i on wi th the F o r e s t R e s o u r c e s Management Department and the School on the Knife Creek Block of UBC's Alex Fraser Research Forest, near Williams Lake. Funding for establishing these in- stallations and making subsequent mea- surements was provided by the Alex Fraser Research Forest, the Community Forestry Program (Williams Lake District), and FRDAII . Both installations are comprised of permanent sample plots, in which all trees greater than 1.3 m in height within the confines of the plot are tagged, mea- sured, and their locations mapped. Installation 88-3 is designed to provide data for exploring relationships between stand structure and various components of tree and stand growth. It is comprised of 6 permanent sample plots, located across a range of stand structures. These plots were es tabl i shed and init ial ly of Landscape Architecture. He will be teaching courses in both the manage- ment and landscape architecture pro- grams. Dr. Paul Wood rejoins the Depart- ment to teach in the Natural Resources Conservation program. For further infor- mation on these new appointments see the article 'New Appointments' on page 5 of this newsletter. Dr. Valerie LeMay will be on sabbatical leave for this academic year. This past summer has seen two retire- measured in 1988 and remeasured follow- ing the 1992 growing season. Installation 88-11 is designed to provide data for assessing the impact of three different spacing regimes on the dynamics of stands with a predominance of small diameter trees. Two plots were established and measured in dense areas in each quarter of three 40 ha blocks, for a total of 24 plots during 1989 and 1990. Treatments (the three spacing regimes plus a control) were randomly assigned and applied to each quarter block during the winter of 1990-91. Plots were relocated and the trees were tagged and measured again in 1992. Although it is too early to draw firm conclusions from either of these instal la t ions, analysis of the first remeasurements on 88-3 indicated some differences in g r o w t h a m o n g the va r ious s t and s t r u c t u r e s e x a m i n e d . S t ronger g rowth d i f f e r e n c e s may become evident with future remeasurements. The post-spac- ing m e a s u r e m e n t s in 88-11 showed that spacing reduced the variability in stand struc- tures among the ploLs. The dia- m e t e r d i s t r i b u t i o n s fo r the spaced plots formed bell-shaped curves rather than tlie classical inverse-J shaped distributions that existed prior to spacing. The number of t rees and basa l area r emoved by spacing appeared to be as much a func- tion of the previous diameter and spatial distr ibution on the plots as it was a function of the spacing method. Present plans are to remeasure the plots on each of these installations in the next few years as funding becomes available. For further information, please contact Dr. Peter Marshall at (604) 822^918 or e-tnail marshall@ unixg. ubc.ca. • ments from the Department. Dr. Doug Golding retired after 18 years of teach- ing and research in the area of forest hydrology. Dr. A1 Chambers took early retirement this year and is now devoting his time to community involvement in fishery, forestry and wildlife management. Searches are gearing up for three Chairs in the Department, all funded through Forest Renewal BC. For further informa- tion see the article 'Faculty Searches' on page 5 of this newsletter. • 10 12 Relative Density Biomass growth versus stand density for the 88-3 installation. Branch Lines 3 Forest Sciences Department RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT The science behind riparian management IN r e c e n t y e a r s c o u n t r i e s such as Denmark and Japan have begun, at great expense, to purchase streamside areas back from private landowners. These countries have realized that protection of stream environments for fish and other resources depends on wise management of riparian areas. In B.C., the Forest Practices Code has incorporated guidelines to protect the hydroriparian system f rom potential ly adverse effects of some forest practices. The term "hydroriparian" is increasingly used to reflect the tight linkage of the aqua- tic environment and the riparian area. In spite of these guidelines we're a long way from knowing how to best manage forest landscapes to protect the full range of func- tions that hydroriparian areas provide. Riparian management is nothing if not cont rovers ia l . Headwa te r s t reams are especially problematic. Riparian reserve zones for small s t reams can have an immense impact on the Annual Allowable Cut. Still, any effects of forest practices on these small channels, however subtle, may have cumulative impacts on down- stream environments. These small streams are the home of cutthroat trout, young bull trout and coho salmon, along with many other organisms. There are numerous questions about riparian management . Should the same guidelines be used irrespective of biogeo- climatic zone? The riparian management area is made up of a reserve zone and a management zone (RMZ), but how that RMZ should be managed is not clear. Should the RMZ be partially harvested, topped, or left intact? Are the guidelines DEPARTMENT NEWS O ur NSERC Industrial Research Chairs in Population Genetics have been funded at about $400,000 a year. Dr. Kermit Ritland has been appointed to the Senior Chair and Dr. Sally Aitken to the Junior Chair. Dr. John Richardson, senior scien- tist with the B.C. Ministry of Environment, inadequate or unnecessarily onerous? Are we trying to protect just salmonids or a broader set of forest ecosystem values? There are many projects underway to provide the scientific basis for riparian protection. Many of the projects involve personnel from UBC. Two of the larger programs in hydroriparian research in B.C. are the Stuart-Takla project (Prince 0 1 a 2 Li CD o >> n u o O 55 £ George) and CAREX (Cariboo Riparian Experiments) around Williams Lake. And studies are underway in Clayoquot Sound and the Malcolm Knapp Research Forest. All of these programs involve integrated studies by large groups of researchers to evaluate riparian management practices. The B.C. government has launched a Riparian Ecosystems Research Program with the support of FRBC to help co- Lands and Parks, has been appointed as a part-time Assistant Professor in the field of riparian zone ecology. Dr. Fred Bunnell was appointed to the recently endowed Forest Renewal BC Chair in Applied Conservation Biology. In August, Forest Sciences hosted an international conference of two IUFRO ordinate and communicate hydroriparian research in B.C. Many of the guidelines are based more on expert opinion than rigorous science. Some ecosystems such as lakes, wetlands, and estuaries have had little study from which to advise current practice. In the language of science we can view the current gu ide l ines as hypo theses that require testing. There are multiple objectives and each may require different levels of riparian management, for instance, protection of salmonid rearing habitat only, to protect- ing most riparian-dependent species, to m e e t i n g l andscape - l eve l b iod ive r s i ty objectives. Further information is available from Dr. John Richardson at (604) 822-6586 or e-mail jrichard@unixg. ubc.ca.U Working Groups on "Diversity and Adap- tation in Forest Ecosystems in a Changing World." The local organizer was Dr. John Carlson. Dr. Scott Hinch presented two papers at the International Congress of Fish Biology in San Francisco, California and the Ameri- can Fisheries Society Annual Meeting in Dearborn, M i c h i g a n . • Riparian buffer strips Branch Lines 4 Faculty News New Appointments Dr. Sally Aitken has joined the faculty as Assistant Professor in Forest Sciences and NSERC/Industry Junior Research Chair in Population Genetics. After obtaining a Ph.D. at Berkeley in 1989, Sally was Associate Director of the Pacific NW Tree Improvement Research Coop, at Oregon State University. Her research will focus on genecology and physiological genetics of forest trees, and conservation genetics of forest dwelling species. Dr.Aitken can be reachedat(604)822-6020,e-mailaitken@unixg.ubc.ca. Mr. Don Luymes has degrees in landscape architecture from UBC and Guelph. For the past 4 years he worked as Assistant Professor at Penn State. His new Assistant Professor appointment is held joint- ly between Forest Resources Management and Landscape Archi- tecture. His research interests focus on the interface between forest- ed lands and urban society: recreation, parks and landscape design. Mr. Luymes can be reachedat (604) 822-3459, e-mail luymes@ unixg. ubc.ca. Dr. Joe McNeel has joined Forest Resources Management as an Associate Professor in forest operations and engineering. He obtained his Ph.D. in industrial forest operations from Virginia Tech. in 1984, and worked most recently with the U.S. Forest Service as a research engineer. His research will focus on forest operations and strategies for partial harvests and systems that mitigate the impact of harvest systems on forest sites. Dr. McNeel can be reached at (604) 822-4264, e-mailmcneel@ unixg.ubc.ca. Dr. John Richardson completed his Ph.D. in Zoology here at UBC in 1989, and has been working in the Westwater Research Centre's program on prospects for sustainability in the lower Fraser basin. His research in hydroriparian systems addresses the linkages be- tween stream and riparian ecosystems. His appointment as Assist- ant Professor in Forest Sciences is by MoU with BC Environment. Dr. Richardson can be reached at (604) 822-6586, e-mail jrichard@ unixg. ubc.ca. Faculty Searches Searches are active for the following Faculty positions: • Assistant Professor in silviculture • Tenure-track Instructor in natural resources conservation • Tenure-track position in the area of GIS applications in forest manage- ment and landscape design (joint with Landscape Architecture) • FRBC Chairs (2) in hydrology (joint with the Department of Geography) • Tenure-track positions (3) in advanced wood processing. We will be starting searches in the near future for three more FRBC Chairs, one in silviculture, one in applied conservation biology and one in forest management. For further information on any of these positions, contact Dr. Susan Watts (see Faculty address on page 6). New Program Directors Appointed Three new "Program Director" positions have been created to help in the advising and assisting of undergraduate students. Dr. Sue Glenn - Program Director for the Natural Resources Conservation program; Dr. Simon Ellis - Program Director for the Wood Products Processing program; Dr. Peter Marshall - Program Director for the Forest Resources Management and Forest Operations programs. Dr. Kermit Ritland obtained his doctorate in Genetics from the University of California in 1982. Prior to joining the Forest Sciences Dept. as Professor and NSERC/Industry Senior Chair in Forest Genetics, Kermit held a Faculty position in the Dept. of Botany at the University of Toronto. His research interests are in population and quantitative genetics. Dr. Ritland can be reached at (604) 822-8101, e-mail ritland@ unixg.ubc.ca. Dr. Paul Wood has joined the Forest Resources Management Dept. as an Assistant Professor in conservation policy. Following a 15-year career as both a biologist and professional forester, Paul obtained his Ph.D. from UBC in 1994. He was subsequently appointed as Assistant Professor at the University of Toronto, but has returned to UBC to continue his research on institutional mechanisms for conserving biodiversity in democratic societies. Dr. Wood can be reached at (604) 822-0951, e-mail paulwood@ unixg. ubc.ca. Dean's Office Temporary Assignments Dean Binkley has accepted an appoint- ment to a second term as Dean and, in conjunction with this reappointment, is taking a short period of administrative leave of absence from September 1, 1996 through December 31, 1996. During this time, Prof. John McLean has agreed to serve as Acting Dean, and Prof. Chris Chan way as Acting Associate Dean for Graduate Studies and Research. You may reach any of these individuals at (604) 822-2467 or fax (604) 822-8645 and Dean Binkley by e-mail at binkley @ unixg. ubc. ca. Branch Lines 5 New Student Services Coordinator Appointed Helen Driscoll I n July, Helen Driscoll joined the Faculty as Coordinator of Student Services . Helen graduated from our Natural Re- sources Conservation program this past April. While attending UBC Helen work- ed as a Teaching Assistant for the first year dendrology class and as a research assistant on a riparian corridors study. Prior to her studies in forestry, Helen worked for Canada Trust for seven years as a Senior Loans Officer. As Coordinator of Student Services, Helen's responsibilities include admis- sions, student registration, job place- ment for undergraduate and graduate students, advising new and prospective students, recruitment and public relations. She will be attending career fairs and making presentations at technical schools and colleges throughout the province. Her immediate focus is student registration and the upcoming Careers Evening in October (see article below). Helen can be reached by phone (604) 822-3547, fax (604) 822-8645 or e-mail hdriscol@unixg.ubc.ca. Upcoming Careers Evening Planning is underway for the 5th Annual Careers Evening for all forestry undergraduates. The event will take place on Wednesday, October 30. Guest speakers will be discussing employment options with- in the forest industry. Invitations will be mailed out shortly. Further information can be obtained from Helen Driscoll, Coordinator of Student Services at (604) 822-3547 or e-mail hdriscol@unixg.ubc.ca. 6 0 0 - • 500 400 -• Undergraduate Enrolment These enrolment statistics are preliminary and will be finalized in early November. O u r undergraduate enrolment for the 96/97 session is the highest ever, with a record 598 students. This figure, which does not include exchange or non-resident students, repre- sents a 15% increase over the previous year and a continuation of the steady enrol- ment increase of the past 8 years. Number of Students I n t o t a l > 217 new students entered the faculty this year (compared with 225 new students in 1995). Our two B.S.F. majors continue to be the most popular, with approximately 62% of the stud- ents enrolled in this degree. Thirty-four of the new students entered into the B.Sc. (Natural Resources Conser- vation) degree program — our program with the highest enrolment GPA. The new Wood Products Process- ing degree was offered this fall for the first time. The enrolment for this program was slightly less than antici- pated, with 16 new students enrolling into first year. The Wood Science Department has been working extremely hard to promote this new program and enrol- ment numbers are expected to rise steadily. The new Broader Based Admissions Policy (introduced last year to encourage students who did not meet the Faculty of Forestry entrance GPA, but were above the UBC minimum) was not used to admit any students this year. The faculty received ten applications in total, eight of the applicants qualified on their own merits and two applicants were unable to meet the UBC minimum entrance GPA. 300 i i i i i r 8ff81 82/83 84/85 86*87 88/89 9Cy91 92/93 94/95 9&97 Year Burgess-Lane Lecture The Burgess-Lane Memorial Lecture- ship was established in 1974 to honour Thomas E. Burgess and David E. Lane, Vice-Presidents of British Columbia Forest Products Ltd. The fund was estab- lished by Mrs. Dorothy Burgess and Mrs. Evelyn Lane and British Columbia Forest Products Ltd. for the presentation and publication of special lectures in forestry. This year's Burgess Lane Memorial Lecture will be held on November 6,1996, when Dr. James Bolton, Director of the BioComposites Centre in Bangor, North Wales, will be speaking on the state of the art, issues and future opportunities for biocomposites. The lecture will be held at the Faculty of Forestry in conjunc- tion with an evening of poster displays on faculty research. Invitations to this public event will be mailed out shortly. Further information can be obtained from Kathy Campbell at (604) 822-1833 or e-mail k.campbel@unixg.ubc.ca. NEWSLETTER PRODUCTION Branch Lines is published by the Faculty of Forestry at the University of British Columbia three times each year. ISSN 1181-9936. http://www.forestry.ubc.ca/ Editor: Susan B. Watts, Ph.D., R.P.F. In-house typesetting and layout: Patsy Quay and Susan B. Watts. Questions concerning the newsletter or requests for mailing list updates, deletions or additions should be directed to Dr. Susan Watts, Newsletter Editor at: Faculty of Forestry University of British Col umbia 270-2357 Main Mall Vancouver, B.C. V6T1Z4 •(604)822-6316 R ^ P a p . , Fax: (604) 822-8645 E-mail: suwatts@unixg.ubc.ca ©Faculty of Forestry, 1996 Branch Lines 6

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