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Branchlines, Vol. 6, no. 1 Watts, Susan B.; University of British Columbia. Faculty of Forestry Mar 31, 1995

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F A C U L T Y O F F O R E S T R Y • NEWSLETTER • T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A Volume 6 No. 1 March 1995 From the Dean's Desk I n his fascinating book Forests: The Shadow of Civilization', Robert Harrison explains that the word "forest" derives from the Latin " for is" which means "outside". "The obscure Latin verb forestare meant 'to keep out, to place off limits, to exclude. (p. 69). In our earliest literature, forests were enchanted places housing dragons, "ravenous beas ts" and vagrant souls. Sumerian kings invented the walled city as a means to keep these threats to civiliza- tion outside (that is, "in the forest"), and thereby to define "civilization" as what went on inside the wall. Later on, forests were places set aside as royal hunting preserves so medieval kings could re- create mythical quests associated with conquering the wilderness and establish- ing civilization. Forests in this legal sense sometimes contained no trees at all. Viewed this way, forests have served an enormously important social function throughout human history — they have defined civilization as that part of human affairs which occurs inside the forested "outside". As the reach of human activity has expanded, "forests", in this cultural sense, have declined. Society has steadily lost the enchan ted p laces which for millennia have defined our civilizations. That we need consciously to "protect" wilderness simply confirms a sad realiza- tion: the forested outside has lost the spiritual power which formerly sustained it. In this sense, McKibben was right when he declared The End of Nature2 even if he had the argument completely wrong.3 Although many important ecological problems attend the modern practice of forestry, attention to those problems alone will not resolve the controversies we find so enervating. While there is much dis- pute about the ecological condition of our forested landscapes, their metaphysical condition has surely suffered irreparable damage. Like it or not, modem foresters are caught with the task of helping society come to terms with the anxiety associated with this loss. But there is hope. Every forester I know starts down the path to the profession with a great love of nature. I sometimes fear that a University forestry education submerges that powerful emotion in a cold, scientific rationality. While scientific analysis is the fundamental basis of good forestry, our strong feelings about the outdoors comprise a common ground with our harshest critics. Letting our emotional attachment to nature surface in our professional practice would en- hance our capacity to communicate with disparate parts of society. This kind of communication will help society under- stand our professional commitment to sensitive forest husbandry and steward- ship. With this increased understanding and trust will come an improved capacity to craft broadly acceptable, biophysically feasible forestry solutions. And that, after all, is the forester's principal duty. You can reach me in person, by letter, fax (604) 822-8645, «(604) 822-2467, or by e-mail to bink.ley@unixg.ubc.ca. Clark S. Binkley New Undergraduate Admission Policy F o r the past few years, enrolment d e m a n d s have exer ted an upward pressure on the admission grade point average for forestry programs at UBC. This lias caused us to re-examine the definition of the 'ideal' forestry student and the ski l ls that such a person might possess. We believe that students should be well-rounded, with an ability to contribute positively to both the university and broader communities. With this in mind, we are piloting a new undergraduate admissions policy for the coming academic year. Each year, we admit 65 students directly from secondary school gradua- tion into the B.S.F. degree program. Commencing this fall, approximately ten students who meet UBC's minimum academic requirements but who do not meet the competitive average for admission will be selected on the basis of "other factors." All secondary school applicants who meet general university requirements but not Forestry's required competitive average will have the oppor- tunity to submit a Supplementary Appli- cation Form which will ask for such information as volunteer or work experi- ence in forestry, rationale for applying to the programs, etc. A Faculty committee will evaluate the information on these forms and select approximately 30 students to be interviewed. Ten of these students will be offered admission to the B.S.F. program. These students will be tracked through their programs to moni to r the success of this more broadly-based admission policy. Forfurther information, contact Donna Goss, Coordinator of Student Services, at (604) 822-3547, fax (604) 822-8645 or e-mail dgoss@unixg.ubc.ca. 1 Robert P. Harrison. 1992. Forests: The Shadow of Civilization. (University of Chicago Press: Chicago), xii + 287 pp. 2 Bill McKibben. 1990. The End of Nature. (Anchor Books/Doubleday: New York), 266 pp. 3 C. S. Binkley. 1992. Forestry after the End of Nature. J. For. 90: 33-37. Wood Science Department RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Chlorine Free Bleaching of Organosolv Pulp After 100 years of pulp production, the industry is now driven towards reduction, if not elimination, of mill pollutants. The previously common use of elemental chlorine in the bleaching process was identified as die main culprit in pulp mill effluent toxicity. For some time now, elemental chlorine free and totally chlorine free bleaching of pulp has been contemplated by the pulp and paper industry as means of eliminating the toxicity of bleach plant effluents. A relatively new idea among bleach- ing chemists is die use of acetone pero- xide and peracetic acid. Recent research in the Wood Science Department has concentrated on the use of acetone peroxide in the organosolv pulping process, in particular, the high yield alkali earth metal catalyzed organosolv pulping process. Acetone has proved to be an excellent lignin solvent and a desirable washing agent for organosolv pulps. The acetone regenerates at Llie end of the bleaching process. Our work on the use of acetone pero- xide bleaching of organosolv soft- woods, hardwoods and some non- wood (sisal, sugarcane rind, reed and straw) pulps has been very encourag- ing. Results indicate that fully-bleach- ed (80-90% GE Brightness) organosolv softwood and hardwood pulps can be produced with totally chlorine free sequences and a bleached yield of greater than 55%. At least for the solvent process, a totally chlorine free high yield pulp is Brightness of multiple-stage acetone peroxide bleached pulp Sequence Aq. acetone Consistency Brightness Q(AE)A 25% 20% 81% Q(AEA) 25% 20% 79% Q(AE)(AE)A 50% 15% 87% Q(AE)(AE)A 50% 15% 90% Q = Metal chelation Note: The initial bright ness was 23%. A = Acetone peroxide E = Alkali extraction now possible. Rapid brightness development of a high yield spruce organosolv pulp (55 Kappa No.) in response to multi- ple applications of acetone peroxide is shown in the table. It is interesting to note that no pre- DEPARTMENT NEWS D r Jack Saddler, Professor in the NSERC-Industry Chair of Forest Pro- ducts Biotechnology, is one of ten forestry scientists worldwide selected to receive the prestigious International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) Scientific Achievement Award. The Department is surveying the wood products industry to gauge demand for university graduates with a wood and fibre science specialization. Survey results, available in March 1995, will identify the knowledge and skills re- quired by industry. Focus group meet- ings will help us define undergraduate wood and fibre science program and education delivery options. We would be pleased to receive com- ments or invite you to participate in a focus group meeting. Contact us by phone (604) 822-5303, fax (604) 822-9104 or e-mail dbarretl@unixg.ubc.ca.G bleaching with oxygen is required to reach the remarkably high brightness levels shown in the table. Technical ly , high acetone content bleaching reduces the effluent volume and doubles die solids concentration in the effluent following recovery of die ace- tone, diereby allowing for extensive re- cycling and use of die bleaching effluent. Our research is continuing on die pro- perties of diese bleached pulps. Much of this work has been funded by a Fellowship from die Eastern Indonesia Universit ies Development Project to M.Sc. candidate Mr. Yawalata. For further information, please contact Dr. Laszlo Paszner at (604) 822-2139 or fax (604) 822-9104. • New Openings for Students N e w openings exist in 1st and 2nd Year of die Wood Science and Industry Major for students interested in careers in Canada 's expanding value-added wood products industries. Students learn about wood products, design and management of computer control led manufac tur ing systems, business management and marketing of value-added secondary and pri- mary wood products. The program combines academic coursework with practical experience in advanced wood processing technologies and paid co- op industry work experience. Graduates will find exciting career opportunities exist in companies across Canada. Students should apply for admission to 1st or 2nd Year of the B.Sc. (Wood Science and Industry Major) in the Faculty of Forestry. Scholarships up to $3,000 are available for outstanding students. For furdier information, please contact Donna Goss, Coordinator of Student Services, in die Faculty of Forestry by phone (604) 822-3547, fax (604) 822-8645 or e-mail dgoss@unixg.ubc.ca. Branch Lines 2 Forest Sciences Department RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT In Search of Missing Salmon Each year at the start of July, Fraser River sockeye salmon begin their up-river migration to spawning grounds. Stocks (breeding populat ions) migrate up the Fraser in a predictable sequence and the journey for some is over 1000 km. Migra t ion and spawning depends on energy-reserves since feeding stops at river entry. Some stocks will deplete at least 95% of their fat and 60% of the i r p ro te in for successful migration. For the past two summers, my colleagues and I have been using e lec t romyogram radio telemetry to track adult sockeye and obtain data on migration rate and energy- use in relation to river conditions. We have pr imar i ly s tudied the Early Stuart stock which migrates f i rs t and e n c o u n t e r s the mos t difficult river passage. During the first 10 days in July 1994, we tracked sockeye through die Fraser Canyon located 150 km east of Vancouver. River temperatures were typical for this time of year (see figure), and sockeye had little difficulty migrating up-river. However, temperatures started to rapid- ly rise in mid-July and by month 's end had sky-rocketed to over 20°C, highs never before recorded. During the rapid DEPARTMENT NEWS D r Gene Namkoong, Department Head, has been named as the 1995 recipient of H o n o r a r y M e m b e r s h i p S t a tu s in the Association of B.C. Professional Foresters. Dr. John Carlson has been appointed as Chair of the Genetics Graduate Pro- gram. He recently gave lectures at Peking University, Tsinghua Universi ty, Hong Kong Universi ty, the Chinese Univer- sity of Hong Kong and the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. temperature increase, our fish moved erract ical ly and many headed down- river, the wrong direction! None of the 14 fish we t racked dur ing the later portion of July made it through the canyon. These fish migrated deeply and tJien disappeared. Later in the summer when water levels dropped we recover- ed dead carcasses from the river bottom in our study area, but radio transmitters were not found. Corroborating our observations was the fo l lowing : 126,000 Ear ly Stuart Dr. John McLean spent two weeks at the N e w Z e a l a n d Fores t R e s e a r c h Institute reviewing their Forest Health Program. Dr. Fred Bunnell received an award f r o m the Kenda l l F o u n d a t i o n of US$50,000 in recognition of the Centre for Applied Conservation Biology's cur- rent efforts in education and research. In January, Dr. Scott Hinch presented invited seminars at the University of sockeye that passed the echo-sound- ing facility (which est imates sockeye abundance) located down-r iver f rom our s tudy a rea , we re u n a c c o u n t e d for by the aboriginal fishery and spawn- ing ground counts. Over 60% of this stock disappeared and we suspect that many of these died enroute possibly due to fatigue and stress. D e s p i t e the h igh t e m p e r a t u r e s in August and September, river passage conditions improved because discharge (the volume of water encountered) declined substantially. This may help explain why stocks migrating after the Early Stuart did not disappear in the river to the same degree. Why did temperatures sky- rocket? Snowpack seemed to melt early this year eliminat- ing the usual supply of cold water. But ultimately, large- scale deforestation occurring in the w a t e r s h e d and /o r regional climate change, may be responsible. One conclu- sion we have arrived at is that conservation of Fraser River salmon will become increasingly difficult if future temperatures resemble or surpass 1994's. For further information, please con- tact Dr. Scott Hinch at (604) 822-5357 or e-mail shinch@unixg.ubc.ca.U Washington's Fisheries Institute and at the Vancouver Aquarium. Most challeng- ing however, was his presentation on sockeye salmon to the grade 4/5 class of a Vancouver elementary school. Dr. J.P. Kimmins recently gave the key- note address to the Soil Science Society of America, presented an invited paper to the SAF/CIF meeting and updated FORECAST and FORTOON.G TEMPERATURE CELCIUS 187 197 207 217 227 237 247 257 267 277 287 DAY OF YEAR Average Fraser River temperature at Hell's Gate from 1945-1993 (dotted line) compared with 1994 (thick line). Branch Lines 3 Forest Resources Management Department RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Log Value Losses in Coastal Harvesting Operations Bucking related value loss o ver the past several years, the Forest Operations Group of the Faculty has been studying value recovery and loss f rom second growth stands in coastal B.C. This research has been sup- ported by the Science Council of B.C. and several forest companies. It's objec- tive is to determine the potential bene- fits of improved harvesting techniques. Studies to date have concentrated on field trials to determine base-line loss levels, and the development of quality control systems to track losses on a continuing basis. In one study supported by MacMillan Bloedel, 100 trees (500 logs), were tracked from felling to the dry land sort. The study sites were typical high quali ty, low elevation Douglas f ir-Hemlock- Cedar stands. After normal felling and bucking, the trees were assess- ed by an experienced sealer-grader . Potential tree value was estimated by determining the bucking pattern that would produce the highest recovery value ignoring breakage and other degradation that occurred during falling. A second 'pencil buck' was done to e s t a b l i s h t he o p t i m u m r e c o v e r y v a l u e given the existing tree condition. The actual faller's bucking patterns, represent- ing their best judgement in a production environment were also recorded. The logs, identified by Uee and log number, were examined at the landing, aid re- scaled if yarding damage had occurred. The scale data for the sample logs, after any merchandising, was obtained from the dry land sort. The data allowed calculation of falling, bucking, yarding and merchandising losses (see table below). Log recovery value loss by harvesting phase Bucking loss category Value loss Missed diameter cut off for higher qu;ility sort 84% Missed premium length 6% Missed potential upgrade 10% Value Loss Estimated Harvest phase % $/m3 total setting Falling 3.6 4.25 $187,200 Bucking 1.5 1.77 $78,000 Yarding 0.2 0.24 $10,400 Merchandising at DLS 0.4 0.47 $20,800 Total loss 5.6 6.73 $296,400 Falling accounted for 64% of the total value loss and the largest portion of this loss resulted from broken tops that affected higher quality saw and gang logs. This indicates a potential for significant improvement in value recovery if methods can be used to r e d u c e fa l l ing b reakage . Inc reased use of direct ional fall ing, mechanized falling where possible and two-pass systems may be beneficial. Bucking losses accounted for 27% of the total. Tree by tree comparison of bucking decisions made by (he fallers and sealer-grader determined the fre- quency of various types of bucking decisions resulting in log value loss (see table above). The majority of value loss resulted from a tendency for the fallers to over-produce logs in the 12.4/12.6 m prime length categories, which pro- duced under-sized tops and down grading of some logs. The sealer-grader was able to increase the number of saw logs produced with better combinations of prime lengths. Losses in this area could be reduced by additional faller on the impacts of not using range of prime lengths and minimum diameter constraints logs. To assist with training the fuH missing of high quality this training, a computerized training tool has been developed that allows quick valuation of the effect of alternative bucking decisions on log recovery value. For further in formation, please contact Glen Young or Hob Copithorne at (604) 822-3 728 (e-mail gyoung@ unixg. ubc.ca J. • DEPARTMENT NEWS D r . Gordon Baskerville, Head of the Forest Resources Management Depart- ment, has been appointed to the Forest Practices Board. This Board will over see the implementation of the Forest Practices Code. Dr. Jonathan Fannin has received a B.C. Pacific Scholars Award from the Ministry of Advanced Education, Training and Technology. This award will support the dissemination of IJBC's new tech- niques for terrain stability assessment to the Asian Forest Sector. These new techniques have been developed through a university/industry/research partnership supported by MacMillan Bloedel, Western Forest Products, B.C. Ministry of Forests and NSFRC. Dr. David Tindall recently received a $2,000 UBC Humanit ies and Social Sciences research grant for a project entitled "What's News? Media and the Framing of Forestry/Conservation Issues in B.C.' U Branch Lines 4 Faculty News New Building Update Architect's model of the new Pacific Forest Science Centre. The design phase of die Pacific Forest Science Centre is now complete. This 10,000 square metre (net assignable space) facility, to be constructed primarily of wood, will include classrooms, teaching laboratories, office space, a computer room, study areas and lecture theatres suitable for classes and public presentations. At- tached to die main building will be die new Canadian Centre for Advanced Wood Processing containing state-of-the-art value-added manufacturing equipment. Academic units directly participating in die Pacific Forest Science Centre in- clude Forestry, other faculties at UBC, and several research centres. Located at die southern gateway to die University campus, the new complex will anchor a major network of national forestry research orga- nizations on die campus creating one of the world 's most powerful centres of forestry research and education. The building is expected to go to tender diis mondi widi construction beginning in early summer, 1995. Completion of die building is scheduled for die fall of 1997. A special fund-raising campaign pro- viding opportunities to name rooms in the Pacific Forest Science Centre is cur- rently underway. The campaign is being led by George Richards of Weldwood Canada Ltd. UBC has committed $2.25 million in matching funds to designated rooms. Contributors to date include: • Fletcher Challenge Canada Limited, • Weldwood of Canada Ltd., • The Noranda Foundation and Noranda Forest Inc., • Canadian Pacific Limited, • West Fraser Timber Co. Ltd. and Janet W. Ketcham, • Lignum Limited, and • an anonymous donor. • Forestry Alumni Campaign... Breaks Ground! A f t e r a lengthy hiatus, last fall we be- gan our first "personal approach" forestry alumni campaign to support forestry education. Class representatives from pre-1950 dirough 1959 canvassed fellow class members raising a total of $136,425. Of this, $29,725 was received as gifts and $106,700 was collected as pledges. Financial support from alumni was targeted to assist in the areas of student support, die Pacific Forest Science Centre, die University Research Forests and die Faculty of Forestry Endowment Fund. Special thanks to all who contributed and to our volunteers including Vice Chair Gerry Burcli (1948) and die following class representatives: 1948 Veni Wellburn 1950 Bob Breadon Bob Howard 1951 Grant Ainscough 1953 Don Grant 1956 Esmond Preus 1957 Bruce Devitt Trevor Jeanes Rod Pringle Mike Meagher 1958 George Nagle Everett Peterson 1959 John Barker This year we plan to expand our campaign. Jim MacFarlane and Jack Toovey have agreed to co-chair the 1960-69 Alumni Campaign and Reid Carter has agreed to chair die 1975-90 Alumni Campaign. We would like to have two class representatives for every graduation year and would like to encourage forest companies to join a matching gift program to help encourage alumni support for education. If you would like to volunteer and join the team, please contact John Pennant, Faculty Development Officer at (604) 822-8716, fax (604) 822-8645 or e-mail jpennant@unixg.ubc.ca. Forestry on the Internet The Faculty of Forestrynow has a World Wide Web Home Page on Internet. Our Home Page information currendy includes Faculty programs, research activities and special events. Your feedback will be useful in the ongoing development of this service. For more information, contact Ron Turner at the Faculty of Forestry (604) 822-6793 or e-mail tunier@unixg.ubc.ca. Our Home Page address is: v http://unixg.ubc.ca:780/-ront/forest.html y \ Branch Lines 5 FOREST NEWS from the Malcolm Knapp Research Forest Storm Damage Provides Challenges in Planning Rick St. Jean, Senior Technician, assessing a 100-year-old stand blown over during the February storm. It is said that foresters manage the forest between natural disasters. We are frequently reminded of this when natural events make nonsense of our plans and costings. This past winter has been no exception. An early snow fall caused considerable damage to the younger hardwood stands. Virtually every hardwood area (with the exception of the birch stands) experienced some level of branch or stem breakage. The snow arrived before the first major frost and the leaves, still on the trees, present- ed a large surface area for snow accumu- lation. Where the hardwoods were in mixture with conifers, snow press and breakage extended to even larger areas of the younger stands. Following this snow fall, over 300 millimeters of rain fell over a period of just a few days. Although road drainage Cleaning up the downed trees is a dangerous task for contractors (and expensive from our point of view). Add- ing further to the financial losses caused by the storm, we estimate that about 10% of the merchantable material will be lost due to the considerable stem breakages. Other challenges are faced in view of the blow down. Numerous individual trees or small groups which should be salvaged are some distance from access. Should the small groups be made larger to create a suitable micro-climate for reforestation with an element of Douglas- fir? If so, how do we incorporate the addi- tional volume into forest level manage- ment plans? If we don' t salvage this element, how do we accommodate the decrease in site occupancy in our older stands where the residual trees will be unlikely to effectively use the gaps created? Any feedback from our readers as to how we might capitalize on the results of these climatic events would be welcomed. For further information, please con- tact Peter Sanders at (604) 463-8148 or fax (604) 463-2712.U structures held, there was some wind- blow at this time. Just two months later, on February 11 and 12, outflow winds in excess of 100 km/lir. caused considerable windblow. The power line to Loon Lake came down and virtually every road was blocked. The storm brought down the equiva- lent of one year's annual allowable cut. Of course, very little windblow occurred in areas planned for harvest! The two largest wind-thrown patches are in areas that had been reserved from har- vesting for the purposes of teaching and research. A number of our high public use areas experienced considerable dam- age and the extensive trail system in the southern section of the Forest will be closed for two or three months while the wind-thrown timber is salvaged. NEWSLFJTER PRODUCTION Branch Lines is published by the Faculty of Forestry at the University of British Columbia three times each year. ISSN 1181-9936. Editor: Susan B. Watts, Ph.D., R.P.F. In-house typesetting and layout: Patsy Quay and Susan B. Watts. Questions concerning the newsletter or requests for mailing list updates, deletions or additions should be directed to Dr. Susan Watts, Newsletter Editor at: Faculty of Forestry University of British Columbia 270-2357 Main Mall Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z4 « ( 6 0 4 ) 822-6316 Fax: (604) 822-8645 E-mail: suwatts@unixg.ubc.ca Recycled Paper ©Faculty of Forestry, 1995 Branch Lines 6


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