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Branchlines, Vol. 6, no. 2 Watts, Susan B.; University of British Columbia. Faculty of Forestry Sep 30, 1995

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F A C U L T Y Volume 6 No. 2 September, 1995 From the Dean's Desk T h i s academic year begins with the largest group of students in the Faculty's history — 527 undergraduates (up 16.6% from last year) and 200 graduate students (up 11.1% from last year). The story on page 6 provides some of the details. This large number of students carries with it an increasing responsibility to serve students' needs. Some specific initiatives this year include: • a new undergraduate program in advanced wood products processing. We are in the final stages of completing the documentation needed to bring this important initiative to the UBC Senate for its approval. • a Task Force on a far-reaching revision of the BSF program. The Task Force, chaired by Prof. Gordon Baskerville, has conducted a large survey on the expectations for a forestry education from the perspective of students, faculty, employers and environmental organiza- tions. Based on that analysis, we will begin deliberations this fall on the best ways to restructure the program. • a Task Force on the Forest Operations program lead by Prof. Glen Young to examine the structure of that program. We are specifically interested in deter- mining the need for individuals holding dual registration as a professional forester and as a professional engineer, and, if this is desirable, the best way to accomplish that educational objective. • a "mid-course" review of the Natural Resource Conservation program. My own interviews with third- and fourth- year students indicate a high general level of satisfaction with the program with some specific concerns about individual course requirements, the structure of the emphasis areas, and the availability of employment. • searches for several new faculty mem- bers. We are in the final stages of hiring two faculty members for the NSERC Industry chair in population genetics, and have active searches for faculty in landscape architecture, conservation policy, and forest operations. One of the positions in forest operations will be jointly appointed with the Forest Engineering Research Institute of Canada, an approach modeled on the successful joint appointment in timber engineering (Prof. Frank Lam) we now have with Forintek Canada. At the same time that student enrol- ments continue to increase, we see no abatement of the demands on the Faculty for research, outreach and participation in key government and industry forest management and policy init iat ives. Unfortunately, the same cannot be said of our budget. The federal government is committed to reducing transfer pay- ments to the provinces, and this will inevitably increase the budgetary pres- sure on all public-sector organizations. Reconciling this contradiction between downward pressure on the Faculty 's budget and upward pressure on the demands placed on the Faculty comprises a major challenge. To meet that challenge we have initiated a comprehensive program of fund raising, a program that was described last year in Branch Lines. Thanks to the hard work of our alumni volunteers under the able director of our Campaign Vice Chair Gerry Burch we will be doing another telethon this fall, falling on the heels of the very successful effort last year. We do hope that, when called, you can find your way to participate. You can reach me in person, by letter, fax (604) 822-8645, 9(604) 822-2467, or by e-tnail to binkley@unixg.ubc.ca. Clark S. Binkley Upcoming UBC's Open House October 13,14 and 15 M a r k your calendars for Friday through Sunday, October 13-15,1995, when the entire university will have a three-day Open House event. Forestry will have a variety of displays, includ- ing the always popular seedling give away. Open House hours on the Friday will be 9 - 5 and on the Saturday and Sunday will be 10 - 5. We invite you to come by and find out more about the activities of the Faculty. As well, student-guided tours will be running through the MacMillan building on a regular basis. We look forward to seeing you there. Forest Sciences Department RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Extinctions in the Rocky Mountains THE loss or death of someone we love is a great fear for everyone. Our feelings are certainly less intense for those who are not as close to us but we all feel loss when something we care about is gone. For those who care about the plants and animals around us, we feel concerned about the loss of species and natural areas. All species are doomed to extinction at some time. Of the species recorded through- out history, 99.9% have already gone extinct, with the normal rate estimated at 10 species per year. However, ecologists estimate that 27,000 species currently go extinct every year. The goal of conservation biology is to prevent untimely extinctions resulting from human activities. One approach to prevent ing extinctions is to identify species that may be suscept ible and manage these popula t ions to sustain these species for many generations. My colleagues from the University of Oklahoma and I have been analyzing patterns of species distributions to predict mammal species that are susceptible to extinction. We conducted a thorough review of die historical literature from the U.S. Rocky Mountains. We used expedition journals, museum records, and range maps to create historical range maps for 153 mammal species We eliminated areas with unsuit- able habitat from each species' range map. We compared these maps of potential species distributions to maps of park locations and predicted 124 species that may be found in the eight U.S. National SPECIES 0 t h 6 r ( 1 1 % ) ,00 , , m i s s i n g rare (2%) f ragmented (6%) edge of range (10%) Possible causes of absence of predicted species from Parks lists. Parks in the Rockies. However, based on park inventories, each park documented the occurrence of only 71% of their predicted species. On average, one diird of the species missing from park lists was species at the edges of their geographic ranges. Populations at the edge of a species' range tend to be smaller and more precarious because the habitat is often less than ideal for the species. These species at the edges of their ranges may have gone extinct from the parks, or they may have such small population sizes that it is difficult to find them. Eighteen of the 31 species predicted to occur in only one or two parks may also have been overlooked in field inventories because they were rare. In fragmented systems, species that require large areas may also be susceptible to extinction. These species were historically found across an entire region and would be predicted to occur in all parks. Twenty-five of the 39 species that we predicted to be found in all parks were missing from some of die park inventories. These species should be high priorities for future inventories to determine if there are small populations remaining at risk. For further information, please contact Dr. Susan Glenn at (604) 822-0943 or e-mail sglenn @ unixg. ubc. ca. • DEPARTMENT NEWS I n November, Mr. John Gleed will be visiting the Faculty as the Schaffer Lecturer in Forest Sciences. Mr. Gleed, who is recently retired from Tasman Forestry in New Zealand, will be lectur- ing on the subject of incorporating biotechnology into forestry programs. Invitations to this public lecture, a reception and an associated research evening in the faculty, will be mailed out shortly. Several members of die department have been successful in dieir applica- tions for Forest Renewal B.C. research awards. In the first round of funding, six department members have received a total of almost $350,000 in awards. Dr. Phil Burton left the Faculty this July to start his own business doing contract research in forest ecology, silvicultural systems and watershed restoration. Dr. Susan Glenn presented papers on extinctions of mammals from parks at the Ecological Society of America Annual Meeting in Snowbird Utah and the Inter- national Society for Landscape Ecology Meetings in Minneapolis. Dr. Kathy Martin has been appointed Associate Editor for the ornithological journal, The Auk, September, 1995. • Branch Lines 2 Wood Science Department RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Attitudes of North American Specifiers of Material Use in Construction Summary of impact on environment of material selection using LCA. IN the past few decades environmental issues have gained in prominence and importance particularly in terms of forestry and forest land use. It is important to mea- sure how key market segments are reacting to the often incomplete, contradictory, and confrontational reporting of environmental matters in the popular media. As part of a large research initiative the opinions of architects and engineers in North America were assessed in terms of the environmental friendliness of a variety of structural mate- rials suitable for commercial construction under five stories. Highlights of Research Results • Environmental considerations are thought of as important: sixty-seven per cent of those surveyed stated that environmen- tal considerations are important, very important, or extremely important when specifying structural materials in build- ings four stories or less. • More specifiers think of environmental impact as it pertains to wood than other materials. • Steel is the most conducive to recycling, followed by wood. Wood produces the most energy efficient buildings with steel perceived as the least efficient. Concrete and masonry score in die middle for both of these measures. • Wood buildings are perceived to have a much shorter service life-span than others. • Respondents were consistent in rank- ing materials by their overall impact on the environment: Wood and masonry were considered the most environmen- tally benign while steel and concrete were considered to have the most nega- tive impact on the environment. Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) LCA examines the environmental impact of resource use over the life of the applica- tion. Rather than focus on a single aspect of environmental impact such as resource extraction, LCA examines environmen- tal impacts over the entire life of a product providing a more holistic evaluation of environmental impact. Respondents rated building materials environmentally in terms of extracting and refining the raw resource, manufacturing and transporting the build- ing material, assembling the building, and energy emissions from the building. • Except for resource extraction, wood was perceived as the least harmful material for construction purposes (see figure above). • Respondents who considered wood harmful were vociferous and relentless in their opinions. For further information, please contact Dr. David H. Cohen or Robert A. Kozak, at (604) 822-6716, fax: (604)822-9104 or by e-mail dcohen@unixg.ubc.ca.U DEPARTMENT NEWS D r . Jack Saddler received the IUFRO Scientific Achievement Award at the 20th RJFRO World Congress held in Tampere, Finland, August 7-10, 1995. This award is given every 5 years to 10 scientists world- wide, based on sustained contributions to their particular field of forestry or forest products. Dr. Tom Maness is on a 10-month knowledge transfer exchange at the Swiss Institute of Wood Technology (Biel, Switzerland) and the Fachhochschule Rosenheim in Rosenheim, Germany. Dr. Maness is studying the European wood processing programs and contacting the secondary wood products industry and woodworking equipment manufacturers to develop the state-of-the-art knowledge and locate the advanced wood process- ing equipment needed to deliver UBC's new Wood Processing Program.• Branch Lines 3 Forest Resources Management Department RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Human-Machine Interfaces in Forest Operations OVER the past few years, a project with the Electrical Engineer ing Department at UBC has addressed aspects of human-machine interaction in the control of excavator-type equipment, such as log-loaders and feller-bunchers, used in forest operations. During harvest- ing, operators have to manipulate logs with hydraulically-actuated arms equipped with var ious end-e f fec to rs , such as grapples or felling heads. They must display significant dexterity, even though they must explicitly control each hydraulic actuator, usually via two multi-function joysticks and additional switches, in order to achieve a coordinated end-effector motion. For example, in achieving a straight-line approach of (lie felling head to a tree, the operator must implicitly solve the machine arm kinematics to produce the required hydraulic cylinder commands. Computer control can simplify the operation of such machines. Our project concentrated on developing an intuitive interface using a single actuated joystick to position the machine end-effector in cartesian space and to feed back end- effector contact forces. In contrast to traditional master-slave systems with force feedback, the joystick had to control the end-effector velocity, not position, for better resolution and safety. Such DEPARTMENT NEWS A Centre for Environmental Labeling has been established and will provide a database for labeling and related policy issues world wide. The Centre is managed by Dr. Ron Woznow, an Adjunct Professor, and is staffed by Nic Denyer. They can be reached at (604) 822-3132, or by e-mail ecolabel@unixg.ubc.ca. a machine interface provides "transpar- ency" if the operator manipulating the joystick feels a scaled version of the end-effector and environment or pay- load. Based on simplified models of the machine, environment/payload, joy- stick and operator, two novel control methods have been developed. One, termed "transparent rate control", uses filtering of joystick and end-effector forces and velocities to provide trans- parency. The other, termed "stiffness control" modulates the joystick stiff- ness in proportion to the end-effector forces, provides transparency only for small motions, but has better stability properties. These approaches were verified through simulations and experiments. Since no adequate force-feedback joystick was available, a novel, high-performance, six-degree-of-freedom magnetically levi- tated joystick was designed and built. This device was interfaced to two instrumented machines — a CAT215 log- loader and a CAT325 feller-buncher as well as to a computer simulation of a feller-buncher. Stiffness control was demonstrated on both machines show- ing that end-effector forces can indeed be felt and controlled by the operator. Several trees were cut with the CAT325 Dr. Paul Wood completed a thorough analysis of the opportunities to set up a co-op program within the Conservation Program. It appears that while student demand is high, the job market for this form of educational delivery is pretty well saturated.• machine operat ing with the force- feedback interface, but studies showing benefits such as shorter task comple- tion times would have to be carried out with a machine with lower operating costs. A one-person hydraulic simulator, similar to a flight simulator, was also developed as part of our project. Using motion-cues and a stereo helmet, it will be used to evaluate joysticks and control schemes, as well as for operator training and evaluation. Future work will include the develop- ment of motion control primitives allow- ing semi-autonomous machine operation. Experiments will be carried out using a Takeuchi mini-excavator. For further information, please contact Dr. Tim Salcudean at (604) 822-3243 or e-mail tims@ee.ubc.ca.D F \ New Positions Available T h e Department is currently searching for five positions. The following two are joint positions to serve the Conservation and Management Programs: • Landscape Architecture at the local or site level, and • Landscape Architecture at the land- scape level. Under the Operations Program there are two positions: • Harvesting systems. • Engineering hydrology. There is also a search underway for a person to teach within the Conservation Program in the area of: • Conservation policy. V J Branch Lines 4 Faculty News Staff Development Day M ' f l W * • y ^ ' i r M . _m J J m.ti&'d ' Tir M % 3 t m a ( 7 J M m Group photo at Loon Lake in the UBC Malcolm Knapp Research Forest. T h e first Faculty of Forestry Staff Development Day was held on May 12 of this year. Staff gathered at the Malcolm Knapp Research Forest for a full day of getting to know one another in a relaxed atmosphere. The morning discussions, which centred around the Faculty's Mission Statement, were followed by an afternoon stroll through a magni- ficent stand of old-growth coastal forest. This highly successful event will be repeated on an annual basis. • 1995 Forestry Alumni Appeal Forestry Education is alive and well, as is emphasized by our steady increase in enrolment (see article on page 6). How- ever, higher student numbers mean an even greater need for scholarships, bursa- ries and other awards for student support. Recognizing this urgent need, a group of forestry alumni are helping to raise money for student financial support. The group is led by Class Representatives, Vidar Nordin ('47), Glen Patterson ('47), Gerry Burch ('48), Vern Wellbum ('48), Jim McFarlane ('60), Jack Toovey ('60) Reid Carter ('79) and Steve Mitchell ('87). Two new awards have been created — the John Worrall Forestry Bursary and the 1930-1947 Forestry Alumni Bursary. On October 10-12, many of you will be hearing from a fellow alumnus asking for your financial support. When one of your classmates calls, please join with other alumni and make an investment that will benefit forestry students today and in the future. For further information on the Forestry Alumni Appeal, contact John Pennant, Development Officer at (604) 822-8716. • ( ^ International Programs Setting New Sights M Sandra Schinnerl Assistant Director, International Programs T h e Faculty of Forestry's International Programs recently appointed Sandra Schinnerl as the Assistant Director of International Programs. This newly created position is just one of many new initiatives which International Programs is planning for the upcoming year. High on the list of projects is the activa- tion of the Faculty's current "Memoran- dums of Understanding" with partner in- stitutions. With the help of Dr. Andrew Howard, Director of International Pro- grams, Sandra will be looking at ways in which even greater cooperative benefits can be attained and maintained with our exchange partners. The focus will be on international student exchange, intern- ship possibilities, and continued joint research opportunities. UBC Forestry currently has agreements with forestry schools in Malaysia, Sweden, China, and New Zealand. Sandra will also be involved in the coordination of foreign professional train- ing projects, visiting scholars and tours for international visitors. The aim is to highlight UBC Forestry research and edu- cate international visitors on BC forest practices. Sandra is also assisting in the coordina- tion of die UBC-UPM joint conference on the "Ecological, Social and Political Issues in the Certification of Forest Management" to be held in May 1966 in Kuala Lumpur. The conference will bring together participants from all over the globe to discuss and move forward on ideas of sustainable forest management. For further information, please contact Sandra Schinnerl at (604) 822-9627. \ J Branch Lines 5 FOREST NEWS from the Malcolm Knapp Research Forest Research Forest Home to New Telescope CANADA 'S largest telescope has recently been installed at the Malcolm Knapp Research Forest in Maple Ridge. The 2.7 metre telescope is part of a research project between UBC's Department of Geophysics and Astronomy and Laval University in Quebec. What makes this telescope different (apart from its size) is its use of a thin layer of mercury as a reflecting surface instead of conventional glass lenses. The research program involves con- struction and operation of the UBC Liquid Mirror Observatory to be fully operational by die end of 1995. Dr. Paul Hickson (UBC Geophysics and Astronomy) is the Observatory Director and is the person who, together with his colleagues at UBC, has built all four of the liquid mirror telescopes in the world today. The observatory has been constructed on a site 400 metres above sea level, an elevation twice as high as the Dominion observatory near Victoria, Canada ' s second largest telescope. Testing and alignment of the telescope will be follow- ed by observations beginning Uiis winter when the sky is darker. Public tours of the observatory will be arranged once die equipment testing is complete and the facility is fully operational. Next year Dr. Hickson plans to begin construction of a 5.1 metre telescope to replace the 2.7 metre unit. This project is part of the Research Forest's ongoing investment in pure sci- ence research and is a valuable addition to the extensive research installations at the Malcolm Knapp Research Forest. For more information on activities at the UBC Research Forests, contact Peter Sanders, Director, at (604) 463-8148.Q Attention Forestry Handbook Users I f you are, or have been, a user of the Forestry Handbook for British Columbia (4th edition was published by the Forestry Undergraduate Society in 1983), we would appreciate your input into the new fifth edition Handbook which is currently in the early planning stage. You can help by taking a few minutes to complete the questionnaire enclosed with this newsletter. The results of this survey will help us to determine the scope and content of the next edition of the Handbook. Please direct any comments or ques- tions to Dr. Susan Watts (editor of the 4th edition) at the address listed below. \ J Upcoming Careers Evening P l a n n i n g is underway for the 4th Annual Caree r s Evening for forestry undergraduates. The event will take place on Wednesday, November 1. Invitations will be mailed out shortly. Further information can be obtained from Sandy Thomson, Coordinator of Student Services at (604) 822-3547 or fax (604) 822-8645. • ssu 500 450 400 350 300 - 250 - • 200 150 100 50 527 f \ Total Enrolment j 225 \ New Enrolment T—1—I—'—I—1—I—'—r 79/80 81/82 83/84 85/86 87/88 80/90 91/92 93W 95/96 Year form included questions about volunteer work, hobbies, and awards. We also required a 300 word essay in which the applicant had to explain why they wanted to study forestry at UBC. Qualified appli- cants were interviewed by a faculty panel. Since 1992 the position of Coordinator of Student Services has been held by Donna Goss. This year a recent graduate, Sandy Thomson is replacing Donna, who is on maternity leave! Donna and her husband Greg have a lovely baby boy, Brett Alexander. • NEWSLETTER PRODUCTION Branch Lines is published by the Faculty of Forestry at the University of British Columbia three times each year. ISSN 1181-9936. Editor: Susan B. Watts, Ph.D., R.P.F. In-house typesetting and layout: Patsy Quay and Susan B. Watts. Questions concerning the newsletter or requests for mailing list updates, deletions or additions should be directed to Dr. Susan Watts, Newsletter Editor at: Faculty of Forestry University of British Columbia 270-2357 Main Mall Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z4 « ( 6 0 4 ) 822-6316 Recycled Pap»r Fax: (604) 822-8645 E-mail: suwatts@unixg.ubc.ca ©Faculty of Forestry, 1995 Undergraduate Enrolment These enrolment statistics are preliminary and will be finalized in mid-October. Enrolment into the Faculty of Forestry continues to increase. The 1995/96 session has 527 registered students (75 more than last year). Of these, 225 students are new to the faculty, a substantial increase from the 170 new students we received last year. Enrolment into first year Conservation increased by 100%. This year we introduced a new Broader Based Admissions Policy, designed to admit students whose GPA was below the cut off for Forestry, but who were above the UBC minimum. The supplemental application Branch Lines 6


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