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Branchlines, Vol. 6, no. 3 Watts, Susan B.; University of British Columbia. Faculty of Forestry 1995

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F A C U L T Y O F F O R E S T R Y • N E W S L E T T E R • T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A Volume 6 No. 3 December, 1995 From the Dean's Desk Howard Gardner 's seminal book F r a m e s of Mind1 delineated seven "intelligences" or mutually independent human capaci- ties. Reflecting, over a decade later, on die criticism and acclaim accorded his mul t iple in te l l igence theory, Gardner 2 recen t ly s p e c u l a t e d on the e x i s t e n c e of an eighth intelligence: "If I were to rewrite F r a m e s of Mind to- day , I w o u l d p r o b a b l y add an e i g h t h i n t e l l i g e n c e - t he i n t e l l i g e n c e of the naturalist. It seems to me that an indivi- dual who is readily able to recognize flora and fauna , to m a k e o ther consequen t i a l distinctions in the natural world, and to use this abi l i ty p r o d u c t i v e l y (in hunt ing , in farming, in biological science) is exercising an important intelligence.. . Individuals like Char les Darwin or E.O. Wilson embody the natural ist 's intelligence..." Unfor tuna te ly the short article went little furdier to describe this intelligence, but I speculate that, at least in part, it encompasses the capacity to see indivi- dual o r g a n i s m s in the contex t of the whole. The best naturalists I know "make consequential dist inct ions" as much on the basis of the ecosystem as they do on the spec i f ics of individual o rgan isms . This observation, hardly original, is of c o u r s e the g e n i u s b e h i n d the B . C . system of biogeoclimatic zones. If diis interpretat ion is correct , then the eighth intelligence depends on holism, a p h i l o s o p h y w h i c h e m p h a s i z e s the importance of whole entities rather than their const i tuent parts. Since fores ters are a m o n g those who mus t "use this ability product ively ," a forestry school should e m p h a s i z e ho l i sm as a m e a n s to e n h a n c e th i s e i g h t h i n t e l l i g e n c e . 'H . Gardner. 1983.FrHinesof M i n d : l l ie theory of mul t iple intell igences. (Basic Books: New York). 2 H. Gardner. 1995. Reflections on multiple intelligences: myths and messages. K a p p a n 7 7 : 2 0 0 - 2 0 9 . 'C .S . Binkley. 1995. Sustainable forestry and the forestry pro- fession: Some lessons from North America, ["resented at the University of Canterbury School of Forestry .Christchurch.NZ, 30 November 1995. Drop me a note if you would like a copy. ' U B C Task Force to Review the Forest Management Program. Interim Report. October 1995. Although Gardner (a psychologist at the Harvard Graduate School of Education) strongly argues Uiat no single educational approach emanates from his theory of multiple intelligences, a forestry education would logically include as much empha- sis on the forested whole as on the components — silvics, mensuration, entomology, economics and die like. This simple observation implies profound changes in the way a university deals widi forestry education, from the course schedule to the reward system for faculty members.3 Our Task Force on Professional Forestry Education, led by Prof. Gordon Baskerville, has started down this path by defining a "target graduate" for die UBC Faculty of Forestry. This definition will drive all of our subsequent curriculum revisions, so it is important diat we get it right. The box below contains the current draft of the definition. Although we used formal and informal input4 from a wide range of individuals — f rom government , indust ry , env i ronmenta l organizat ions and our student body — to craft diis definition, we seek your advice on it. At its last meeting, for example , the Forestry Advisory Council suggested that this definit ion does not adequately reflect the need for foresters to understand the economic system widiin which diey work, and diis useful counsel has not yet been incorporated in die definition. Please drop me a note (e-mail, fax or letter) widi your observations on the characteristics of a graduate of the U B C forestry program. After all, our objective is to educate people who can serve society, and ihose of you on the front lines of contemporary forestry are in key positions to help us achieve that objective. A graduate of the U B C forestry program can design and implement a plan for a stand and a forested landscape that meets the goals and objectives of die owner(s) and related societies. Accomplishing diis task requires: (i) a scientific understanding of forest systems dynamics • knowing and being able to measure ecological functions at the tree, stand, and forest levels for the purpose of forecasting ecological outcomes of manage- ment actionsn • accepting die tentative nature of scientific knowledge • employing a scientif ic approach to reflect on and extend knowledge con- tinuously in practice diroughout a lifetime (ii) an understanding of social issues in forestry and of the role of forests and foresters in society • appreciating die full range of forest values • unders tanding and art iculating, in written and spoken word, positions on social/forestry issues • capacity to discover and understand die desires of a forest owner, or collective owners, with respect to forest goals • ability to advise forest owners widi respect to biological and technical limits of forest management (iii) a professional attitude towards the practice of forestry • ability to think critically about forestry issues as opposed to applying standard prescriptions • capacity to accept responsibility for the quality of work done • understanding and taking ediical positions in practice • understanding the bounds of ones ' own competence • being comfortable working in the forest (iv) the collaborative commitment of the U B C faculty, students, and administration; the organizations who employ UBC students and the professional foresters who supervise them. You can reach me in person, by teller, fax (604) 822-8645,9(604) 822-2467, or by e-mail: binkley@unLxg.ubc.ca. C l a rk S. Binkley Wood Science Department RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Use of Enzymes in Fibre Modification DURING the past decade the use of industr ial e n z y m e s has increased dramatically. Enzymes have been used traditionally in tanning leather, making beer and wine, baking bread and making cheese. More recently the high specifi- city of enzymes as compared to alter- native chemical means of processing materials has dramatically increased their appl icat ion in food and feed processing, detergents (where enzymes are used to dissolve fat and protein (blood) stains), and textiles (where "stone washed" cotton is achieved by cellulase enzymes used to "dissolve o f f the indigo dye associated with denim fibres). This same enzyme is now added to d e t e r g e n t s to k e e p colours in dyed cotton looking "fresh" by removing cotton fibres that appear on the su r f ace of the fabr ic a f t e r each wash. In the forest products sector there is increasing awareness that the Pac i f ic Northwest is in the unique position of having about e igh t c o m m e r c i a l t ree species , each with their own unique fibre characteristics. These fibre charac- teristics give Douglas-f i r its structural strength that provides a premium lum- ber p roduc t wh i l e p r o d u c i n g a pu lp witli fibres that are coarse and inflexi- ble. Similarly, our spruce-pine-f ir mix produces a world-class pulp which is both s t rong and f ine , and the m o v e DEPARTMENT NEWS M r . Andrew Rozsa from CSIRO Divi- sion of Forest P roduc t s has recen t ly completed a one-month co l labora t ion with Dr. S. Avramidis on radio-frequency/ vacuum drying of eucalypt lumber. Drs. Frank Lam, Helmut Prion and David Barrett participated in the Cana- dian Standards Associa t ion Technica l t o w a r d s s h o r t e r - r o t a t i o n t rees has m a i n t a i n e d and s l igh t ly improved quality parameters such as sheet den- sity, burst and tensile strength. How- ever, decreased wood density, coupled 1995 global market for industrial enzymes. with larger fibril angles in juven i le wood, reduces average strength and stiffness of lumber from younger plan- tation trees. Thus there is an obvious link between fibre properties and the app l i ca t ions and p roduc t s f rom our different wood species. During the growth of the industrial e n z y m e sector , var ious app l i ca t ions have been demonstra ted in the pulp and paper sector. These include en- hanced bleaching in elemental or total c h l o r i n e - f r e e b l e a c h i n g s e q u e n c e s . Commit tee on Fngineering Design in Wood held November 17-18, 1995 in To ron to . The U B C g r o u p prov ided information to improve shear and bend- ing design of so f twood lumber pro- ducts and a new procedure for deter- m i n a t i o n of d e s i g n p r o p e r t i e s for structural wood products based on the enhanced pulp dewatering, deinking of various fibre sources, as well as modi- fications to the fibre properties. Other groups have shown that limited treat- ments with low charges of enzymes resulted in little change to the quality of recycled fibres, presumably because of a mechanistic peeling of the indivi- dual fibrils. This is analogous to what o c c u r s du r ing w a s h i n g of co loured cottons in detergents containing cellu- lase enzymes where the exposed cotton is solubilised in the same way as the exposed ce l lu lose f ibres in recycled pu lps are so lub i l i sed . Al though the high selectivity of enzymes can be used to enhance the fibre properties of our Pa- c i f i c Nor thwes t species , the greater unders tanding of how fibre structure affects fibre properties is expected to be the major contribution of continued research in this area. One of the active reseach projects in the Forestry Facul ty 's Chair of Forest Products Biotechnology is examining the e f f e c t of e n z y m e t r ea tmen t of mechanical and chemical pulps derived from Douglas-llr. It has been found that low e n z y m e dosages improve hand- sheet density and fiber coarseness with only minute losses of strength to the paper properties. For further information, please contact Dr. J.N. Saddler at (604) 222- 3220, fax (604) 822-9104 or e-mail saddler & un ixg. ubc.ca.U rel iabil i ty pr inciples adopted by the code committee. The Centre for Advanced Wood pro- cessing has hired Christine Forget as the Cooperative Education Coordinator fo r the new c o - o p Wood P r o d u c t s Processing p r o g r a m . • Branch Lines 2 Forest Sciences Department RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Height Growth Stagnation in Lodgepole Pine: All (well almost all) is Revealed IN a slant! uf lodgepole pine 30 km east of Prince George, originating after the 20,000 hectare Grove fire of 1961, there are still about 75,000 stems/hectare. The 'trees' in this stand are now about 2Vi m tall, willi DBH 2 cm. Also in the stand are snags from the 1880's parent generation; edge trees from 1961, in a very narrow (1-2 m) band along road- sides, and growing four times faster in he igh t than the s t a g n a n t t rees ; and young t rees of va r i ous age c l a s s e s growing in small redisturbed patches. In 1984, several combinations of heavy thinning and root pruning were applied to a tenth hectare plot of the stagnant trees. While waiting (I still am) for any response, I had ample time to cogitate upon the reasons why such stands fail to self-thin adequately (I have no idea), and to p o n d e r why this c a u s e s r e d u c e d height growth. Evidence from stem analy- sis, and the same below ground (root analysis?) (and not I think ever done be- fore) might explain the latter phenomenon. Traditional stem analysis of the parent generation trees showed the site index to have been about 17 m at age 50. Like- wise for the edge trees, by extrapolation from age 33, and, by the intercept method for the vigorous young trees. The site DEPARTMENT NEWS D r . Tom Sullivan has won die Berryman Institute's 1994 Research Award in recognition of his superior performance in creating new knowledge dealing with human-wildlife relationships. He is being honoured for his work involving diver- sionary foods and predator ur ines to reduce wildlife damage to the silviculture industry. Branch Lines 3 quality has clearly not been degraded. Height growth for vigorous trees is shown in the figure, line a. For the stag- nant trees (and for roots), stem analysis required the use of 5 cm intervals, and die height growth curve is shown by line b. At about age 4, stagnant trees slow their height growdi, which levels off at 8 cm/ year. For not s tagnant trees, height growth accelerates to reach die 35 cm/ year level. Below ground, the tap root of vigorous trees virtually ceases at Drs . Hamish Kimni ins and Cindy Prescott have been awarded a three- year NSERC Strategic Grant to calibrate and evaluate the stand level, ecosystem management models FORECAST and FORESEE. Dr. Kadiy Martin has been appointed chair of the program for the 7th Interna- tional Grouse Symposium sponsored by die World Pheasant Association to be held in Fort Collins, Colorado, August 20-24, 1996. about age 4 (line c), that of stagnant trees continues (d). Le t ' s assume tap root growdi is an estimate of the activity of the whole root system. There is a large body of literature showing that die poorer the site, the h ighe r the p ropor t ion of a s s i m i l a t e s used be low ground , p resumab ly so as to better glean the limited resources. In most species, on most sites, initial high s tock ing rap id ly dec l ines . Dead seedlings and saplings obv ious ly have no fur ther r e q u i r e m e n t for m i n e r a l s and water, and in addition the nu t r ien ts they contain are recycled to the survivors. If too many plants survive (for reasons unknown), the nutrient availability per tree drops. Individuals 'perceive' die site to be poor, so divert their m e t a b o l i t e s be low ground, leaving little for height growth. In effect, die site index dropped, around age four, from 17 m to less than 4 m. Shifting site indices — a scary concept! For further information, please contact Dr. John Worrall at (604) 822-3516.Q Dr. John Carlson traveled to China to lecture for 7 days at die Nordieast Forestry University (NEFU) in Harbin, PRC. He lectured for 17 hours to a group of staff and students interested in genetic diversity, genetic engineer- ing and marker-ass is ted selection in their new Open Laboratory of Forest Ecology which has been establ ished at NEFU as a national key lab and to which Dr. Carlson has been officially appointed as an advisor.O 3 2.5 e £ 2 CD s -c 1.5 I , u) 0 5 0 5 1 10 1 " •o 20 I 25 & F 30 35 a * * Vigorous ^ * * b ^ Stagnant . ^ * • m Vigorous • • Stagnant " • • . d • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Age (years) Shoot and root growth of vigorous and stagnant lodgepole pine. Forest Resources Management Department RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Zoning for Intensive Timber Production: A New Forest Management Paradigm for B.C.? BRITISH Columbia 's forest sector is facing problems of crisis proportions. Depleted old-growth resources, escalat- ing demands on forest lands for an in- creasing variety of goods and services and chronically inadequate investment in silviculture are resulting in falling allow- able timber harvests accompanied by de- clining employment opportunities, major social upheavals in forest dependent re- gions and a weakened provincial economy. The response of public policy to the multiple demands on forests has been to significantly increase the area protected from timber harvest ing while, outside these zones, continuing to practice a system of integrated resource management design- ed to produce a variety of products, in- cluding timber, from every hectare of land. Ihis is accomplished by using a system of resource emphasis rules designed to retain certain landscape elements in order to ensure a sustained flow of non-timber values while residualizing commercial timber production. An alternative strategy would be to zone forest land for special uses, including areas in which intensive timber manage- ment would be dominant. Theoretically, it can be shown that such a system may provide for non-timber values more effec- tively while ameliorating allowable cut DEPARTMENT NEWS D r . Gordon Baskerville has been work- ing with an FRBC-sponsored group seek- ing ways to expedite the development of strategies for specific forest management units in B.C. The group has examined the planning/implementation structure in four examples of good forest management in B.C., Washington State and Alberta and has proposed a decentralized approach based on these examples to be tested/ demonstrated in a few B.C. public forests. reduct ions in the short term and in- creas ing susta inable t imber harves ts above current levels in the longer term. To gain a better understanding of the implications of forest land use zoning in B.C., a recent study set out to measure the implications of resource emphasis rules on timber supply and net timber values (resource rents) and to investigate the environmental and economic implications of a land use strategy which includes single purpose, timber manage- ment zones. Results for the Akolkolex drain- age in the Revels toke Timber Supply Area show that wildlife and visual management resource emphasis rules reduce potential (i.e. unconstrained) timber supply by 38% and 93% respect ively (see accompanying figure). At a 3% discount rate, net t imber values are reduced by approximately 50% by wild- life rules and are entirely eliminated by visual quality rules. A single purpose timber management zone, comprising 45% of the net operable area of the Akolkolex drainage, can produce a sustainable supply of timber equivalent to that of the whole unit under the current integrated manage- ment plan. Technically and economically Dean Clark Binkley is chair ing a committee to review the B.Sc. Natural Resource Conservation Program. He re- cently gave a talk "Sustainable For- estry and I^ofessional Forestry" at die 25th Anniversary of the Univers i ty of C a n t e r b u r y fores t ry p rogram, in Christchurch, New Zealand. Dr. Casey van Kooten is currently on sabba t i ca l at the Univers i ty of Wageningen in the Netherlands. He has visited several locations in Sweden as feasible (at 3%) intensive silviculture can reduce this area to 35% of the total. Environmental indicators suggest that cu r ren t p rac t ices will resul t in high fragmentation of critical "interior forest" wildlife habitats, irreversible simplifica- tion of natural forests and subsequent >/ resource emphasis rules on timber supply. loss of amenity values in all areas outside protected zones. Zoning selected areas for s ingle purpose t imber production can dramatically improve this situation. These results suggest an urgent need to seriously question current trends in provin- cial forest land management practices and conduct further studies of this nature. For further information, please contact Dr. David Haley or S. Sahajananthan at (604) 822-5634; fax: (604) 822-6970 or by e-mail dhaley@unixg.ubc.ca.Q part of a CFS project to examine Swedish forest policy and silvicultural successes. An interim report from the Task Force reviewing the BSF Forest Management Option indicates that the program will need revisions in order to consistently create the desired professional knowledge and at t i tude in graduates . Discussion within the Faculty is expected to lead to program revisions that will ultimately k e e p the p r o g r a m in s tep with the c h a n g i n g ro le of a p r o f e s s i o n a l in forest resources managemen t . • 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Percent of unconstrained tirrtoer suppty (% Volume) Branch Lines 4 Faculty News Ground Breaking Ceremony Left to right: UBC President, Dr. David W. Strangway; Provincial Government officials: Mr. Dan Miller, Mr. Andrew Petter and Mr. Glen Clark at the UBC Forest Sciences Centre ground breaking ceremony. ON Tuesday, Octobcr 3rd, over 250 people from a wide cross-section of die forest sector attended a ground breaking ceremony for die new Forest Sciences Centre at UBC. The Provincial Government , represented at the ceremony by Dan Miller, Minister of Skills, Training and Labor, Andrew Petter, Minister of Forests and Glen Clark, Minister of Employment and Investment, announced their S47 million investment to build the new Forest Sciences Centre which will also house the Centre for Advanced Wood Products Processing. Ihe Forest Sciences Centre will include classrooms, teaching laboratories, a com- puter lab, study areas, and lecture dieatres for classes and public presentations. These new facilit ies will support our substantial enrolment increases—current ly 200 graduate students and 527 undergraduate students—and will house the successful adult education programs operated by the BC Forestry Continuing Studies Network. The Centre for Advanced Wood Products Processing, part of die Forest Sciences Centre, will contain s tate-of- the-ar t value-added manufacturing equipment . Its new education program will create a highly skilled and educated work force in die primary and value-added sectors through new undergraduate programs linked widi colleges and high school programs, extensive continuing education activities and a new professional master ' s degree in advanced wood processing. In addition to support from the Provincial Government, die Faculty of Forestry is raising funds for die purchase of leading edge technology equipment in the new building by offering "room naming" opportunities. Already we have received pri- vate sector support from Fletcher Challenge Canada Limited, Weldwood of Canada Ltd., the Noranda Foundation and Noranda Forest Inc., West Fraser Timber Co. Ltd. and Janet W. Ketcham, Canadian Pacific Charitable Foundation, Lignum Limited and an anonymous donor. Construction of die new Centre is scheduled to start this winter with completion by January 1998.G Student International Work Experience Sought U B C F o r e s t r y ' s In ternat ional Pro- grams Office has received over 50 re- quests from its students for informa- tion on short-term international work opportunities. The faculty has respond- ed by developing a host of ways in which students might access interna- tional jobs. The current employment route avail- able is dirough an organization called IAESTE, a placement organization for students with technical training. Inter- national Programs has also been con- tacting several international agencies direcdy to seek internship opportunities specifically in forestry related fields. We have "Memoranda of Understand- ing" widi several universities and are working widi these institutions to see if they m i g h t p l a c e U B C s t u d e n t s through their own Rec ru i tmen t and Placement services. In order for this to be feasible however, an equal num- ber of j o b s need to be f o u n d for international students within B.C. Widi die help of our Malcolm Knapp Research Forest we plan to create a reciprocal internship program compris- ing a two-month learning and working experience resulting in a final project and paper. International Programs is interested in partnering with the B.C. forest in- dustry to make positions available for i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s wi th in the i r organizations. We will assist participat- ing f i rms by se lect ing s tudents and providing administrative support. T h r o u g h t he se p r o g r a m s U B C Forestry students will have the ability to work with in te rna t iona l fores t ry companies, and international students will learn and understand more about B.C. and forestry within B.C. For more information on the pro- posed internship program, contact Sandra Schinnerl, Assistant Director, International Programs at (604) 822- 9627 or e-mail sandra@unixg.ubc.ca. \ J Branch Lines 5 FOREST NEWS from the UBC Research Forests Copies available... Schaffer Lecture Research Forest Managers' Network U B C s Malcolm Knapp and the Alex Fraser Research Forests are managed for educat ion, demonst ra t ion and re- search. There are, in fact, several other similarly managed research forests in the Pacific NorUiwest and, for the past decade, managers from several of these forest units have been getting together to discuss issues of common concern. This "forest managers ' network" cur- rently includes 14 forest units managed by universities or state organizations. The forests vary in size from 25,000 hec- tares to a few hundred hectares and span many climatic zones from the mild and moist coastal redwood forests to the harsh continental climates of Mon- tana, Idaho and Alberta. Each forest has had its own h i s to ry of dea l ing with c h a n g i n g soc ia l , po l i t i ca l and financial pressures. This year 's meeting was held at the Jackson Demonstrat ion Forest in Fort Bragg, California. The group of 22 visit- ing research fores t m a n a g e r s toured through a series of research and opera- tional sites within the 21,000 hectare Demonst ra t ion Forest . This par t icular forest is administered by the California Department of Forestry. One issue that was discussed by the group as an issue of common concern was the question of security. Jackson has a full time peace officer on staff. Other concerns included persuading researchers to clean up after their pro- jects, ensuring environmental integrity when research pushes a system be- yond current knowledge, conflict avoid- ance , c o m m u n i c a t i n g with ad jacen t communities, and the perennial topic of financing. It is interesting to note that most of the forest managers within the network have been long time employees of their organizations. This management stabi- lity certainly helps to provide the con- tinuity needed for effectively managing units for both education and research. Management stability has certainly been a major factor in the effect ive running of UBC's Malcolm Knapp and Alex Fraser Research Forests, both of which are operational forests managed to provide a basis for education and research. Under current management strategies, UBC's Research Forests have the ability to respond to pressing re- search issues while hosting educational activities in step with current needs. For further information on UBC's Research Forests call Peter Sanders at (604) 463-8148. or e-mail sanders@unixg. uhc. ca. • Faculty of Forestry Web Site A reminder that you can keep in touch with our activities through our World Wide Web site a t : http://unixg.ubc.ca:780/~ront/foresLhtmI Any questions about our web site can be directed to Ron Turner at turner@unixg.ubc.ca. We welcome your comments. T h e Leslie L. Schaffer Lectureship in Forest Science was established in 1981 by Mrs . Kato Scha f fe r in memory of her husband, Leslie L. Schaffer, former e x e c u t i v e v i c e - p r e s i d e n t of Wes te rn Plywood Co. Ltd. This fund provides fo r the d i s s e m i n a t i o n of s c i e n t i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n and a c h i e v e m e n t among f o r e s t r y s t u d e n t s , p r o f e s s i o n a l for - esters, scientists and the public. Th i s y e a r ' s l ec tu re w a s g iven on November 22 by Mr. John A. Gleed, D i r e c t o r of T a s m a n B i o t e c h n o l o g y Limited in New Zealand. The lecture was held in conjunction with a Faculty Research Evening and attracted close to UK) interested individuals. Free c o p i e s of Mr . d e e d ' s talk "Incorporating Biotechnology into a Forest Program - A New Zealand Example" are available from: The D e p a r t m e n t of Fores t Sc iences Un ive r s i t y of Bri t ish C o l u m b i a 2 7 0 - 2 3 5 7 Main Mal l V a n c o u v e r , B .C . V 6 T 1Z4 At tent ion: Mr . Er ic Lee • NEWSII.TTER PRODUCTION Branch Lines is published by the Faculty of Forestry at the University of British Columbia Uiree times each year. ISSN 1181-9936. Editor: Susan B. Watts, Ph.D., R.P.F. In-House typesetting and layout: Patsy Quay and Susan B. Watts. Questions concerning the newsletter or requests for mailing list updates, deletions or additions should be directed to Dr. Susan Watts, Newsletter Editor at: Faculty of Forestry University of British Columbia 270-2357 Main Mall Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z4 • (604) 822-6316 Recycled Paper Fax: (604) 822-8645 E-mail: suwatts@unixg.ubc.ca ©Faculty of Forestry. 1995 Branch Lines 6


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